Digital Design - Module 02 Semester 1, 2018 Ching Lam Chiu

(911280) Michael Mack + Studio 5

Week Three

Reading: Kolerevic B. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age

Kolerevic described three fundamental type of fabrication techniques in the reading. Outline the three techniques and discuss the potential of Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication with parametric modelling. (150 words max)

The three techniques are subtractive, additive and formative fabrication. All three techniques are part of the Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication. In subtractive fabrication, a specific amount of volume is removed from solid materials. Milling is one of the most common way of subtractive fabrication. Milling can be done two-dimensionally or three-dimensionally. When it involves â€œundercutsâ€?, A-axis and B-axis are added to increase the range of forms that can be performed from milling. In additive fabrication, the 3D printing machines melt and mix materials in order to fill, pour and extrude solid forms layer-by-layer. Each is layered with hot melted materials and cooled to fix. In formative fabrication, materials are heated or steamed so they can be reshaped into a desirable form. They can be permanently deformed or bended in their soft states. Through these three fabrication techniques, architects can now produce architectural elements through digital software to precise solid forms.

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Week Three

Surface Creation

The process of scripting starts with creating a 150mmx150mm rectangle at an origin point (0,0,0). The rectangle is then extruded in the Z direction by 150mm to create a cube form. It is capped, turned into a brep and debrepped. After Debrep, each edge is listed out as items and divided into 6 points. The points of the surface is selected through listing the points as items and plug in a index selection. The index selection allows to pick which point is selected. Select all 4 points for the surface and connect all 4 into a Loft component to create the surface. Bake the surfaces into Rhino. Iterations: 1 - Top left, 2 - Top right, 3 - Bottom left, 4 - Bottom right 1 is the first one I started with. I simply made two separate surfaces using the same edges of the bebrepped cube. 2 has both top left corners lowered down so they create a small leveling if it is made into a waffle structure. However, when it is made into a waffle, one of the z layer can barely be fixed with the x strips of the waffle. This will possibly result in that layer of the waffle being unstable on the edge. In 3, I tried to try out how the waffle would look if the opposite corners are in different heights in the Z direction. For the top left corners, one is at 125 while the other is at 150 (both in Z direction). However, the waffle came out with the corner of one of the waffle’s X layer to poke out from the rest of the structure which will is problematic when panels are attached to the waffle. During the 4th iteration, I realised that we can’t have the surfaces to be too close to the 150x150x150 boundary box since the panels have an offset distance and altogether can’t exceed the boundary. Therefore, I shifted the surface points inward to leave some space for the panels. Also, the distance between the two surfaces either shrink or widens diagonally.

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Week Four Panels & Waffle

The front surface has panels with a base of a square. It has pyramid-like forms extruding from the 4 edges of the square. It is interesting to see when the panels are arranged side by side together, they combine the surfaces in between them. This creates an illusion that the panels are all connected and blend together to form new structures. This creates a new way of seeing panels, they don’t have to be seen as individual panels. They can combine and form a chained structure. In the centre of the panels, they have a cross (star-like) opening which can cast unique shadow shapes through light. On the back panel surface, the base shape is octagon. Each panel is separated into 3 parts: 2 pyramids with a triangular cut opening and arrow-like pyramid pointing diagonally. When sunlight goes through the openings, the triangular light casted to the ground points at the same direction as the light’s direction which may function to tell the time of the day.

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The waffle structure is almost symmetrical diagonally. The base width increases gradually from one side to the other while the top increases in the opposite direction. The shrinkage and widening of the waffle’s width can give an interesting interpretation if the it is seen as a building with windows all over it. If a person is standing at the corners of the building (waffle), they are able to look across the building through the windows because of the sloping of the windows. For example, a person facing outside, standing at a corner of the building where the width shrinks, can look towards and inside the areas where the width is widened. From areas where the width is shrunk, the area with wider widths would look like it’s extruding outwards and allow a clear view of the inside through the windows. Also, the linkage between the two surfaces of the waffles almost looks like corridors of each levels. When the structure recieves sunlight in this view , less light will be casted inside the left side of the waffle than the right side because of the sloping.

Week Four

Laser Cutting

The laser cut file for the waffle mount board is arranged mostly side by side with each cut outs. Since the layers for the waffle look very similar, I labeled the numbers next to each cut outs to make sure I donâ€™t get them messed up. Since the mount boards are relatively thick, I made all the cut lines laser cut but taped by the Fablab. However, for the panel laser cuts, I left the fold lines and a few of the outer edge lines into etching lines. This is because the panels are very small this time and if they are taped, bits of paper will be easily ripped off from the ivory card. For the unroll of the waffles, there was not much problems and went pretty smoothly. For the panels I tried to unroll the panels one by one but the unrolls overlap extensively. Therefore, I had to divide each panels up to 2-4 separate parts then unroll them. I tried to join as many as I could but there were still a lot of separate pieces. Therefore, I set up an etched grid around the unrolled panels, unrolls from the same panel will be arranged in the same grid to make sure I donâ€™t get confused which unrolls are which. Although this way can lay out the unrolls clearly, it was a long process to get them all unrolled and arranged in the right grids.

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Week Five

Iterations: 1 - Top Left, 2 - Top Right, 3 - Bottom Left, 4 - Bottom Right The Boolean Script is for 2. It is the first boolean I used on my actual design. All 4 of my iterations have deleted some of the cubes created through Grasshopper baking. This is because I want to create an abstract house with a variation of leveling, rotation and sizing. I was aiming to create each section of the structure with their own uniqueness. For 1, I used the same components as the script for 2 but the scaling and attractor points are different. Originally, I started with making 1 is because I wanted to boolean out the middle part to create a U shape and aim to create almost like looking through a window of a small toy house. However, after I tried to boolean 1, I realised there is too little available space for me to explore spaces and movements on the side. If I minimise the boolean cubes, it would be hard to look through the opening. Therefore, I moved around the attractor points and created 2. After boolean 2, it looks like a corner of the house is made. There is more depth on the sides to explore more booleans. Also, the openness of the corner makes it a lot easier to look through the space. Therefore, 2 is chosen to be my first boolean instead of 1 to give my starting base form. 3 and 4 are iterations of using attractor scaling, rotation and moving to create room spaces of the structure. I continued using these components to boolean rooms, open spaces and tunnels. From Module 1, I made the Libeskind Pavilion which explored how the enclosure of multiple planes can create shelter, threshold and tunnel (or walk paths). I wanted to explore spaces similarly. The rotation, position, width, length and height of each space can define movement, circulation and flow of people in space. 4 is chosen for my design because it allows me to criss-cross spaces on the right side in later stages. The rest of the booleans that I used are shown in the appendix pages.

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Week Five

Isometric

During the process of making my model, I aimed to create an abstract corner of a house. The first boolean formed the base corner of the house. Afterwards, I wanted to create spaces include shelter, rooms, open spaces, tunnels, steps, small platforms, roof and walls. To create shelter, indoor space is created. This is shown on the bottom level of my model. Through Grasshopper, I created rectangular forms, scaled them, rotated them and moved them to create space with a ceiling. I manipulated the rectangular boxes to leave a gap in between to create a wall to separate spaces. The wall and the ceiling created rooms. In my model, there are also open spaces. In the front of this view, there is a small platform with a couple of steps. On the upper floor on the left side of this view, I experimented with boolean to take away part of the roof to create a roof space possibly a roof garden. While experimenting the boolean for the roof garden area, I tried scaling and rotating to find an iteration that can create more than just space. I decided to try leaving small parts not booleaned to see whether it can create other objects. From this view, it can be seen that I left a small triangular form on at the corner of the roof garden. The triangular form is suitable to be an object such as tables. Through this single boolean step, a single boolean can have multiple purpose and there is a lot of explorations can be made with scaling, rotating etc. Furthermore, although I kept using scaling, rotation and moving, I also tried to manipulate with the base form of the box I used for boolean. I extruded the box longer in Z direction to form the tunnels on the right side in this view. Unfortunately, in this view, it is not clear that there is a slope on the roof at the very top. The boolean of the sloped roof is created by manipulating a box in XY,YZ and XZ rotations. Through the rotation in all 3 directions, there is more options and flexibility on forming a sloped roof. Overall, my model is a collection of enclosed and open space, leveling, thresholds and tunnels. Each individual space has its own uniqueness.

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Week Six Task 01 Lofts

1.1

1.2

Key

1.4

{0,0,0}

{0,125,150}

{0,150,125}

{0,150,125} {150,125,150}

{25,0,150}

{0,0,125}

Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Grid Points

{0,50,150} {25,0,150}

Grid Lines {150,100,150}

Offset Grid Distance

{150,75,150} {0,100,0} {0,50,0}

{0,75,0}

{125,150,0}

{150,125,0} {150,50,0}

{150,25,0}

Paneling Grid & Attractor Point & Offset Grid

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

2.1A

2.2A

2.3B

2.4B 12mm

4mm {79,63,151}

20mm

16mm

{142,109,148} {142,68,149} {4,107,0} {7,57,11}

{75,114,3}

28mm

20mm

12mm

8mm

Paneling

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Offset Grid Distance}

{Offset Grid Distance}

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

1.3

Key

1.4

{0,0,0}

{0,125,150}

{0,150,125}

0,125}

on}

1.3

{0,125,150}

{25,0,150}

Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Grid Points

{0,50,150}

Grid Lines {150,100,150}

Offset Grid Distance

Task 01 Matrix {0,75,0}

While iterating the surfaces, I considered the appearance of the waffle and the restriction of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm bounding size. My final choice of surfaces is 1.4 since it gives an interesting widening and shrinkage in distance between the two surfaces. For the Panelling Grid, I first started to test out using an attractor point for each surface. Then I added one more attractor on each and played with their location. Since the distance between the surfaces widens/shrinks diagonally, I tried placing the attractor points of the panelling grids diagonally on their opposite corners (Matrix 2.2A). The grids came out to be larger at the widened area and smaller in the shrinking area which works really well with the form of 2.3B 2.4B the surface. For the Offset Distance, I tried varying the distance of both side while keeping them within the bounding area. I chose the offset distance in Matrix 2.4B since it provides the panels a more 3-dimensional form. For the panelling breps, I first started with using a square base shape for both surfaces. However, I changed the back surface panels into octagon bases just to give more variation and experiment with the openings in between the octagon panels. Moving on I tried to simply extrude pyramid forms from their base shapes as shown in Matrix 3.1. One of the panels are extrusion of two pyramids with their tip trimmed off while the other leaves diamonds/flowers-like opening in the centre with pyramid extrusions from the octagon base. I find the form of the square panels very boring while the centre point of the octagon panels are almost impossible to be connected in paper. Matrix 3.2, the square panels have a simple diamond opening in the middle with two pyramids extruded inwards. For the octagon panels, I tried to connect the centre point by separating the openings into 4. However, that adds a lot of extra folds which might be difficult to fabricate. For the square panels of Matrix 3.3, I made a cross/star-like opening in 3.3 3.4 the centre by overlapping two of the diamonds from 3.2 while 4 pyramids extrudes inwards. The octagon panels are divided into 4 sections, a pair of extrusion with trimmed top and the other pair extruding to a lower point. After applying the panels to the surfaces, The square panels simple look like a sea of spiky forms and the octagon panels look like chimneys extruding from the surface. Both lack any exciting elements. In comparison, the final panels I used (shown in 3.4) explored how panels can be seen differently and how openings affect the casting of shadows. The reason of choosing the panels in Matrix 3.4 is addressed in page 4. {150,125,0}

{150,25,0}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

12mm

4mm

20mm

16mm

{142,109,148} {142,68,149}

28mm

20mm

12mm

8mm

{Offset Grid Distance}

{Offset Grid Distance}

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Week Six Task 02

Grid Manipulation

1.1A

1.2A

1.3B

Key

1.4B

{0,0,0}

{0,101,136}

Grid Points

64

{77,63,72} {124,100,62}

Point on Attractor Curves

{124,100,62}

{-7,24,98} {0,60,24}

Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Attractor / Control Curves

70 {92,63,107}

{81,-12,129}

{81,-12,129}

{-8,-8,98}

{124,100,62}

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64

{81,30,84}

{124,100,62}

{81,-20,84}

Cube Distribution

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

2.1A

2.2A

2.3B

2.4B

{43,-3,101}

{-9,74,25} {43,-3,101}

{137,-4,48}

Cube Transformation

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Index Selection}

3.1A

3.2A

3.3B

3.4B

{114,58,115}

{80,60,41}

{145,30,63} {137,-4,48}

{Attractor Scaling}

{Attractor Scaling}

1.3B

{Rotation and Attractor Scaling}

{Rotation and Attractor Scaling}

Key

1.4B

{0,0,0}

Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Attractor / Control Curves Grid Points Point on Attractor Curves

{124,100,62} {92,63,107}

{81,-12,129}

{81,-12,129}

{-8,-8,98}

Task 02 Matrix

{124,100,62}

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64

{81,30,84}

{124,100,62}

{81,-20,84}

In Matrix 1.1A and 1.2A, I was trying out the effect of curve and point attractors in terms of grid manipulation. In 2.1A and 2.2A, I adjusted the magnitude and position of attractor points. After the iteration of 2.1A, I realised that the magnitude is too strong and it made the cubes very clustered. Therefore, I lowered the magnitude and relocated the attractor point in 2.2A which gives more space between the cubes. By doing so, if scaling is applied, the cubes will vary the levels after booleaned out. In 3.1A and 3.1B I deleted some and leave the larger cubes together to either create a U-shape or a corner. The choice of using 3.2A is addressedi in page 2.3B cubes from both transformations 2.4B 6. In 1.3B and 1.4B, the grids are changed into 2x3 grids since I didnâ€™t want to boolean too many boxes out on each edge and it is easier to manipulate them in the later process. In 2.3B, I used attractor points to locate two of the boxes towards the far edge on the left since I was deciding if I should boolean that corner. However, I decided not to since that corner has great depth and gives a clear view for any exploration done in that area. Therefore, I relocated the attractor point in 2.4B to avoid trimming the corner out. In 3.3B and 3.4B I used attractor scaling and rotation for the boolean boxes. The reason for choosing 3.4B is addressed in page 6.

ation}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{43,-3,101}

{-9,74,25}

{137,-4,48}

ation}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Index Selection}

3.3B

3.4B

{114,58,115}

{145,30,63} {137,-4,48}

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{150,125,150}

{25,0,150}

{0,0,125}

{150,75,150} {0,100,0} {0,50,0}

3.1A

Grid Points

Paneling Grid & Attractor Point & Offset Grid

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

2.1A

2.2A

2.3B

2.4B

3.3B

3.4B

Offset Grid Distance

{150,125,0}

{114,5

{150,25,0}

{80,60,41}

Final Isometric Views

20mm

16mm

{142,109,148}

{Attractor Scaling}

{142,68,149}

{Attractor Scaling}

{4,107,0} {7,57,11}

{145,30,63} {137,-4,48}

12mm

4mm

{79,63,151}

{75,114,3}

3.2A

Grid Lines {150,100,150}

{0,75,0}

{125,150,0}

{150,50,0}

Week Six

ube Transformation

{0,50,150} {25,0,150}

28mm

20mm

12mm

8mm

Paneling

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Offset Grid Distance}

{Offset Grid Distance}

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

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{Rotation and Attractor Scaling}

{Rotation and Attractor Scaling}

Appendix

Process

Task 02 Matrix First Boolean

Second Boolean

The base form of the whole model is started with booleaning out a corner.

The left side of the lower level is booleaned out to form 2 rooms. Use of scaling attractor and rotation.

Left: All the cubes formed from Grasshopper Script

Left: All the rectangular boxes formed from Grasshopper Script

Right: Selection of cubes used

Right: Selection of boxes used

Third Boolean

Fourth Boolean

The top level is booleaned in approximately perpendicular to the direction of the lower level. Left: All rectangular boxes formed from Grasshopper Script

The corner on the right is booleaned out by a huge box because of the restriction of 9hrs 3D print and also to balance out the extensive use of right angles. The slope contrasts with the rest of the model.

Right: Selection of boxes used

Left: A single huge box to boolean Right: After boolean

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Appendix Process

Fifth Boolean

Sixth Boolean

The top of the roof is booleaned with a huge box rotated in XY, YZ and XZ planes. Good exploration in all planes. Also, This adds another sloping element.

The narrow tunnels are formed by boolean with a narrow rectangular box. They are in different sizes because of attractor scaling. Left: All rectangular boxes formed from Grasshopper Script Right: Selection of rectangular boxes used

Seventh Boolean

Eighth Boolean

Another boolean of a rectangular box is used to criss cross with the room booleaned in the 2nd boolean and the tunnel formed in the sixth boolean.

A swirling step is formed by booleaning a rectangular box at the back of the upper level.

Left: All rectangular boxes formed from Grasshopper Script

Left: All rectangular boxes formed from Grasshopper Script Right: Selection of box used

Right: Selection of rectangular boxes used to criss cross with other boolean

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Appendix

Process

Nineth Boolean

Tenth Boolean

A tunnel formed in the upper floor which criss crosses with the spaces created from previous booleans. This new tunnel connects the other tunnel on the upper floor to the roof garden (formed in eleventh boolean).

The front platform has been reduced since it is unnecessary to have such a large platform. This also reduces the 3D printing time. The box used to boolean out the original platform (made in Grasshopper, simply creating a box then move it to position)

Left: Rectangular boxes (GH) Right: Selection of box

Eleventh Boolean

Final model

The final boolean forms the roof garden (with a small triangular object - size suitable for table)

Collection of rooms, open space, tunnels, levels and shelter. Exploration: Attractor scaling, rotation, moving, movement, circulation, enclosed spaces, connection between spaces, control of flow (varying the sizes of spaces).

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