Page 1

Lynnea Duff

9/23/2011 VetMED


Lynnea Duff

9/23/2011 VetMED

PageONE: “University of Nebraska seeks answers about 'supershedding' of pathogens in livestock” article and response

PageTWO: “Oklahoma mandates veterinary exams in commercial breeding operations” article and response

PageTHREE-FOUR: “Smells May Help Birds Find Their Homes, Avoid Inbreeding; Research May Bring Help to Endangered Species” article and response

PageFIVE-SIX: “S. Ariz. vets seeing more dogs ill with virus” article and response


Lynnea Duff

9/23/2011 VetMED

University of Nebraska seeks answers about 'supershedding' of pathogens in livestock Sep 1, 2011 By: Rachael Whitcomb DVM NEWSMAGAZINE Lincoln, Neb. — Researchers and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) have been awarded a five-year, $2.35 million grant by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to find what makes some livestock "supershedders" of food borne pathogens. The research team, headed by food microbiologist Andy Benson, will specifically study pathogens, like E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and campylobacter, which have been known to colonize in the bovine gut. The goal is to try to associate organisms in the gastrointestinal tract with genetics to better understand why some animals become supershedders of pathogens and others do not shed them in unusual numbers, the university reports. The research may uncover ways to reduce the number of animals that shed high levels of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, campylobacter and other pathogens through breeding and genetic programs, according to UNL. "Many producers are already using sophisticated approaches to manage their breeding programs. For them, it would be yet another gene and another trait on their list of things that want to breed for or breed against," Benson says. Other researchers on the project include: Stephen Kachman, a UNL statistics scientist; Etsuko Moriyama, a UNL genomics and bioinformatics scientist; and Daniel Pomp, a mouse geneticist formerly of UNL and now of the University of North Carolina. The project is being conducted in partnership with USDA's Meat Animal Research Center at Clay Center and Geneseek, a private Lincoln-based company that specializes in genotyping.

I picked this article because I didn’t know what they meant by supershedding. As I read this article I learned that it’s about how bovines or any meat producing animals are supershedders of food borne pathogens. In this article it talks about who researcher on the animals can help solve the pathogen problem. They do research in the gastrointestinal tract of animals to try and relate it to why some livestock become supershedders while others don’t. • USDA- United States Dept. of Agriculture: government organization best known for its role in American farming. • Campylobacter- most common bacterial infections of humans, often a food borne illness. • Gastrointestinal- the stomach and intestinal tract of an animal of human The research in this article is important because it helps a big problem. It will help the food borne pathogen problems that are occurring the US, of maybe even the world. This article was informational to me because it taught be was they meant by a super shedder, also it showed me what are some of the big pathogens that’s going on now.


Lynnea Duff

9/23/2011 VetMED

Oklahoma mandates veterinary exams in commercial breeding operations Sep 19, 2011 DVM NEWSMAGAZINE

Oklahoma City, Okla. — New regulations on commercial pet breeding require treatment of sick animals and annual veterinary wellness exams. The action follows new rules approved the Oklahoma’s Board of Commercial Pet Breeders on July 15. The new regulations mandate that animals receive an annual physical examination by a veterinarian at least once a year and provide veterinary care to sick or injured animals within 24 hours. Rabies vaccinations may only be administered by licensed veterinarians, according to the regulations, and breeders must follow the directives for care and supply any medications prescribed by veterinarians. Under the new rules, anyone who owns 11 or more intact females for breeding or sale over a 12- month period are considered commercial pet breeders. Licenses can be revoked for a number of offenses, including felony convictions or failure to file an annual report, state officials report. The new regulations specify that food must be offered at least once per day, under the new regulations, and animals must be provided access to water for at least one hour three times per day. Flooring and maintenance of housing, pest control, kennel size and exercise requirements are among the other standards of care outlined by the new rules. Breeders also will have to have any animals older than 2 months permanently identified by a microchip, tattoo or similar device prior to sale or transfer. Under the new regulations, breeders are prohibited from shipping animals younger than 8 weeks of age.

I picked this article because I was curious what the verdict was on this topic. This article is about mandates vet exams in commercial breeding ops. Basically meaning, any animal in commercial breeding operation care, any sick animals need to be treated and all animal need to have annual wellness exams. Also in this mandate, a commercial breeder can’t have 11- or more intact females for breeding or sale over a 12-month period. This also has cleaning regulations and feeding/watering regulation. •

Microchip- a device put under the skin, in between the shoulders of a dog or cat, used to identify the animal, and contact the animal’s owners.

Veterinarian- an animal doctor.

Physical Examination- is the process by which a doctor investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

This article is important because it gives standards to commercial breeders to keep order within them. This article relates to what were studying because it has to do with the laws and regulations in the animal/vet world.


Lynnea Duff

9/23/2011 VetMED

Smells May Help Birds Find Their Homes, Avoid Inbreeding; Research May Bring Help to Endangered Species ScienceDaily (Sep. 22, 2011) — Birds may have a more highly developed sense of smell than researchers previously thought, contend scholars who have found that penguins may use smell to determine if they are related to a potential mate. The research by the University of Chicago and the Chicago Zoological Society, which manages Brookfield Zoo, shows how related birds are able to recognize each other. The study, published Sept. 21 in the journal PLoS ONE, could help conservationists design programs to help preserve endangered species. "Smell is likely the primary mechanism for kin recognition to avoid inbreeding within the colony," said Heather Coffin, lead author of the paper. Coffin conducted the research while a graduate student at UChicago and was joined in writing the paper by Jill Mateo, associate professor in Comparative Human Development at UChicago, and Jason Watters, director of animal behavior research for the Chicago Zoological Society. "This is the first study to provide evidence for odor-based kin discrimination in birds," said Mateo, who is a specialist on kin recognition. Experts said the work offers important insights into how birds use smell to guide behavior."The work by the research group is truly groundbreaking in that it shows for the first time ever in birds how the olfactory sense of captive penguins is both informative and functional in a behaviorally critical context: namely the recognition of friends from foes in general, and relatives from non-relatives in particular," said Mark E. Hauber, professor of psychology at Hunter College, a specialist on bird social recognition. Penguins are ideal subjects because they typically live in colonies made up of thousands of birds. They live in monogamous pairs -- an arrangement that facilitates rearing of their young, since parents frequently take turns leaving the nest to gather food. Despite the size of the community, mates are able to find each other after traveling for days foraging for food in the ocean. Research on other sea birds has shown that smell helps guide birds to their home territory and helps them forage for food. Other research has shown that birds could use sound and sight to recognize each other, but no other studies have shown that smell might be used in connection with kin recognition, Mateo said. In the study conducted at Brookfield Zoo, researchers first sought to determine if the penguins were able to recognize familiar individuals by smell. They constructed an experiment using a dozen penguins, from a group that included breeding pairs, their offspring and nonbreeding individuals. The birds -- all Humboldt penguins -- endangered natives of Peru -- were from groups either on exhibit or off exhibit. The zoo is an ideal setting for the research, as it has extensive records on which penguins are related and have been housed together, Watters said. Researchers took odor samples from glands near the penguins' tails, where an oil that the birds use for preening is secreted. They put the oil on cotton swabs and rubbed the odor inside dog kennels, similar to the enclosures penguins at a zoo use for their nests. They also put the odor on paper coffee filters and placed them under mats inside the kennels. When the penguins were released to the area containing the kennels, the researchers found that penguins spent more time in the kennels with familiar odors. The penguins were able to distinguish between the odors of birds they spent time with and the odors of unfamiliar penguins."What I found particularly notable about the study was that the authors identified the oil secreted from the penguins' preen gland, which is rubbed on the feathers to make them water repellent, as the odor source used in recognition," said Bryan D. Neff, professor and associate chair of biology, University of Western Ontario and an expert on kin recognition. "Oils are used in kin recognition by species of other animals, most notably a variety of insect species, including bees and wasps, which when considered with the penguin data provide a wonderful example of convergent evolution." "It's important for birds that live in large groups in the wild, like penguins, to know who their neighbors are so that they can find their nesting areas and also, through experience, know how to get along with the birds nearby," Watters said. Because offspring usually return to the same colony for nesting, siblings have the potential of becoming mates, something that can be avoided by their smell mechanism, the new research shows. Researchers also found that when the birds were exposed to the odors of unfamiliar kin and unfamiliar non-kin, they spent more time in the kennels with odors of unfamiliar non-kin, indicating they were probably able to determine by smell which animals they were related to and were more curious about the novel odors. Being able to make the distinction may help the penguins avoid mating with kin, researchers said. The discovery also could assist zoos in managing their breeding programs. "It could also be true that birds may be able to help zoo 'matchmakers' in determining potential mates," Watters said. The ability of birds to be able to recognize familiar scents and thus be guided to their home territory also has potential value to naturalists, he said.


Lynnea Duff

9/23/2011 VetMED

"You could imagine that if you were trying to reintroduce birds to an area, you could first treat the area with an odor the birds were familiar with. That would make them more likely to stay."

I picked this article because the title interested me. This article shows that a bird’s sense of smell is very important to their survival. They are able to identify each other just by their scent. They are able to find their way home by searching for the particular scent of their nests. With finding this out, researchers believe their extent of the birds smelling power is false, the now assume that their ability is stronger than they thought. • Inbreeding- is the reproduction from the mating of two genetically related parents. • Monogamous-refers to the state of having only one mate at any one time This article is important because it shows that even though we may know a lot, there is still things that we don’t know everything about, or not that we know something all the way. There is always something to learn. This article is related to me because we learn about birds to so this is something that gives incite to information.


Lynnea Duff

9/23/2011 VetMED

S. Ariz. vets seeing more dogs ill with virus Published: Sunday, Sept. 11, 2011 2:05 a.m. MDT By Dana Cole, Sierra Vista Herald BENSON, Ariz. — After treating a rash of parvo virus cases, local veterinary hospitals are urging dog owners to vaccinate their dogs against the disease. "We've seen 20 parvo cases in two weeks, which is far higher than what we expect to see this time of year," said Elisabeth Ditzler, hospital administrator at Cochise Animal Hospital in Bisbee. "Most of the dogs that we're treating during this outbreak are young, unvaccinated puppies, or young dogs that have received one vaccination," she added. Cochise Animal Hospital recommends that puppies receive their first parvo vaccination between 6 and 8 weeks of age, with two repeat vaccinations three weeks apart, Ditzler said. "People seem to believe that one vaccination is adequate, but puppies require a series in order for their immune systems to fight the disease. And there are some breeds, like Rottweilers and Dobermans that do better with four vaccinations instead of the three that we usually recommend." While the virus is most prevalent in young dogs and puppies, it's important to keep adults and older dogs vaccinated as well, as geriatric dogs — even those that have been vaccinated in previous years — are getting the disease, Ditzler warned. Lorakate Snyder, the veterinarian at Cochise Animal Hospital, says she has never seen this many cases of parvo virus in such a short period of time. "While this disease is treatable, it often requires hospitalization and IV fluids and can get quite expensive for owners to treat," she said. "It's so much better for all concerned — the dogs and the owners — to get your dogs vaccinated between 6 and 8 weeks of age and follow up with the vaccination schedule that your veterinarian recommends," Snyder added. Veterinarians at Coronado Animal Hospital in Sierra Vista have been seeing "an above normal number of parvo cases the past couple of weeks" and, like other animal hospitals, want to remind clients to get their dogs vaccinated. Veterinarian Nancy Leverenz of All Creatures Animal Hospital in Benson says that she is actually seeing a decrease in the number of parvo cases at her practice this year. However, Leverenz is seeing an increase in the number of older dogs with parvo than what she has experienced in past years. Echoing some of the concerns expressed by Cochise Animal Hospital, Leverenz attributes the rise in older dog parvo cases to owners who are vaccinating young dogs, but are not continuing to vaccinate the adults as they age. Leverenz warns that parvo can attack very quickly and is capable of killing a dog within 24 hours if the animal goes untreated. Symptoms of the disease are lethargy, no interest in food, vomiting and bloody diarrhea. In most cases, dogs survive the disease when veterinary care is started, but the care typically requires IV fluids and hospitalization. For the best treatment outcome, she advises getting the dog to a veterinarian as soon as symptoms are noticed. Paula Tyler, the veterinarian at Benson Animal Hospital is seeing a higher than normal incidence of parvo at her clinic. "We've seen about 15 cases in the past three weeks, which is a lot," Tyler said. "We're seeing it in unvaccinated puppies and older dogs that haven't been vaccinated in recent years. And we're not alone. Clinics in Tucson are seeing more cases of parvo, and there have been cases at the shelter here in Benson." Tyler says the parvo vaccine is "very, very good" and is effective in protecting dogs against the disease when given properly. Like other veterinarians, she has noticed that most of the sick dogs are those that have not been kept on the vaccination protocol recommended by their veterinarians, or it occurs in older dogs that have not been vaccinated recently. Tyler advises dog owners with new puppies to keep them away from public areas where dogs congregate until they are fully vaccinated. "This is a very hardy virus that can live in the environment for years and years," she warned. "If you've had a case of parvo in your home, it's important to kill the virus by using a bleach and water dilution with 10 percent bleach. If you visit an animal shelter or other facilities with dogs during an outbreak, make sure you use the (bleach) solution on your shoes, or you can track the virus into your home."


Lynnea Duff

9/23/2011 VetMED

I picked this article because I wanted to know why more dogs are getting viruses. As I read this article I learned that it is about veterinarians are see more and more dogs that are getting the parvo virus. Vets are urging owners now more than ever that they need to give their puppies parvo vaccinations, and there dogs the shot also. There was an unusual increase in the number of parvo cases that the vets have seen in a three week period. • Parvo-The disease is highly contagious and is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect contact with their feces. It can be especially severe in puppies that are not protected by maternal antibodies or vaccination. It has two distinct presentations, a cardiac and intestinal form. The common signs of the intestinal form are severe vomiting and dysentery. The cardiac form causes respiratory or cardiovascular failure in young puppies. • IV- intravenous- into the vein • Vaccinations- A preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or of a portion of the pathogen's structure that upon administration stimulates antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen but is incapable of causing severe infection. This is related to what were studying because we learn about different diseases about animals. The research in this article is important cause it shows that it is possible to spot difference is the occurrences of diseases.


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