2012 PROGRAM OF WORK 2011 ANNUAL REPORT
The Lynchburg Regional Chamber serves to strengthen our member businesses and stimulate regional prosperity.
Forward by the Chairman
Tulane Patterson, Chairman, 2012 Executive Committee
We are blessed to live in Central Virginia and equally blessed to have been able to conduct business in a region that is business friendly. Our Chamber of Commerce has been a beacon for this pro-business environment for 129 years and I am proud to say it continues to stand strong in support of this vision. It is no wonder that Lynchburg continues to land in the top 50 of Forbes’ annual “Best Places for Business and Careers.” Our Chamber year after year has taken the lead in important community efforts to make this community prosperous. We have led the way on key transportation issues, work with our manufacturers through our Central Virginia Industries Council and our hospitality industry with our award winning Tourism program.
Our Chamber was again recognized with Five Star Accreditation placing us in the top 2% of Chambers nationwide to reach this distinction! As our community and its businesses move into a new era of enterprise and technology, our Chamber is embarking to move forward as well. Just this January we announced the purchase of a new building in the center of the region and a campaign, “Building for Lynchburg’s Future,” to fund the remodeling of this space to become a “state of the art” welcoming and positive business hub for the entire community. We at the Chamber look forward to continuing the reputation of excellence as we continue to build for the future!
2012 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairman Tulane Patterson, Generation Solutions
Vice Chair Linda Edwards, Interiors by Decorating Den
Vice Chair Darlene Mack, Successful Innovations, Inc.
Past Chair John Keith, J. Crew
Vice Chair Ken Garren, Lynchburg College
Vice Chair Jim Richards, Petty, Livingston, Dawson & Richards, PC
Secretary Rex Hammond, Lynchburg Regional Chamber Treasurer Greg Nichols, Banker Steel Company
Vice Chair Rick A. Huff, CPA/PFS, Huff, Stuart & Carlton Vice Chair Larry Jackson, Appalachian Power
Vice Chair Randy Smith, WSET-TV
2012 PROGRAM OF WORK
The Chamber’s 2011 Strategic Strateg gic Planning g process p ocess involving pr g our board of directors outlines our plans p ans pl for the next three years. years This plan includes key initiatives in the areas of pro-business advocacy, advocacy meaningful networks, leadership, tourism and operations. Our theme for 2012 is FIT for Success TLHUPUN[OH[HZ^LMVJ\ZVU[OLZLRL`HYLHZ^LJHULUZ\YL[OH[[OL3`UJOI\YNYLNPVUYLTHPUZÄ[ and competitive in the 21st-century global economy. And you as a member, can become or remain Ä[MVYZ\JJLZZI`[HRPUNHK]HU[HNLVMHSS^LVɈLY`V\HUK`V\YLTWSV`LLZ As we look to the year ahead, we remain focused on serving our members and the region by staying true to our mission and continuing to be an agent of positive change. Here’s a look into our 2012 Program of Work.
Priority I: Advocating pro-business public policies Support pro-business legislation and policies that enhance the economic development, transportation and the overall business climate of [OLYLNPVU6\Y[VWÄ]LSLNPZSH[P]LWYPVYP[PLZPUJS\KL!
Dawn Best, Legislative Affairs Chair
Lead the Committee to Advance the TransDominion Express, Lynchburg Region Transportation Advocacy Group, and the Air Partnership Committee in furthering transportation initiatives. Ensure funding for Virginia’s passenger rail services and expand service to Roanoke and the entire TransDominion Express route Ensure the success of US Air’s operation at Lynchburg Regional Airport and recruit a second airline to connect to a northern hub
Encourage businesses to create or enhance worksite wellness programs to assist with cost containment of health care plans. :\WWVY[[OLKL]LSVWTLU[VMJVZ[LɈLJ[P]L alternative energy sources while keeping Virginia competitive in the energy market. Support expansion of traditional energy sources like nuclear, clean coal, natural gas, as well as, development of cost-effective renewable energy sources. Provide additional incentives to encourage sustainable business practices. Support for a Constitutional amendment or federal law that requires the federal government to balance the annual budget.
Follow through on the US29 Bypass for the environmental assessment to begin in 2012 with construction to begin in 2013
Amtrak’s daily round-trip service between Lynchburg, Washington, D.C., and other cities along the Northeast Corridor has exceeded all expectations. Photo courtesy G.R. Harper.
Support funding requests for local private universities and colleges to increase the annual Tuition Assistance Grant (TAG) from the Commonwealth of Virginia from $2650 for undergraduate/$1150 graduate to $2800 for both undergraduate and graduate students. Promote worksite wellness and oppose mandated healthcare products and costs by protecting the business community and supporting efforts to reduce healthcare costs, including pooling to increase buying strength, TLKPJHSZH]PUNZHJJV\U[ZÅL_PISLZWLUKPUN accounts, and other affordable means.
People Are Talking About:
Lynchburg Regional Airport is actively seeking a second airline to provide both business and leisure travelers with convenient connections through a ZLJVUKTHQVYO\I
REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION ADVOCACY...
I cannot say enough about the Lynchburg Chamber of Commerce’s role in advancing the US29 Bypass around Charlottesville. The Lynchburg Chamber has championed this issue for almost 20 years. When most people had given up, Rex Hammond and the Chamber refused to go away. They kept the Bypass alive by working with the Legislature and keeping the issue in the forefront of the media. They worked behind the scenes with many community leaders to bring about [OL]V[L[OH[ÄUHSS`TV]LK[OLWYVQLJ[MVY^HYK;OL`^VYRLK^P[OMVSRZPU9PJOTVUK[VOLSWZLJ\YLM\UKPUN9L_HUK[OL*OHTILYWYV]PKLK[OL;YHUZWVY[H[PVU )VHYK[OLPUMVYTH[PVU[OL`ULLKLK[VHWWYV]L[OPZWYVQLJ[0[PZZHML[VZH`[OH[^P[OV\[[OLOHYK^VYRHUKKLKPJH[PVUVM[OL3`UJOI\YN*OHTILY[OPZWYVQLJ[ would not be moving forward. Mark J. Peake, Esquire, Caskie & Frost
2012 PROGRAM OF WORK, CONTINUED
Priority II:PYo]PKPUNVHS\HISL7YoNYHTZ&:LY]PJLZ Launch Work HealthyH]PIYHU[PUP[PH[P]L [OH[^PSSWYVTV[L^H`ZMVYI\ZPULZZ[V PTWSLTLU[WVSPJ`Z`Z[LTLU]PYVUTLU[HSHUK JVTT\UPJH[PVUZZ[YH[LNPLZ[VLUZ\YL[OLYLNPVU’Z ^VYRMVYJLPZ[OLZ[YVUNLZ[HUKOLHS[OPLZ[P[JHU IL;OL\S[PTH[LNVHSILPUNYLK\JPUNOLHS[OJHYL JVZ[ZHIZLU[LLPZTHUKPUJYLHZPUNWYVK\J[P]P[` Claussen Warren, CHAT Chair
Molly Cousins, Leadership Lynchburg Council Chair
*OHTILY’Z*LU[YHSV(0UK\Z[YPLZ*V\UJPS WYV]PKPUN]HS\HISLKH[HMVYVYNHUPaH[PVUZ Engage increased number of our membershipPU[OLVMMLYPUNZVM[OL*OHTILY PU]LZ[TLU[ Strengthen the relationships^P[OPUV\Y JVTTP[[LLZHUKJV\UJPSZZV[OH[YLMLYYHSZHUK YLSH[PVUZOPWI\PSKPUNPUJYLHZLZ
Chamber members and their friends can travel with the Chamber of Commerce to Spain in November 2012.
Conduct the 41st Class of Leadership Lynchburg^P[OHNVHSVMWHY[PJPWHU[Z
Launch YEA! (Young Entrepreneurship Academy)HNYV\UKIYLHRPUN`V\[OSLHKLYZOPW WYVNYHT[OH[[HRLZZ[\KLU[Z[OYV\NO[OL WYVJLZZVMZ[HY[PUNHUKY\UUPUNYLHSI\ZPULZZLZ V]LY[OLJV\YZLVMHM\SSHJHKLTPJ`LHY Host annual Leadership Lynchburg Alumni refresher courseIYPUNPUNPUUH[PVUHSZWLHRLY SLHKLYHUK^VYSKYLUV^UOPRLY1LMM,]HUZ ;OLL]LU[^PSSWYV]PKLHS\TUPI\ZPULZZHUK JVTT\UP[`SLHKLYZ^P[O[VVSZHUKZ[YH[LNPLZ [VILOLHS[OPLYWLYZVUHSS`HUKWYVMLZZPVUHSS` ;OL[^VKH`MLZ[P]P[PLZ^PSSJ\STPUH[L^P[OH OPRL^P[O1LMM Conduct three international trips0YLSHUK *OPUHHUK:WHPUVMMLYPUN[OLVWWVY[\UP[`MVY TLTILYZ[VL_WLYPLUJLLTLYNPUNTHYRL[ZHUK SLHYUVM[YHKLL_WVY[PUNVWWVY[\UP[PLZ Continue to host and co-sponsor networking and training programs[VHZZPZ[ TLTILYZPUI\PSKPUNYLSH[PVUZOPWZI\ZPULZZ KL]LSVWTLU[HUKSLHYUPUN
Greg Nichols, Finance Chair
Tulane Patterson, Board Chair
Launch the capital campaign, “Building for Lynchburg’s Future”[VM\UK[OLYLSVJH[PVUVM [OL*OHTILYMHJPSP[`;OPZMYVU[KVVY[V[OLYLNPVU ^PSSWYV]PKLH^LSJVTPUNHUKWVZP[P]LPTHNL[V WYVZWLJ[P]LYLZPKLU[ZI\ZPULZZLZHUK]PZP[VYZ HZ^LSSHZPTWYV]PUNHUKLUSHYNPUNV\YTLL[PUN ZWHJLJHWHJP[`
Z\Y]L`L]HS\H[PVUensure that all Chamber events and programs are consistent with the mission and provide value to the membership
Continue to utilize the Chamber’s social media outletsPUJS\KPUN-HJLIVVRHUK3PURLK0U [VWYVTV[LTLTILYZV\YWYVNYHTZHUK ZLY]PJLZ Secure 100+ new members[OLYLI` Z[YLUN[OLUPUNV\YJVSSLJ[P]L]VPJLHUK WYV]PKPUNTVYLVWWVY[\UP[PLZMVYTLTILYZOPW LUNHNLTLU[
People Are Talking About:
Leadership Lynchburg is more than a leadership program. It is an empowerment tool for individuals who seek to grow personally and professionally in their leadership roles. LL enabled me to step outside of my comfort zone, examine weaknesses, and learn more about how my leadership style is perceived by others. By working together with others seeking to strengthen the way they “lead” in various capacities, I was held accountable for developing and growing instead of reverting to what was comfortable. Jenna L. Lodge, Community Court Advocate, Community Outreach Manager, YWCA of Central Virginia
The proposed new state-of-the-art Chamber facility
Priority IV: Through the Lynchburg Regional Convention & Visitors Bureau, Market Lynchburg to the Leisure, Group Tour, Meetings/ Convention and Sports Markets Â‹Expand leisure marketing footprint through more diverse media. Â‹Continue to aggressively pursue the group travel market and its high economic return for Lynchburg. Greg Starbuck, Tourism Chair
Â‹Grow International marketing initiatives with more investment in proven, targeted partnerships.
Â‹Remain a leader in destination marketing with new, innovative technologies in all discoverLynchburg initiatives. Â‹3H\UJOHUU\HSJLY[PĂ„JH[PVUWYVNYHT for local frontline hospitality workers LUZ\YPUNHĂ„YZ[JSHZZ]PZP[VYL_WLYPLUJLPZ top priority for all Lynchburg stakeholders.
Priority V: Educating, Strengthening & Supporting the Small Business Â‹Sponsor a series of seminars/sessions designed to educate, inform and assist small business owners in meeting the challenges of establishing and growing their businesses. Â‹Recognize successful businesses through the Small Business of the Year Award. Rick Huff, Small Business Chair
Â‹Engage small business owners by seeking their input on innovative ways to assist their growth.
discoverLynchburg is ma rketing Lynchburg with todayâ€™s dig ital technology
Â‹Emphasize access to programs and services through our communications, committees and staff ensuring that our 900+ members are aware of all we offer to assist them in running their business effectively and LMĂ„JPLU[S` Â‹Deliver quality and valuable programs and discounts to the small business members by leveraging our group buying power.
SUPPORTING YOUR BUSINESS Programs at a Glance
Here are the events you can participate in to make new contacts, learn valuable information and engage in the work of the Chamber:
Here are just some of the ways you can receive assistance from the Chamber:
Â‹(KTPUPZ[YH[P]L7YVMLZZPVUHSZÂť Luncheon Â‹)\ZPULZZ(M[LY/V\YZ Â‹)\ZPULZZH[)YLHRMHZ[ Â‹*VUULJ[PVU;YHKL:OV^ Â‹,JVUVTPJ6\[SVVR*VUMLYLUJL Â‹/VSPKH`:OV^JHZL Â‹3LHKLYZOPW3`UJOI\YN Â‹7HUJHRLZ 7VSP[PJZ:LYPLZ Â‹9PJOTVUK;YPW Â‹:THSS)\ZPULZZ(UU\HS(^HYKZ7YVNYHT Â‹:THSS)\ZPULZZ:LTPUHY:LYPLZ Â‹>PUN-SPUN Â‹>VTLUÂťZ3\UJOLVU:LYPLZ Â‹>VYR/LHS[O`L]LU[Z Â‹>VYRZOVWZHUK:LTPUHYZVU[PTLS` topics
Â‹)\ZPULZZYLMLYYHSZ^LVUS`YLMLYV\Y members!) Â‹*OHTILYTLTILYZOPWTHPSPUNSHILSZHUK lists Â‹*VZWVUZVYZOPWVM`V\YL]LU[Z Â‹,_LJ\[P]LJVHJOPUN^P[OJLY[PĂ„LK SLHKLYZOPW SPMLW\YWVZLJVHJO Â‹-YLLTLTILYL]LU[SPZ[PUNVUV\Y^LIZP[L Â‹4LL[PUNZ^P[O*OHTILYZ[HÉˆH[`V\Y place of business to discuss business issues Â‹9PIIVUJ\[[PUNHUKNYHUKVWLUPUN assistance
Discount Programs and Incentives +PZJV\U[Z ZH]PUNZVUWYVK\J[ZHUK services from these companies and WYVNYHTZ[OYV\NO4LTILYZ:H]L! Â‹(U[OLT Â‹*OHTILY9_ Â‹*;.YV\W Â‹6É‰JL4H_ Â‹-LK,_ Â‹7H`YVSSTLTILYZ Â‹-SLL[*HYKTLTILYZ Â‹*SV\K:[VYHNLTLTILYZ Â‹7YPU[TLTILYZ Â‹>VYRLYZ*VTWTLTILYZ Â‹/LHYPUNTLTILYZ Â‹-YLL*HSSZTLTILYZ Â‹>LIJHZ[TLTILYZ Â‹9PUN*LU[YHS6É‰JL Â‹7YPJLSVJR Â‹;:@:4LYJOHU[:VS\[PVUZ Â‹,(*=,(7 Â‹<:*OHTILYVM*VTTLYJL Â‹=PYNPUPH*OHTILYVM*VTTLYJL
2011 ANNUAL REPORT
The Lynchburg Regional Chamber of Commerce is committed to leading the growth and prosperity of the Lynchburg region. As a member and investor, you are central to the work we do every day to strengthen the region’s workforce, support small and entrepreneurial businesses, and improve the transportation infrastructure in the region. In the past year, the Chamber created a three year strategic plan – the blueprint for growth for the Chamber. 2011 was year one in the plan and we accomplished many great things on your behalf. Here is a brief summary of how we maximize your investment to ensure our region is seen as a top destination to live, work and play.
0UOLYLPZOV^^LSLKI\ZPULZZLZHUK[OLJVTT\UP[`! (JOPL]LK-P]L:[HY(JJYLKP[H[PVUMVY*OHTILY from U. S. Chamber and Accreditation for Lynchburg Regional CVB by Destination Marketing Association International (DMAI) -VZ[LYLKZ\WWVY[MVYHK]HUJPUN[OL<: Bypass of Charlottesville. Staff & members [LZ[PÄLKH[W\ISPJOLHYPUNZPUZ\WWVY[ of the project, defended against the misrepresentation of the cost of this project, rallied support for the project and represented the cause in dozens of media stories. Chamber President & CEO Rex Hammond at [OLJLSLIYH[PVUVM[OL*OHTILY»ZÄ]LZ[HY accreditation ceremony.
7\YJOHZLKWYVWLY[`[VYLSVJH[L*OHTILY facility. *OHTILY»Z(PY:LY]PJL7HY[ULYZOPW^VYRLK with Lynchburg Regional Airport to secure a $700,000 Federal grant. 3`UJOI\YN9LNPVUHS*=)LMMVY[ZOLSWLKMVZ[LY an increase in Visitor spending in the City from $136 Million to $143 million. 3`UJOI\YN9LNPVUHS*=)OVUVYLK^P[O[VW Z[H[LH^HYKZMVY[V\YPZT!)LZ[(K]LY[PZPUN Campaign in the state, Best International Initiative in the state and Sales team of the year recognizing a 77% increase in closed group sales. LRCVB also received a 2011 ConventionSouth Readers’ Choice Award for group tour travel.
discoverLynchburg staff honored with three top state awards for tourism.
,Z[HISPZOLK*LU[YHS=PYNPUPH0UK\Z[YPLZ*V\UJPS (CVIC) and new strategic partnership with Virginia Manufacturers Association to offer KPZJV\U[LKILULÄ[ZHUK[YHPUPUN[VPUK\Z[Y`PU Central VA. /LSK*VUNYLZZPVUHS<WKH[L)YLHRMHZ[¶ ÄYZ[VJJHZPVUPU^OPJOIV[OVMV\YYLNPVUHS members of Congress addressed our Chamber.
3`UJOI\YN9LNPVUHS*OHTILY 3`UJOI\YN Regional CVB honored with American Chamber of Commerce Executives Silver Awards for Chamber website and discoverLynchburg travel app for mobile phones. /LSKUK+PZ[YPJ[:[H[L:LUH[L+LIH[L 6YNHUPaLKZ\JJLZZM\SNSVIHSH^HYLULZZ[YPWZ[V China and Tuscany with 151 participants. /VZ[LKH:THSS)\ZPULZZ*VTTP[[LL:LTPUHY ¹;OL0TWHJ[VM5H[PVUHS/LHS[OJHYLVU:THSS Business”. 7YVK\JLK=PYHS]PKLVZLYPLZPUT\S[PWSL languages promoting sites in and around Lynchburg to the international travel market (on YouTube, Facebook, website and more). 9LJLP]LK[OLVUS`=PYNPUPHNYHU[I`[OL<: Chamber to launch YEA! a youth leadership program designed to reduce high school dropout rates and equip students with a healthy work ethic and entrepreneurial education. (KKLKUL^TLTILYZMVY[OLZLJVUK consecutive year and maintained 90 percent retention of member dollars, exceeding the national average. *LSLIYH[LK[OJVUZLJ\[P]L`LHYVMYL[HPULK earnings.
2011 BY THE NUMBERS: Courtney Hunter, Group Sales Manager for discoverLynchburg selling Lynchburg as a destination for business and group travel.
Grand opening and After Hours networking event at Lynchburg True Value and Just Ask Rental.
results for you and your business
713,703 Total number of referrals of member businesses
4,000+ Event participants
200+ Visits that staff and our CHAT Ambassador Team conducted with member employers to identify and solve workforce and business development needs The second annual Wing Fling drawing over 350 attendees.
Katherine DeRosear with Virginia Manufactures (ZZVJPH[PVUZWLHRPUNH[[OL*OHTILY»ZÄYZ[*LU[YHS Virginia Industries Council Roundtable.
50 Events hosted for membership to network, learn and engage in the work of the Chamber
46 Ribbon Cuttings/Grand opening ceremonies conducted for members
10 2011 Women of Worth Luncheon honoring outstanding female professionals.
People Are Talking About:
Chamber hosted Congressional breakfast with Congressman Goodlatte (left) and Delegate Garrett (right).
Co-sponsored member events giving them increased visibility and promotion
I would like to take a moment to thank the Chamber for another great Holiday Showcase. I thought it felt very fresh HUKUL^[OPZ`LHYHUK[YHMÄJ^HZ]LY`NVVK0THKLZL]LYHSUL^JVUULJ[PVUZ[OH[ZOV\SKWYV]LILULÄJPHSMVY;OL Homestead. As usual - great work! Rachael Thompson Director of Regional Accounts, The Homestead
2012 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
2012 PEAK LEVEL
Jack Bobbitt, Prototype Advertising, Inc.
CENTRA The News & Advance WSET-TV
2012 SUMMIT LEVEL BB&T Wells Fargo
2012 CREST LEVEL
First National Bank J. Crew, Inc. Liberty University The Summit SunTrust Bank
2012 RIDGE LEVEL
Bill Bryant, Counts Realty & Auction Co. Inc. Michael Bryant, CENTRA John S. Capps, Central Virginia Community College Ed Craighill, Boxley Steve Cronemeyer, Verizon Christian H. DePaul, CFP, MS, CDFA, Ameriprise Financial Linda Edwards, Interiors by Decorating Den Linda Edwards Georgia Fauber, Kroll Background America Kenneth Garren, Lynchburg College
Appalachian Power AREVA, Inc. The Babcock & Wilcox Company Bank of America Bank of the James Genworth Financial 3PILY[`4[U:UV^ÅL_*LU[YL Progress Printing Plus Thomas Road Baptist Church Verizon Wireless Westminster Canterbury
Larry E. Jackson, Appalachian Power
2012 BASE LEVEL
Samuel E. Johnson CPA, Cherry, Bekaert & /VSSHUK337*7(Z *VUZ\S[HU[Z
American National Bank Bankers Insurance LLC CENTRA Foundation Central Virginia Community College Central Virginia Family Physicians Central Virginia Federal Credit Union Century 21 All-Service - Forest *OLYY`)LRHLY[ /VSSHUK Coleman-Adams Construction, Inc. Dawson Ford Garbee Enterprise Rent-A-Car First Citizens Bank Fleet Laboratories /LYP[HNL.YLLU(ZZPZ[LK3P]PUN Jamerson Family YMCA 1VL/*VSLTHU*VUZ[Y\J[PVU0UJ Liberty University Law School Lynchburg City Schools Lynchburg College 3`UJOI\YN/PSSJH[Z Lynchburg Ready Mix Lynchburg Regional Airport MemberOne FCU 7LYPKVU[HS/LHS[O(ZZVJPH[LZ Piedmont Eye Center Randolph College Southern Air, Inc. Successful Innovations Teva Pharmaceuticals Tomlin & Associates, LLC Verizon Virgina Bank & Trust Virginia Episcopal School Virginia’s Region 2000 Economic Development Council Watts Petroleum Corporation
we’re here for you & your business!
Cheryl Giggetts, PMP, AECOM Aubrey “Todd” H. Hall III, First National Bank Rex K. Hammond, CCE, IOM, MBA, Lynchburg Regional Chamber of Commerce Gary Hostutler, RR Donnelley 9PJR(/\Ɉ*7(7-:/\MM:[\HY[ *HYS[VU
John Keith, J. Crew Ronald G. Kidd, Jr., Southern Air, Inc. Mike Lee, Genworth Financial Darlene Mack, Successful Innovations, Inc. Patrick S. McNamara, MaxPlayFit, LLC 5PJVSL4PKRPɈ, AREVA Inc. Greg Morris, AMG, Inc. Lewis H. Mundin IV, Bankers Insurance, LLC Greg Nichols, Banker Steel Company, LLC
www.LynchburgChamber.org www.DiscoverLynchburg.com 434/845-5966 2015 Memorial Avenue Lynchburg, VA 24501
Sharon Oglesby, Oglesby Management Group, Inc. Josh Oppenheimer, Prototype Media LLC Tulane Patterson, Generation Solutions
L. Kimball Payne III, City of Lynchburg
7H[YPJR*7YVɉ[[7,/\Y[ 7YVMÄ[[0UJ J.R. “Reggie” Pugh, AREVA Inc. James R. Richards, Petty, Livingston, Dawson & Richards, PC Randy Smith, WSET, Incorporated (WSET-TV) Douglas S. Wolfe, The Babcock & Wilcox Company
©2012 The Lynchburg Regional Chamber of Commerce Designed by Blair Marketing, Lynchburg VA. www.BlairMarketing.com
Program of Work includes key initiatives in the areas of pro-business advocacy, meaningful networks, leadership, tourism and operations.
Published on Mar 7, 2012
Program of Work includes key initiatives in the areas of pro-business advocacy, meaningful networks, leadership, tourism and operations.