THE INSIDE THE RING THE OUTSIDE REDEFINING IDENTITY OF THE RING A10 IN AMSTERDAM
MAGDALENA NALEPA / MASTER THESIS / 2017
IN BETWEEN THE INSIDE AND THE OUTSIDE REDEFINING IDENTITY OF THE RING A10 IN AMSTERDAM
MAGDALENA NALEPA MASTER ARCHITECTURE THESIS EXPLORE LAB STUDIO 23 NOVEMBER 2017
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank everyone who contributed to my academic accomplishment. First, my main mentor - Olindo Caso, who was pushing me beyond my limits to accomplish the goals. I really appreciated the discourses we had, that kept me aiming higher and higher. Now, when I am graduated, I can honestly say what I think about this collaboration. I could not imagine a better tutor for my thesis.* I am also truly thankful to my second mentor â€“ Hubert van der Meel who was always there for me to support my design decisions and encouraged me to experiment with different possibilities keeping my mind open. Last but not least - my research mentor Frank van der Hoeven who gave me a full guidance throughout the research process and kept reminding me, that the graduation project is about learning and enjoying it to the fullest. I would also like to express my special thanks to all my friends who made sure I would not starve to death or lose my mind during long days and nights of working on the project. Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my family for providing me with support in every step I made to get where I am now. Without your continuous encouragement throughout my 7 years of study this accomplishment would not have been possible. Thank you. *
or could I? ;)
TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Introduction Fascination Relevance
2. Research Research questions Research methods Results
3. Project proposal
Problem statement Position Statement Urban scale District scale Local scale
4. Design Proposal
Ubiquitous motion Linearity and continuity Internal character Shouting Dominant
CHAPTER I Introduction
FASCINATION In the 20th century, when the use of automobile gained popularity, the new system of the road – the highway - was developed as an answer for the increasing need for the fast movement. Since then, roads have been considered as an infrastructural element in the city, having one, strictly functional purpose – a place to move from A to B. Its evaluation has mostly been done through numbers indicating its capacity and logistics. Even though the size and the physical structure of the highway is disassociated with the human scale, its impact on the citizens and the city life seems to be apparent in many urban developments. Amsterdam is one of the places where this phenomenon occurs. Its ambiguity is present in the way how it is perceived. 1. It is a NON PLACE – there is only inside or outside 2. It is a BORDER between expectedly 2 different sides 3. It serves as a LANDMARK that gives sense of location 4. It is a FORGOTTEN LAND yet its overwhelming presence is felt by everyone
Fig.1 Amsterdam, Author: Magdalena Nalepa 11 INTRODUCTION
HUMAN AND THE HIGHWAY The “Rijksweg10” with its 32 km going around the city center became part of the Amsterdammer’s everyday lives and gradually rooted in people minds. The highway Ringroad A10 gained local parlance as “The Ring” and started being used in everyday conversations. When someone wants to know where you live, the question asked is “ Do you live inside or outside the ring?”(dutch: Binnen of Buiten de Ring?). It does not only relate to the physical condition but also has impact on territorial and social sense of identity and the perception of existence of the Ring A10. It shows a specific phenomenon of the relationship between the human and the highway, that became a trigger to dive into the topic of the Ringroad in Amsterdam and its role as part of the city.
Fig.2 Inside or outside the ring?, Author: Magdalena Nalepa 13 INTRODUCTION
MARK EDGE Fig.3 Roles of the Ringroad A10, Author: Magdalena Nalepa 14 INTRODUCTION
FACES OF THE RING A10 When analysing the relationship of the Ringroad A10 and the city in multiple scales, it seems that even when serving one purpose, the Ringroad plays many roles in the city. In the national scale it serves as a connector between Amsterdam and other cities (A8 with Zandaam, A5 with Rotterdam, A4 with Schiphol and Schiphol Airport, A1 with Amersfoort and A2 with Utrecht). Furthermore, it is an edge of the city in Amsterdam Noord, it marks the urban development in the west and undoubtedly it is a physical barrier that cuts urban tissue.
MULTILAYERNESS OF THE RING Furthermore, its multilayered character adds to its ambiguity. The Ring A10 is not just a highway anymore. It becomes a phenomenon in itself, in the city of Amsterdam affecting the city and its citizens in many ways. Its extraordinary character makes me believe that it cannot be overlooked or demolished. The aforementioned multilayerness hides potential to be taken into account when discussing the role of the highway and unveils opportunity to redefine the identity of the Ring A10 in the city of Amsterdam. Its features should be seen as qualities to be taken into account in order to reestablish the mental integration of the city as a collection of interrelated elements.
Fig.4 Multilayerness, Author: Magdalena Nalepa 17 INTRODUCTION
CHALLENGES OF THE GROWING CITY
Amsterdam, since its establishment has been expanding rapidly and it still continues to do so. In the process of growing it has been challenged to overcome the barriers that had been previously created and to build new structures to protect the city. First the medieval walls were created, then replaced with the Defense Line of Amsterdam, finally the fortification encircled the city. When the walls stopped serving their purpose, they have been demolished and the city faced a challenge to absorb the newly gained space into the city tissue. Nowadays, the development of the city seems to follow the same pattern although in a new, modern form. The ring A10 can be seen as the 20th century fortification of the city, not necessarily protecting it from the enemies but definitely separating it from the surroundings. Since the urban expansion moved much further outside the Ringroad, there is a big challenge for the City of Amsterdam, to transform the border making it part of the city rather than the barrier.
XIII Century - Dam in the river Amstel
XVII Century - Canal Rings
XVIII Century - City walls
XXI Century - Ringroad A10
Fig.4 Amsterdam challenging the borders in the context of its historical growth 19 INTRODUCTION
HIGHWAY AND THE CITY Recently, the interest in the role of the Ring A10 increased an it became a hot topic in the upcoming discussion about the highways and the city. It gained interest of the municipality of Amsterdam considering it as a focus point in the urban development plans of Amsterdam Koers 2025. It particularly focuses on the ring zone - the space attached to both sides of the Ringroad A10 in order to raise the quality of the area and boost the urban development. Moreover, the AMS institute is looking for advanced metropolitan solutions to reweave the city with the Ring A10. That includes multidisciplinary innovations affecting the transportation network and the comfort of the users. Finally, architects and urbanists found it challenging to look at the issue from the architectural interventions perspective as well. The BNA in collaboration with TU Delft, invited architects to conduct a research on the highway and the city and to come up with the new concept of that relation.
Ruimte voor de stad Versie april 2016
IMPROVED LIVEABILITY AND MORE SPACE
HIGHWAY + CITY
AMSTERDAM + RING ROAD A10
Transformation of the car-dominated connection roads to and from the ring road into urban boulevards with attractive and mixed functions and programme.
1 . T E S T C A S E L E LY L A A N
2. TESTCASE GOOISEWEG
1 2 Source: 'Naar een gezonde relatie tussen stad en snelweg' Rients Dijkstra / Atelier Rijksbouwmeester, West 8, Michel Heesen (2013)
TEAM LELYLAAN Lars van Hoften (UNStudio), Dana Behrman (UNStudio), Robbert Lohmann (2getthere), Teun van den Dries (GeoPhy) TEAM GOOISEWEG Marijn Schenk (NEXT architects), Eric Frijters (FABRIC), Harm Veenenbos en Arjan Kool, (veenenbos en bosch landschapsarchitecten), Rene Snijders (Sweco)
Fig.5 Research on the Highway and the City 21 INTRODUCTION
CASE STUDIES Starting with the UN studio, they have been working on reconceptualizing the ring A10 in Amsterdam West. The area of Lelylaan has been chosen as the location for the case study imagining the ringroad brought closer to the city. This would be done by transforming it into a boulevard with retail function on the sides, decreasing the speed limit and using technological innovations such as led road light system, adoptable lane divisions and driverless cars.
Amsterdam A10 Case Study Lelylaan, 29 June 2016
(exception, on business cards only)
logo with office locations
Fig.6 Boulevard A10, UNDesignStudio team
Organization and stakeholders
Teun van den Dries CEO/oprichter
Profiel Teun is opgeleid als architect en heeft een aantal jaren als ontwerper en adviseur op het gebied van duurzaamheid gewerkt bij grote internationale projecten. Sinds 2014 heeft hij zich volledig gericht op het opbouwen van GeoPhy, een dataplatform voor vastgoed en de gebouwde omgeving dat inmiddels in circa 50 landen actief is. Binnen GeoPhy is hij als CEO verantwoordelijk voor de strategie, de innovatie en ontwikkeling van het platform en de internationale groei van de organisatie. Teun is een veel gevraagd spreker over innovatie, vastgoed en duurzaamheid. Hij is actief als adviseur voor maatschappelijke organisaties en doceert aan de TU Delft, Nyenrode en University College London.
Huidige positie Oprichter/CEO, GeoPhy (sinds 2014) Ervaring Directeur, Eckhart (2010-2014) Duurzaamheidsexpert, Arup (2008-2010) Ontwerper, Queeste Architecten (2005-2008) BSc/MSc Bouwkunde, TU Delft (2001-2008) Geselecteerde publicaties Stranded Assets 1000 Funds (2016) Greenest Buildings in the UK Bloomberg (2015) Shining a ligth of property BBC (2015) Transparancy in the Property Fog Property Week (2015) Diverse voorpagina artikellen FD (2015-2016) Geselecteerde awards ‘Grootste beloftes voor 2016’ MT/FD (2016) ‘Most Disruptive Innovator’ Deloitte Fast 50 (2015) ‘Future of Finance Europe’ UBS (2015) ‘Fintech Pioneer’ Pioneers Festival Wenen (2015) ‘Fintech Challenger’ Innotribe London (2015)
GeoPhy platform (2014-...) Het dataplatform van GeoPhy wordt door de vastgoedmarkt omschreven als een van de meest innovatieve en disruptieve ontwikkelingen in de afgelopen decennia. Het platform ontsluit alle relevante data rondom kwaliteit, duurzaamheid en waarde van alle gebouwen in Nederland. Hiervoor worden ruim 10.000 verschillende databronnen gecombineerd, waarmee vanaf een individueel gebouw tot aan het volledige land inzicht gegeven kan worden in zaken als leegstand, gebruik en huurniveaus. De database wordt ontsloten via een online platform, dat middels data- en geo-visualisaties onderzoek en analyse mogelijk maakt. Het GeoPhy platform wordt intensief gebruikt voor onderzoek, analyse en scenario planning door tal van organisaties, van de Rijksoverheid en de Nederlandse Bank tot grote financiers en beleggers in vastgoed. Smart City 2020, London (2016-...) Voor het Smart Cities project in London werkt GeoPhy als centrale structuur in een consortium van partijen. Onze database van de gebouwde omgeving wordt gecombineerd met informatie over transport en verkeersstromen, energiegebruik en macro-economische ontwikkelingen om een interactief, real-time masterplan van de stad te realiseren. Het model ontsluit de huidige situatie en historische ontwikkelingen, maar maakt het ook mogelijk om scenario’s voor de toekomst uit te werken en te testen.
CASE STUDIES Next Architects expressed doubts in the new technologies as a cure for the polllution and noise. Their design concept proposes replacing the high speed traffic in the tunnel in order to bring the street level back to the city and its citizens. In this case the ringroad would disappear from the landscape of Amsterdam and the low speed traffic would take its place.
Fig.7 Ring A10 in the tunnel, NEXT Architects 23 INTRODUCTION
CASE STUDIES When talking with the former Government Advisor on Infrastructure Ton Venhoeven from Venhoven CS, he presented a promising scenario of putting the transports means together in order to make the city center car free. He proposed optimum distances that people take by cars, public transport and bikes and arranged the new city center according to it, reestablishing a clear order of the multitransport model of the city.
Fig.8 Ring Utrecht, Multitransport Hub, Venhoeven CS 24 INTRODUCTION
CASE STUDIES The group of urbanists from POSAD focused on the ring as a whole, speculating on the new roles of it in the city and its impact on the surroundings. Their attempt to create a new identity of the ring has been presented in form of different faces, less or more feasible. They proposed themes to reflect upon: • “Ring as a Green Belt” • “Ring as a destination” • “Invisible Ring” • “Ring as a house for Multitransportation Hubs” • “Ring as a city road”
Fig.9 Future identities of the Ringroad A10, POSAD 25 INTRODUCTION
CONCLUSIONS The purpose of the research named “ Highway and the City” was to speculate on the new relationship between the two. Even though it was conducted by multidisciplinary teams, the spectrum of solutions seems to focus on the logistics and profitability of the highway and growth and development of the city. Personally, I have not found many inspiring projects or creative ideas. Most of the research participants chose a safe path trying to satisfy both the highway and the city mostly by rising its profitability. In order to redefine this relationship, the variety of technical possibilities must undoubtedly be taken into account but is it really all we can do? Is the topic fully explored just by focusing on those two elements?
W AY H G HI
Fig.10 Ongoing research - main focus 26 INTRODUCTION
PARADOX OF THE RESEARCH My critique mostly refers to looking on the topic of the highway as a noone’s space, totally overlooking the actual user of it. As if, paradoxically the initial function has been dismissed. As if they have forgotten that it the highway is not a dead zone, it is a place for people to use, to travel, to move from A to B. Moreover, when placed in the city, it is also a place to cross every day, to hide under when it rains or to use as a reference(“inside or outside the ring?”)
Fig.11 Highway - nooneâ€™s place 28 INTRODUCTION
Fig.12 Highwayâ€™s everyday users 29 INTRODUCTION
MISSING PART In order to come up with the right place for the highway within the city, the exploration has to include the link between the two - The Human. Since the highways are built for people to move more comfortably from one place to another, we should also ask ourselves - how do they perceive the space of the highway? What is thequality of the time spent there and what the actual experience is about? Moreover, since we are trying to find a solution for the ringroad A10 - being place within the city, surrounded by the urban tissue on both sides, I ask myself -How the highway affects them living in the city? How do they experience crossing it/using it/moving around the city? This implies looking at the stated issue from a socio-cultural point of view and different scales. Only after an extensive research on the relationship between the highway and the citizen we can atempt to ask another question : What can be done in this field to improve the current situation? In my opinion, the focus on the human is crucial, in order to find the answer to the posed question and fully complement to the process of reweaving the highway and the city.
W AY H IG
DRIVERS EXPERIENCING UNDERPASSES
CITIZENS MOVING IN THE CITY
H U MA N
Fig.13 Missing link - Human 31 INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER II Research
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FOCUS ON THE HUMAN In order explore the relationship between the human and the highway, I decided to make use of the participation both in the research and the design process. Participatory approach not only boosts creativity but also allows avoiding subjectivity of the researcher (later also designer) Since the main aim is to find personal data, it was necessary to arrange meetings with the participants, talk with them about the Ring A10, participate in the research as well. This was done in multiple forms such as interviews, working on the sensitizing books, association clouds but also actual experiencing of the site through sensory walks. Participatory approach has been then continued also in the design in order to make sure, the design proposal truely answers human needs and stimulates perception. The research questions i have asked myself and the participants are: What role does the Ring A10 play in creating perception of the inside and the outside? What are the differences in perception of the area within and outside of the ringroad A10 in Amsterdam West in terms of cognition, identity and sense of place? What are the elements creating identity of the aforementioned places? What is the process of creating identity of a place about?
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INTERVIEWS WORKBOOKS MENTAL MAPS ASSOCIATIONS SOCIAL MEDIA SENSORY EXPERIENCE
WORKSHOPS DISCUSSIONS BRAINSTORMING MULTIDISCIPLINARY CONSULTS PRESENTATIONS
Fig.14 Participation in the research and the design 35 RESEARCH PHASE
LEXICON OF NOTIONS
a perception, sensation, idea, or intuition resulting from the process of experiencing (Oxford Dictionaries)
a characteristic of an element that distinguishes it from the surroundings and allows the element to identify from another. The feature of environment that doesn not change in different situations. (Torabi, Z., & Brahman, S. (2013)
A result of perceiving – observing, a mental image, an awareness of the lements of environment through physical sensation (...) “environmental knowledge” happens due to the interaction between “visual perception” and “cognition” experienced in the mind of the human(…)” (Motallebi, 2001)
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PERCEPTION BASED RESEARCH The aim of this research is to analyse the phenomenon of the Ringroad A10 in Amsterdam using the perception based research methods. It focuses on the way how the perception of the area encircled by the Amsterdam beltline highway ( also known as “the inside”) and the external area of the ringroad ( also known as “the outside”) is affected by the physical barrier of the road itself. Furthermore, the aim is to define identities of “the within”, “the outside” and the Ringroad A10, trying to describe the elements and processes of their creation As mentioned before, the research focuses on the subjective perceptions of the inhabitants of the two sides of the Ring, regarding “their” side, the other side and the physical structure that is in between them. The research itself is mostly qualitative as it deals with individual, subjective views on the topic. Therefore it presents results which may or may not have much in common with the objective reality of the situation.
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LOCATION The research has been conducted on the west side of the city where the ring seems to cut the urban fabric and the neighborhoods such as Bos en Lommer and De Baarsjes in Amsterdam West (inside the ring) and Kolenkitbuurt Slotervaart being part of Amsterdam NieuwWest (outside the ring). In this area the highway has a direct contact with the urban tissue (and the citizens), there is no buffer zone. The study area consist of the entire part of Amsterdam West (where the highway runs in the north-south direction being a central location of the examined area) limited in the north by the Westerpark and Sloterdijk Railway station, in the south by the Olympic stadium. It is assumed that the highway might have the biggest impact there because of the function zones (It is mostly living area with the diverse smaller zones of business and commerce) and it becomes a place for new developments. Therefore it could also be a potential location for my design intervention.
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Fig.15 Research location 39 RESEARCH PHASE
THREE SCALES OF RESEARCH The research has been divided in three parts focusing on different kinds of identity and different scales starting from general, more common perception related to experience, cognition and memories (Urban scale), virtual image analyzed in the district scale and ending with very personal, individual experiences including use of senses (Local scale). In order to find an exhaustive answer for the research questions specific research tools tackling different aspect of perception were used. By that the author aimed to look at the way the inhabitants of Amsterdam experience the highway as a whole, as part of the district and as a physical element that they can relate to for instance when crossing everyday going to/from work.
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Fig.16 Urban scale, District scale, Local scale 41 RESEARCH PHASE
METHODOLOGY In the reseach, diverse methods and tools were combined in order to tackle different aspects of human perception (from urban research methods through psychological experiments and analysis of the online sources). After initial investigation it became clear that the research question requires multidisciplinary approach and carefully designed methodology using the existing methods, adjusting them to achieve more exhaustive results but also creating new tools. In order to develop the methodology for this specific research, it was necessary to investigate first on the existing qualitative research tools. Starting with Kevin Lynch, in his book “ The image of the city”, he claims that every citizen is a person who “has had long associations with the same part of the city and his image is soaked in memories and meanings” (Lynch, 1960). He proposed the method of studying the reference maps of the movement of people through a specific territory using a set of elements: Paths, Edges, Districts, Landmarks and Nodes. In The Image of the City, Lynch asks the participants to create a map: “Make it just as if you were making a rapid description of the city to a stranger, covering all the main features. We don’t expect an accurate drawing- just a rough sketch.” (Lynch, 1960) Lynch’s approach was mostly focused on the built environment and a detailed description of the drawn elements with less focus on the emotional experience of the citizen.
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Fig.17 Lynch, K. (1960) Mental image of Boston, Retrieved from http://doyoucity.com 43 RESEARCH PHASE
METHODOLOGY Another way to study the relationship between the human and the environment can be done though sensory experiences. This was done by Kate MacLean the PhD Student in Information Experience Design at the Royal College of Art, London who tried to research on the mutual interpretation of the olfactory in understanding of place. This method is more and more used to make people aware of the sensorial experiences of the environment through sensory walks. The earliest example of a sensewalk was undertaken in 1967 by Southworth with a focus on sound. During the soundwalk, participants were asked to focus on attentive listening. Urban smell walks are also becoming more and more popular. One was organized by Kate MacLean in Amsterdam in spring 2013. Instead of supposed overwhelming smell of cannabis, the participants found over 650 smells including sweet smell of waffles, oriental smell of spices coming from restaurants and a smell of fresh harring with pickles. The written descriptions were then marked on the map by dots as the sources of smell and circles indicating the range of it.
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Fig.18 Kate McLean 2014 Smell map Amsterdam, Retrieved from http://sensorymaps.com 45 RESEARCH PHASE
Fig.19,Workbooks 46 RESEARCH PHASE
In the urban scale phase of the research, I looked into the way how the citizens of Amsterdam see the city and whether or not the highway plays role in it. The aim was to get to know how often they visit or pass the highway to go to another side and why. How is it affected by the structure of the highway? These part studied the identity of a place understood as memories, feelings and personal experiences combined with the reputation of a place. This part has been done with help of 40 participants â€“ citizens of Amsterdam who either used to live or still live in the city, being from 19 to 75 years old. It was important to find the participants living on both sides of the ring, in order to get a clear perception of the inside and the outside.
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WORKBOOKS The method decided to be used was inspired by the â€œsensitizing workbooksâ€? used mostly in Industrial design studies to understand the users needs. It allows to gather very personal, qualitative data and to trigger the respondents to think more about the researched issue which led to interesting discussions on the Ring A10. The book consists of various questions to stimulate the participantâ€™s creativity including design exercises, yes/no questions and long answer questions. What was found very important in designing the tasks was that the more improbable or abstract they are, the more it stimulates the participants to think creatively. For instance, the participants had to write a letter to a stranger from another side of the ring, or they were asked to imagine themselves waking up in a random place in Amsterdam, having no idea how they got there and try to figure out where they were. The answers of such abstract questions seemed to give the most interesting results The workbook also included the mental mapping. However unlike Kevin Lynch, the aim was to encourage the participants to express their emotions attached to the sites in order to examine the associative processes registered in the environment.
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research book on the PERCEPTION OF THE WITHIN AND THE OUTSIDE OF THE RING A10 what is your name? how old are you? Are you a student/ employed/unmployed, or retired what is your field of education or interest?
do you live within or outside the ring? how long have you been living in amsterdam?
choose a symbol that represents your approach to the â€œwithin or outside the ring?â€? issue
write a letter to someone from another side of the ring.
Dear stranger from the within/outside the ring,
best regards, leave a comment
task task 33
imagine you wake up in the random place in amsterdam and you have no idea how you got there. How do you know/find out on which side you are?
which associations do you have with the ring itself? please choose top 5 putting numbers next to the key word you can add your words too
waste public space
future of the city
Fig.20 Workbook design 49 RESEARCH PHASE
car free sunday
on which side of the ring could the picture be taken?
if you could move now and had freedom to choose the side to live, which one would you choose and why?
W-within, 0-Outside if both, then cross both letters
task 7 outside
imagine you are the urbanist and you can design a new plan for the ringzone, locate the functions and main zones on the map
take into account: work, houses, green areas, sport, commerce culture, meeting points, entertainment, relax and symbols use the prepared stickers
task 8 do you use the highway? yes often
how often do you go to the other side of the ring? every day
few times a week
few times a month
few times a year
do you see necessity in connecting the sides? yes
what is missing on your side that you can find on the other? green spaces
thank you for your help
what is the quality of your side, that the other side does not have?
what is the quality of the other side, that your side does not have?
imagine there is no ringroad, what would be there instead?
Fig.21 Workbook design 50 RESEARCH PHASE
COGNITIVE MAPPING This well-known method of cognitive research was proposed first by Kevin Lynch in his book “Image of the City”. Even though it provides useful and otherwise overlooked data, nowadays it is rarely used in the architectural studies. In the research the respondents were asked to mark the points that were important for them, draw lines of their way of going through the area and mark the zones of specific memory or feelings. This task also created opportunity to discuss what was drawn and what was not and the reasons behind it. To analyse the collected data, all the maps were combined and generalized in order to create one common cognitive image. The ring A10 was drawn mostly as a reference line, there was no specific association or feeling linked to it. However, the way how people perceive the zones changes a lot on the edge of the highway. Generally concluding, people know more about “the inside” and had more positive emotions attached to it. The outside was rather described as a “ do not know, do not want to know” area. Most of the respondents had more to say about the inside, showing the places they often go to such as friend’s houses, cafes or bars. There were more memories linked to the inner part of the ring. The collective image shows very clear differences of the two sides. However, it is not caused by the ring itself but rather by the distance from the city centre and the way how the city developed. The new initiatives were pointed out in the close proximity of the ring but the ring has been left without any coments
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Fig.22 Mental Maps drawings 52 RESEARCH PHASE
Fig.23 Combined mental map drawings 53 RESEARCH PHASE
DEPRESSING NO IDEA
MORE INITIATIVES BECOMING PART OF THE CITY NICE PLACE TO CHILL + +
UGLY ARCHITECTURE -
NOT SAFE QUIET
LELYLAAN STATION NO PEOPLE MOST USED UNDERPASS NO IDEA, REFUGEES?
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OASE, ART INSTALLATION MULTICULTURAL
NICE AREA CITY LIFE STARTS HERE CITY CENTER STARTS HERE MULTICULTURAL DE SCHOOL - PARTIES AMSTERDAMSE SCHOOL ++
NOT VISITED +++
BEST PARK, RUNNING, BBQ
NICE AREA NEW DEVELOPMENTS RICH AND BEAUTIFUL AREA
NICE TO GO
Fig.24 Analysis of the mental maps 55 RESEARCH PHASE
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ENVISIONING THE NEW RINGZONE The participants were also asked to play a role of the urbanists of Amsterdam and imagine a new scenario for the ringroad and its surroundings. This was done by sticking the prepared symbols of the zones in the city ( housing, culture, entertainment, office, commercial zones, green spaces) on the schematic map. In most of the designs the space of the Ringroad A10 was preserved. That implies that it is deeply rooted in peopleâ€™s perception of the city and the linearity of it might be a characteristic creating its identity in the city. The designs can be divided in three main concepts. 1. In strategy one, the ring has been transformed into a boulevard, keeping function of the road and the general zoning of the city as it is perceived now keeping the identity of the sides. High culture was located in the centre and low culture and relax-related functions were placed on the outside. 2. Most often strategy included preserving the shape of the ring but transforming it into a place to be used by both sides. It could be seen as a meeting place where all the culture related and sport related activities take place which would redefine the identity of the place in the context of the city. 3. The third concept presents the city with no border, and no sides. Everything is chaotically mixed together and the urban plan shows a gradient from the urban to the rural environment.
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Fig.25 Schemes of the new Ringzone done by the citizens of Amsterdam 58 RESEARCH PHASE
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task 7 strategy 1 - Boulevard with the programme on two sides
strategy 2 - transforming t
A PLACE TO CONCLUSIONS:
in most of the designs the space fo the ring was preserved. it means it is deeply rooted in peopleâ€™s perception. the concept nr 1 is about transforming the highway into a boulevard keeping the function of the road and the general zoning in the city as it is leaving high culture in the city center and placing low culture and relax- related functions at the outside.
the most often proposes strategy included prese into a space to be used by both sides. It could b related and sport related activities are placed. t or work.
Fig.26 new scenarios for the Ringroad A10 imagined by the citizens 60 RESEARCH PHASE
the division into a place to be
strategy 3 - elimination of the division
OF THE DIVISION
erving the space of the ring but transforming it be seen as a meeting place where all the culture the concept n0 3 shows the design where everything is mixed together, there is no border nor the this would be a place to visit rather than to live highway anymore. IT works more as gradient from the urban to the rural environment.
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Fig.27 Pictures taken arund the Ringroad A10 62 RESEARCH PHASE
The second phase of the research has been done with the focus on the sense of identity of the districts next to the ring presented online. This was done by analysing the representation of the specific neighbourhoods and the ring itself in the pictures posted on photosharing websites such as Instagram and flickr. The reason to analyse them is that nowadays the virtual identity of a place gives a powerful image of it in the real world, having impact on the way how people perceive it, creating reputation and general cognition of it. The analysis also focuses on the qualities of the spaces trying to find similarities and differences between the sides of the Ringroad A10 and the space of the Ringroad itself. For this part of the research three methods were used. The first part focused on the quantitative data, investigating the amount of pictures taken on both sides of the ring and on/under the highway. This has been done by detecting the hotspots located on google earth and google street view photo stack. The second step was to look closer on the specific districts on both sides. The research area consisted of three districts outside the ring: Kolenkitbuurt, Nieuw-west and Slotervaart, and two districts inside the ring: Bos en Lommer and De Baarsjes. The pictures were found using websites providing geotags to avoid confusion. The last part investigated the use of hashtags “ Buiten de ring” “ Binnendering” and “ RingA10” analysing the amount of them, the character of the pictures and the identity depicted by the images posted on Instagram
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# HASHTAGS ANALYSIS #Buitendering #Binnendering #RingA10 There were 160 posts found on Instagram that used the #Buitendering. That implies that there is a strong identity with the place. The pictures mostly show green areas, people having fun and picturesque landscapes. The amount of posts and the character of the pictures implies that there is a certain need to present or manifest the outside as an important zone of Amsterdam. The hashtag #Binnendering has been used only 24 times and depicted a variety of different elements with no specific character. This might imply that people do not feel the need in manifesting the fact that the picture was taken within the ring. It might be related to the fact that for many people Amsterdam is what happens inside and then they use #Amsterdam. If it comes to the hashtags #RingA10, there have been 96 posts shared on Instagram. An interesting thing is that even though there is also a RingA10 in Berlin, all the hashtags depict Amsterdam Ringroad. That shows potential in the ring as becoming a place to be. The pictures show people having fun while driving creating a relatively positive or neutral image. It shows long perspectives with natural landscape or modern architecture behind the noise barriers
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Fig.28 #Buitendering, 160 posts, Pictures retrieved from instagram.com 65 RESEARCH PHASE
Fig.29 #RingA10, 96 posts, Pictures retrieved from instagram.com 66 RESEARCH PHASE
Fig.30 #Binnerdering, 24 posts, Pictures retrieved from instagram.com 67 RESEARCH PHASE
PICTURE ANALYSIS The images have been analysed in terms of architecture style, character of nature, people’s activities and the overall atmosphere. The pictures from the outside depict more sport activities and open spaces on the contrary to the pictures from the inside presenting mostly busy streets and city life. They also show modernist and modern architecture as well as the construction sites. On the other hand the architecture presented in the pictures from the inside shows mostly Amsterdam School style along with brick buildings. Outside the ring, the majority of the pictures has been taken outdoors, unlike the pictures from the “within the ring” which mostly show interiors of the buildings and indoor events. A very clear difference can be also noticed in the way of presenting human activities. Outside the ring, the images show people doing sports and spending time outdoors enjoying the natural environment and the photos from the within the ring present people partying or meeting friends inside the buildings. If it comes to the way of depicting the Ringroad A10, it is not part of and it does not play any significant role in creating identity of the analysed districts. The only exception was seen in the pictures of the Bos en Lommer district where the ring actually goes through cutting the urban fabric which literally touches the highway. In the way how the Ringroad A10 is depicted it can be concluded that the ring A10 does not show any specific identity that would be different than any other highway.
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Atmosphere Fig.31 Photos taken outside the ring, Kolenkitbuurt, Nieuw-west, Slotervaart, Pictures retrieved from instagram.com 69 RESEARCH PHASE
Atmosphere Fig.32 Photos taken within the ring, Bos en Lommer, De Baarsjes, Pictures retrieved from instagram.com 70 RESEARCH PHASE
Fig.33 Photos taken on the Ringroad A10 and the underpasses, Pictures retrieved from instagram.com 71 RESEARCH PHASE
Fig.34 Local Scale research, Sense Walks 72 RESEARCH PHASE
The last part of the research focused on the physical perception the sensorial experience of the space that includes sense of smelling, hearing touching and seeing. The sense of taste has not been studied as it does not provide significant knowledge about the built environment. This experimental part of the research focuses on the temporality of experiences trying to find permanent role of the ring in perception of the sides. It was also done to find out if the aforementioned differences between the sides can be experienced through the physical senses. The main focus was on how the visual, acoustic information found in the underpasses can reinforce the perception of the sides. This was done during the field excursion when the participants were asked to pass under the highway in three locations, different in terms of their typology and function - Wiltzanghlaan, Leeuwendalersweg and Erasmusgracht. The participants were divided into groups of two. Their task was to walk slowly from one side to another, crossing the highway using underpasses, writing down on the map what they experienced. Each group chose one sense to study. For the time being of the research, other senses have been blocked in order to strengthen the particular sense and to protect from associations to take control over the actual experience. The maps have been analysed in terms of feelings ( positive, negative, neutral) intensity of the experience and the diversity of it. These three categories provide an overall perception of the sides and make the results of each sensory experience comparable.
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SENSE OF SMELL Starting with the sense of smell, the experiences were similar on both sides and on each of the locations. The smells on the sides included leaves, food being cooked and gasoline. The sides did not differ much. They fragrances were considered as neutral and not distracting. The underpass was mostly described as “no smell” or “the smell of moisture”. All in all, the sense of smell was hard to investigate because of the low temperature of the air which made it harder to smell fragrances. For the future experiments, it would be recommended to do it in more neutral/warm conditions. ( spring or summer time)
Fig.35 Simanovski, Y., De Man, M., Boright, O., Ksiazek, J. Maps of the sensory experience – Sense of Smell 74 RESEARCH PHASE
INTENSE NOTICEABLE NON EXISTING
FEELING POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
DIVERSITY HIGHLY DIVERSE DIVERSE SAME
Fig.36 Analysis of the sense of smell stimulated under the highway 75 RESEARCH PHASE
SENSE OF HEARING The next experience taken into consideration studied the sense of hearing. Within the ring, more activities have been heard as if there were more people actively doing things. On the outside it has been only recorded people passing by. Moreover, there has been a very clear gradient from the natural sounds of the city to the overwhelming noise of the highway on the both edges of the underpasses. In the underpasses it suddenly became quiet and the participants did not hear much. The suddenness of the experience was surprising for the participants and evaluated as relatively relaxing. They could hear neutral, sounds from the above and rhythmical movement of the cars passing by above their heads. When they reach the other edge of the underpass, it became very noisy again which was associated with negative feelings and insecurity.
Fig.37 Simanovski, Y., De Man, M., Boright, O., Ksiazek, J. Maps of the sensory experience â€“ Sense of hearing 76 RESEARCH PHASE
INTENSE NOTICEABLE NON EXISTING
FEELING POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
DIVERSITY HIGHLY DIVERSE DIVERSE SAME
Fig. 38 Analysis of the sense of hearing stimulated under the highway 77 RESEARCH PHASE
SENSE OF TOUCH In the research of the sense of touch the main findings regard the materiality of the environment. Inside the ring it seemed to be less homogenous. The materials changed often from soft and natural such as wood and bricks to rough and cold like concrete and glass. The underpasses have been described as raw and harsh in its texture, with mainly concrete and metal used for the structure and detail work. On the outside it seemed to be more consistent. The facades of the buildings were mostly brick or natural stone. It also seemed to be slightly more green and natural with grass squares and trees.
Fig.39 Simanovski, Y., De Man, M., Boright, O., Ksiazek, J. Maps of the sensory experience â€“ Sense of Touch 78 RESEARCH PHASE
INTENSE NOTICEABLE NON EXISTING
FEELING POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
DIVERSITY HIGHLY DIVERSE DIVERSE SAME
Fig. 40 Analysis of the sense of Touch stimulated under the highway 79 RESEARCH PHASE
SENSE OF SIGHT The last part of the sensory research focused on the sense of sight. This showed mostly similarities between the sides in architecture style, materiality and scale. There have been few exceptions found within the ring, where the human scale was lost, especially next to the ring, where the new middle rise buildings had been constructed. The ring itself was perceived as a dark monotonous space. That emphasizes the sensorial experiences at the edges where you get the “light in the tunnel” feeling. The play between shadow and light seen in one of the underpasses has been appreciated and could be used in the design to stimulate the perception of the users.
Fig.41 Simanovski, Y., De Man, M., Boright, O., Ksiazek, J. Maps of the sensory experience – Sense of Sight 80 RESEARCH PHASE
INTENSE NOTICEABLE NON EXISTING
FEELING POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
DIVERSITY HIGHLY DIVERSE DIVERSE SAME
Fig. 42 Analysis of the sense of Sight stimulated under the highway 81 RESEARCH PHASE
CONCLUSIONS The urban scale phase of the research provided very personal images of the within, the outside and the ring. Nevertheless, the conclusions seem to define the general identity of the west side of Amsterdam. The common cognition of the sides is sometimes contrasting taking into account the visual aspects that play a crucial role in distinguishing the sides. The differences are seen in the architecture style (historical brick buildings vs modern concrete structures) urban structure (human scale architecture vs. out scaled high rise buildings) and spatial urban arrangement (dense city centre vs open spaces) The zone outside the ring was considered as lacking of “Amsterdam” ambience. This led to conclusions that for many respondents, the “outside the ring” is actually considered as “ outside the city of Amsterdam”. In this case, the ring acts as a border of the city. Even though it is seen as a physical barrier it is not associated with any particular feeling as if it just happened to be there in a shape of a highway. Even though the ring is overlooked in the discussion of the within and the outside, when the focus is directed on the ring, its shape is subconsciously preserved as an important part of the city. Finally, the ring strengthens the division of the sides by its size and scale of disruption of the urban fabric, but at the same time the strong contradictory character of the two adjacent sides and no character of the ring make the ring disappear in the perception of the citizens.
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The image depicted in the district scale using online shared pictures, seems to differ a lot from side to side. The main differences pertain to the architecture style (shape and form), density of the sides and the way how people spend time. The outside of the ring is identified mostly with open, green areas where people relax and do sports. That implies that spatial arrangement is part of the visual identity of the place. Presented architecture is modern or newly built and is photographed from the outside. Another image is created about the â€œwithin the ringâ€? which includes mostly busy street life, dense urban fabric, and brick architecture. The photographs display people spending time inside. Finally, The Ringroad A10 does not seem to have a very specific identity depicted from the pictures and does not play any role in creating identity of the sides but the amount of hashtags indicate potential of that space to become a place to be. In the local scale, the sides were perceived as similar in the sensorial experience. The ringroad, however, plays a significant role. In most of the senses it has been seen as a dead zone but the nothingness of that experience is surprising and overwhelming at the same time. The nothingness of the ring had a huge impact on the perception of the sides especially on the close proximity of it by intensifying the sensory experiences on the edges of the underpasses.
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The way whether or not and how the ring is perceived changes in scales and ways of perception. It does not gain much attention in the general discussion about the city and serves only as a reference line on the map with no dimension. It disappears surrounded by two considered as different sides. The ringroad is also regarded as noone’s, being left in between “the within” and “the outside” lacking specific identity. In the theoretical discourses on the identity of the Ringroad, it might be crucial to focus on all three scales of cognition in order to redefine the image of the RingA10 and recreate it as a place to be. Moreover, from the gathered set of elements of identity, it would be necessary to focus on the most common ones such as form, shape and spatial arrangement which have impact on the visual cognition of the site.
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OUTSIDE THE RING Undiscovered Land Lacking character Open space
INSIDE THE RING Inside Amsterdam Historical buildings Dense
RING A10 reference line no emotions attached OUTSIDE THE RING Relax and sport Open air activities Nature
INSIDE THE RING Entertainment and Culture Inside the buildings activities City life
RING A10 road artistic character of underpasses OUTSIDE THE RING similar to the other side
INSIDE THE RING similar to the other side
RING A10 nothingness strenghtening the experiences of the sides Fig. 43 Schematic representation of the conclusions. Urban Scale, District Scale, Local Scale 85 RESEARCH PHASE
REFLECTION ON IDENTITY The findings show similarities in the cognitive common image of the places and how it is presented online. These two are related to each other and take part in a long process of creating identity of a place through its reputation, human experience and created memories. In these two scales, the ring does not seem to play any role and is not part of any districts identity because of the lack of events and therefore memories associated with the space of the highway. Its lack of identity being put in between two strong identities of the sides seem to make that space a nonplace in the consideration of the citizens. It can be concluded that the overall identity of the area is created in a complex process of short term physical stimuli which need to occur multiple times in order to be associated with a specific environment, feeling and opinion. At the same time, it can be concluded the most important element creating identity of a place is related to the visual experience of the built environment. The participants distinguish the sides by the architecture style, typologies or urban layout and afterwards this is associated with the specific activities. This shows how powerful architecture is in creating identity of a place, using visual form language and architectural tools such as form design, materialization and scale. This should be seen as an opportunity for architects but also a big responsibility in creating a place in the built environment.
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SHAPE & fORM
RELATIONSHIP TO THE CONTEXT
Fig. 44 Elements of Identity 87 RESEARCH PHASE
88 PROJECT PROPOSAL
CHAPTER III Project proposal
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THE GOOD, THE BAD (AND THE UGLY)
The research conclusions set a clear image of the current situation in Amsterdam. The city consists of two zones - The “Inside” which is considered as “the good” and the “Outside” (“The bad”) with the space in between that is not considered as part of the city but has strong impact on it. The outside is characterised as dense while the cty within the ring is open. The outside is described as ugly and boring, at the same time the within the ring is nice and full of entertainment. This led to a problem statement that the way how the within and the outside is perceived, puts them in conflict which is strengthened by the physical barrier of the Ring10. In such case, i posed myself a question How to deal with contradictions of Amsterdam? What role should “The Ugly” Ringroad A10 play in the discussion?
90 PROJECT PROPOSAL
Fig. 45 Contradictions of Amsterdam “Inside the ring” and “ Outside the ring” 91 PROJECT PROPOSAL
POSITION STATEMENT 1. The differences between the sides come from many different sources, including political decisions, social diversity, urban growth of the city, economic changes and the history of Amsterdam. They cannot be reversed nor changed by the architect. The attempt to do so is unrealistic and utopian. 2. Contradictions need each other in order to coexist. Trying to blur the differences between the sides would create a grey zone and contribute to killing identity of the sides. 3. Taking into account the spatial potential of the Ring A10, I propose redefining the baundry as a field in itself. Its mental connection with the citizens unveils possibilities to become an urban place of its own. 4. This is an opportunity to reconsider the city division: from a two side city to a three zone city of multiple identities. Striving for uniqueness and redefining the identity of the Ring A10 will contribute to the changing perception of the whole City of Amsterdam.
92 PROJECT PROPOSAL
Fig. 46 Possible ways of approaching the current situation 93 PROJECT PROPOSAL
REDEFINING THE IDENTITY OF THE RING A10
The project aims to recreate the identity of the Ring A10 by shifting the general perception and boost the creation of mental identity with the space of the ring. I propose a placemaking project of the Ringroad, transforming from a space to a place to be, this â€œnon-placeâ€? bcomes a multiplace of different activities. The Ring A10 would serve as a separator rather than connector of the two sides, creating relations between the sides rather that stitching them together. This would contribute to the new image of the city. From the yes/no question about the sides to a multiple answer question where each answer is correct. The Ring A10 is not anymore a leftover space in between the within and the outside, but i want to create a third equal zone in the city of Amsterdam which affirms its presence. So that it would add to the expression Within the ring, in the ring or outside the ring?
94 PROJECT PROPOSAL
Fig. 47 Pictures of the model 95 PROJECT PROPOSAL
Fig. 48 Schemes of the new identity of the RingA10 96 PROJECT PROPOSAL
ALL ANSWERS CORRECT
Fig. 49 Schemes of the new identity of the RingA10 97 PROJECT PROPOSAL
Fig. 50 Interventions applied in three scales 98 PROJECT PROPOSAL
INTERVENTION APPLIED IN THREE SCALES In order to recreate the identity of the Ringroad A10 as an equal part of the city, it is essential to keep in mind the three-circle Venn Diagram and try to find a common ground for the infrastructure, the city and the human. Aiming to find the real link between them, the design should make use of the existing research on the possible technological developments of the infrastructure and simultaneously keep focus on the phenomenology of the built environment in relation to the human. Since the image created in three scales of the research differed, it seems crucial to focus on all three scales in the design as well. Redefining the identity of the ring in the scale of the city, the district scale and the local scale ( which is the actual architectural design)
99 PROJECT PROPOSAL
IDENTITY OF THE RING A10 - URBAN SCALE To start the tranformation of the mental image of the ring A10, the existing research on the highway has to be taken into aacount. The project proposes three steps of intervention concerning the highway itself. 1. Research shows that the driving speed of 70km/h provide the optimal transport network with efficient movement of traffic and minimal traffic congestion problems. That means there can be more cars driving on one lane whic 2. Introducing the automated public transport on the ring A10 would decrease the amount of cars on the road and it might lower the car ownership in the surrounding area. Both the availability of the railway network and its high accessibility are the features which the ring A10 has potential to provide. The research done by Technical University in Copenhagen also suggests an increase in the interest for living in the areas close to the public transport network that in the long terms affects the demographic composition of the neighbourhoods. 3. One of the existing scenarios of developing the Ring A10 proposes redirecting the national transport to the Ring A5 (that has room to expand) leaving the Ring A10 for the local transport, transforming it into a city road.
100 PROJECT PROPOSAL
STEP 1 128 112 96 80
64 48 32 16 500
Optimum speed of 70km/h increases road capacity STEP 2
Introducing public transport reduces amount of cars STEP 3
Transfering national traffic to the Ring A5 Fig. 51 Three interventions in the urban scale 101 PROJECT PROPOSAL
FROM THE HIGHWAY TO THE CITY ROAD
By downgrading the traffic in three steps, the Ring A10 would be transformed into city road, given back to the citizens. This gives opportunity to reconsider the lanes division and its size. Keeping the initial dimension of 45meter width of the Ring, the project proposes dividing it into 3 parts, two roads with 2 lanes each with the designated automated public transport track on each side. This solution gives 15 meters space in between the two parts of the flyover which would become a green Ring of the city, a public park used by both sides which would be entered from the ground level and from every station of the automated fast city tram going around the city center. In ths way the identity of the ring could be transformed from a barrier into a place to be, a linear sequence of events that orders the spaces into a single identity. It would start the process of reconceptualization of the space of mobillity in Amsterdam. 3,1 1,5
EXISTING LANE DIVISION
PROPOSED LANE DIVISION 45
Fig. 52 Analysis of the lane division of the Ring A10 102 PROJECT PROPOSAL
1,5 3,1 3,1 2,8 2,8 3,1 3,1 1,5 15 15
15 15 45
15 15 45
Fig. 53 Ring A10 as a new zone in the city Fig. 54 Multifunctional Ring-City Road, Fast Tram lane, Green Belt 103 PROJECT PROPOSAL
Fig. 55 New identity of the Ring A10 in the City Scale 104 PROJECT PROPOSAL
105 PROJECT PROPOSAL
IDENTITY OF THE RING A10 - DISTRICT SCALE The strategy for redefining the identity of the ring A10 in the districts scale focuses on the public transport stations. They serve as the gates to the new zone in the city. The zone of the Ring A10. They should also be seen as tactically planned â€œinjections of modular urban interventionsâ€? The stations would be planned according to the current urban dymanics to revitalize the neighbourhoods but they would also provide an opportunity to create new vibrant areas attractive for people living on both sides. The Ring A10 becomes a public interior by itself, a place Amsterdammers meet at and talk about.
Fig. 56 Redefining the identity in the District Scale 106 PROJECT PROPOSAL
EXISTING BUILDINGS AND URBAN INTERIORS
PROPOSED STATIONS AND NEW PROJECTS EXPO CENTER
SLOTERDIJK MULTATULIWEG STADIUM WOW AMSTERDAM
BOS EN LOMMER PLEIN KLIMHAL
KUNSTWERK RING A10
DE APPEL ARTS CENTER UNIVERSAL PICTURES INTERNATIONAL
WORLD FASHION CENTER DELFTLANPLEIN
Fig. 57 Existing situation and proposed locations for the new urban interventions 107 PROJECT PROPOSAL
Fig. 58 New Identity in the District Scale 108 PROJECT PROPOSAL
109 PROJECT PROPOSAL
IDENTITY OF THE RING A10 - LOCAL SCALE Redefining the indentity of the Ring A10 in the local scale requires looking deep in the perception of people. The research results show that the space of the ring was somehow one-dimensional. Its quietness and senselessness makes the experience overwhelming and unpleasant. In order to change it it is essential to stimulate the experience of the user by providing factors that people can relate to - the events that people can experience. The stimuli understood as building forms where people meet and spend time. Redefinition of the identity of the Ring A10 in the local scale is about transforming it into a three-dimensional space with its unique character that affirms its presence. It is about creating a landmark that merges the urban renovation and placemaking through architecture.
Fig. 59 Redefining the identity in the Local Scale 110 PROJECT PROPOSAL
ROLE OF ARCHITECTURE In this point Architecture plays the crucial role in recreating the identity of the ring as the visual and programmatic unity. It is supposed to develop the pocess of cognition of the place through the visual experience and use of this environment. The multidimensional coherency playing together leads to a new idea of the zone of the Ring A10. Architecture has powerful tools to achieve it but also holds big responsibility to deal with such individual thing like human perception. Here few questions were posed in order to understand which direction to choose and which architectural tools to use in this placemaking process in order to reach the significance of place for its users. 1. Is it about the fact that the ring does not offer any experience to the citizens? 2. Is it about the fact that the ring is visually a non-place? 3. Should placemaking project be just about providing experience? 4. Is it possible to â€œmake a placeâ€? just by building it?
5. Which of these two has more power in redefining the identity of the Ring A10?
111 PROJECT PROPOSAL
112 PROJECT PROPOSAL
CHAPTER IV Design proposal
113 DESIGN PROPOSAL
LOCATION OF THE INTERVENTION The design intervention is proposed in the central location of the Ring A10 West, next to the Rebrandt Park for multiple reasons. 1. This is the place from which the Ring A10 has started being built. It seems that the transformation of the ring should also begin in its source. It can be seen as a kickstart project, followed by the series of other interventions around the ring in the future. 2. The location shows spatial potential with the consistent highway typology. It is placed on the dyke keeping the same height of 5 meters for 800 meters between two crossroads. 3. Looking at the socio-functional situation in the area, it becomes clear that the urban renovation is needed. An urban injection that will bring life and activities to both the forgotten Rembrandt Park and the neighbourhood outside the Ring. 4. With the Rembrandt Park considered as the foreground of the intervention, the designed building reveals potential to become an iconic element of Amsterdam West cityscape.
114 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 60 Location of the project 115 DESIGN PROPOSAL
SITE ANALYSIS In order to understand what the context is, the site analysis have been done in terms of zoning, infrastructure and focus points. The area mostly consists of housing blocks with few schools and churches. The commercial zone is situated to the west of the site, far to reach by people living next to the Rembrandt Park. Culture and entertainment is difficult to find in this area and consist of only few local community centers. The design plot is cut in 4 places by two streets and two bike paths. The Potjesweg straat which is one of the main roads going to the city center crosses the design location exactly in the middle which serves as a seed in the design. It will be moved underground in order to keep the central part available only for bicyclists and pedestrians. The existing perspective lines will be implemented in the design, emphasizing the central location as the landmark of the site.
116 DESIGN PROPOSAL
HOUSING CULTURE & EDUCATION OFFICE & SERVICE PROJECT LOCATION
MAIN INFRASTRUCTURE RINGROAD A10 EXISTING BUILDINGS PROJECT LOCATION
PERSPECTIVE LINES POINTS OF DESIGN EXISTING BUILDINGS PROJECT LOCATION
Fig. 61 Site Analysis 117 DESIGN PROPOSAL
THEORY REDEFINING THE IDENTITY OF THE RING
The research results show that the identity on architecture consists of two collections of elements. Tangible group relates to the actual built environment such as shape and form, spatial arrangement so everything that can be visually perceived. The other group consists of intangible aspects that concerns memory, experience and the notion of phenomenology in architecture. The research conclusions confirmed that the identity of the sides was recognised mostly by their visual characteristics related to the architectural aspects. This is why the physical qualities gained special focus in the design process and were emphasized in the design proposal. The new definitions of Identity was established as a guideline for the design process.
Identity -A sum of specific material components and features which promote the unique non-material character of a place (distinguishable from the environment).
118 DESIGN PROPOSAL
IDENTITY IN ARCHITECTURE
Fig.62 Elements of Identity in Architecture 119 DESIGN PROPOSAL
WORKSHOPS ON IDENTITY In order to redifine the identity of the Ringroad A10 is to recognize its exclusive character, a feature of the environment that does not change with the time. From the distinguished attributes the notion of street was chosen to be then generalized into speed, traffic and transport. Then in the process of metaphorization the the words were transformed into the ideas, carefully chosen to provide as big creative potential as possibe. This served as a starting point of the workshops on symbolic representations of ideas. During the workshop session, participants were asked to translate the chosen notions into visuals using typical architectural drawings such as plans sections and elevation drawings. Inviting people in the design process was necessary to avoid subjectivity of one mind of the designer. This also let me understand how people imagine the RingA10, what is the visual interpretation od the associations with that space and what the new identity of the RingA10 should be about.
â€œYou can never start from scratch. It always builds upon a preexisting set of symbolic materials which form the bedrockâ€? (Thompson,1966) 120 DESIGN PROPOSAL
MOVEMENT SPEED DYNAMISM
CARS TRAFFIC TRANSPORT Fig. 63 Process of creating identity in Architecture
121 DESIGN PROPOSAL
122 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 64 Drawings-Visual interpretations of “Speed”, “Movement”, “Dynamism” 123 DESIGN PROPOSAL
WORKSHOPS ON IDENTITY - RESULTS This resulted in 150 drawings, 150 individual interpretations of concepts that were combined and analyzed in order to find a common bedrock for the new identity of the Ring A10. The process was time consuming because it required looking at each proposal individually simultaneously trying to find a common pattern in all the drawings. This excercise occured to be a turning point in the design process. It led to forming a specific design strategy. It consists of 4 points that gave directions to any further design decisions. The 4 design principles emphasizing 4 features of the new identity of the RingA10. Since they have been formed by people in the participatory process, hence the features will be easily recognizable by the future users. By that I made sure that the new identity of the RingA10 has already been planted in people minds. They have translated into a masterplan and then emphasized in the design layers.
124 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 65 Pictures taken during the workshops 125 DESIGN PROPOSAL
DESIGN STRATEGY METAPHOR OF MOTION
Static form that changes its appearace Allowing different types of motions to appear. The motion is ubiquitous
Focusing on the “In the ring” Distinguishing it from the surroundings. Making clear borders with their own qualities.
PERCEPTION OF SPACE
Fig. 66 Design Principles 126 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Providing a continuous flow within the design. Sequence of experiences
A place of surprise Imposing rather than dissolving
FORM & SHAPE
127 DESIGN PROPOSAL
COMMERCIAL ZONE supermarket flower shop cafe Fig. 67 Masterplan 1:2000 128 DESIGN PROPOSAL
KIDS ZONE skatepark playground graffiti walls
KUNSTWERK outdoor exhibition meeting place lunch space
CITY PARK barbecue spots water features wild nature
129 DESIGN PROPOSAL
130 DESIGN PROPOSAL
IN SEARCH OF THE THIRD PLACE The design should serve one main purpose, it should invite people to experience the RingA10 as a place to be. It should become a third place for people living on both sides of the ring. An environment different from the two usual social environments of “home” (first place) and “work” (second place). It should provide free or inexpensive access, be welcoming and comfortable. A place where you can meet old friends and make new friendships. It should be a safe ground for everyone regardless the origin, social status or religion or political views. It should strengthen the sense of commonality and create a sense of place in people minds. Second of all, instead of imposing a strange, unfamiliar association, the programme should play with the function of the road creating new mental connections with the RingA10. It attempts to stimulate the users to perceive the Ring A10 as a place to be. Considering the significance of Art in the social and cultural discourse, the choice of the programme - Art Center seem to fulfill all the previously posed requirements. It is commonly agreed, that the process of creating art connects people of any age, status or origin. This will maximize the potential of the space of the Ring A10 by stimulating users cognition. It is a place to explore the nature of perception, develop sense of beauty, learn to look out of the box and notice what has never been noticed before - The Ring A10 as a place to be.
131 DESIGN PROPOSAL
KUNSTWERK RING A10 In dutch “Kunstwerk” has two meanings: Civil work (Civiel Kunstwerk - Bouwkundig)(e.g. bridges, infrastructure) and Work of Art. The play of meanings serves as a starting point in the discussion on the new identity of the Ring A10. These two expressions contrasting at first, may create a relationship highly stimulating the perception of the new zone - The Ring A10. The Art Center Kunstwerk built within the infrastructure is a house where civil work meets art. Those two coexist in a perfect symbiosis benefitting from each other’s qualities creating a dynamic environment. The play of contrasts - hardness and solidity of the infrastructure and lightness and ambiguity of art strengthens the cognition and creates new clouds of associations.
132 DESIGN PROPOSAL
WORK OF ART
A HOUSE WHERE CIVIL WORK MEETS ART SPACE OF CONTRASTS A 3RD PLACE Fig. 68 Kunstwerk 133 DESIGN PROPOSAL
PROGRAMME The building consists of three main functions. 1. The workshop space with multiple rooms where the art is being created. That includes for instance photography rooms, ceramic class, digital art computer rooms and DIY ( Do it yourself) craft workshops. It is located on the ground floor under the road to stimulate the dynamism of the activities. 2. The second zone is the city fast tram station with the cafe and bike rental on the ground floor and the platform on the street level above (+1) 3. The third zone floats above the ringroad housing the exhibition space and the rooms to be rented for special events.
134 DESIGN PROPOSAL
LEVEL 0 WORKSHOP ROOMS ADMINISTRATION/SERVICE COFFE BAR
PLATFORM FAST TRAIN LINE ROAD
Fig. 69 Programme 135 DESIGN PROPOSAL
EXHIBITION SPACE CONFERENCE ROOMS
DESIGN PRINCIPLES The Kunstwerk is arranged according to the four design principles mentioned before. Each of them finds its physical representation in a particular layer of the design. The four components relate to ubiquitous motion, internal character of the building, linearity of the park and the shouting dominant of the floating gallery. Even though each component emphasizes one quality, the design principles are interrelated and can be seen throughout the whole design.
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Fig. 70 Design Principles 137 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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CONTINUOUS PERCEPTION OF MOTION The main arrangement has been done to provide a continuous perception of different types of motion and movement in different perspectives. In the central location you can see the cars passing by under through the glass floor. Looking to the sides you see bicyclists and people walking in the green park. When you look up you see people on the platform waiting for the tram, driving cars and trams arriving, stopping for a minute and departing. The layers of motion intermingle, letting people experience ubiquitous dynamism while standing still. This can be experienced on all three levels of the building.
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Fig. 71 Long section showing intermingling types of motion 140 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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Fig. 72 Short section showing ubiquitous motion 142 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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Fig. 73 Ubiquitous motion 144 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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INTERNAL CHARACTER SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT
The building aims to create an internal character both by closing off from the sides and opening up to the middle part. The functional rooms are put on the sides aligned with the edge of the ringroad making it clear where the new zone starts. The middle part - a green park serves as a meeting place for the users of two sides of the building, provides sunlight and calm environment even though being placed in between two roads. It also creates an internal corridor - continuous patio for people having a walk in the park or going to catch the tram and have a glance on what happens inside the rooms.
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Fig. 74 Level 0 - workshops
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Fig. 75 Level +1, platform of the tram station and the Ring Road
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Fig. 76 Section of the workshop space 152 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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INTERNAL CHARACTER FACADE AS A CLEAR BORDER
The facade design is strictly related to the internal character of the building. That means, its main quality is to act as a clear border isolating the building from the surrounding. Since the building reveals brutalist character, the play of shadow and light is also significant for the appearance and had to be taken into consideration. Multiple models have been done in order to test the how the light transforms the appearance of the facade. Futhermore, different arrangements and gradients of the facade panels were made and photographed to find a optimal balance between closing and staying in relation to the surroundings.
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Fig. 77 Facade shadow studies 155 DESIGN PROPOSAL
MULTIFUNCTIONALITY OF THE FACADE
The facade reveals its internal character also in its multiple functionality. The west facade facing the backyards of the existing buildings (outside the ring) is more closed. It is formed of two meters wide panels and one meter wide windows. The facade becomes part of the interior being used for instance as a bench, a table or as a shelf. The east facade facing the Rembrandt Park clearly marks the edge of the ring by the sequence of one meter wide facade panels that can be used from the outside. They serve as the benches, plant pots or podiums or they accomodate the services. This creates a rythm of two meters glass facade and one meter wide concrete panels. By making the facade multifunctional it invites people to approach the Ringroad, make use of it enjoying the view towards the greenery of the Rembrands Park.
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Fig. 78 Catalogue of the facade functionality 157 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 79 West - Facade as part of the interior 158 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 80 Facade as part of the exterior 159 DESIGN PROPOSAL
MULTIFUNCTIONALITY OF THE FACADE
This prefabricated modular panels are designed in such a way that makes it easy to bring on site and attach to the foundation. The external shell is made of GFRC (Glass fiber reinforced concrete) in the designed shape. Then it is sprayed with the insulating foam and transported on site. The panels are being inserted in the prepared alluminum facade frame with the openings for the facade blocks and the glass facade. After being attached to the foundation with the bolts and (using Isokorb-like thermal insulation system to avoid thermal bridges), the layers of the floor are being poured. When the building stage is completed the facade receives its final touch. The internal panel is being attached to the previously placed concrete blocks to close the facade from the inside.
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Fig. 81 Facade panels assembly 161 DESIGN PROPOSAL
1. crash barrier 2. asphalt 50mm 3. levelling compound 100mm 4. reinforced prefaabricated road slab 350mm 5. rockwool in alluminium frame 100mm 6. insulating sandwich panel 7. rubber sound absorber 100mm 8. sound insulation 100mm 9. Z clip mounting system 10. GFRCpanel 30mm
11. rigid insulation 60mm 12. sprayed insulation 50mm 13. GFRC shell 30mm
crash barrier asphalt 50mm levelling compound 100 reinforced prefaabricated r
4 3 2 1
13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
Fig. 82 Detail - Facade - Road connection 162 DESIGN PROPOSAL
rockwool in alluminium fra sound insulation 100mm insulating sandwich panel GFRCpanel 30mm rigid insulation 60mm Z clip mounting system soray insulation 50mm GFRC shell 30mm
1. GFRCpanel 30mm 2. Rigid insulation 60mm 3. Z clip mounting system 4. Spray insulation 50mm 5. GFRC shell 30mm 6. Concrete gutter 7. Concrete tiles 30mm 8. Cast in situ concrete slab 100mm 9. Sand binding 50mm 10. Clean hardcore 150mm
11. Resin concrete floor 15mm 12. Creed +underfloor heating system pipes 65mm 13. Waterproof insulation 14. Hardstyrofoam 100mm 15. Damp proof membrane 16. Concrete foundation bedplate 300 17. Damp proof membrane 18. XPS insulation 50mm 19. Sand binding 50mm 20. hardcore bed
GFRCpanel 30mm rigid insulation 60mm Z clip mounting system soray insulation 50mm GFRC shell 30mm
1 2 3 4 5
11121314 151617 181920
concrete gutter concrete tiles 30mm cast in situ concrete s sand binding 50mm clean hardcore 150m
6 7 8 9 10
Fig. 83 Detail Facade-Foundation connection 163 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Resin concrete floor 1 creed with the underfl pipes 65mm waterproof insulation hardstyrofoam 100mm DPM concrete foundation be Damp proof membrane XPS insulation 50mm sand binding 50mm hardcore bed
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Fig. 84 West facade as part of the interior 166 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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Fig. 85 East facade as part of the Rembrandt Park 168 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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LINEARITY & CONTINUITY PUBLIC GARDEN
The linearity of the design is reflected on the green line - the city park crossing the building, linking the tram stations and other future interventions in the Ring. The greenery becomes a public interior of the Ring A10. The long concrete stripes go along with the lines of low greenery, high bushes, plants and trees. In the central part of the park there is a water feature working as a gutter collecting rain water from the park storing it in the underground storage prepared for the rain overload. The green line is divided into more natural zones with higher trees and extended surfaces of greenery. In other parts it serves more as a meeting place for teenagers and a playground for children. Somewhere else, it becomes a city farm where locals can grow their own vegetables.. The Green Ringpark runs around the city, being a 32 km long green corridor easily accessible for the people living on both sides.
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Fig. 86 Section of the park A 172 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 87 Section of the park B 173 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 88 Section of the park C 174 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 89 Fragment of the plan 175 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 90 Plan of the park 176 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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Fig. 91 Hanging elements 178 DESIGN PROPOSAL
LINEARITY & CONTINUITY HANGING ELEMENTS
In order to provide the maximum continuity, none of the elements in the park is attached to the ground. All the park facilities are hanging from the flyover structure to soften the toughness of concrete infrastructure. The connections are designed as invisible as possible making the elements look like they are floating just above the ground. Stiff connections prevent the designed hanging elements from swinging. The catalogue of elements consists of benches, platforms, tables, hanging stairs, hammocks and playground elements with nests for children to climb on.
Fig. 92 Detail of the hanging elements 179 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 93 Linearity and continuity of the park 180 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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SHOUTING DOMINANT The final component of the design acts as a statue on the podium of the Ringroad. The form that proudly shows its dominance over the surroundings. It is a statement of the Kunstwerk Ring A10 which is a Kunstwerk itself where all four design principles are combined in order to create a landmark affirming its presence during the day and the night. It needs to respond to the idea of linearity, clearly keeping its internal character, playing with the concept of motion and “shout” by its appearance and dynamic character.
Fig. 94 A dominant as a combination of all the design principles 183 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Fig. 95 Abstract models of the dominant 184 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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SHOUTING DOMINANT INTERNAL CHARACTER
The rectangular plan acts as a frame for the internal courtyard through which you can see people on the platform, waiting for the tram, movement on the ground floor and the cars passing under the structure. Such frame-like arrangement creates a circular flow inside the building. The internal route of the exhibition is situated on the edges of the rectangular plan following the external walls. The mass of the wall indisposes any connection with the surroundings, emphasizing the perspectives towards the ringroad.
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Fig. 96 Internal character of the Gallery 187 DESIGN PROPOSAL
SHOUTING DOMINANT STRUCTURE
The main structure concept is based on the steel structure of trusses. It consists of a system of two primary beams supported by four secondary beams which transfer the load to the primary components. Cantilever effect could be utilized, so secondary trusses were moved out of the facade faces.
The Floor structure consists of the system of steel H beams and the prefabricated concrete slabs. The roof plane must be rigid, to distribute plane forces. This has been done by cross bracing between orthogonally directed roof beams. The composite concrete slab is placed on it. The load from the building is being transferred to the ground level by the two load bearing reinforced concrete walls that act also as the support for the lateral forces. The connections to ground level foundation are designed as stiff, in order to secure the global stability of the building. On the other side of the structure, the load is transferred down through the hollow steel V frame of columns being strengthened by the triangle between the columns.
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Load and lateral forces bearing elements Fig. 98 Structure scheme
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CONTINUOUS PERCEPTION OF MOTION
The notion of movement has been reflected both on the programmatic arrangement of the interiors and the interior design itself. The exhibition space (a space of movement) is divided in two by the reflection zone to play with the flow dynamics inside the building. The motion in the form of walking intermingles with the sitting area where you can observe the cars movement while sitting still and contemplating about â€œkunstwerkâ€?. The interiors are designed in such way that allows full flexibility of space and change in dynamics of moving around the exhibition. The lines of the exhibition spaces are long and relatively narrow, empasizing the linearity. It is also strengthen by the glass floor through which you experience the movement of the cars underneath. The infrastructure becomes part of the exhibition and the art becomes part of the infrastructure.
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Fig. 99 Exhibition space 192 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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Fig. 100 Reflection Zone 194 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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Fig. 101 Kunstwerk during the day, in the afternoon and at night 196 DESIGN PROPOSAL
SHOUTING DOMINANT MATERIALIZATION
In order to strenghten the new identity of the Ring A10, the materialization of the building played a significant role. It had to be designed to express the all the design principles. Be dynamic and change its character creating a sense of motion. Emphasize the internal character of the structure, and shout with its external look. The chosen materialization should make exhaustive use of the potential of Kunstwerk to become a landmark of the West Ring A10 and empower the affirmation of its presence in the surroundings. Many models have been made to test different types of materiality and representationf of the design principles.
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Fig. 102 Models testing materiality of the shouting dominant 198 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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STENGTHENING THE IDENTITY
METAPHOR OF MOTION
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THOUSAND FACES OF CONCRETE Concrete has been chosen as the material that shows the biggest potential to achieve the aforemantioned qualities. It opens up many possibilities to play with. First - with the use of coloured cement it is possible to achieve different shades of grey (from white to dark grey). Moreover, the choice of the size of aggregates affects the esthetic opening up new possibilities of appearance from uniform surface to diverse, heterogenous texture. Finally, there are multiple ways to achieve the desired exterior finish. Starting with the choice of formwork (wooden, metal, plastic) ending with the treatment of concrete: polishing, engraving etc. Furthermore, concrete casted on site gives endless possibilities in terms of shape and continuity in form. The process of pouring concrete is hard to fully predict and the final appearance stays unknown until the formwork is taken down. The unexpected adds artistic character to the facade. Finally, concrete is the main material used in the infrastructure constructions. Hence using it for Kunstwerk contributes to the identity of the Ring A10. However, the choice of the types of concrete used in the design twists the brutalist character of the building softening its appearance by its changing character. It also allows to improve the climate of the Ring A10 by cleaning the air from the cars pollution.
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SMOG EATING CEMENT i.Active Biodynamic Biodynamic cement is the innovative solution developed by Italcementi Group for the construction of Palazzo Italia, the Italian Pavilion at Expo 2015. Photocatalytic concrete is a new hybrid material that is being used to significantly reduce air pollution and is able to maintain a clean surface. The Portland cement mixture incorporates titanium dioxide that, when activated by UV rays, acts as a catalyst, â€œacceleratingâ€? the oxidation process that converts nitrogen oxides and other smog components to less harmful compounds. Varying projects have tested and used this material for its selfcleaning properties and more importantly, to help reduce emissions. These results note that photocatalytic concrete, when applied within an area of a soccer field, can remove emissions that equal approximately 190,000 car-km per year and merely 1 sq meter of this material removes up to 60 mg of NOx per day. The material works best when in close proximity to the source of pollution; therefore using the material in urban locations is ideal. Photocatalytic concrete is being tested and used for roads, tunnels, sound walls, and buildings. The varying uses have resulted in statistics noting 20-70% pollutant reduction within the materials vicinity. (source: https://arch5541.wordpress.com)
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Fig.103 Palazzo Italia, Expo 2015, Design: Nemesi & Partners, Material research: Italcementi source: http://www.italcementigroup.com 203 DESIGN PROPOSAL
TRANSLUCENT CONCRETE World’s first commercially available transparent concrete Litracon Classic® is a combination of optical fibres and fine concrete a concrete mixture that, through the use of small optical fibers within the aggregate, allow for light to travel through the wall. Because the glass fibers are parallel in position, the light is transmitted through the wall, remaining nealy unchanged on the shadowed surface. The optical fibers within the material matrix have no effect on the load-bearing capabilities of the concrete while allowing for the thickness to be several feet without changing the light intensity or color Contrary to Litracon Classic®, in Litracon pXL® there are no optical fibers for light transmission but a specially formed and patented plastic unit - PC plastic pipes. This and the industrialized way of manufacturing bring the new pXL® material into a more afforable price range. The panels are reinforced and can even be strey-high that makes installation easier. (source: http://litracon.hu)
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Fig. 104 Cella Septichora, 2006, PÃ©cs, Hungary. Design: Bachmann Architects 205 DESIGN PROPOSAL
TESTS In order to test the actual appearance of translucent concrete, I have made the concrete blocks by myself. The aim of the experiment was to test the size of plastic spikes put in concrete. I have used 5mm and 3mm thick plexiglass spikes. I have also played with their placement in the concrete block in terms of the grid (dense 15x15mm grid and more loose 30x30mm). Finally it was also about experimenting with the gradient. Starting with the very rigid, strict grid that slowly becomes irregular and random. Moreover I have tested concrete mixtures in order to achieve lightweight concrete. First mixture consisted of Styrofoam balls. However the initial mixture of cement was too liquid, this is why the bubbles bobbed up and its placement within the concrete is hard to determine. Second mixture consisted of wooden chips which also have high rate for thermal resistance. The mixture seemed to be homogenous however the wooden chips created a specific esthetic effect on the surface which looked a bit untidy.
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Fig. 106 Concrete test - preparation 207 DESIGN PROPOSAL
LIGHT TESTS The tests showed how the appearaance of the concret changes with the intensity of light and the direction of it. The spikes are invisible when exposed to natural light. When the source of light is behind it, the appearance of the concrete itself darkens and you can only see light blury spots. The 5mm spikes seem to be optimum to allow translucency and the light to go through. Looking at the pictures on the right, it was surprising how much the appearance of the same block can change according to the light intensity. It gave impression of dynamism and inspired me to design the facade that plays with the opacity and its changing character during the day and at night.
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Fig. 107 Concrete test -Light tests 209 DESIGN PROPOSAL
METAPHOR OF MOTION This triggered me to try to reflect the design principles also in the design of the facade. I refer to the metaphor of motion and linearity that can be seen on the pictures taken with long exposure. The temporality of the movement is eternalized in the form of long lines that fade away becoming sylphlike, light, somehow etheric. This also emphasizes the artistic character of the pictures depicting contrasting notions such as: Permanent Temporality Static Movement Dynamic Continuity Experimenting with different grids of plastic spikes, i have tried to design the pattern for the facade that would resemble the aforementioned notions contributing to the new identity of the Ring A10.
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Fig. 108 Long exposure pictures, Catching temporality 211 DESIGN PROPOSAL
TEST 1: 3 types of panels: 40x40, 50x50, 60x60
TEST 2 3 types of panels: 30x30, 50x50, 80x80
TEST 3 5 types of panels: 30x30, 50x50, 70x70, 90x90, 110x110
TEST 2 3 types of panels: 40x40, 50x50, 60x60, 70x70, 90x90
Fig. 109 Facade tests 212 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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Fig. 110 Facade panels specification 214 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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FACADE SPECIFICATION The facade design consists of six types of panels of different plastic spikes grids. They are arranged in such way to achieve smooth change in the facade translucency. Each panel is 1,2m tall and 3m wide. The size corresponds with the dimensions of the building. It consists of 100mm XPS rigid insulation with the spikes placed in it. Such panel is places in the modular plastic formwork and then the concrete is being poured. The specific arrangement of the panels was determined taking into account the placement of the expansion joints to achieve maximum uninterrupted concrete surface. Using different types of concrete (smog eating concrete, grey typical concrete and dark concrete) it allows to create a gradient on the facade during the day, whereas the use of spikes showing up at night resembles the movement of the cars underneath and reveals the movement happening inside the building.
g concrete (white) te te
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A SMOG-EATING CONCRETE (WHITE)
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 - panel spikes grid 40x40 2 - panel spikes grid 50x50 - panel spikes grid 40x40 3 - panel spikes grid 60x60 - panel spikes grid 50x50 4 - panel spikes grid 70x70 - panel spikes grid 60x60 5 - panel spikes grid 90x90 - panel spikes grid 70x70 6 - panel no spikes - panel spikes grid 90x90 - panel no spikes
1 panel spikes grid 40x40
A B C
B GREY CONCRETE
A - smog eating concrete (white) B - grey concrete - smog eating concrete (white) C - dark concrete - grey concrete - dark concrete
2 panel spikes grid 50x50
3 panel spikes grid 60x60
4 panel spikes grid 70x70
Fig. 111 Facade specification 217 DESIGN PROPOSAL
C DARK CONCRETE
5 panel spikes grid 90x90
6 panel no spikes
Fig. 112 East Facade view during the day 218 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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Fig. 113 East Facade view during the night 220 DESIGN PROPOSAL
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CONTINUITY IN DETAIL Cast in situ concrete brings the process of making art to the site. The facade becomes the canvas gradually filled with concrete of different shades. Pouring concrete on site also allows to represent the last design principle - the continuity, which can also be seen in detail. The building is literally wrapped in concrete meaning that the roof and the bottom part is considered to be the elevation as well. The external wall becomes the roof keeping monolithic shell of the facade. The same happens at the bottom when the wall turns into the ceiling closing the facade from underneath.
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1. concrete waterproofing membrane 2. concrete 70mm 3. fiber reinforced concrete connector 4. XPS insulation 100mm 5. composite slab 200mm 6. steel beam 500mm 7. suspended ceiling 300mm 8. concrete 70mm 9. fiber reinforced concrete connector 10. XPS insulation 100mm 11. concrete 70mm
sprayable concre concrete 70mm fiber reinforced XPS insulation 1 composite slab steel beam 500 suspended ceilin
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
concrete 70mm fiber reinforced XPS insulation concrete 70mm
11 10 9 8
Fig. 114 Detail Facade wall - Roof 224 DESIGN PROPOSAL
1. Resin concrete floor 15mm 2. Creed + underfloor heating system pipes 65mm 3. Waterproof insulation 4. Hardstyrofoam 50mm 5. Prefabricated slab 200mm 6. Steel beam 500mm 7. Poured concrete reinforced with metal mesh 100mm 8. XPS insulation 100mm 9. Fiber reinforced concrete connectors 10. Poured concrete 70mm 11. Concrete 70mm
12. Fiber reinforced concrete connector 13. XPS insulation 100mm 14. Concrete 70mm
concrete 70mm fiber reinforced XPS insulation concrete 70mm
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
14 13 12 11
Resin concrete flo creed with the un waterproof insulati hardstyrofoam 50 prefabricated slab Steel beam 500m poured concrete r XPS insulation 10 fiber reinforced co poured concrete 7
Fig. 115 Detail Facade wall - Bottom 225 DESIGN PROPOSAL
BUILDING PERFORMANCE Summer In the summer, the continuous insulation protects the building from overheating. Ventilation of the upper box consists of the natural inflow and mechanical extraction of the exhaust air. The bottom part is being ventilated by natural inflow and mechanical extraction as well. The greenery in the middle part cools down the corridor and improves the air quality by humidifying and absorbing pollution. The building coexist in symbiosis with the road by taking advantage of each otherâ€™s presence. The smog eating concrete facade of Kunstwerk helps reducing emissions from the road. The heat of the road is being accumulated and stored in the underground heat storage -aquifer to be reused in winter. The cold water can be used for underfloor cooling system when needed.
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SUMMER MORNING natural inflow
continuous insulation protecting from overheating
smog eating concrete cleansing the air
heat accumulation mechanical extraction
natural inflow heat exchanger
underfloor cooling when needed
greenery humidifying air
underground heat storage
underfloor cooling when needed underground heat storage
Fig. 116 Climate scheme - Summer 227 DESIGN PROPOSAL
BUILDING PERFORMANCE Winter In the winter, the continuous insulation protects the building from losing heat. Ventilation of the upper box consists of the natural inflow with the preheated air and mechanical extraction of the exhaust air. The space is heated with the underfloor heating system. The bottom part is being ventilated by natural inflow with the preheated air. This is done using the heat exchanger being part of the heat storage system. The exhaust air is extracted using mechanical ventilation. The greenery in the middle part releases warmth improving the climate of the green corridor. The building coexist in symbiosis with the road by taking advantage of each otherâ€™s presence. The smog eating concrete facade of Kunstwerk helps reducing emissions from the road. The heat from the road accumulated in the summer and stored in the underground heat storage is being reused in the underfloor heating system of the Kunstwerk.
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WINTER EVENING natural inflow preheated air
continuous insulation protecting from loosing heat smog eating concrete cleansing the air
underfloor heating system mechanical extraction
preheated air heat exchanger
underfloor heating system
soil releasing warmth
underground heat storage
underfloor heating system underground heat storage
Fig. 117 Climate scheme - Winter 229 DESIGN PROPOSAL
SUN STUDIES The sun studies include analysing the sun path in the morning and in the afternoon, on the 21st of June and 21st of December. The schemes show that the sun shades might be needed in the summer time on both the east and the west side since the sunlight directly penetrates the interiors. In the winter time the sun rays do not reach the internal spaces inside so it can be assumed that the grid of concrete blocks of the facade are sufficient to protect the building from direct sunlight.
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Fig. 118 Sun studies - 21.06 and 21.12 231 DESIGN PROPOSAL
Relationship between the Graduation Lab and the subject
As an explore lab student, I was free to choose my own graduation topic based on my personal fascination. I was also responsible to create my graduation team of tutors. During first 6 weeks I have been discussing my fascination theme with the teachers of the Faculty of Architecture, considering the possible collaboration. This intense time had a big impact on the further design process. First of all it allowed to discuss the ideas with different teachers. Each of the meetings had its own specific educational value. It also allowed me to get to know different approaches and made me think in which direction my project should go. If it comes to the specificity of the Explore Lab Studio, it provides a lot of independency and freedom. Such model of a graduation studio gives the best preparation for the real work as an architect. The fact that we had to create our tutor team allowed me to set a group of professionals from different disciplines (Chair of research and urban designer Dr. ir. Franklin van der Hoeven, research oriented Complex Project teacher Dr. ir. Olindo Caso and the BuildingTechnology teacher fascinated with the phenomenology of architecture Ir. Hubert van Meel) Such a multidisciplinary group requires good communication skills and an open mind. Moreover, it thought me to be able to discuss the design issues with each tutor in a way to fully benefit from the collaboration. It also developed my confidence and ability to clearly express my ideas.
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Relationship between the research and design
The relationship between the research and the design. In the qualitative research I have conducted, I learned The ringroad is simply regarded as noone’s, being left in between “the within” and “the outside” lacking specific identity. The sides within the ring and the outside are perceived as different ( sometimes contradictory) but the ring itself does not cause the difference. Therefore my design approach that I had in mind before the research had to be adjusted. My project proposal instead of trying to fade the differences and stitch the city back ( which would result in another grey zone), strives for uniqueness and focuses on the potential of the ring in order to create a place that affirm its presence in the city. In this point Architecture played crucial role in recreating the identity of the ring as the visual and programmatic unity. Here I posed myself few questions in order to understand which direction to choose and which architectural tools to use in the placemaking process in order to reach the significance of place for its users. 1. Is it about the fact that the ring does not offer any experience to the citizens? 2. Is it about the fact that the ring is visually a non-place? 3. Should placemaking project be just about providing experience? 4. Is it possible to “make a place” just by building it? 5. Which of these two has more power in redefining the identity of the Ring A10?
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This phase seemed to be the most difficult in the whole design process. However, by jumping back and forth between the research and design I was able to make the substantiated choice and proceed with the design. The research conclusions confirmed that the identity of the sides was recognized mostly by their visual characteristics related to the architectural aspects. This is why the physical qualities gained special focus in the design process and were emphasized in the design proposal. After the initial research that aimed to be the extension of the existing research â€œHighway and the Cityâ€?, the special interest in the personal visual experience has been continued throughout the whole design. I implemented the design through research and the research through design to stimulate the creative process. First, I have organize workshops on symbolic representation of ideas. . Inviting people in the design process was necessary to avoid subjectivity of one mind of the designer. During the workshop session, participants were asked to translate the chosen notions into visuals using typical architectural drawings such as plans sections and elevation drawings. The process was time consuming because it required looking at each proposal individually, simultaneously trying to find a common pattern in all the drawings. It occurred to be a turning point in the design process. It led to forming a specific design strategy consisted of 4 principles that gave directions to any further design decision. Each of them even though having clear aim, derived from the additional investigation including making abstract models,
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physical models of different qualities and real 1:1 scale material tests. By doing this I fully explored the tools of architecture and its power in creating identity and stimulating perception. The process seemed to be time-consuming, that resulted in the extension of the graduation but also strengthened my architectural skills. The research driven design made the project more academic and prevented it from being based strictly on the personal preferences. The research through design extended my architectural awareness of possibilities and developed the skill of making substantiated decisions. The design process and the final project in itself made me realize what my personal approach to architecture design is. Nowadays in architectural practices there is not much time and space for theoretical discourses and extensive researches. However I believe it should never be considered as an unnecessarily spent time just to overtheorize the concepts using words no one but architects understand (and architects just pretend they do). We tend to focus on the final design overlooking the process of getting to the final form which in the end diminishes the quality of the creative process itself. The research and design should coexist in every design process by benefitting from each other.
FINAL REFLECTIONS In the design i have tried to complement the relationship between the highway and the city by focusing on the human. I have also realized that the design process was completed by the participation of many people. I believe that in every design process those three - the creativity, the research through design and design through research and the participation is needed in order to come up with a successful proposal. Here I would like to underline the significance of the participatory layer that gave the whole design a shining coating. Starting with all the participants of the research who opened my eyes to see the phenomenon of the Ring A10 and get to know the actual perception of it. Continuing with the participants of the workshops and everyone taking part in model building process thanks to whom I kept on questioning the human scale of the design and never forgot who this design is made for. Finally grasping such broad topic would not be possible without constant multidisciplinary discussions I had with professionals of many fields. This includes architects, urbanists, artists, municipality and the Government representatives and many more. I understood the power of team work understood as extensive participation and will definitely keep on exploring the endless possibilities of these collaborations in my future career as an architect.
CE S S PRO
RE SE CH AR
PARTICIPATION 237 REFLECTION
SHOUT-OUT Part.1 PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Klaas van Olphen Yafim Simanovski Jan Ksiazek Olivier Boright Jakub Jekiel Andreas Root Quita Schabracq Alexandra Mirou Claudiu Lionte Michel Couzy Bart Nauta J. Bras Pim Burgers Dawid X Fallon Walton Jesse Willis Fokke Jongerden Roel Jongerden Pacome Rsnn
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Lisa van Beek Federico Riches Koen Fraijman Fadime Gökkaya Damen Ton Jesse’s mum Huib van Zeijl Brigitte O’Regan Hanneloes Pen Esther Reith Florian Nelemans Danielle Segers Ola gordowy Ania Bozek Rosa Stapel Marc Kruyswyk Veronique Ten Holter Jan Fraijman Betty
PARTICIPATORY DESIGN • • • • • • • • • • • •
Marta Szczepanska Kevin Gunawan Margot De Man Ola Gordowy Kuba Lewicki Rafal Tarczynski Edyta Milczarek Chloe Eersel Matteo Santangelo Zbigniew Nalepa Maria Nalepa Alfreda Podlacka
SHOUT - OUT Part.2 MULTIDISCIPLINARY CONSULTS • Olindo Caso (First mentor) • Hubert van der Meel (Second mentor) • Franklin van der Hoeven (Third mentor) • Dave Wendt • Rosa Stapel (urbanist) • Jeroen van der Hoek (Structure advisor) • Christien Janssen (Climate advisor) • Mark Minkjan (Arcam) • Arthur Perdijk (Artist) • Hans de Boer (Architect) • Rients Dijkstra (Government avisor) • Johannes Langer (Urbanist)
• Esther Reith (MUNICIPALITY OF AMSTERDAM) • Pieter Bannenberg (NL ARCHITECTS) • Huib van Zeijl (EQUIPE) • Daniëlle Segers (EQUIPE) • Laura Groenendijk (GOUDAPPEL) • Maurice Harteveld (AMS INSTITUUT) • Jurriaan Hillerstrom (NEXT ARCHITECTS) • Lars van Hoften (UN STUDIO) • Ton Venhoeven (VENHOEVEN CS) • Rene Boers (FAILED ARCHITECTURE) • David Ten Napel (ARCAM) • Stefan Bendiks (ARTGINEERING)
REFERENCES • Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (2015) Smelly Maps: The Digital Life of Urban Smellscapes. Retrieved from http://www.aaai.org • Boomen, T. V., Boer, H. D., & Hinterleitner, J. (2017). Snelweg x stad: de toekomst van de stedelijke ringweg = Highway x city. Amsterdam: BNA Onderzoek. • De Vente M. (2016) Binnen of Buiten de ring? Retrieved from http://www.dewestkrant. nl/binnen-of-buiten-de-ring/ • Design method Toolkit. Derieved from http://medialabamsterdam.com/toolkit/ • Kevin Lynch Mapping Method: Physical & Spatial Characteristic Of Environment, Retrieved April 2,2017 from http://www.cpas-egypt.com • Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. The MIT Press. • Marans, R. W., & Stimson, R. J. (2014). Investigating quality of urban life: theory, methods, and empirical research. Dordrecht: Springer. • Mayhew, S. (2015). A dictionary of geography. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. • Mc Lean K. (2014). Smellscape: exploring & sharing urban olfactory experiences. Retrieved from http://sensorymaps.com/research/
• Mental mapping, Viewing the urban landscapes of the mind. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2017, from http://www.bing.com/ • Oxford Dictionaries, Retrieved February 5,2017, from www.oxforddictionaries.com • Perren, C., & Mlecek, M. (2015). Perception in architecture: here and now. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. • Sanders, E., & Stappers, P. J. (2013). Convivial Toolbox Generative Research for the Front End of Design. Amsterdam: BIS • Sulsters W. (2005) Mental mapping, viewing the urban landscapes of the mind at the conference OTB Mental geography, October 15, 2005 • Torabi, Z., & Brahman, S. (2013). Effective Factors in Shaping the Identity of Architecture. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 15(1), 106-113 • Yazdanfar, S. A., Heidari, A. A., & Aghajari, N. (2015). Comparison of Architects’ and Non-Architects’ Perception of Place. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
The project " Kunstwerk Ring A10 - redefining identity of the Ringroad A10 in Amsterdam" is an attempt to explore the current and future soc...
Published on Nov 9, 2017
The project " Kunstwerk Ring A10 - redefining identity of the Ringroad A10 in Amsterdam" is an attempt to explore the current and future soc...