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Diari del Progetto 2008/2009

COMENIUS The Greeks in the West. . .

Liceo Ginnasio Duni di Matera Geniko Lykeio of Kontariotissas


MAGNA GRECIA


Progetto Comenius the Greeks in the West... Prof.ssa M. Concetta Santoro – Dirigente Scolastico Liceo Ginnasio “Duni” Matera Prof.ssa Selena Andrisani Prof.ssa Rosalba Demetrio Prof.ssa Filomena Fabrizio Prof.ssa Antonella Forlenza Prof.ssa Rosanna Russo CLASSI: III • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

C RAFFAELLA ARFE’ MARIANGELA BARBERIO SIMONA BRUNO FLAVIA CALIA SIMONA CALIA ANNA CARLUCCI NICOLA CLAMENTE ANTONELLO DI MARZIO MARGHERITA EPIFANIA ANTONELLO FIAMMA PIERLUIGI GIOSCIA ROCCO GIOSCIA ILARIA LAMACCHIA VITTORIA LAMACCHIA GIULIA LEO CAMILLA LISANTI VALENTINA LOGALLO VALENTINA MUCCI PAOLA PACIFICO MARCELLA PALUMBO MARIAENRICA PUGLIESE GIUSEPPE SANTOCHIRICO DAVIDE SCHIROSA MARIA VENEZIA GAIA VINCI

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

II C GRAZIA AMOIA GIUSEPPE BARILE ANGELICA DE BLASI ENZA DE PASQUA PIERNICOLA FABIANO PAOLA FERRI GIANNI GIGLI BRUNELLA GRAVINA NICOLA GRAVINA GIADA MELE ROSA LOVECCHIO SANTE MORETTI GIULIA NOBILE ANTONELLA PALUMBO VITALBA PAOLICELLI VALENTINA PINTO ROBERTA RUGGIERI FRANCESCO VENEZIANO


Un passato in comune. Intrecci di culture. Storie di uomini forti e curiosi alla ricerca di nuove ipotesi di vita e di piu’ ampi orizzonti conoscitivi. Oltre il mare. Il Progetto COMENIUS “The Greeks in the West, the Romans in the East” ha promosso un partenariato biennale bilaterale (aa.ss. 2007-08 e 2008-09) tra il Liceo Ginnasio “Duni” di Matera (Italia) ed il Geniko Lykeio di Kontariotissas - Pieria (Grecia), coinvolgendo un numero complessivo di 65 studenti (22 greci e 43 italiani). Esso si è incentrato su un lavoro parallelo e speculare di ricerca: un viaggio “emotivo” alla riscoperta delle radici greche dell’Italia Meridionale e dei segni della civilta’ romana in Grecia. Il percorso ha presentato una evidente valenza pluri-interdisciplinare, coinvolgendo Storia, Arte, Archeologia, Lingua greca, Lingua inglese, Lingua italiana, Informatica. Un profondo spirito europeo ha caratterizzato il progetto, sia per la sua consapevolezza della importanza della ri-scoperta delle radici storiche dell’Europa, sia per lo spazio dedicato all’apprendimento delle lingue comunitarie: Inglese, Greco Moderno ed Italiano. Gli studenti greci ed italiani hanno approfondito le loro conoscenze relativamente ai periodi storico-architettonici focalizzati dal progetto approfondendo moduli di Storia, Arte ed Archeologia . Sono stati altresì svolti moduli di lingua: Neogreco per gli studenti italiani, Italiano per gli studenti greci. I corsi sono stati tenuti da docenti madrelingua (assistente italiano Comenius in Grecia, tirocinante SISS di madrelingua greca in Italia), e fInalizzati all’apprendimento di strutture morfolinguistiche, di funzioni comunicative e di elementi di cultura dei rispettivi paesi gemellati. La lingua inglese ha assunto un duplice ruolo. Da un punto di vista


curricolare, il progetto ha adottato la metodologia CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning), ovvero ha promosso lo studio di moduli curricolari in lingua inglese. Da un punto di vista piu’ squisitamente comunicativo, l’Inglese e’ stato utilizzato sia dallo staff di docenti, sia dagli studenti e studentesse, in alcuni casi anche dalle famiglie ospitanti durante le mobilita’. Un ruolo centrale e’ stato svolto dalla tecnologia informatica. La comunicazione tra docenti e tra studenti e la programmazione didattica sono state rese possibili tramite Internet (e-mail, collegamenti sincroni attraverso Skype, ecc.). Di particolare interesse culturale e linguistico e’ risultata la realizzazione di 2 laboratori teatrali: il primo basato sul testo del tragediografo greco Euripide “Le Troiane” ed il secondo sul testo del commediografo latino Plauto “Anfitrione”. Le due scuole hanno parallelamente allestito degli spettacoli che sono stati poi rappresentati congiuntamente durante le mobilita’ utilizzando tre lingue: inglese, italiano, greco. Consapevole che le giovani generazioni risultano sempre piu’ distaccate dalle modalita’ tradizionali di apprendimento, il progetto ha puntato all’utilizzo di metodologie didattiche alternative a quelle tradizionali per studiare la storia e l’archeologia, per realizzare prodotti di ricerca, per fare teatro. Cooperative learning, lavoro di gruppo, project work, peer education hanno creato un clima di apprendimento meno competitivo ed ansiogeno, una motivazione piu’ evidente ed un maggiore spirito di gruppo. I momenti piu’ signifIcativi del progetto sono stati i viaggi delle classi destinatarie rispettivamente in Italia ed in Grecia, perche’ hanno permesso ai giovani di sperimentare nella quotidianita’ i valori della cittadinanza e del dialogo tra le culture. Questo diario di bordo intende restituire le emozioni vissute dagli studenti e dalle studentesse attraverso parole, immagini e colori ...


A common past. A cultural network. Stories of strong and curious men looking for new hypotheses of life and of a broader knowledge. Beyond the sea. The Comenius project “The Greeks in the West, the Romans in the East” has promoted a two-year bilateral partnership (200708 and 2008-09) between Liceo Ginnasio “Duni” of Matera (Italy) and Geniko Lykeio of Kontariotissas – Pieria (Greece), involving 65 students in all (22 Greek students and 43 Italian ones). It has focused on a parallel and symmetrical research work: an “emotional” journey to find out the Greek roots in Southern Italy and the signs of Roman civilization in Greece. The project has had clear cross-curricular implications, touching History, Art, Archaeology, ICT, Languages. A deep European spirit has inspired the project, both for its awareness of the importance of the European common roots and for its attention to European language learning: English, Modern Greek and Italian. The following teaching units have been carried out: • History, Art, Archeology – to give information about the historical periods focused by the project • Modern Greek (for the Italian students with a native Greek teacher) and Italian (for the Greek students with an Italian Comenius assistant) – to learn the main language structures, basic communication and culture. English has had a double role. It has been used to teach curricular subjects (CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning) and for communication among students, teachers, and hosting


families during the exchanges. Also ICT has had a central function: effective communication between the two schools and the teachers’ activity planning have been made possible by Internet (e-mail, Skype connections, etc.). Two drama laboratories, in particular, have revealed their cultural and language potential: the former has been inspired by the text of the Greek playwright Euripides ”Trojan women”, the latter by the commedy of the Latin author Plautus “Amphitruo”. The two schools have prepared two different performances using three E.U. languages (English, Greek, Italian). The shows have been performed together during the visits. Aware that students all over the world do not feel at ease with traditional learning methods any longer, the project teachers have agreed on choosing alternative strategies to study history and archaeology, to make research products and to carry out the performances: cooperative learning, group work, project work, peer education have created a less competitive and anxious learning atmosphere, a higher motivation and a deeper mutual understanding. The most meaningful moments of the project have been the visits respectively in Italy and Greece, since they have allowed students to experiment the values of citizenship and intercultural dialogue in everyday life. This diary is meant to communicate the students’ feelings through words, images and colours …


28/04/08

Caro Diario, Si confondono allegre ed emozionate le nostre voci che, prima sommesse poi piu’ alte, come un’onda sommergono il piazzale antistante l’albergo. Dopo averli a lungo attesi, sperando il loro arrivo in ogni rombo di motori uditi in lontananza, accogliamo i nostri nuovi amici. Un fragoroso applauso, parole greche e italiane si susseguono veloci tra mille risate in un inglese un po’ diverso da quello che abbiamo sempre studiato, meno corretto e piu’ vivo, veicolo immediato di un sincero desiderio d’amicizia. Gia’ minacciati da un’imminente separazione, il sapore fresco e dolce di un gelato e quello caldo e salato di una pizza ci hanno uniti nuovamente e ritardato la conoscenza con le famiglie ospitanti che ci avrebbe, quella prima sera, allontanati. Poi, la promessa di un prossimo incontro e, nel distratto gesto di raccogliere una mano sospesa nel vuoto, la volonta’ di intraprendere questa nuova avventura insieme, come semplici e sinceri amici.


28/04/08 Dear Diary, Our voices, at first whispered then louder, mix up excited and cheerful. They submerge the hotel courtyard like a wave. We welcome our new friends, after a long waiting, desiring their arrival in every engine roar heard far away. A rumbling applause, Greek and Italian words follow quickly among one thousand laughs. A little different English from the one we have always studied at school, less correct but more lively, an immediate vehicle of a sincere wish of friendship. Already manaced by an oncoming separation, the fresh and sweet taste of an icecream and the hot and salted one of a pizza make us stay together delaying the meeting with the host families. Then the promise of a next meeting and our willingness to start this new adventure together, like simple and true friends, in the true gesture of keeping hands in an empty space.


29/04/08 Caro Diario,

Era una giornata poco soleggiata, l’aria greve e afosa, ma l’atmosfera che si stava creando la’, attorno alla fontana di Piazza Vittorio Veneto lasciava intuire che di la’ì a pochi giorni Greci e Italiani avrebbero formato un gruppo come da anni affiatato. Dopo aver atteso l’ultimo e classico ritardatario fummo pronti per dirigerci verso i Sassi; la gente osservava attenta quel gruppo ibrido di ragazzi Italiani e Greci la cui lingua, chiaramente molto diversa, stupiva i residenti. Lungo il cammino qualcuno si fermava a comprare souvenir dai negozietti, altri preferivano darsi alla risata collettiva, altri erano incuriositi dallo scenario. I professori ci lasciavano divertire liberamente; perfino fra studenti Italiani e docenti greci, che tra l’altro figuravano piu’ da guide scout che da insegnanti, c’era aria d’intesa, si esternavano tranquillamente pareri, opinioni e sensazioni come fra coetanei. Il gruppo sosto’ in prossimita’ dello strapiombo al di sotto della chiesetta famosa per la sua posizione sopraelevata, costruita nella roccia e oggetto dell’obiettivo di centinaia di fotografi: la Madonna dell’Idris. Il posto era percio’ idoneo per le classiche foto ricordo, e noi e i nostri compagni Elleni ci dedicammo a scattare decine di fotografie sul cui sfondo si stagliava il superbo paesaggio dei Sassi.


29/04/08

Dear Diary

It wasn’t a sunny day, the air was heavy and sultry, but the atmosphere around the fountain in Piazza Vittorio Veneto let us guess that in few days the Greek and Italian students would be a close group, as if we had known one another for a long time. After waiting for the last comer, we were ready to head for the Sassi. People watched that hybrid group of Greek and Italian teenagers and the Greek sounds, clearly very different from ours, surprised them. Along the way, especially among the Greeks, someone stopped to buy souvenirs from the shops, others preferred to devote themselves to general joking, others showed curiosity for the scenery. The teachers let us enjoy freely. There was a special understanding also b e t w e e n I t a lian students and Greek teachers, who were rather like scout guides than teachers: we exchanged opinions, views and feelings as among peers. The group stopped near the cliff below the characteristic church, famous for its high position, built in the rock and target of hundreds of photographers: “Madonna dell’Idris”. The place was therefore suitable for the classic photos, and together with our Hellenic friends we devoted ourselves to take dozens of pictures in the superb background of the Sassi.


30/04/08 Caro Diario,

L’agenda di oggi prevedeva la visita alle Grotte di Castellana e al Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Taranto. Al ritorno facce stravolte, teste ciondolanti contro i fInestrini del pullman ed un unico desiderio: dormire...! Sicuramente e’ stata una giornata intensa e interessante. La partenza era fIssata per le 9.00; prima tappa: Grotte di Castellana. Dopo “solo” due ore di viaggio, abbiamo fInalmente raggiunto la nostra meta, per la felicita’ delle nostre gambe. Quando la guida ci ha detto che il percorso era lungo tre chilometri, le nostre gambe quasi si sono rifIutate di continuare a reggerci, ma abbiamo tenuto duro, consolati dall’idea di lasciarci defInitivamente alle spalle i gradini che ci avevano portati giu’ optando, al ritorno, per una risalita in ascensore! Appena scesi, si e’ aperta davanti a noi la prima caverna, la “grave”, chiamata anche “bocca dell’Inferno” per via della grande apertura sulla sua sommita’. Subito siamo stati colpiti da come il contorno pietroso di quella bocca minacciosa potesse trasformarsi, al successivo battito di palpebre, in un sole che inonda con una cascata di raggi tutta la caverna, rendendola meno minacciosa grazie ad un gioco di luminosi riFlessi arcobaleno che rimbalzano fra i cristalli delle rocce. Abbiamo visitato tutte le caverne, le cui stalattiti e stalagmiti hanno risvegliato la nostra immaginazione di bambini, facendoci vedere fra loro perfIno dei POP CORN!


30/04/08

Dear Diary, The agenda today included a visit to Castellana Grotte and to the National Archaeological Museum of Taranto. On our way back home destroyed faces, tired heads against the bus windows and a single wish: to sleep...! Certainly it had been a long and an interesting journey. The departure was fixed for 9.00. First stage: Grotte di Castellana. After “only” a twohour journey, we finally reached our destination, for the happiness of our legs. When the guide told us that the path was three kilometers long, our legs almost refused to continue, but we resisted consoling ourselves at the idea of using the elevator on our way out of the Grotte! As soon as we came down, we saw the first cave before us, the “Grave” also called “Mouth of hell” because of the large opening on its top .


Attraverso stretti e scivolosi sentieri (che per alcuni sono stati causa di una diretta conoscenza con il suolo) e corridoi dalle cui pareti poteva far capolino un serpente di roccia o in cui si aprivano laghetti di cristallo, piccoli paradisi in miniatura, abbiamo visto la caverna della Lupa, del Presepe, dell’Altare, del Precipizio, per arrivare alla spettacolare e famosa Grotta Bianca, risplendente del candore dei cristalli che la ricoprono completamente. Dopo circa due ore di cammino, le nostra fantasie gastronomiche si sono trasformate in realta’; uno spuntino veloce e via alla volta di Taranto. In pullman alcuni nostri compagni si sono cimentati nella lettura in inglese delle ricerche sulla citta’, che tanto ci hanno impegnati e che, come e’ facile immaginare, si sono perse fra la chiacchiere e le canzoni dei nostri I-Pod! Arrivati a destinazione, dopo l’inevitabile servizio fotogrfIco e un pasto per soddisfare la nostra fame, ci siamo diretti al Museo. Sicuramente, cio’ che ci ha colpito di piu’ sono stati i magnifIci gioielli che nulla hanno da invidiare a quelli che noi ragazzi usiamo oggi e mosaici che riempivano un’intera sala, provenienti dalla necropoli greca di Taranto. Nel viaggio di ritorno le urla e le risate dell’andata hanno lasciato il posto ad un’insolita stanchezza, che ha provocato il fallimento dei timidi tentativi di organizzare una serata spumeggiante e ci ha fatto arrendere all’abbraccio di Morfeo.


We were immediately struck by how the contour of that stony mouth could change, in the twinkling of an eye, in a sun flooding the cave with a cascade of rays, making it less menacing, thanks to a game of bright rainbow reflections bouncing among the crystals of the rocks. We visited all the caves, whose stalactites and stalagmites awakened our imagination of children, making us see even POP CORN , maybe because we were very hungry. Through narrow and slippery little tracks, which caused someone’s “direct knowledge” of the ground, we arrived at the Lupa’s Cave, through corridors on whose walls a stone snake or little crystal lakes appeared, real miniature paradises; we also saw caves like the Civetta’s, the Crib’s, the Altar’s, the Precipice’s, then the amazing and famous Grotta Bianca shining with the whiteness of crystals which cover it completely. After almost two hours walking our food fantasies came true thanks to a light lunch: immediately after we left for Taranto. In the bus some of our classmates read our researches about the city in English which had made us very busy. But our voices, as it’s easy to imagine, got lost among the general chatting and our i-pod songs. When we arrived, we had a free hour which we used, as ever, to better satisfy our grumbling stomachs with an icecream. Then we went to the museum but, since it was still closed, we had another bit of free time for the traditional “photographic service” at the park near the museum. Surely what really impressed us most were the amazing jewels which have nothing to envy the ones we teenagers use today, and the mosaics, coming from the Greek necropolis of Taranto which filled a whole museum room. After the visit to the museum we couldn’t do anything except go to the bus for our journey back home. This time the laughs and the screams of the departure left the place to sleep and tiredness that reigned on the bus and that made our shy efforts to organize the evening definitely fail. Everyone couldn’t help falling in Morpheus’ arms!


Un tuffo nella storia... Taranto si trova di fronte al Mar Ionio ed è chiamata “la città dei due mari”, il Mar Piccolo e il Mar Grande, separati da due penisole che la chiudono come un golfo. L’abitato si divide fra l’Isola del Borgo antico e la Penisola del Borgo Moderno, zone collegate da vari ponti, come il famoso Ponte Girevole. Secondo la leggenda, la città fu fondata da Taras, figlio di Poseidone, giunto con una flotta nei pressi di un fiume che da lui prese il nome. In realtà, essa nacque intorno al 706 a.C. ad opera di un gruppo di coloni spartani. La città ebbe grande prosperità economica e, anche grazie al porto, divenne punto di incontro fra Oriente e Occidente. Nel V secolo a. C. i forti contrasti politici e gli scontri con le popolazioni indigene, conclusisi con una grave sconfitta, determinarono la caduta del regime monarchico e l’instaurazione di un governo democratico. Nella prima metà del secolo, la città subì anche una profonda trasformazione urbanistica: si costruirono nuove mura difensive e vari monumenti, tra cui l’imponente tempio dorico sull’acropoli. Nel IV secolo a. C. la sua crescente espansione destò le preoccupazioni dei Lucani, che si allearono con Roma, la quale ini- zialmente preferì concordare la pace con la città magnogreca; tuttavia, dopo una serie di provocazioni, nel 281 a.C. Roma dichiarò guerra a Taranto.


A

D I P

I N T O

H I S T O R Y. . .

Taranto is placed on the Ionio Sea and is called the City of the Two Seas, the Mar Piccolo and the Mar Grande, divided by two peninsulas which close the city like a gulf. The inhabited areas are the Ancient Site and the Modern Peninsula, linked by different bridges like the famous Ponte Girevole. According to a legend, Taranto was founded by Taras, Poseidon’s son, arrived with a fleet near a river which took its name from him. Actually, Taranto was founded around 706 B.C. by a group of Spartan colons emigrated to find new spaces to live. This was a period of great wealth for the city, which, also thanks to the port, became a meeting point between East and West. In the V century B.C. strong political contrasts and fightings with the local populations, ending in a serious defeat, took to the end of the Monarchy and to the beginning of a democratic government. In the first half of the century the city had also a deep urban change: new defensive walls and various monuments were built, among which the stately Doric temple on the Acropolis. In the IV century B.C. its growing expansion alarmed the Lucanians, who joined forces with Rome, which at first preferred to be in peace with the Greek city. However, after being provoked many times, in 281 B.C. Rome declared war to the city. The population asked for the help of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who, in spite of the use of elephants and a number of initial successes, was finally defeated: in 272 B.C. the city was conquered by Rome. In the following centuries, Byzantines, Lombards , Goths and Mu-lims ruled the city. In 1085 the city was conquered by the Normans with Roberto il Guiscardo. After there was the Swabian domination and Frederick II named Prince of Taranto his son Manfredi, defeated by the Angevins at Benevento in 1266. In 1465 the city became part of the Aragonese Kingdom. When the Kingdom of Naples lost its independence, Taranto became Spanish.


I Tarantini chiesero l’aiuto di Pirro, re dell’Epiro, che, nonostante l’uso degli elefanti e qualche iniziale successo, fu infine sconfitto: nel 272 a. C. la città cadde nelle mani dei Romani. Nei secoli successivi, fu dominata dai Bizantini, dai Longobardi, dai Goti e dai Musulmani; nel 1085 passò sotto il dominio dei Normanni con Roberto il Guiscardo. Poi arrivarono gli Svevi e Federico II nominò principe di Taranto suo figlio Manfredi, che fu sconfitto dagli Angioini a Benevento nel 1266. Nel 1465 la città divenne parte del regno aragonese. Quando il Regno di Napoli perse l’indipendenza, divenne spagnola. Passata successivamente ai Borboni e incorporata nel Regno delle Due Sicilie, ne seguì le vicende storiche, conoscendo un lungo periodo di abbandono, fino a quando fu occupata dalle truppe di Giuseppe Garibaldi nel 1860 e poi incorporata nel Regno d’Italia nel 1861. IL MUSEO archeologico nazionale : Il museo, uno dei più importanti in Italia, fu fondato nel 1887. Contiene importanti reperti di età greco-romana, tra cui una straordinaria collezione di gioielli, per lo più di epoca ellenistica.


When the Reign of Naples lost its independence, Taranto became Spanish. Successively governed by the Bourbons and part of the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, Taranto followed its historical course, living a long period of neglect, until it was occupied by Giuseppe Garibaldi’s troops in 1860 and then annexed to the Italian Kingdom in 1861. The National Archaelogical Museum, one of the most important in Italy, was founded in 1887. It includes important remains of the Greek-Roman Age, among which an extraordinary collection of jewels, going back to the Hellenistic period. It is the most ancient temple of Greater Greece and the only Greek place of worship still existing in the ancient area. Two doric columns have been kept, made of local “carparo” taken from the same acropolis, and they represent the long side of the “peristasis” of the temple whose ruins were found in the cloister of San Michele, which is in the background of Palazzo di Città. The area was definitely abandoned at the end of the III century B.C., when the city was conquered by the Romans.


01/05/08 C aro Diario,

Oggi giornata libera! Ci voleva proprio una mattinata di dolce far niente, anche perche’ dovevamo essere freschi e riposati per il pomeriggio e la serata dato che stasera toccava a noi fare da guida ai nostri ospiti portandoli nei luoghi preferiti dai giovani materani e facendo vivere loro una nostra serata-tipo. Nel primo pomeriggio siamo andati in albergo a prendere i nostri amici per portarli a mangiare il gelato al bar Schiuma, uno dei migliori della citta’, dopodiche’ abbiamo trascorso un po’ di tempo a chiacchierare e a scattare tantissime foto nella Villa comunale. Poi ci siamo un po’ sparpagliati: appuntamento alle nove alla fontana in piazza. E’ stata davvero una bella serata. Il primo obbiettivo, come al solito, e’ stato il cibo: prima tappa Pummarola, per far assaggiar loro una buona pizza all’italiana, seguita da un’immancabile creape alla nutella per addolcire il tutto... come contorno tantissime risate, mentre tentavamo di insegnarci a vicenda alcune parole delle nostre lingue: sokolata= cioccolata, efcaristo’= grazie, parakalo’= prego. Dopo esserci rifocillati, abbiamo cominciato una lunga passeggiata fra i posti fra noi piu’ frequentati, come Piazza Kennedy e Piazza Vittorio Veneto, dove abbiamo fatto loro vedere il suggestivo affaccio sui Sassi, ancora piu’ bello la sera. Unica pecca della serata? Tutti a casa presto, perche’ domani ci sono le prove generali della rappresentazione teatrale!


01/05/08 Dear Diary, We are free today! We really needed a free morning, also because we had to be relaxed and ready for the evening: tonight we would take our Greek friends to our favourite places and make them live our typical night. During the first afternoon we went to the hotel to meet our friends and have an ice cream at the “bar Schiuma”, one of the best in town; then we spent some time chatting and making a lot of photographs in park. Then we parted: appointment at nine o’ clock at the “Fontana” in the city square. It was really a nice night. Our first goal, as usual, was food: the first stage was Pummarola to make our friends taste a good Italian pizza, followed by the unfailing crepes with a lot of “Nutella” to make everything sweeter and in the meanwhile seasoned with a lot of laughs we tried to teach each other words in our languages: sokolata= cioccolata, efcaristò= grazie, parakalò= prego. After dinner, we started a long walk trough the places we most go to like Kennedy Square and Vittorio Veneto Square, where we made them see the striking view of the Sassi, even more beautiful at night. The unique fault of that night? We had to come back home early because the day after we would have to rehearse the glorious performance of Euripides’ “Trojan women”.


02/05/08

Caro Diario, oggi siamo rimasti a scuola per le prove della rappresentazione teatrale “Le Troiane”. Inizialmente dovevano essere svolte in luoghi separati per non anticipare la sorpresa dello spettacolo, ma siamo riusciti ad intrufolarci in palestra, curiosi di giudicare quale fosse l’interpretazione piu’ bella; abbiamo notato che le due versioni erano differenti, dal momento che i costumi del gruppo greco erano semplici e tradizionali, i nostri classici ed eleganti; la loro interpretazione era piena di musica e canti,poco presenti nella nostra. In un primo momento abbiamo ritenuto che la nostra fosse migliore, ma ci siamo ricreduti in quanto la loro interpretazione era molto espressiva e superava i limiti della lingua. Poco prima del suono della campanella le nostre amiche greche ci hanno mostrato balli tradizionali e moderni,questi ultimi apprezzati molto dai ragazzi perche’ sensuali. Finite le prove, non ci rimane altro che attendere il grande giorno della rappresentazione teatrale...


02/05/08 Dear Diary, Today we were at school for the rehearsal of the performance “Trojan women�. Since the Italian and Greek schools had worked differently on the text of Euripides, the teachers decided the students to rehearse separately not to anticipate the surprise of the performance, but we managed to break into the gym all the same, willing to judge the best interpretation. So we realized the two performances were very different: the costumes of our Greek friends were simple and traditional, ours classical and elegant; their interpretation was full of music and songs, elements missing in ours. At first we thought we were better, but we soon changed our mind, because their interpretation was very expressive and exceeded the limits of words. Just before the bell ring, the Greek girls tried modern and traditional dances that the Italian boys appreciated so much because they were quite sensual. At the end of the rehearsal, we had just to wait for the following day, the great moment of the performance!


03/05/08

C aro Diario,

Rappresentare teatralmente le “Troiane” non e’ certo un’impresa da nulla: richiede tempo, sacrifIcio, ma il risultato “signifIcar per verba non si poria”! La giornata si presentava come una normale e ordinaria mattinata, come accadeva ormai da un po’ di tempo, con l’unica differenza che quel giorno era il grande giorno: avremmo provato anche noi l’ebbrezza di debuttare in un teatro, e non in un teatro qualsiasi, ma nel suggestivo teatro del Parco Archeologico di Metaponto. Quella fatidica mattina eravamo piu’ contenti che mai. Sapevamo che una giornata indimenticabile ci stava aspettando ed eravamo a coglierne ogni istante. Arrivati al Parco Archeologico, eravamo intrattabili durante le prove generali, nervosi come non mai: ognuno voleva dire la sua per rafFinare la performance che in quel momento, vista con occhi carichi di apprensione, si presentava grigia e monotona. Il coro ancora sbagliava gli attacchi, i protagonisti dimenticavano le battute, gli scenograifI avevano problemi con le entrate degli attori. Continuavamo a provare imperterriti sotto il sole che picchiava forte sulle nostre teste, rendendo il tutto ancora piu’ spossante. “Pausa pranzo”: saggia professoressa! Solo l’idea di vedere fInalmente il mare ci ridava forza: di corsa sul pullman, rotta per Metaponto Lido.


Dear Diary, To play the “Troades” by the Greek playwright Euripides is not a simple adventure: it needs time, sacrifice, giving up one’s free time but at the end the results “significar per verba non si poria” (have been wonderfully beyond every expectation). That day looked like a normal and ordinary one, as it had been happening in the Comenius programme for some time, with the only difference that it was the great day of the performance: we too would feel the thrill of performing in a theatre, not in a common one, but in the suggestive theatre of Metaponto Greek Archaeological Site. In that magic morning we were happier than ever. We knew an unforgivable day was waiting for us and we were ready to keep every moment in our hearts. During the final rehearsal we were as intractable and nervous as never before: each student wanted to tell his opinion to improve the performance which in that moment, seen with apprehensive eyes, was percived as grey, imperfect and monotonous. The chorus was still uncoordinated, the protagonists forgot the script, the art directors had problems with the actors’ entries. The rehearsal went on imperturbable under a sun beating down cruelly on ours heads, making everything even more exhausting. “Lunch time”: wise teacher! The only idea to look at the sea at last gave us a new strength: we rushed to the bus for Metaponto Lido.


Chiacchiere, risate, schizzi: sembrava di essere in estate. Stesi sulla spiaggia a prendere il sole, fantasticavamo gia’ sull’imminente vacanza, dimenticando le ansie di qualche minuto prima. Ma come veloce era arrivata, altrettanto velocemente la pausa era fInita: adesso si doveva cominciare. “Gli Achei, padroni, mi conducono via!”: sono queste le parole che hanno dato inizio al tutto. Urla e pianti sulla scena e ansia e agitazione dietro le quinte. Eccoci li’, faccia a faccia con il pubblico, un pubblico di parenti e amici in quel momento divenuti estranei per noi, che non eravamo piu’ ragazzi del 2000, ma donne e uomini greci alla fIne di una crudele guerra durata dieci anni. Una rappresentazione internazionale: nell’aria parole italiane, greche e inglesi si fondevano tra di loro creando una sola, unica lingua. Non una imprecisione, ne’ dubbi o incertezze. Perfetti. Applausi dalla platea, a buon diritto. Era tutto fInito. Il nostro entusiasmo era alle stelle, la nostra ricompensa erano i volti sorridenti dei nostri amici pronti a congratularsi con noi. Ora noi fInalmente tornavamo a casa arricchiti da questa irripetibile esperienza.

Scena tratta df


Chatting, laughing, splashing: it looked like summer. Lying on the beach to sunbathe, we were already fancying about the near holiday, forgetting the anxieties of some minutes before. But as fast as the break had arrived, in the same way it finished: now the “great time” had come. “Gli Achei, padroni, mi conducono via!” (“the Achaei, the masters, are taking me away”): these were the starting words. Shouts and cries on the scene and anxiety and agitation in the backstage. There we were, face to face with the audience, an audience of relatives and friends, in that moment stangers to us, who were no more guys of 2000, but Greek women and men at the end of a cruel war of ten years. An international show: in the air Italian, Greek and English words melt creating only one language. No mistakes or doubts. Perfect. Applause from the audience, absolutely deserved. It was all over. Our enthusiasm was sky-high, the smiling faces of our friends ready to congratulate us were our reward. Now we could finally come back home enriched by this unique experience.


04/05/08 Caro Diario,

E’ una giornata spledida, colori luminosi e vivaci animano la nostra passeggiata sul lungo mare . Con indosso i nostri costumi da bagno, speriamo di poterci far trasportare dalla onde del mare attese con tanta impazienza. Le dolci note eseguite dal nostro compositore Antonello allietano le nostre spensierate chiacchierate; baciati dai raggi del sole e accarezzati dal vento caldo, ecco riaffIorare dai nostri ricordi i giochi che da bambini ci entusiasmavano tanto: Antonello, Giuseppe e Thanassi sono impegnati in una divertente sfIda, acclamati da tutti gli spettatori, ansiosi di vedere chi fra i tre fara’ saltare piu’ volte un sasso sulla cresta dell’onda. Il dovere pero’ ci attende: abbandoniamo il nostro immaginario “parco giochi” e, con ancora la sabbia nelle scarpe, ci avviamo verso il “Museo della Siritide”. Dopo un breve viaggio nel passato, eccoci riportati nel nostro tempo: il centro commerciale ci attende. Passeggiando tra una vetrina ed un’altra, dopo aver comprato gli stessi braccialetti in ricordo del tempo passato insieme, siamo pronti per tornare a casa, entusiasti della splendida giornata che ha legato ancora di piu’ due culture cosi’ diverse.


04/05/08 Dear Diary, It is a beautiful day, bright and lively colours animate our walk on the seafront. With our swimsuits we hope to make ourselves carried by the waves. The sweet notes played by Antonello enjoyed our chats. Kissed by the sunbeams, caressed by the warm wind, there our childhood games come back to our minds: Antonello, Giuseppe, Tanassi were engaged in a funny challenge. Everyone is curious to see who among the three will make a stone jump on the wave crest more times. Then we go to the Museum of Siritide, with the sand still in our shoes. And after a trip in the past through the ruins just visited, we here are, taken back to our time: the shopping center is waiting for us! After a short walk around the shop-windows, we are ready to go back home.


Un tuffo nella storia... Heraclea, situata nei pressi dell’attuale Policoro, fu fondata dai coloni Tarantini e Thurioti intorno al 434 a.C. su un’altura tra i fiumi Agri e Sinni sui resti della citta’ di Siris; nel 374 a.C. fu scelta come capitale della Lega Italiota al posto di Thurii, che era caduta in mano ai Lucani. Nel 280 a.C.i Romani proposero alla citta’ di Heraclea uno speciale trattato di alleanza, riuscendo a sottrarla all’influenza di Taranto e facendola diventare citta’ confederata di Roma. A questo periodo risalgono anche le Tavole di Heraclea, attualmente conservate al Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli; si tratta di tavole di bronzo con testi in greco riguardanti l’ordinamento pubblico e costituzionale della citta’; sul retro e’ trascritta la Lex Iulia Municipalis. Alla fIne della guerra tra Romani e Tarantini, Heraclea, come tutta la Lucana e la Puglia, cadde sotto il dominio romano. Nel 212 a.C. la citta’ fu assediata e conquistata da Annibale. Successivamente divento’ nuovamente una citta’ fiorente e i suoi abitanti furono descritti come “nobiles homines” da Cicerone nella “Pro Archia”, l’apologia del poeta Archia, cittadino di Heraclea. Nell’ 89 a.C. essi ricevettero cittadinanza romana con la Lex Plautia Papiria. Durante tutta l’epoca repubblicana, Heraclea fu turbata da tumulti sociali, giunti al culmine nel 72 a.C. con il passaggio di Spartaco, uno schiavo che si era ribellato a Roma e aveva messo in piedi un grande esercito. La popolazione allora si rifugio’ nella parte alta della citta’. Durante l’eta’ imperiale comincio’ invece la sua decadenza. Le rovine sono attualmente visitabili come il Museo Nazionale della Siritide di Policoro, che custodisce la maggior parte dei reperti ritrovati.


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Heraclea, located in the area of the modern town of Policoro, was fonded by Taranto and Thurii settlers around 434 B.C. on a height between the rivers Agri and Sinni on the remains of the town of Siris: in 374 B.C. it was chosen as the capital of the Italiote League instead of Thurii, fallen in the hands of the Lucanian population. In 280 B.C. the Romans drew up a special alliance with it, taking it away from the control of Taranto and making it a Roman confederate town. The “Heraclea Tavole”, which can be seen at the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, go back to this period: they are bronze tables with Greek texts about the public and constitutional government of the town; the Lex Iulia Municipalis is inscribed on the back. At the end of the war between Rome and Taranto, Heraclea, like the whole territories of Lucania and Puglia, became a Roman dominion. In 212 B.C. the town was besieged and conquered by Hannibal. After it became a flourishing town, and his inhabitants were described as “Nobiles Homines” by Cicero in Pro Archia, an apologia of Archia, a Heraclea citizen. In 89 B.C. they got Roman citizenship with the Lex Plautia Papiro. During the Republican period Heraclea was upset by social disorders culminating in 72 B.C. with the presence of Spartacus (a slave who had rebelled against Rome and formed an army of slaves). On this occasion the population withdrew on the high part of the town. During the Roman Empire, however, the town started its decadence. At present people can visit its remains together with the Siritide National Museum of Policoro, which keeps most of the findings.


05/05/08 Caro Diario,

Oggi niente escursioni, ci incontriamo con i nostri compagni greci a scuola e qui ci fermeremo tutta la mattinata. Dopo qualche scambio di esperienze scolastiche tra compagni e professori, scendiamo tutti insieme nell’atrio, dove e’ tutto pronto per proiettare il fIlm di Roberto Benigni “La vita e’ bella”. Ne vedremo la versione in inglese. Quella del fIilm e’ una storia semplice, eppure non e’ facile raccontarla, come una favola e’ piena di meraviglia e di felicita’, e come in una favola c’e’ anche il dolore. Guido OrefIce, toscano ebreo, sul fInire degli anni ‘30 s’innamora della maestrina Dora, la corteggia in modi stravaganti, la conquista e la sposa. Sei anni dopo - nel frattempo sono venute le leggi razziali (1938) e sono iniziate la guerra e le deportazioni - Guido con il fIglioletto Giosue’ viene arrestato e condotto in un campo di concentramento. Dora, che ebrea non e’, li segue volontariamente, sperando di poter rimanere vicina ai suoi cari, ma verra’à comunque separata da loro. Per proteggere il fIglio dall’orrore, Guido gli fa credere che quello che stanno vivendo e’ un gioco a premi con un carro armato in palio. Col passare dei giorni Giosue’ entra attivamente nel vivo del “gioco”. La sensibilita’ e la fantasia del padre gli fanno superare le inevitabili diffIcolta’ della situazione in un susseguirsi di episodi, a volte paradossali, ma sempre, tratteggiati con levita’ e poesia. Una notte, all’improvviso, i soldati tedeschi abbandonano freneticamente il campo dopo aver fatto strage dei deportati rimasti. Guido riesce a nascondere Giosue’ in una cabina, promettendogli di ritornare, ma mentre e’ alla ricerca della moglie viene scoperto e fucilato. La mattina seguente il lager viene liberato dagli alleati. Giosue’ esce dalla cabina in cui si era rifugiato ed e’ salvato da un soldato americano che lo fa salire sul suo carro armato mentre,


05/05/08 Dear Diary, no sightseeing today. We’ll meet our Greek friends at school and here we’ll spend all morning . After a class session where students and teachers exchange information about school organization in each country and opinions about the Comenius experience, all together we go down the school entrance-hall where we see the film “La vita è bella” by Roberto Benigni in English. A simple story, not easy to tell: like a fairy tale it is full of wonder and joy, but as in a fairy tale there is suffering too . At the end of 1930 Guido Orefice, a Tuscan Jew, falls in love with the teacher Dora. They get married and have a son but in 1938 Mussolini’s racial laws come into force and Guido is deported into a concentration camp with his son Giosuè. Dora, who is not a Jew, follows them voluntarily because she wants to be with her little child but she will be separated from her family. Guido, for the good of the child, tells him that the concentration camp is a playground, they play a treasure hunt and the winner will get a tank.


convinto di aver vinto il premio fInale, grida: e’ verooo!!! Il fIlm si conclude con il bambino che ritorna felicemente dalla madre e con la voce narrante che dice: ‘Questa e’ la mia storia, questo e’ il sacrifIcio che mio padre ha fatto, questo e’ stato il suo regalo per me! Un fIlm stupendo, intenso, che tutti noi abbiamo apprezzato. Entusiasti i successivi commenti! Molti visi erano segnati dalle lacrime quando la tv si e’ spenta e le luci si sono riaccese.. I nostri compagni greci, che non avevano mai visto il fIlm prima, sono rimasti sbalorditi dall’effetto che aveva avuto su di loro. Nel pomeriggio ci siamo ritrovati tutti, greci e italiani, nel piazzale antistante la scuola, entusiasti di visitare la Cripta del peccato originale, attivita’ prevista per quel pomeriggio, ma soprattutto felici di trascorrere un altro pomeriggio insieme, ulteriore occasione di scambio fra le due culture. Il viaggio e’ stato breve, ma pieno di aspettative: dai fInestrini vedevamo la Murgia e il Parco delle chiese rupestri, disseminato di luoghi di culto affrescati e scavati nella roccia. Purtroppo il cielo era coperto di nuvole e ogni tanto qualche goccia di pioggia cadeva sulle nostre teste, ma quel pomeriggio niente ci poteva fermare. La Cripta del peccato originale si trova lungo la parete della Gravina di Picciano ed e’ conosciuta come la “Grotta dei Cento Santi” poiche’ completamente illuminata da affreschi, che risalgono all’inizio dell’XI secolo d.C. Per il suo valore artistico, e’ stata defInita ‘la Cappella Sistina’ della pittura parietale rupestre. La parete di fondo narra gli episodi della Genesi: la Creazione della Luce e delle Tenebre, la Creazione di Adamo, la Creazione di Eva dal costato di Adamo, Eva tentata dal serpente ed Eva che offre il frutto proibito ad Adamo. La Creazione della Luce e delle Tenebre e’ metaforicamente rappresentato da una coppia di opposti: una donna che alza in alto le braccia, simboleggiante la Luce, e un uomo dalle braccia legate e incrociate sul grembo, che allude al Buio.


Paradox, delicate fantasy and invention are Guido’s strategies to protect little Giosuè from the horrors of the lager. In the end Guido is shot, but Giosuè, hidden by his father, is saved by the American soldiers that take him back to his mother on a tank, the prize! The film ends with the child’s words: “This is my story. This is the sacrifice my father made for me. This was his gift to me.” A beautiful intense movie that everybody appreciated. Our Greek friends were stunned by it. Tears were on many faces when the lights were on again. In the afternoon we met with the Greek students in front of our school to go and visit the “Cripta of the Original Sin”. We were happy because we could pass another afternoon with our new friends: different cultures again face to face. The journey was short, but full of expectations: we could see the rock-hewn churches and the Murgia Park from the bus-windows. The weather was cloudy and rainy, but nothing could stop us. The Crypt is known as the “Grotta of the One hundred Saints” because in it there are a lot of wall paintings of saints. It is considered the Cappella Sistina of medieval rock painting. We entered the cave. It was dark everywhere. Then the wall paintings lit up. On the walls there are episodes of Genesis: the Creation of Light and Darkness, the Creation of Adam and Eve, Eve who is tempted by the snake and Eve who offers the forbidden apple to Adam. On the left there are different scenes of the Original Sin


Cio’ che ci ha affascinati e’ la storia della scoperta della grotta: un pastore, ormai anziano, veniva preso in giro perche’ raccontava di aver dormito con gli angeli e di essersi rifugiato in una “grotticella”, dove i tre Arcangeli, Michele, Gabriele e Raffaele, gli facevano compagnia. Furono dei ragazzi incuriositi da questa storia a scoprire sul fIanco di una collina ricoperta di ulivi e castagni una porta nascosta e capirono che quel luogo era il rifugio dei pastori. Superata la porta, entrarono in una grande grotta rettangolare. Erano evidenti i segni dei falo’ e dei bracieri che avevano riscaldato generazioni di umili pastori: i santi c’erano davvero! Avevano gli occhi spalancati come sosteneva il pastore, ma erano stati dipinti sulle pareti di quella che era stata una chiesa nella roccia: una chiesa rupestre. Conclusa la visita, non avremmo voluto lasciare quel luogo, cosi’ ricco di emozioni. La delicatezza degli affreschi, i loro particolari preziosi- il tappeto di fIori che si stende ai piedi delle fIgure, il gesto creatore di Dio, la dolcezza del viso della Madonna- ci hanno riempito gli occhi di luce, pur nell’oscurita’ della grotta. In un viaggio a ritroso nel tempo, abbiamo riscoperto il fascino del nostro territorio, ponte tra Oriente e Occidente, in cui storia, arte e cultura si fondono in una sintesi di armoniosa bellezza, diffIcile da dimenticare.


The story of its discovery fascinated us a lot: an old shepherd was joked at because he said that he had slept with angels and he had found refuge in a cave where the three Archangels Michael, Gabriel and Raphael had kept him company. After some curious boys discovered this cave on a hill covered with olive and chestnut trees. They entered and they understood it was the refuge of shepherds. There were the marks of bonfires and braziers that had heated generations of humble shepherds: real-like saints were there! They had wide opened eyes as the old shepherd had said, but they were painted on the cave walls: a church in the rock. At the end of the visit, we wished we had not left that place, so rich of emotions. The delicacy of the frescoes, their precious details - the red flowers carpeting the figures, God’s creating pose, the sweetness of the Madonna’s face - enlightened our eyes, even in the dark of the cave. In a time journey backward, we found out the charm of our land, a bridge between West and East, where history, art and culture mix in a synthesis of harmonious beauty, difficult to forget.


06/05/08 Caro Diario,

Ore 15.30.. ci dirigevamo verso gli autobus per dare inizio ad un pomeriggio fantastico a Montescaglioso. Tra gli inviti concitati a prendere posto rivolti agli ultimi arrivati, le professoresse greche ed italiane si accertano delle presenze...tutto e’ pronto, si parte! Negli autobus si respira un’aria di festa e di armonia: si comunicano emozioni, sensazioni e stati d’animo riguardo a questa nuova esperienza, si scambia qualche parola in un inglese “molto personale”. Ai ragazzi greci da noi ospitati e accolti nel migliore dei modi riveliamo la nostra cultura, i costumi, le abitudini, accorgendoci che non sono cosi’ differenti dalle loro. Giunti a destinazione, ammiriamo dal punto piu’ in alto di Montescaglioso il meraviglioso panorama: un agglomerato di case perfettamente disposte, una sovrapposta all’altra come in un gioco di incastri, stradine quasi deserte, macchie di colore di una natura quasi selvaggia: e’ come osservare un presepe. I nostri amici greci rimangono esterrefatti dinnanzi a quell’incanto e condividono con noi il loro entusiasmo. Successivamente ci dirigiamo verso l’Abbazia benedettina dedicata a san Michele Arcangelo, risalente al XII secolo. La sua grande e masestosa mole ancora oggi si impone all’ammirazione per i suoi pregi architettonici. Appena entrati, rimaniamo incantati dinanzi allo splendore degli immensi cortili dei chiostri di forma quadrangolare, circondati da una serie di archi sostenuti da colonne bifore.


06/05/08 Dear Diary, Half past three...we move towards the bus to have a wonderful afternoon in Montescaglioso, a beautiful town near Matera. While the Greek and Italian teachers order the last late students to take their seats quickly, they verify the presences...all is ready, let’s go! In the bus there is a joyful atmosphere, we communicate emotions, moods, feelings about this new experience. We Italian teenagers chat in a “very personal” English with the Greek teenagers, hosted by us in the greatest possible way; we exchange information about our culture, customs, habits, realizing that we aren’t so different, after all. In Montescaglioso we can admire, from the highest place, a wonderful view of the countryside. An agglomerate of perfectly arranged houses, the one on the others as in a jigsaw puzzle, desolate small ways, an assemblage of colours offered by a wild nature... it is like looking at a crib. The Greeks are charmed at such a view and they share their excitement with us. After that, we visit the Benedictine Abbey consecrated to the Archangel Michael and dated to the XII century. Its big and stately size is still admired for its architectural value. When we enter, we are enchanted by the splendour of the huge quadrangular courtyards, surrounded by a series of archs supported by mullioned columns.


Salendo al piano superiore, gli interni presentano splendidi affreschi del Seicento, dal gusto sobrio e raffInato, tra i quali uno raffIgurante Pitagora. L’abbazia stimola la nostra fantasia e il nostro interesse poiche’ ci offre una chiara testimonianza della vita che conducevano i monaci benedettini in questo luogo di culto, edfIcato secondo le loro abitudini; qui inoltre si respira un’aria di pace e serenita’, come se ci si trovasse in un mondo parallelo dai contorni divini. Terminata la visita guidata all’Abbazia, passeggiamo per il paese approfondendo la conoscenza con i nostri amici, e mostrando loro la nostra terra. Questo pomeriggio e’ stato costruttivo ai fIni di una migliore coesione fra noi e loro, fra Occidente e Oriente.


Going upstairs, inside, there are wonderful frescoes of the 17th century, sober and refined, one of these representing Pythagoras. The Abbazia stimulates our imagination and our interest because it offers us a clear evidence of the monks’life in this sacred place, built in accordance with their customs; besides here we breathe an air of peace and serenity, as if in a fabulous world with a divine essence. At the end of the visit, we go for a walk in the town centre strengthening the friendship with our Greek friends and showing them the area. This afternoon has been useful for a better union between us, West and East.


07/05/08

Caro Diario, all’entusiasmo per quell’incontro si sostituiva gia’, lentamente, la nostalgia, la delusione per quel tempo che inesonerabile era corso lontano e gia’ ci aveva strappato la gioia della condivisione delle nostre nuove amicizie. Cosi’ tra felicita’ e amarezza per la partenza ormai prossima, ci preparavamo a trascorrere gli ultimi momenti insieme prima di Settembre. Pieni di orgoglio, noi italiani fInalmente potevamo mostrare ai ragazzi greci una delle nostre piu’ grandi conquiste alimentari: la pizza!...Gia’ da tempo ci proponevamo di condividere anche quell’ultima esperienza, la piu’ buona. Tra gli scherzi e i sorrisi, le lacrime per la separazione e la tristezza per quei momenti, gli ultimi qui in Italia, ancora una volta, istante dopo istante non potevamo fare a meno di riFlettere su quei meravigliosi ultimi giorni. Non riuscivamo a non mostrare uno strano sbalordimento per il forte legame che si era instaurato, e per le belle amicizie nate tra due gruppi che sembravano non poter condividere nulla inizialmente, se non una storia lontana. Ricordavamo il nostro scetticismo e tutti i problemi come quelli relativi alla comunicazione, che si erano risolti solo con la gioia di stare insieme, perche’, a volte, ci lasciamo infulenzare troppo dalle cose piu’superfIciali. Al contrario, e’ stato semplicissimo parlare con loro, talvolta usando un inglese scorretto, ma non c’erano comunque diffIciolta’ di comprensione, perche’ in fIn dei conti siamo tutti ragazzi e alcune cose ce le siamo dette anche con gli sguardi. Tutti questi pensieri scorrevano veloci nelle mente insieme ai ricordi.


07/05/08 Dear Diary, Nostalgia was already, slowly, replacing the enthusiasm for that meeting, a sort of disillusionment for that time which was inexorably flowing away depriving us of the joy of staying together with our new friends. So, halfway between happiness and bitterness for the imminent departure, we got ready to spend the last time together before September. We Italians were proud to be able to show our Greek friends one of our best food achievements: pizza! We had wanted to share this last experience for a long time, “the best”. Between jokes and smiles, tears for the departure and sadness for those moments, the last ones in Italy, once again, moment after moment, we couldn’t help thinking over those last marvellous days. We couldn’t help showing an odd bewilderment for the strong bond that had been established, and for the beautiful friendship born between two groups who seemed unable to share much at the beginning, except a far-off history. We recalled our scepticism and all the problems of communication progressively replaced by the joy of being together, since, at times, we happen to be influenced by appearance too much. Actually, it was easy to talk to them, even using an incorrect English. We never had problems of understanding, because, in the end, all of us were and are teenagers, and our eyes communicated what we couldn’t do with words. All these thoughts were flowing fast in our minds together with our memories.


Purtroppo, anche quest’ultima sera fuggiva, mentre con le nostre foto tentavamo di fermare il tempo, di conservare pensieri ed emozioni. Dopo la pizza abbiamo fatto una passeggiata sotto la luna bianca e un po’ fredda che per l’ultima volta ci avrebbe visti tutti insieme qui a Matera. Sul tardi, consapevoli della prossima partenza che ci avrebbe separati l’indomani, ognuno e’ ritornato a casa, forse desiderando che il sole tardasse il piu’ possible a sorgere, per non dover piangere la triste separazione dei nuovi amici..


Unfortunately this last evening was flying away, while we tried to stop time and keep thoughts and feelings by taking photos. After the pizza, we had a last walk under a white and somewhat cold moon which followed us all together for the last time in Matera. At night, aware of the coming separation, all of us went back home perhaps wishing the sun to rise as late as possible in order to postpone the tears of the undesired moment.


08/05/08 Caro Diario,

Silenzio leggero. Profumo sottile. Un’irresistibile euforia si arrampica tra le vene... Ultimo giorno, ultime ore... Ancora grida, scoppi di risa, abbracci... Con una piu’ debole spinta nei piedi, camminiamo lentamente verso l’hotel che e’ stato il nostro ritrovo per tutti questi giorni... E ci sembra strano, adesso, ritrovarci qui, abbandonati mollemente su questo divano di pelle morbida, sul quale solo pochi giorni fa, dopo una folle corsa, ci siamo lanciati tutti insieme per scattare l’ennesima foto colorata dalle tinte vivide delle nostr magliette, sfumata appena dai nostri jeans sbiaditi...il motore del bus ruggisce impaziente di partire e tra mille abbracci bagnati e parole suggerite dall’anima per essere comprese solo dal cuore, gia’ soffriamo la lontananza, pur sapendo che essa non impedira’ nulla a questo puro sentimento di amicizia, a questo semplice ma forte legame che si e’ instaurato tra due gruppi di giovani con le stesse idee, le stesse speranze, gli stessi sogni, anche se fIgli di culture diverse.


08/05/08 Dear Diary, A soft silence. A light perfume. We feel an irresistibile euphoria in our veins... Last day, last hours... Still cries, still laugh breaks, still hugs... We are walking more slowly to the hotel that was our meeting place for all these days... And it looks strange now to stay here again, wearily abandoned on a soft leather sofa on which only few days before, after a crazy running, we rushed all together to take the nth photograph coloured by our bright t-shirts and shaded by our light-blue jeans .. the engine of the coach is roaming, impatient to leave. We are already sick for our separation, among one thousand tearful hugs and words suggested by our souls for our hearts. Yet, we are sure the distance will not stop our friendship, this simple and strong link between two groups of teenegers with the same ideas, hopes, dreams, even though children of different cultures.


ΠΑΡΑΔΟΣΙΑΚΟΙ ΧΟΡΟΙ Κατά τους αρχαίους χρόνους, χορός λεγόταν ο χώρος όπου χόρευαν και τραγουδούσαν οι αρχαίοι. Σήμερα, χορός ονομάζεται το σύνολο των ρυθμικών κινήσεων και συσπάσεων του σώματος, αυτό που ονομαζόταν στην αρχαιότητα όρχηση ή χορεία. Ο χορός αποτελεί ένα από τα αρχαιότερα εκφραστικά μέσα και χρονολογικά έπεται του τραγουδιού. Οι ρίζες του χορού στην Ελλάδα εντοπίζονται περίπου το 1000 π. Χ. Στους σύγχρονους νεοελληνικούς χορούς συναντώνται ρυθμοί και μουσικά μοτίβα της αρχαίας Ελλάδας. Οι νεοελληνικοί χοροί διαιρούνται ουσιαστικά σε δυο κατηγορίες: στους «συρτούς», στους «πηδηκτούς» και στις παραλλαγές αυτών. Η ονομασία του κάθε χορού συνήθως σχετίζεται με τον τόπο καταγωγής του (ο συρτόςκαλαματιανός, ο μακεδονικός κ.α) ή έχει την ονομασία κυρίων προσώπων (ο Μενούσης, ο Μανέτας). Επίσης, μπορεί να παίρνει την ονομασία του από τις διάφορες εποχές (ο πασχαλινός χορός), ή να προέρχεται από τις ονομασίες επαγγελμάτων (ο χορός των σφουγγαράδων) κ.α. Οι ελληνικοί χοροί παρουσιάζουν αξιοσημείωτη ποικιλία από παραλλαγές και επηρεάζονται μορφολογικά από τον τόπο καταγωγής τους. Είναι γνωστό ότι οι χοροί της ηπειρωτικής Ελλάδας έχουν «βαρύ» ύφος και για αυτό αποκαλούνται συχνά και «λεβέντικοι», σε αντίθεση με αυτούς της νησιωτικής Ελλάδας, οι οποίοι είναι περισσότερο «ανάλαφροι» και λυρικοί.


TRADITIONAL DANCES Greek dance is a very old tradition, being referred to by ancient authors such as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch and Lucian. There are different styles and interpretations from all of the islands and surrounding mainland areas. Each region formed its own choreography and style to fit in with their own ways. For example, island dances have more of a “watery� flow to them, while Pontic dancing closer to Black Sea, is very sharp. There are over 4000 traditional dances that come from all regions of Greece. There are also Pan Hellenic dances, which have been adopted throughout the Greek world. These include the tsamiko, syrtos, and kalamatianos. Traditional Greek dancing has a primarily social function. It brings the community together at key points of the year, such as Easter, the grape harvest or patronal festivals; and at key points in the lives of individuals and families, such as weddings. For this reason, tradition frequently dictates a strict order in the arrangement of the dancers, for example, by age. Visitors tempted to join in a celebration should be careful not to violate these arrangements, in which the prestige of the individual villagers may be embodied. Greek dances are performed often in diaspora Greek communities, and among international folk dance groups Dances in Macedonia vary. Most are solid and are performed using heavy steps, whilst others are fast and agile. Most dances begin slow and increase in speed.


ΜΕΤΕΩΡΑ Τα Μετέωρα είναι ένα σύμπλεγμα από τεράστιους σκοτεινόχρωμους βράχους που υψώνονται έξω από την Καλαμπάκα, κοντά στα πρώτα υψώματα της Πίνδου και των Χασίων. Τα μοναστήρια των Μετεώρων, που είναι χτισμένα στις κορυφές κάποιων από τους βράχους είναι σήμερα το δεύτερο πλέον σημαντικό μοναστικό συγκροτήμα στην Ελλάδα, ύστερα από το Άγιο Όρος. Από τα τριάντα που υπήρξαν ιστορικά, σήμερα λειτουργούν μόνο έξι και τα οποία από το 1988 περιλαμβάνονται στον κατάλογο μνημείων παγκόσμιας κληρονομιάς της UNESCO. Το άγριο και απροσπέλαστο τοπίο αποτέλεσε πρόσφορο χώρο για τους χριστιανούς ασκητές που εγκαταστάθηκαν στην περιοχή σε χρονολογία που δεν είναι ακριβώς γνωστή. Κατά διάφορες γνώμες βυζαντινολόγων υποστηρίζεται ότι ξεκίνησε πριν από το 11ο αιώνα. Άλλες ιστορικές όμως πληροφορίες αναφέρουν ως πρώτο ασκητή οικιστή κάποιον Βαρνάβα που το 950-970 ίδρυσε τη πολύ παλιά Σκήτη του Αγίου Πνεύματος. Ακολούθησαν η ίδρυση της Μεταμόρφωσης (1020) από κάποιον Κρητικό μοναχό Ανδρόνικο και το 1160 ιδρύεται η Σκήτη Σταγών ή Δούπιανη. Μετά από 200 χρόνια, ο ασκητής Βαρλαάμ ιδρύει το Μοναστήρι των Τριών Ιεραρχών και των Αγίων Πάντων και αργότερα άγνωστοι ιερωμένοι δημιούργησαν τα Μοναστήρια Αγίας Τριάδος, του Αγίου Στεφάνου, της Υπαπαντής, του Ρουσάνου ή Αρσάνου, του Αγίου Γεωργίου του Μανδηλά, του Αγίου Νικολάου του Αναπαυσά, της Παναγίας της Μήκανης, των Αγίων Θεοδώρων,


METEORA The Metéora (Greek: Μετέωρα, “suspended rocks”, “suspended in the air” or “in the heavens above”) is one of the largest and most important complexes of Eastern Orthodox monasteries in Greece, second only to Mount Athos.The nearest town is Kalambaka, Greece. The monasteries are built on natural sandstone rock pillars, at the northwestern edge of the Plain of Thessaly near the Peneios river and Pindus Mountains, in central Greece. The Metéora is home to six monasteries and is included on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Metéora’s criteria for the UNESCO World Heritage Site are I, II, IV, V and VII. Metéora were hermits, who lived in hollows and fissures in the rock towers, some of which reach 1800ft (550m) above the plain. This great height, combined with the sheerness of the cliff walls, kept away all but the most determined visitors. Initially the hermits led a life of solitude, meeting only on Sundays and special days to worship and pray in a chapel built at the foot of a rock known as Dhoupiani Students’ comments on the visit: Aspasia-Sofia (2nd year – Geniko Lykeio Kontariotissas): Meteora In one of our excursions we went to Meteora. At first, when we started our trip the weather was sunny, but when we arrived to Meteora it started to rain. The rain made it hard for us to get to the monastery not only because we got wet, but because of the many stairs too.


του Αγίου Νικολάου του Μπάντοβα, των Αγίων Αποστόλων, του Αγίου Γρηγορίου, του Αγίου Αντωνίου, του Παντοκράτορα, της Αγίας Μονής, του Προδρόμου, της Μονής Υψηλωτέρας, ή Καλλιγράφων, του Μοδέστου, της Αλύσεως, του Αποστόλου Πέτρου, του Αγίου Δημητρίου, του Καλλιστράτου, του Ταξιαρχών και του Ιωάννου του Μπουνήλα. Σχόλια των μαθητών για την επίσκεψη: Ασπασία-Σοφία (2ο έτος Λύκειο Κονταριώτισσας) Σε μία από τις εξορμήσεις μας πήγαμε στα Μετέωρα. Αρχικά, όταν ξεκινήσαμε το ταξίδι μας ο καιρός ήταν ηλιόλουστος , αλλά όταν φτάσαμε εκεί άρχισε να βρέχει. Η βροχή μας δυσκόλεψε να ανεβούμε στο μοναστήρι, όχι μόνο επειδή βρεχόμασταν, αλλά εξαιτίας των πολλών σκαλιών. Ήταν πολύ κουραστικό. Η αλήθεια είναι ότι όσα είδαμε άξιζαν τον κόπο. Δυστυχώς, η ομίχλη δε μας άφησε να δούμε την εκπληκτική θέα. Έπειτα πήγαμε για μεσημεριανό. Αφού δεν είχαμε φάει όλη τη μέρα πεινούσαμε όλοι πάρα πολύ. Αλλά πρέπει να παραδεχτώ ότι το καλύτερο ήταν στο λεωφορείο. Είχαμε την ευκαιρία να αναπληρώσουμε για αυτούς τους μήνες που δεν είχαμε ειδωθεί.


It was really tiring .Well, the truth is the things we saw there worth all this trouble. Unfortunately, the fog didn’t allow us to see the amazing view. After our visit to the monastery we went to a restaurant for lunch. As we hadn’t eaten all day we were all very hungry. But I have to admit that the best part was in the bus. We all had the opportunity to catch up for all these months we hadn’t seen each other.


ΟΛΥΜΠΟΣ Ο Όλυμπος είναι το ψηλότερο βουνό της Ελλάδος και ξακουστό ανά την υφήλιο, καθώς στην κορυφή του (Μύτικας-2.918 μ.), οι αρχαίοι Έλληνες είχαν τοποθετήσει την κατοικία των Δώδεκα «Ολύμπιων» Θεών τους. Ο συμπαγής ορεινός του όγκος δεσπόζει επιβλητικός στα όρια Μακεδονίας και Θεσσαλίας, με μια σειρά από ψηλές κορυφές που αυλακώνουν βαθιές χαράδρες, γύρω από τις οποίες εκτείνεται μια περιοχή ιδιαίτερης βιοποικιλότητας. Για την προστασία της μοναδικής αυτής κληρονομιάς, ανακηρύχθηκε ήδη από το 1938 ως ο πρώτος Εθνικός Δρυμός της Ελλάδας. Κάθε χρόνο χιλιάδες φυσιολάτρες επισκέπτονται τον Όλυμπο, για να θαυμάσουν από κοντά τη γοητεία της φύσης του και να χαρούν την περιήγηση στις πλαγιές του και την κατάκτηση των κορυφών του. Οργανωμένα ορεινά καταφύγια με ποικίλες ορειβατικές και αναρριχητικές διαδρομές βρίσκονται στην διάθεση των επισκεπτών που θέλουν να εξερευνήσουν τις ομορφιές του. Κλασσική αφετηρία αποτελεί η γραφική κωμόπολη του Λιτόχωρου στους ανατολικούς πρόποδες του βουνού, 100km από τη Θεσσαλονίκη, όπου την τελευταία Κυριακή κάθε Ιουνίου καταλήγει ο Ορειβατικός Μαραθώνιος Ολύμπου, ενώ στο αρχαίο θέατρο στο Δίον και το κάστρο του Πλαταμώνα λαμβάνει χώρα το Φεστιβάλ Ολύμπου, με καλλιτεχνικό πρόγραμμα. Ολόκληρος ο Πιερικός Όλυμπος κηρύχθηκε αρχαιολογικός και ιστορικός χώρος προκειμένου να διαφυλαχθεί η μνημειακή και ιστορική του όψη.


OLYMPUS Mount Olympus (Greek: Όλυμπος; also transliterated as Ólympos, and on Greek maps, Óros Ólimbos) is the highest mountain in Greece at 2,919 metres high (9,577 feet). Since its base is located at sea level, it is one of the highest mountains in Europe in terms of topographic prominence, the relative altitude from base to top. It is located in Macedonia, about 100 km away from Thessaloniki, Greece’s second largest city. Mount Olympus is noted for its very rich flora with several endemic species. The highest peak on Mount Olympus is Mitikas at 2,919 metres high (9,577 feet), which in Greek means “nose” (an alternative transliterated spelling of this name is “Mytikas”). Mitikas is the highest peak in Greece, the second highest being Skolio (2912 m). Traditionally regarded as the heavenly abode of the Greek gods and the site of the throne of Zeus, Olympos seems to have originally existed as an idealized mountain that only later came to be associated with a specific peak. The early epics, the Illiad and the Odyssey (composed by Homer around 700BC) offer little information regarding the geographic location of the heavenly mountain and there are several peaks in Greece, Turkey and Cyprus that bear the name Olympos. The most favored mythological choice is the tallest mountain range in Greece, the Olympos massif, 100 kilometers southwest of the city of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The highest peak - shown in the photograph - is Mytikas at 2918 meters (9570 feet).


Στα 5km από την θάλασσα, βρίσκεται το Δίον, ιερή πόλη των αρχαίων Μακεδόνων αφιερωμένη στο Δία και στους δώδεκα Θεούς. Η ακμή του τοποθετείται ανάμεσα στον 5ο π.Χ. και τον 5ο μΧ. αιώνα. Οι συνεχιζόμενες ανασκαφές, που άρχισαν το 1928, αποκάλυψαν πλούσια ευρήματα της μακεδονικής, ελληνιστικής και ρωμαϊκής εποχής. Σήμερα, ένα μοναδικό αρχαιολογικό πάρκο 2.000 στρεμμάτων περιμένει τον επισκέπτη στο Δίον, με την αρχαία πόλη και τους λατρευτικούς χώρους-ιερά, που βρισκόταν έξω από τα τείχη της. Πολλά αγάλματα και άλλα ανεκτίμητης αξίας αντικείμενα φυλάσσονται στο γειτονικό μουσείο του Δίου.


The deities believed to have dwelled upon the mythic mount were Zeus, the king of the gods, his wife Hera, his brothers Poseidon and Hades, his sisters Demeter and Hestia and his children, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Athena, Hermes and Hephaestus. It is interesting to note that these Olympian gods and goddesses were understood in ancient times as archetypes representing idealized aspects of the multi-faceted human psyche. Worship of the deities was a method of invoking and amplifying those aspects in the behavior and personality of the human worshipper. Zeus was the god of mind and the intellect, and a protector of strangers and the sanctity of oaths; Hera was a goddess of fertility, the stages of a woman’s life and marriage; Apollo represented law and order, and the principles of moderation in moral, social and intellectual matters. Aphrodite was a goddess of love and the overwhelming passions that drove humans to irrational behaviour. Hermes was the god of travelers, of sleep and dreams and prophecy. Athena was spiritual wisdom incarnate; Hephaestus was the god of the arts and fire and Ares represented the dark, bloodthirsty aspect of human nature.


ΤΟ ΑΡΧΑΙΟ ΘΕΑΤΡΟ ΤΟΥ ΔΙΟΥ Στα νότια της πόλης του Δίου, έξω από τα όριά της και δυτικά του ιερού της Δήμητρας βρίσκεται το αρχαίο θέατρο. Η κατασκευή του τοποθετείται στην ελληνιστική εποχή, πιθανότατα στα χρόνια της βασιλείας του Φιλίππου Ε΄ (221179 π.Χ.). Το θέατρο είναι κτισμένο στην πλαγιά χαμηλού φυσικού λόφου και έχει προσανατολισμό βορειανατολικό, τον πιο ενδεδειγμένο για τον καλό αερισμό του χώρου, όπως επεσήμανε αργότερα ο Βιτρούβιος. Ο αρχιτέκτων του μνημείου, εκμεταλλευόμενος τη μορφολογία του εδάφους, διαμόρφωσε κατάλληλα το χώρο με μερική αποχωμάτωση και τεχνητή επίχωση, με αποτέλεσμα το έργο του να είναι επίτευγμα προσωπικής επέμβασης και, μάλιστα, από τις επιτυχέστερες στο είδος της. Η ορχήστρα, με διάμετρο περίπου 26 μ., ορίζεται από ακάλυπτο πέτρινο αποχετευτικό αγωγό και είχε δάπεδο από πατημένο χώμα. Στον άξονα του θεάτρου και μέσα στην ορχήστρα ένας υπόγειος διάδρομος με δύο θαλάμους, ένα σε κάθε άκρο, ταυτίζεται ασφαλώς με τη «χαρώνεια κλίμακα? των αρχαίων, το σημείο, δηλαδή, από όπου εμφανίζονταν οι ηθοποιοί που υποδύονταν πρόσωπα του Κάτω Κόσμου. Το κοίλο, χωρίς αναλημματικό τοίχο στα άκρα του, διαμορφωμένο σε χαλικόστρωτα πρανή που σβήνουν ομαλά στις παρόδους, διέθετε εδώλια από πήλινες πλίνθους, μια ιδιαιτερότητα που δεν συναντάται σε κανένα άλλο αρχαίο θέατρο.


THE ANCIENT THEATRE OF DION The ancient theatre rests to the south of Dion, out of the city limits, having to the west the sanctuary dedicated to Demetra. Its construction dates to the Hellenistic era, probably in the reign of King Philipp V (221-179 BC). Built on the slope of a low natural hill, the theatre is facing north-east: this is the best orientation for maximum ventilation, according to posterior instructions by Vitruvius. The architect who designed this monument exploited the morphology of the ground; through partial removal of accumulated earth and creation of an artificial fill, he shaped a most successful accomplishment bearing his stamp. The orchestra, with a 26m diameter and beaten earth flooring, is being delimited by an open stone conduit. Along the theatre axis inside the orchestra, an underground corridor departing from one room and ending into another was undoubtedly identified as the Charonian stairway, serving the appearance from below of the actors impersonating chthonic figures. The cavea was not supported by a retaining wall; it extended over gravel-strewn slopes smoothly flattening at the parodoi (passageways) and was composed of clay brick seats, a singularity among ancient theatres. 168 BC, operating in a rudimentary way until the early Imperial period and falling into disuse after the construction of Roman theatres at the area.


Είναι πολύ πιθανό κατά την ελληνιστική εποχή, επάνω στην τελευταία στρώση πλίνθων να υπήρχε και μαρμάρινη επικάλυψη. Αντίθετα από το κοίλο, η κατασκευή του σκηνικού οικοδομήματος (σκηνή, προσκήνιο, και παρασκήνια) ήταν περισσότερο προσεγμένη: οι τοίχοι της σκηνής, από ένα ύψος και μετά, καθώς και το προσκήνιο, που επιστεγαζόταν με δωρικό θριγκό, ήταν κατασκευασμένα με μάρμαρο. Η κεράμωση ήταν λακωνικού τύπου. Ανασκαφικές παρατηρήσεις οδηγούν στο συμπέρασμα ότι το θέατρο μάλλον εγκαταλείφθηκε μετά το 168 π.Χ., λειτούργησε υποτυπωδώς μέχρι τα πρώιμα αυτοκρατορικά χρόνια και μάλλον αχρηστεύθηκε πλήρως με την ανέγερση ρωμαϊκών θεάτρων στο χώρο.


Presumably during the Hellenistic period, the last layer of bricks was incrusted with marble. Contrary to the cavea, the construction of the scenic building (stage proper, proscenium and back of stage) was more elaborate: the upper parts of the scene walls, as well as the proscenium roofed by a Doric entablature, were made of marble. The roof tiles were of the Laconian type. Excavations lead to the conclusion that the theatre was probably abandoned after


ΔΙΟΝ Μία από τις πιο ξακουστές αρχαίες μακεδονικές πολιτείες. Βρισκόταν στο νομό Πιερίας, στους ανατολικούς πρόποδες του Ολύμπου, εκεί όπου σήμερα υπάρχει το ομώνυμο χωριό. Ο χρόνος της ίδρυσής του είναι άγνωστος προς το παρόν, ενώ το όνομά του αποδίδεται στο Δία, προς τιμή του οποίου οι Περραιβοί της Θεσσαλίας ίδρυσαν την πόλη αυτή. Ο Δίας ήταν και προστάτης θεός του Δίου. Κάθε χρόνο τελούνταν γιορτή προς τιμή του θεού, τα “Δία”, με κέντρο το ναό του Δία, που ήταν χτισμένος στην πόλη. Οι κάτοικοι του Δίου λέγονταν Δίοι, Διείς και Διασταί. Η ακμή της πόλης αρχίζει τον 5ο αι. π.Χ., όταν βασιλιάς της Μακεδονίας ήταν ο προοδευτικός Αρχέλαος, που θεωρώντας το Δίον ως ιερή πόλη, συνδεμένη με τη μυθολογία του Ολύμπου, τη διάλεξε και την έκανε πνευματικό και πολιτιστικό κέντρο στη Μακεδονία, αντίστοιχο με τους Δελφούς και την Ολυμπία. Χτίστηκαν ναοί, στάδιο, θέατρο, τοποθετήθηκαν αγάλματα. Κάθε χρόνο, στη γιορτή των “Δίων”, οι Έλληνες διαγωνίζονταν στον αθλητισμό, στη μουσική, στη δραματική τέχνη. Ο βασιλιάς Φίλιππος διοργάνωσε αγώνες (“Ολύμπια”) τιμώντας τους θεούς που τον βοήθησαν να καταλάβει την Όλυνθο (384 π.Χ.). Ο Μ. Αλέξανδρος, πριν ξεκινήσει για τη μεγάλη του εκστρατεία στην Ασία, τέλεσε μεγάλες θυσίες στο Δίον προς τιμή των θεών και των μουσών. Μετά τη μάχη στο Γρανικό ποταμό, όπου έπεσαν 25 Μακεδόνες, στο Δίον στήθηκαν ισάριθμα αγάλματα προς τιμή των νεκρών. Μετά την κατάλυση του Μακεδονικού κράτους από τους Ρωμαίους, τα μνημεία που λάμπρυναν το Δίον μεταφέρθηκαν στη Ρώμη.


DION On the slopes of Olympus, a mere 5 km from the beaches of Pieria, Ancient Dion, the Holy City of Macedonia was found under a covering of undergrowth and water. This city had been a thriving centre of civilization from the time of its foundation for a period of 1,000 years from the 5th c, BC to the 5th c, AD.We learn from Ancient Greek writers that the Macedonians regularly gathered in Dion to worship the Gods of Olympus, and to make sacrificial offerings, as can be seen from the objects found on the site. It was here that King Archelaos organized athletic competitions and theatrical events, and Philip the Second celebrated his victories at Dion, as did Alexander. It was here that Alexander gathered together his troops to prepare for his journeys of conquest, worshipping Zeus, King of the Gods of Olympus. In the temple of the Gods of Olympus was a magnificent bronze statue created by Lissippos, which depicted the 25 horsemen who died at the Battle of Granikos.During the reign of Philip the 5th after a disastrous invasion, the Aetolians ransacked the city. At the Battle of Pydna, 168 BC, the death of Perseas, last King of Macedonia, brought an end to the Macedonian Dynasty. Dion became integrated into the Roman colony during the reign of Augustus. The second peak of the city came during the Roman occupation in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, when it became “reborn� as a Greek city. The final days of Dion were written when it was destroyed by an earthquake and floods in the 5th c AD. The terrified citizens of the city took flight and sought refuge on the higher slopes of Olympus.The Holy City of the Macedonians collapsed and its ruins lay beneath the soil of the Macedonian earth


Οι ανασκαφές έφεραν στο φως αγάλματα, αγγεία, επιγραφές, κυρίως της ρωμαϊκής εποχής. Τα σημαντικότερα ευρήματα φυλάσσονται στο αρχαιολογικό μουσείο Θεσσαλονίκης. Σχόλια των μαθητών για την επίσκεψη: Ασπασία (2ο έτος Λύκειο Κονταριώτισσας) Επισκεφθήκαμε τον αρχαιολογικό χώρο στο Δίον με τους Ιταλούς μαθητές και θεωρήσαμε ότι πράγματι είχαμε κάτι κοινό με αυτούς. Είμαι πολύ χαρούμενη που άρεσε αυτό το μέρος στους Ιταλούς φίλους και φαινόταν να ενδιαφέρονται πολύ για αυτό που επισκεφτήκαμε. Ήταν λίγο κουραστικό, αλλά υπήρχε μια ωραία ατμόσφαιρα ανάμεσα στους Έλληνες και τους Ιταλούς.


The Italian and Greek students who took part in the Comenius project visit the archeological site in Dion

Students’ comments on the visit: Aspasia (2nd year – Geniko Lykeio Kontariotissas): We visited the archeological site in Dion with the Italian students and we felt we really had something in common with them. I’m very happy that the Italian friends liked this place and they seemed very interested in what we were visiting. It was a little tiring but there was a nice atmosphere among Greeks and Italians.


ΚΟΝΤΑΡΙΩΤΙΣΣΑ Κουντουργιώτισσα (πληθυσμός: 1.980 κάτοικοι, κατά την απογραφή 2001) είναι μεγάλος οικισμός στο νομό Πιερίας, νότια της πρωτεύουσας του νομού, Κατερίνης. Απέχει 9 χιλιόμετρα από την Κατερίνη. Αποτελεί έδρα του Δήμου Δίου και μέχρι την 1η Ιανουαρίου του 1999 ήταν κοινότητα. Σήμερα είναι ο μοναδικός οικισμός στο Δημοτικό Διαμέρισμα Κονταριώτισσας. Στην αρχαιότητα, σύμφωνα με κάποιους συγγραφείς, βρισκόταν στη θέση του χωριού η αρχαία πόλη Πιερίς, που φέρεται ως πόλη - αφετηρία της λατρείας του Ορφέα. Την ύπαρξη αρχαίας πόλεως (που πιθανότατα ιδρύθηκε περί το 1400 π. Χ.) με το όνομα Πιερίς επιβεβαιώνει ο Στράβων, ο οποίος γράφει: “Πιερία γαρ και Όλυμπος και Πίμπλεια και Λείβηθρον το παλαιόν Θράκια χωρία και όρη νυν δε Μακεδόνες έχουσι...” “Τεκμαίροιτ’ αν τις Θράκας είναι τους τον Ελικώνα ταις Μούσαις καθιερώσαντες, οι και την Πιερίδα και το Λείβηθρον και την Πίμπλειαν ταις αυταίς Θεαίς ανέδειξαν, εκαλούντο δε Πίερες”. Η θέση της Πιερίδας, σύμφωνα με την επικρατέστερη εκδοχή ήταν στη σημερινή Κονταριώτισσα (στα υψώματα). Η Πιερίς ήταν τόπος λατρείας του θεού Διονύσου. Αυτό είναι ένα ακόμη στοιχείο που μας δείχνει πως αυτή βρισκόταν σε ομαλό έδαφος, όπως είναι τα μέρη της Κονταριωτίσσης. Γιατί ο θεός Διόνυσος δεν ήταν ποιμενικός θεός και κατά συνέπεια δε χρειαζόταν χαράδρες και βουνά .


KONTARIOTISSA Kondariotissa (Greek: Κονταριώτισσα), also Kontariotissa, rarely Kountouriotissa (Κουντουριώτισσα) is a village, in Northern Greece. It is located in Pieria prefecture, south of the capital, Katerini. Its population is 1,981 (2001 est.). The nearest intrechange with GR-1 lies to the east. The main occupation of the people is cultivating tobacco. In it are the headquarters of the municipality of Dion, Macedonia (Dimos Diou), until January 1, 1999, Dion was a nonmunicipal community. One of the main places that worth visiting is the Byzantine church of the Virgin Mary (Naos Kimiseos Theotokou). The settlement dates back to ancient times and was known as Pieris (Greek: Πιερίς) where the name Pieria originates from the ancient tribes of Pieris. The genus name Pieris also originates from the slopey area within this area. The name became known as Kondariotis-

Mr Papachristos, the Mayor of the Municipality of Dion, to which Kontariotissa belongs, welcomes Italian Comenius staff on their first visit to the town (June 2008) together with the Greek staff.


Για τη θέση της Πιερίδος γράφουν και νεότεροι συγγραφείς: “Η Πιερία, η οποία έκειτο εις τα υψώματα της Κονταριωτίσσης (πιθανώτατα παρά το λεγόμενον δάσος Αδριανού όπου ανακαλύπτονται ορειχάλκινα αγαλμάτια, ειδώλια και νομίσματα). Από το όνομά της συμπεραίνουμε, ότι πρέπει να ήτο αξιόλογος πόλις”. O Ναός της Κοιμήσεως της Θεοτόκου, έργο βυζαντινού ρυθμού που χρονολογείται από τον 11ο αιώνα , αποτελεί αξιοθέατο και λειτουργεί την 15η Αυγούστου, ημέρα της Παναγίας. Την ίδια ημερομηνία κορυφώνεται η εμποροπανήγυρη στο χωριό. Σχόλια των μαθητών για την επίσκεψη: Ευαγγελία-Μαρία-Γαλήνη (2ο έτος Λύκειο Κονταριώτισσας) ΚΟΝΤΑΡΙΩΤΙΣΣΑ Περιμέναμε αρκετό καιρό για να δούμε τους Ιταλούς φίλους μας και τελικά έφτασαν. Όταν τους συναντήσαμε αισθανθήκαμε ευτυχία και συγκίνηση. Η πρώτη εντύπωση για τους Ιταλούς μαθητές ήταν το σχολείο μας διότι είναι μεγαλύτερο από το δικό τους με πολλά δένδρα και λουλούδια. Για το καλωσόρισμα φέραμε γευστικό φαγητό. Επίσης πήγαμε όλοι μαζί στο δημαρχείο και ο δήμαρχος του Δήμου Δίου μας καλωσόρισε θερμά. Κατά την διάρκεια της παραμονής τους, οι Έλληνες και οι Ιταλοί μαθητές πέρασαν όλοι μαζί ωραία στην Κονταριώτισσα.


Mr Papachristos welcomes the Comenius staff and the Italian and Greek students in the Town Hall. During the visit, Ms Santoro, the Italian headmaster gave gifts to the Mayor. Soon after, he gave each student, both Greek and Italian, small gifts. Students’ comments on the visit: Evaggelia-Maria-Galini (2nd year – Geniko Lykeio Kontariotissas): KONTARIOTISSA We were waiting for a long time to see our Italian friends and finely they arrived. When we met them we felt happiness and traffic. The first impression for Italian students was our school because it is bigger than theirs with many trees and flowers. For welcome we brought some tasty food. Also, we went all together to the city hall and the major of Municipality of Dion welcomed us warm. During the excursion the Creek and Italian students have a good time here in Kontariotissa.


ΠΥΔΝΑ Από την δυτική ακτή του Θερμαϊκού Κόλπου, ένα χιλιόμετρο προς το νότο στο Μακρύγιαλο μπορείτε να βρείτε τα ερείπια του Βυζαντινού Κάστρου του Μητροπολίτη Κίτρους. Αυτά είναι τα μόνα ορατά σήμερα ι αριστερά της βυζαντινής Πύδνας, που μετονομάστηκε σε Κίτρος, ήταν μέχρι τον 14ο αιώνα, η πιο σημαντική μεσαιωνική πόλη της Πιερίας. Η ήττα του Περσέα, τελευταίου βασιλιά της Μακεδονίας, από τον Lucius Aemilius Paullus κατά τη μάχη της Πύδνας (168 π.Χ.) βάζει την Πιερία σε μια παρατεταμένη ρωμαϊκής κατοχή. Μετά από μια περίοδο ονομαστικής ανεξαρτησίας, η Μακεδονία έγινε ρωμαϊκή επαρχία. Η νέα επαρχία δέχθηκε επίθεση από βάρβαρους λαούς, έγινε το θέατρο των ρωμαϊκών εμφύλιων πόλεων κατά τη διάρκεια της περιόδου της Δημοκρατίας, και απόλαυσαν μια σύντομη οικονομική ανάκαμψη - που παρέχεται από την «Pax Augusta» -. Στο εσωτερικό του Κάστρου δύο παλιές χριστιανικές Βασιλικές που χρονολογούνται από τον 4ο και τον 6ο αιώνα βρίσκονται, το τελευταίο εκ των οποίων καταστράφηκε κατά τη βουλγαρική κατοχή του φρουρίου, η οποία πραγματοποιήθηκε από τις 913 - 924.. Μετά το κάψιμο του καθεδρικού ναού της κοινότητας κατασκευάζονται δύο μικρά μονόκλινα δωμάτια ιερών στην περιοχή κοντά στο λιμάνι, δίπλα στο πανδοχείο. Στο τέλος του 15ου αιώνα ο χώρος εγκαταλείφθηκε λόγω των συνεχών επιθέσεων από τους πειρατές και τους κατοίκους να μετακινηθούν από τον τόπο σήμερα Κίτρους


PYDNA On the West Coast of the Thermaic Gulf, one kilometer to the south of Makrigialos you can find the ruins of the Byzantine Castle of the Bishop of Kitros. These ruins, together with the western gate of the Castle (opposite the Church), the foundations of an inn, baths and a small single chamber temple were uncovered during the period 1983 - 1992 whilst the site was being excavated by the Society of Byzantine Antiquities of Thessaloniki. These are the only visible remains left today of Byzantine Pydna, which was renamed Kitros in the 6th or 7th and century and was, until the 14th century, the most important city in medieval Pieria. The defeat of Perseus, last king of Macedonia, by Lucius Aemilius Paullus at the battle of Pydna (168 BC) ushered in a prolonged Roman occupation. After a period of nominal independence, Macedonia became a Roman province (‘provincia Macedonia’). The new province was attacked by diverse barbarian peoples, became the theatre of Roman civil strife during the period of the Republic, and enjoyed a brief economic recovery -- afforded by the ‘Pax Augusta’ -- which was followed by political vacillations that ended with the accession of Diocletian. The new system of the Tetrarchy, the administrative reorganisation, and the spread and recognition of Christianity, all laid the foundations of a new historical era which was formally expressed in the person of Constantine the Great. Inside the Castle two old Christian Basilicas dating from the 4th and 6th century are located, the last of which was destroyed in the Bulgarian occupation of the fortress, an event which took place from 913 - 924. At the end of the 10th century a large scale Church was built with a dome and cloister, 23.20 m. by 16.60 m., decorated with mosaics, wall paintings and some remarkable sculptures, and this must have been the Cathedral


ΠΙΕΡΙΑ Η Πιερία είναι ένας από τους νομούς της Ελλάδας. Βρίσκεται στο νότιο τμήμα της Μακεδονίας, στην περιφέρεια της Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας. Η πρωτεύουσα είναι η πόλη της Κατερίνης. Η Πιερία είναι ο μικρότερος νομός της Μακεδονίας. Στην Πιερία, υπάρχουν πολλές τοποθεσίες με αρχαιολογικό ενδιαφέρον, όπως το Δίον, ο Πλαταμώνας και η Πύδνα. Η Πιερία είναι επίσης η πατρίδα του Ορφέα και των Μοθσών,. Ο Όλυμπος, το ψηλότερο βουνό της Ελλάδας και θρόνος των αρχαίων ελληνικών θεών, βρίσκεται στο νότιο μέρος της Πιερίας. Άλλες αρχαίες πόλεις που περιλαμβάνονται Λείβυθρος και Πίμπλεια ή Πίμπλια. Κατά τους πρώτους χριστιανικούς αιώνες, η Πιερία γνώρισε σημαντική ανάπτυξη. Ο νομός Πιερίας είναι μια περιοχή πλούσια σε αξιοθέατα μεγάλου ιστορικού και αρχαιολογικού ενδιαφέροντος για τον επισκέπτη. Τα αξιοθέατα ποικίλλουν από τον πλούτο των ευρημάτων στο νεολιθικό οικισμό στο Μακρύγιαλο με τα ερείπια της Πύδνας με τα ερείπια της πόλης του Δίου και το Κάστρο στο Πλαταμώνα. Μοναστήρια και Εκκλησίες βρίσκονται σε αφθονία, μαρτυρούν για την εκτεταμένη ιστορία της περιοχής μας.


PIERIA Pieria is one of the prefectures of Greece. It is located in the southern part of Macedonia, in the Periphery of Central Macedonia. Its capital is the town of Katerini. Pieria is the smallest prefecture within Macedonia. The name Pieria originates from the ancient tribe and the ancient country of Pieris. In Pieria, there are many sites of archeological interest, such as Dion, Pydna and Platamonas. Pieria is also home to Mt. Pierus, home to Orpheus and the Muses, as well as the Pierian Spring. Mt. Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece and throne of the ancient Greek gods, is located in the southern part of Pieria. Other ancient cities included Leivithros and Pimpleia or Pimplia.During the first Christian ages, Pieria experienced a significant development despite the face that it was placed at the periphery of the Eastern Roman State. This fact is ascertained by the evidence that the Bishop of Kitros (that is, the ancient Pydna, which was renamed to “Kitros� at the time) was the firth in rank among the bishops of the Arch Diocese in Thessaloniki, the Bishop of Veria being the second one. Christian churces discovered or spotted in Pieria during the above period convince that an alteration in religious habits had been brought about there, signaling the transmission from idolatry to Christianism.... The county of Pieria is an area rich in attractions of great historical and archaeological interest to the visitor. These attractions range from the wealth of findings at the Neolithic Settlement in Makrigialos through the remains of Pydna to the ruins of the City of Dion and the Castle at Platamonas. Monasteries and Churches are to be found in abundance, bearing witness to the extensive history of our area. The farmer’s plough is constantly bringing new discoveries to the surface in this part of the world.


Αρχαία Μακεδονία Η Μακεδονία κατοικήθηκε από την Παλαιολιθική περίοδο. Τα πρώτα ίχνη του φαίνεται μια ελληνική παρουσία στην Ύστερη Εποχή του Χαλκού, ενώ οι πρόσφατες ανασκαφές έχουν δείξει ότι ο μυκηναϊκός κόσμος είχε επεκταθεί μέχρι την Πιερία. Μια αποφασιστική καμπή στην ιστορία Μακεδονικό ήταν η κατάληψη του Μακεδονικού κάμπου από τους Αργείδες Μακεδόνες, και την ίδρυση του βασιλείου τους 7ου αιώνα π.Χ. με τις Αιγές, ως πρωτεύοθσα. Υπό το κράτος αυτών των επιφανών μοναρχών όπως Aλέξανδρος I, Aρχέλαος Ι και ΙΙ, Φίλιππος, οι Μακεδόνες κυριαρχούν στο σύνολο της Βόρειας Ελλάδας, αφομοιώνοντας τους αυτόχθονες πληθυσμούς και επισυνάπτονται στα νότια οι νοτιοελληνικές αποικίες. Ως αποτέλεσμα της πολιτικής η Μακεδονία εμφανίστηκε ως ένα προπύργιο κατά των βαρβάρων. Στη συνέχεια, μετά τις κατακτήσεις του Αλεξάνδρου ΙΙΙ, ένας «νέος, μεγάλος ελληνικός κόσμος” γεννήθηκε. Η Μακεδονία έγινε ρωμαϊκή επαρχία το ενδιάμεσο μεταξύ της Ανατολής και της Δύσης, και διαβιβάζει την Ελληνική παράδοση στο Βυζάντιο. Για να αποτραπεί η αναζωπύρωση του Μακεδονικού βασιλείου της εξουσίας, οι Ρωμαίοι χωρίζουν σε τέσσερις «merides» (τμήματα). Κάθε ένα από αυτές τις ημι-αυτόνομες περιοχές είχε ένα διοικητικό κέντρο (Αμφίπολη, Πέλλα, Θεσσαλονίκη, και Πελαγωνια), όπου είχαν ληφθεί στις εισφορές και τους πολίτες να εκλέγουν τους τοπικούς ηγέτες. Η ενσωμάτωση της Μακεδονίας, στην Ρωμαϊκή διοίκησης ενισχύθηκε από την ύπαρξη των πόλεων και των αυτόνομων


Ancient Macedonia Macedonia has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic period. The earliest traces of a Greek presence appear in the late Bronze Age, while recent excavations have shown that the Mycenaean world extended as far as Pieria and the middle reaches of the Haliakmon. A decisive turning point in Macedonian history was the occupation of the central Macedonian plain by the Argeadai Makedones, and the founding of their kingdom in the 7th century BC with Aigai as its capital. Under the rule of such illustrious monarchs as Alexander I, Archelaos I and Philip II, Macedonians came to dominate the whole of northern Greece, assimilating indigenous peoples and annexing southern Greek colonies. As a result of her policy, Macedonia emerged as a bulwark against the barbarians and a major cultural fountainhead in the Greek world. Thence, following the conquests of Alexander III, a “new, great Greek world” was born. As a Roman province Macedonia became the intermediary between the East and the West and transmitted the Hellenic tradition to Byzantium. To avert a resurgence of the Macedonian kingdom’s power, the Romans divided it into four ‘merides’ (portions). Each of these semi-autonomous areas had an administrative center (Amphipolis, Pella, Thessalonike, and Pelagonia), where levies were taken in and the citizens assembled to elect their local leaders. The incorporation of Macedonia into the Roman administration was aided by the existence of cities and autonomous ‘koina’ (commonalties) of various peoples.


Η Ρωμαϊκές αποικίες (Δίον, Πέλλα, Φίλιπποι, Κασσανδρεία) απηλλάγησαν από την άμεση φορολογία. Οι ελληνικές πόλεις είχαν τους δικούς τους νόμους και τους ηγέτες της, αν και τα περισσότερα είχαν φορολογηθεί. Ορισμένοι, ωστόσο, όπως η Θεσσαλονίκη, Αμφίπολη και Σκοτούσσα, απολαμβάνουν τα προνόμια μιας ελεύθερης πόλης . Σχόλια των μαθητών για την επίσκεψη: Άννα (2ο έτος Λύκειο Κονταριώτισσας) Η επίσκεψη μας στη Θεσσαλονίκη ήταν εκπληκτική. Με σύμμαχο μας τον καλό καιρό απολαύσαμε μια βόλτα στα γραφικά Κάστρα της συμπρωτεύουσας, ενώ επίσης τραβήξαμε και κάποιες φωτογραφίες ως αναμνήσεις της εκδρομής αυτής με τους Ιταλούς μας φίλους. Η εκδρομή μας συνεχίστηκε στο εμπορικό κέντρο Mediterranean Cosmos όπου αφού κάναμε τα ψώνια μας συνοδέψαμε τους φίλους μας για να δοκιμάσουν το γρήγορο ελληνικό φαγητό. Στο τέλος της μέρας έπρεπε να επιστρέψουμε στην Κονταριώτισσα, αλλά παρά την κούραση μας ήμασταν πολύ χαρούμενοι αφού είχαμε μία θαυμαστική εμπειρία και πολύ ωραίες αναμνήσεις.


The Roman colonies (Dion, Pella , Philippi, Kassandreia) were exempt from direct taxation. The Greek cities had their own laws and leaders, although most were taxed. Some however, such as Thessalonike, Amphipolis and Skotoussa, enjoyed the privileges of a free city (‘civitates liberae’). Students’ comments on the visit: Anna (2nd year – Geniko Lykeio Kontariotissas): Thessaloniki Our trip to Thessaloniki was really wonderful. The weather was really good and we also enjoyed the picturesque landscape of the city’s Old Castles. We took some pictures with our Italian friends to remind us of this excursion and continued our tour by going for shopping at the Mediterranean Cosmos Mall …After all this tiring procedure we accompanied our friends to taste Greek fast food. By the end of the day it was time to return back to Kontariotissa, all exhausted from our trip but full of new and unforgettable memories with our new friends.


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LYKEIO KONTARIOTISSAS HEADMASTER (ΠΕ 02) (ΠΕ 11) (ΠΕ 06) (ΠΕ 01) (ΠΕ 06) (ΠΕ 20)

C O M E N I U S

TEACHERS: • ILIAS ANTONAKIS • ALEXANDROS KEDRAS • MARIANNA GIANNAKIDOY • ELEFTHERIA DOLGYRA • XRISTOS KRAGIOPOULOS • ΜΑΤΗΕΟΣ ΜΑΝΤΗΟΣ • ΚARTSIOTIS THEODOROS

THE ROMANS IN THE WEST...


documents about the project 2008/2009

COMENIUS The romans in the east. . .

Geniko Lykeio of Kontariotissas Liceo Ginnasio Duni of Matera

Comenius final report  

The final report of Comenius project

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