Page 1


Uo! marble, nor the gilded,, etc.:-Tyler has traced a remarkable

similarity between this Sonnet and a-passage in Meres' palladi* Tamia, registereil September 7, tE9B. See Note III. (4). 1. monuments Malone, monument e.

9. enmity, emnity

13. Till


the judgment that gourself arise:_,Till . jud-gment-day-

ending doom'

the decree of the

that you arise from the tleatl.,_DowDEN. Cf, .the








V. ThE TEpograpky of tke Quarto (16O9)' condd'ered' in its bearing on the authoritg of that teat, wi,th an analysi,s of the sgstern of Punctuation 2, Rose ori lrucrece)'-In Sonnet obseraeitr th,erern (see Note I retain the initial capital antl italics, because I am stanrls thus in satisfied that the words in this type were printetl so tlesignedly through-




out the Sonnets. Controversy has centretl round two of them :-Eews, xx. f, anil Wi,l,l, exxxv. l, 2, 17 t 12, 14 1 cxxxvr, 2, 5, 14 ; cxr,rrr. 13. Mr. Siilney Lee wtites(Dictionary of Natianal Bi,ographg, vol. r,r. p. 365):'There is nothing in the wording of these punnin$ Sonnots to warrant




the assumption that his friend bore tho same appellation (this misin_ terpretation is attributable to the misprinting in the early bcritions of the second'6will" as .( Wi,ll,, in cxxlxv. l);_an error for 2. Mr. Dowden, in discussing l. Z of xx. as printeil in the euarto :_


man in hew all Eews in his

'So irue a foole is love, that in your Will, (Though you cloe any thing) he thinks no


ill, :_

it is, obviouslg

so printed there with a like reference to the is only fair to note, once more, in this connection

poetll 11me. It the 6TIri[' in Lucrece,496:'But Will

For if it be a misprint, it may be urged in support of Mr. Leds contontion in respeot of the secontl Wdll (cxxxv. 2), and, if it be not a misprint, it may serve the turn of those who, holiling the t personal theoryr'difer from my conclusion on the date of tt'e Sonnets (supra, Note III.), and accept Mr. Siilney Lee's, viz. that the Sonnets were written immediately after Lucrece. Returning to the two which do present a ilifficulty-"Rose and. Hews believe, as I have staterl in the Introduction, that 'Beauty's -Eoee' -I stands here poetically for the ld,ea ot Eternal Type of Beauty, or, at least, for the emblem of that itlea. It stands, indeed, for one of the many things which, to Sir Philip Sidney (Apologie for Poetrie,1596) (lye ilarke before the imaginatione and juilging power, if they bee not illuminated or figurecl foorth by the speaking picture of Poesie.' It is used to this end with a capital, lxvtt. B:-


discounts the possible significance of .hews, (hues) having been printed ( Hews,'by pointing out that othel words inthe Sonrwt"s.have also capital letters and are in italics., That is true. But Mr. Dowdon does not give a complete list. Ilatl he done so he might have beon struck, as I have been struck, by the fact that, exceptin g B,ote, t. 2 I I[ews, xx. 7 ; Inlformer, cxxv. lB ; and the Wi,lls, axxxv, cxxxvr., cxlrrr., , eaery uord, so pri,nteitr, is either a proper n&me, or else, of Greek or Latii efrtraction. Yiz, :-Aud,it, w. 12 ; Adoni,s, Hellcns, Giecian, r;r:r. 61 7, B 1 Statues, r,v, 5 (and note that this word. is printed Stattie-Fenus and, Ailonisr 2lS-and Statua fourtimes in the plays) Marsrnv. ; |1 I-ntri,m: nvr. I 1 Ali,en, nxxvrrr. B 1 Eaues (Dve's), Lppl", fS i Saturne, xcvru. 41 Satire, c, ll; phi,lomell, cu, i Autumne, ""rrr, c:r. E ; i Abi,tme, cxrr. 91 Alcuncie, cxrv. 41 ggren, cxrx, l; Eeriti,che, Si AltditO Qui,etut, cxxvr. ll, IZ; Cupid' Dgans, Cupid,, "*rru. lr Z, L4. These words, if other than proper names, were so printerl "orri. dh.o, words ". are so printed now, Vtz. ,-tu"ur.r" th6y were but par_ Tr.e.n"htially incorporated into the English language (see Note III. on Lucrece). This destroys the presumption of accident and creates a presumption of design, leaving the commentator still free to draw such conclusions as he can from the selection of capitals and italics for Rose, Hews, lnformer, and, Wi,ll, The last two present no difficulty, excopt to those who would _ abstr-act every personal element out of the-Sonnets. , Informer, is clearly a. personal apostrophe ;--. Will,' as clearly embodies a ptuy ori the p_oet's nam,e, and occasionally, as I hold with Dowden, but'against Mr. Lee, on the name of his Friend also. .Willr, although iot in italics, has a capital in-r,vrr. l3 :-

is deafe, ancl hoars no heeilfull friends, Onely ho hath an eye to gazo on Beautie, Ancl clotes on wbat he looks, 'gainst law or duty.'


'W-hy should poore beautie intlirectly seeke Roses of shaclclow, since his Rose is true?'-

and, again with a capital, as the emblem of the Friendr'crx,


'tr'or nothing this wide Universe I call, Save thou my Rose, in it thou art my all.'


Hews it is enough to say here that, if its capital antl italics be a freak of the printer, they constitute the only freak of that kind in the whole edition of 1609. This goes far to show that the Quarto was not carelessly issued, and to defeat many conclusions drawn from the


opposite assumption, e.g, lhat it was a pirateil edition published without Shakespeare's knowledge or against his wishes, and that the present order of tb.e Sonnets may therefore be treated as hap-hazard. To press this home, another feature of the Quarto's typography must

now be considered. The number of capitals employed, apart from italics where we employ them no longer, has been urgecl in support of the view that the Quarto was unauthorised. It is therefore

necessary, in order to conlirm my argument, that I should trace design in the use of capitals throughout the edition, even when given to words in ordinary type. If all such wortls be collected, it will be found that they fall, with scarce an exception, into well-defined classes; that the employment of capitals for such classes, though now obsolete, is rational and not arbitrary; and that it was of a kind sanctioned by contempgrary usage. Some words, with a double justification firr their capitals,

night be placeil with almost equal propriety under either of two heaclings; but, in order to avoid oonfusion, I shall content myself



for every word_ so- pr.inted uqder scime one heading. Xlln "rj.o,,i"T"g rroceedrng lrom the more to the less obvious classes, all these worls

Follyr" Truth" ; Phisickr' cxr,vrr' 6; Nothilg:' 6 Simplicity,' Captainer' ' Illr' r,xvr' I Naturer' Artr'lxvttl'' cxxvrr' ; Art is not, properly, personi'Nuiii".,'t"*"t. i 'Artr' cxxxrx. Hore heading:next the fietl, anil might be classed uniler xrv'; 'Musicke" Sciences'-'Astronomy,' anitr Arts of 1A1 Wo*ri


'Reasonr' cxrrvrr. t


the Master Mistris, xx.; rmy lovely Bo5' 'Mistersser'=mistresse, cxxvn.; rI\4istresr, c*x*.; .1i{istrirse,,""*ur.; i rlittlb Love-God,' cr,rv. ""ro. (2)


foreign entraction

; I ih.torirk,' rJxxxu. ; and those who. practise them : 'Poet" t ";;. t Poetsr' xvrr., xxx[', o**,"., t'xxxrrr'; t Painter(s),' xxrv'; Phisi( anil cxr'; ha'tl" Dyers the r'xvr'; ti";6i' ;;;.;'"*t"tt. i'Doctor-1ike,' vertue hath my

ffien from Greek or Lati,n, as 1 ,Imager' xxrv., r]xr; .Nymphesr, xr,v. ; ;l,y-6"rkrr, or*.';


ifr" i"'Jtt"*unt of an art,

cr,rv.; 'Chronicler' cvr.; -.Elementsr,cvrr. ; Epitaphr' r,xxxr. ; . idolut"ie,, ( Iioll,, cv.' , Char_ ' 4"t11.:-. _. ; .1{.1-enr'rrxxlv,; 'H,imner' and three, *ti"t u". also legal_ ::i-e_Y 'sesslonsr' xxx. l 6Advocater, xxxv.; .Charterr, rrxxxvrr. The ern-



so the Gonerall




i*f.,it'(c**vur.) iro quasi-potsonilied' But. irr the last believe ihat the'awkwarrlness of the letter i ur r

; .Decemberr' xcyu. Cieationr' ;', ;,Universer; tOceanr'Lvr., "**lrrr. .Sunner, txrn, r,xrx. .Heaverrr, **r*.,

fot any simple of classification, but which, most certainly, are not misprintecl:,

'Thy entl is Truthes dntl Beautieg

doome antl


steele''-cxx' 'I]nless my Nerves were trrasso or hammeretl ghame''-csx' 'Th'expence of Spirit in a waste of 'As I by yours, y'have past a hell of Time"-cxx'


'l ,l


examples' I before a


the Westr' Lxxrrr. ; cxxxrr. ; c**"rr. ; 6Orieutr, vrr. (5) Personi,f,cations.-cBeautier, cxxvrr. (Timer, ; "o, *r*.j o*ru., cxxrrr. ; t Times foolr' cxvr. ; . (Fortuner' _. Lover, Love,sr, *"*r., ,,rr., I xxrx., xxxv[. I.rMuser,'"*r., *"irr., xxxyrrl, Lxxrx,, "*ou.

I .Dayr'


There remain some few instances, too complex




"on.ohrot vowel hatl somethirrg to do with determinirig the type'

oxxxrr. I .Mooner'xxrj, xxxv., cvn.; )ll.: x11tl., xxxv., [rx., cxxx., ,Eaven,; xv., j .sunset farleth in cxxxrr. LStg::'(Starrer' .\{estr' 1 ""**rr. .frastr,

Lxxxu., Lxxxv,, c,, cr., ctlr.; .Age,sr,

betray" 'igptcaltg,-'How many Lambs might the sterne IMolfe

niurtr' o**urt.; 'The Lyonstpawesr' 'the fierce Tygers yawes"^tthe Some lone iiv'd Phanix, xrx. I 'the iarke at breake of daye,' xxrx'; ' sorne in their Horse,' xcr' :Hounds, and Hawkes their i" ist"-ryl )lh".l'Hu*ku*, Hounds, Horse stand for the establishments and purof Hawking, Hunting, and the Manege' suits --lpo.arr' .norer' ao., i*urr., gxxx. I' Aoser' xcv., crx.; tRose(s)' t with t Lillie(sj,' xcvrr, , xcrx' I Canker bloomes' contrasted r i'or Canker vice the sweetest butls doth love" "o*p"""d *ith" Rose"r' r,rv.; eyer' xxv'; 'And peace r,xx,; 'But as the Marygold at the Suns ( of Eysell gainst my Potions cvrr' age,' I p"ocioimes Olives of entliess strong infectionr' cxl. tVirgin hanil,' cr'rr"; Also emblematical are-tDyall handr' crv'; (But hope of Orphans and unfathered fruite,'xcvrr'; tl,ove is a (Iewell,' xcvr' 'Ihe tsausie Baber' civ.; 'Captaine lewellsr' r'n';

of hot clesire.,


of Animats and' Plants used' Emblernaticallg, Prouerbialtrg'

that flies in heavens *"ui.]"Ct;" or Dover' cxrir.; 'A Crow .my senser' cxrt'; Adtlgrs Lxx.; carrion, avre''=a clue to

'Legions' might have been placed under (2) but, apart from that and its use in this conceit, it ii akin to what may be termed wor.ds of .Kingdomer, r,xrv.;, .Maiestier, magni,tude, lhough not titlee, r ^e.g. rrxxvrr. I Embassie,' xr,v. Of a kinilrect u"" ,_ (a) The Names of the Greater Diui,sions of "hu"u.i." Ti,rye, of Cosmicat processea, the Lurni,naries, and the Larger Featuret oytnt (Jiiaerse.-rwinter(s)r' crv. l rSommer(s)r, xrr,, xvrrr. (B)r rrrr., *ruir.-; !r:o\r., xcvrr., xcyrrr., .Autumnar' xcvu. ;Aprillr,'rrr., r,xrrr. I xxr,, xcvrrr,, crv. ; l!!"h+'

'llaier' xvrrr, ;



.'Which many Legions of true hearts harl warm,tl Anrl

useil as its emblem-r sush

r'xxxrv' Penr' l,xxxr' 1 'Leane penurie within that Pen iloth dwell" ;trrJi"l"ti,l". Pen *ould have exprest,' cvr' . The last example may to tlefine' serve for a transition to the lasi class, which is hartler

p.re1sm^ent of legal terms into the service of poetry is noticed in the Arte of Engli*k Poesier rEBg, viz.:-'A terme borrowecr. of our common Lawyers i,mpression, also a_new terme, but well expressing the matter and more than our English word., Anrl, in The buide lnto Tonguet, 1677, a special feature is made of legal terms, (3) Titles of Di,gnie1.-.God,' r,virr., cx.; rKing(s),, xxrx., Lxur., rrxxxvrr,, cxv. I (Queener'xcvr. .Princesr'"rlr., *ir.'; .Lorclsr, I xcrv,, xcvrr. ; 'Ladiesr' rKnightsr, cvr. .Generallr, cntv.; used I of the l,ove-God in a conceit with Legions (Ibid.):_


263 t



may be grouped thus :(1) They are Personal Appellati,ois,-.Willr' r,vrr. . deceased Loverr, ; (thou

terms of,z_rL-(Antiquer' xv[.







. Evefy word in the Quarto printed withr a capital, which does not tlepentl on punctuation, is thus susceptible of rational explanation, except two. These may or may not be misprints:_ ,Uttring bare truth,

th'e assumptioo

""ii"g""" iurpu7t of punctuatiJn.

even so a,s foes Commend.r_Lxx,

'This brand she queuchdcl in a cool ,W.ell by.,_cr,rv.

"*ul*irr" the

p"rr.... Thus a comma is placetl-often at the end' occasionThis "ir"i"ii*f allv at sorie other point in a line, to emphasise such a pause' itliosyncrasy as much as to the poot's to the pertain ;y ;;;U in the pqltry 9{ irJr"" "f pi'iniing in his ilay: it has been.obleTe'l verse' But' if of their music in the engrossetlotie", of Sfr"if"y "nd feature be eicepteil and a moalerate allowance be made this constant

at the enrls of two consocutive lines' the i"" ti. i*"tposition of stops ^accountetl for by careless editing is by no rlmainiler oi error to be in many instances the punctuahancl, other tho On abno"*al. *e"n. rhythm of ii"" i. so exquisitely atlaptetl to the sense, rhetoric,of antl the text' The authority thefor plea my confirm to as ph;. iil ;;;Jp;; q""teil to illustrale-the use of capitals from crv' antl cx'

That thereby beauties -Aose might uever clie, But as the riper shoulcl by time clecease. . , .,

'( ) !:ryt the world should taske you to recite, - What merit liv'd in me thatgetyou shoriid loue. After my death (deare love) .

They live unwoo'd, and unrespectocl fado, Die to themselvee. Sweet Rosos doe not so.,_lrv.

illustrate the rhetorical use of punctuation' In them a rhetorical caoital followed the colon, as I holil, to emphasise the ;;;.as in the exa'mples which I am about to quote the effect




For all my vowes are othss but to misuse thee: Antl all my houest faith in thee is lost.'-orrr' 6' 'Thsn let not wintors wraggeil hancl cloface' In thee thy summex ore thou be tlistil'd: Mako sweet some violl; tre&Bulo thou some ploce'

Such seemes yow beautie still: Three W.inters colde, Eave from the forests shooke. . . .,_crv.

'Most true it is, that I have lookt on truth Asconce and straugely: But by all obove.'_cx.:_


and once after a somi-colon :'Lose all and more by paying too much rent tr'or oompouncl sweet; Forgoing simple savor.r-cxxv. ffncl

that I have ovorlooked one other exception:_ '



'But why of two otbes breaoh cloe I acouse thee' When I break twenty: I arn perjurecl most'

'l}O me faire friencl you never can be old" ^ For as you were when first your eye I eyde,



is producetl by punctuation


A capital is still retained afrer a period in modern printing. But in the Quarto a capital is also placedrlwice, after a coloi_a us"e which survives in o:u;r Book of Common prager-


system, or absence of system, in the punctuation of

are not Punctuation.-In the Quarto-let it be said at once-stops of each syntax, the point to exclusively arer' they now as usetl, or rhythmical point frequentlS They are also usetl, ;;;";;. -to

' fiaRom fairest creatures we desire increase, r


,t&t, th.

thtt the Quarto was-carelessly printed in This I tloubt' It is therefore necessary to


The-Quarto may therefore be acceptetl on this count as an edition carefully revised and corrected, Further evidence is forthcoming from tbe fact that, whereas the thirteen remaining liles of eacfr sonnet begin with a roman gapital, according to the isual practice of plinting verse, the first line_begins with a large initial for .1oti.h .pu"u i1 ilva-riab_lf allowed by setting the second linl somewhat to the right. Anil this large initial is, invariably, by a Roman capital"for the seconil letter of line l, immediately above th" Ro*"n fo" "upitul the first letter ofline 2; thus:-

for me quite. . , .'1 Four words remain printoil with capitals which do depend


repeated from The capital in the last example may be-.accitlentally semi-colon' the remove etlitors mode"n ifr" begi";*S of the line, and

Longer mourne.'_r,xxr.

With bsauties tre&sure sro it be gelfe kil'tl':-vr' 3' 'IIs lencls thoo vertue, and he stole that worcl'

t'"om thybehaviour, beautie ttoth ho givo Ancl founcl it in thy cheeko: he oan afioortl No praise to thee, Lut what in thee doth live''-lxxrx' 11' 'Tell me thou lov'st eltle'where; but in my sight' Dear heart forbeare to glanoe thine eye asicle' What neetlst thou vountl with cunning when thy might Is more than my ore-preEt clefence can bicle?'-cxxxrx' 5'

preThe pause in the first line of this quatrain is heavily pointed tb


To sum up :-The use of italics, capitals, and stops in the euarto 1609, though often obsolete, is most rarelv irratioial; the nimber



u-ndoubted corruptions is so small as to be negligible; the weight, therefore,,of the argument-inclines irresistibly towartls maintaiiing the text wherever it will yield a meaning. Acting on this conclusion] I have more than once reinstated the euarto teit in preference to a modern emendation.


Uo! marble, nor the gilded,, etc.:-Tyler has traced a remarkable

similarity between this Sonnet and a-passage in Meres' palladi* Tamia, registereil September 7, tE9B. See Note III. (4). 1. monuments Malone, monument e.

9. enmity, emnity

13. Till


the judgment that gourself arise:_,Till . jud-gment-day-

ending doom'

the decree of the

that you arise from the tleatl.,_DowDEN. Cf, .the



Wyndham (1898)  
Wyndham (1898)