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A HANDBOOKOF

Leaering FORSTITCHERS


Aboutthis book: The Author hassetout irl this book with three distinct aims. Firstly to wite a concisehistoryofLettering, tracing the developmentfrom the simplestmarkingsto the elaborate and decorative monogtam. Secondly to givâ‚Źan illustated dictionary of all stitchesthat are suitable for carrlng out any lettering. Finally to displayin an illustrated sectionthe greatvarietyollettering designssuitablefor variousstitches using every letter of the alphabet as examples. The result is a book which witl appealto all thoseinterestedin embroideryandtheprofusionofdesign ideaswill help and inspireanybody who enjoysmonogramming.

A VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD BOOK


HANDBOOK OF

Lettering FOR STITCHERS


A HANDBOOK OF

Lettering FOR STITCHERS ELSIE SVENNAS

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van NostrandRejnholdcompany RegionalOmces: New York Cincinnari Chicago Miilbrae Dallas Van NostrandReinhoidCompanyInternationalolfices: Toronto Melbourne London This book wasorisinallypublishedin Swedish in two volumes,entitledn4arkbokandMarkbok 2, by LC.A. Fdrlaget,Vasreras,Sweden CopyrishtO ElsieSvennasand LC.A. Fijrlaget.Vesteras.1966 EnglishtranslationO Van Noslrand ReinholdConpany Ltd. 1973 Library of ConsressCatalosCard Number: 72 5278 rsBN:0 ,142280858 A1l rightsreserved.No part of this work coveredby the copyrigh!hereonmay be reproducedor xsedin any form or by any means graphic,elecro.ic. or nechanical,includiig pholocopyinS.recording. tapingor informalionstorageaDdretrieval systems withoul written permissionoithe publisher This book is prinredin Great Britain by Jolly and BarberLimited, Rugby and bound by the FerndaleBook Conpanr. P u b l i s h e d b y V a n N o s t r aRnedi n h o l d C o n p a n y , l n c . 4 5 0 W e s t 3 3 r d S t . New York, N.Y. 10001and Van NostrandReirhold CompanyLtd. EgginlonHouse,25 28 BuckinghanCate, London S.W.l. Publishedsinuhaneouslyin Canadaby Van Noslrand ReinholdLld. 1 61 51 41 31 21 l 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


Marking

E v c n d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e A g c s , b c f o r ct h e a r t o f w r i t i n g became general. the well-to-do families ol Europe 'mark' used 1o put a private or mark of ownership on their houses and possessions. h went \,!ith the farm or the fanily and usually enjoyed legal pro 'mark'was t e c t i o n .I h i s a s i g n o r s o m e l i m c sa l e t l c r , It was made up of straight lines, circles and othef sinple heraldic devices. owing to the fact that the material was often stubborn to work in. (This type of marking is still in use, for ex,rmpte, on timber and cattle.) Textile naterials, on thc othcr hand, wcrc easily worked, and there the mark was replaced at an early stage by lettets or a manogrcm. which comes from the Greek word meaning a singlc leltcr. The worked monograms had both a praclical and acsthctic lunction and were formed in the style and manner of the period. For somc inexplicable reason. however. textile marking has not developed over the past fifty ycars. All too oftcn the letters are still formed in styles which we now avoid in other contexts such as books, newspapen and other typographical products. On inherited linen we iike to see thc old monogmms. ollen large and highly elaborare perhaps becauseit givcs a nostalgic rcminder of the pas1. For the sake of future generarions, however, we ought to build on tradition, and adapt the shape and size of thc monog m m t o t h e t a s t ea n d s t y l eo f t h e d a y .

A well-worked monogram is nowadays oftcn thc only decoration on- lor example. a sheet. And to relieve the plainness of other texlile aflicles such as t a b l e m a t s , n a p k i n c a s e sb.i b s , s t o r a g e b a g s . h a n d b a g s .rnd clothes ofvarious sorts. a monogmm is a suitable decoration which at the same time makes the article more personal. The monograms in this book are in many casesas simple asthe old idiograph, but thereare also examples of letters in various kinds oftype as well as fantastic and romanticised forms. Most ol them can be embroidcred in various stitches, some easy, some more difilcult. Some are intcnded to be worked in 'free style' embroidery, that is. following traccd lines, others are 1() be worked in cross stitch and other 'counted thread' embroideries. For a marking to be beautilul it must be wellexeculed and take textile properties into conslder arion. Choice of letlers, material and embroidery tcchnique depend of course not only on thc article to be marked and the time al your disposal, but also on yourskill. We aUnnd pleasurein havinga beautiful Iinen store. and marking can be an enjoyable and exciting way of expresslng your personal taste and style. This book will show you how the wcrk is done and the many techniques and forms ofletters at your disposal.


Choice of letters, enlarging and reducing

Nowadaysa'singleletter is often usedfor marking. The linen storeis, afterall, the propertyofthe whole family,sothat theinitial ofthe familynameissuitable as a monogram.The shapeand sizedependson the posilion wherc the monogramis to be placed.also bearinginmind anypatternon the fabdc.To simplify the choiceof monogramthere are severalpagesin this book showinga collectionof diferent stylesol the sameletter. The lettersare very closetogether, but when you have chosenone or two styles,trace them on transparentpaper.You will be able to see betterhow the letterlooksaloneand seewhetherit is suitable.Most of the letteG are intendedto stand alone,but just a few of the stylesrecur on diferent pagesand can be usedtogether. If a number of lettersare to be usedtogetheait is bestto choosethem from an alphabetin which the actual lettersare so shapedthat they balancewell together.Placeall the lette^ on the samelevel for preference.This is more up{o-date than standing them on a slant or entwining them together.The distancebetweenthe lettersmust be carefullyconsidered.Experimentby drawingtheletterson separate piecesofpaper and bringingthemclosertogetheror fufther apart. The lettersneednot be intertwrned. There are examplesin this book of a few such combinations,but the inexperiencedworker will 6

o b r f i nb c l L erre , u l l .b ) n o ra l | e r p r ' n gr L ' . By all meansincludethe date. lt is interestingto haveboth da1â‚Źand lettersin orderto checkwearand tear and for the benefitof future generations. It will be seenfrom the earliermonogramsreproducedin this book that the date oftentook up as much space asthe letten. The sizeofthe lettersin this book is not alwaysthe sizeyou will want. Sometimesthe fabric or artrcle will demanda differentscale.Many peoplelike to have all their linen unifonnly marked and then the monogrammustbe workedin differentsizes.It must not look eithertoo largeor too small.On an ordinary unpattemed hand towel about I inch high is a reasonablesize.The figurcson the left showhow to enlargeor reducewith the help of squaredpapersThis can either be bought in varioussizesor homemade.Ifyou are goingto usethe monograma lot, it will savetime if you have photostatcopiesmade, enlargedor reduced. The placingofa monogramis alsoimportant.Find out the most pmctical place and rememberthat traditionally a monogramshould be seenand also decoratethe article.On a placemat, lor example,it must not bâ‚Ź coveredby the plateand on tablecloths, napkinsand towelsit must be placedso that it will be seenwhenthe articleis foldedup.


T r a n s f e r t o t h e m a t e r i aI

when the form and size of the monogmm has been decided. draw it on a piece oflransparent paper with a hard, sharp lead pencil. lfyou are going to work a lot of identical monograms il is better to draw it in lndian ink on tracing cloth. To help in placing it on the material draw a vertical and horizontal line on the paper. Then select the place for the monogram and tack a cross on the fabric along the line of the weave (rcmember that nowadays monograms are seldom placed obliquely over corners). On applying the paper, nt the two sets of lines exactly over the tacked cross. Sometimes lines can be marked by drawing a pin along the surface instead oftacking. The transfer can then be made by any one offour differenr methods. Theeasiest is by using r ar6on paper (dark or light according to the colour of the fabdc). Lay the fabric on a hard, smooth surface and 6x the paper with the monogram nrmly over it with pins or tape orby lacking it down. Then lay the carbon paper coloured side down between the fabric and the paper. Draw over alllhe lines with a pen, steelknittingneedle orcrochet hook, carcfully liftingtheedge ofthe paper to make sure the impression is clear. You can ifyou wish make carbon paper yourself by colouring the back of the paper on which you have drawn the monogram with soft lead pencil or chalk. The best results are usually obtained by the more

laborious method of pouncing. Lay the paper or tracing cloth on which the monogram has been drawn on a soft surface and prick along all lhe lines with a sewing needle. Fix the pricked monogram over the fabdc and with a piece ofcotton wool or a twist of wool smear coloured powder all over the monogram so that it works through the holes. Thecoloured powder can be ordinary talcum for dark fabrics and talcum mixed with blue for light fabrics. After removing the paper you will see the lines as rows of pricks and can fill them in with pencil or Indian ink. A simple method applicable in the case of light, thin fabrics is transfer by hgrt. This involves making the letter drawn on the paper show lhrough the labric by holding bolh to a light. This can be carried out in comforl by laying a sheet ofglass, for example. over a suitably wide gap between two tables ofequalheight and placing a srrong lamp undemeath the glass. A darkened room will facilitate the process. Whlle you are drawing the letter on to the fabric this musl be held taut with the left hand or be fixed in a frame. The fourth method is by working small tunning s/il.rer along the outiines through both fabric .rnd paper. The paper is then carefully torn away. This method is excellent on all fabrics, and gives a fresh, unmarked final result. It is almost the only method possible for lowelling and similar surfaces.


M ateria ls

The thread you mark with should suit both the characterof the fabric and the typesof lettersyou havechosen.A very common mistakeis to usetoo thick a thread, often with the idea of speed.This makesfor a clumsyresult:it is betterto choosetoo nnea threadthan too coarsea one.All unevemcsscs in the embroiderywill be unnecessarily eniargedif the thread is coarseand the stitcheslarge. White marking threadis madein very fine thicknesses, but not all shops supply it and correspondinglynne colouredmarking thread is probably unobtainable. However,ifyour threadis too coarseand a nnerone is unobtainable,it is alwayspossibleto draw out oneor two stnnds ofthe threadyou have,For raised satinstitchand in certaincasesordinarysatinstitch. for which the stitchesshould form a smooth,even surface,it is betterto work with threadfrom which astmndor two hasbeenremoved.Verylooselytwisted threads and techniquesthat involvâ‚Ź long, loose stitchesshouldbe avoidedbecause they will not last. Sometimesdifferentthicknesses olthread must be used in the same monogram to obtain the best appearance. For narrow outlining work mercerised sewingthread is recommended. It is availablein a widerangeof generallyfastcolours.With allcoloured fabricsor threadsit is important to make surc the dye is fast by washinga samplein the ordinaryway. 8

Once fastness is established contrasts can be made: for example, a white thread contrasts well with a coloured fabric. Hand-woven materials may be successfully marked with scraps of the spun warp thread. Coloured threads of a difierent quality and different dye from the fabric may be the same colour when first used, but wjll possibly look quite diflerent after a few washes. Unbleached lineD thread, for example, has an attractive, warm gtey colour at first, butgmdually turns quitewhite. A grey marking looks good against silver, stainlesssteeland wood. On linen fabric it is usually best to use twisted linen thread. which is available in both white and colours and is sold in good handicmft and needlework shops. Certain special colours will only be found among moulinee yarns. Single{hread cotton, often used for traditional embroidedes, with its attractive pastel tones is suitable for colgured marking. Wbite bed linen edged with lace is best marked in white. Sheets with coloured bordâ‚Źrs look extremely effective ifthe monogram is worked in exactly the same colour as the border. White monograms are the mosl practical on plain coloured fabrics. The dimcult problem of marking striped malerials can often be solved by appliqueing on, e.g. a broad band of white colton, and then working the monogmm on that in colour.


Embro iderv techn iques

Embroidery lcchniqucs have followed the tides of fashion in the same \fay as forms of lelters- Many of them have a long history behind them and have appeared at diffcrent periods in different materials and combinations. The technique used should be adapted to the quality and style of the article. Soirc of those described on the following pages have not genemlly been used for marking. but the illustrulions of the worked examples show how they can be epplied. Cross stitch. The diagram above shows one ofthe most commonlyuscd sritches--the diagonal cross stitch on the lelt hand side. The bottom siitch ls worked from left to right and the top stitch from right to left. All the stitches in a piece of \'r'ork should lie in the samedirection.Thethreadshouldalwaysbeattachedinthedirection of the stitching, never at right-angles. If you are working on a Ioosely-\,r'ovenfabric, take carc not to pull the stitches too tight. Thc righr hand diagram shows the straight cross stitch. This can be worked in diferenl ways: the diagram shows the two stages of r method in which the whole stitch is completed at once. Straight cross slitch must be worked over an even number of threads. A


monognm which is designedto be worked straight over the threads of the fabric can also often be worked obliquely over the threads, bur then it will also stand obliquely on the fabric. The two cross . r i l c h e . c a n b e c o m b i n e d I n l e l r e r ra n d d e . i g n . . Back stitch, four-sided stitch. The stitches shown in the diagram above, back stitch (left) and four-sided stitch (cenrre and righr), can be used in conjunction with cross stitch and satin stitch for both simple and more demanding monograms. They may often be appropriately used on tablecloths and place mats in combination w i t h s o - c a l l e d ' b l a c k ' s t i t c he m b r o i d e r y .T h i s w a s o r i g i n a l i y w o r k e d in black silk on white linen. Nowadays the same technique is often used in modern interpretalions, worked in red, pink or blue thread. Brown or greyyarn is also used for markingtablecloths and napkins. Most of the monograms on this page are taken from pages 50-4 and worked in one thread of moulin6e yarn. lt is important that the thread should be nne. B in the middle ofthe nert page is worked rn two colours. ln lower case (see under B and on page 53)_these letters can be used for longer texts. as for example on presentssuch


,::.


I

Techniques for two-sided embroidery. Marking should alwals be d o n e v e r y n c a l l y . s o t h a t e v e nt h e ' w r o n g ' s i d e l o o k s n i c c . Q u i t e a number of the leltcrs of the alphabet keep their shape urlranged on thc back. By tracing the inilial on a piece of transparent paper Jou can test wheiher the \etler will \ook the same on the back. Thc illusrration on the Left shows the same lctters on the'right' a n d ' w r o n g ' s i d e . l n s o m e c a s e sc o m b i n e d l e t t e r sc a n a l s o b e r e a d in lhe correct direction on both sides (see I E on page l,l). A few cxamples of suhable stitches are shown in the diagrams. A narrow salin stilch will have more body if worked ovel a few trammed threads. Stem stitcb and in some casesherringbone stitch becomes bdck stitch on the wrong side. This can bc worked o\rcr rvith a whlpping thread or otherwise dccorated. Seeexamplesabove. Herringbone stitch can also be worked so that lhc back becomes satinstilch. ll


Raised satin stitch. Raised satin stitch recall! the chefactenstrc sevenieerrrhcentury relicf embroidery. oltcn magnificcnil)' executedin gold and sil\'cr thrcad. A t t h e m i d d l e o f r h e n i n e l e e n t hc c n t u r y c o i t o n v a r n c a m e i n t o g e n e r . r lu s e a n d w i t h t h i s t h c d c l i c a t e eighieenlh century lincn thrcad embfoiderv evolved i n i o . r h e a v i e r r e l i e f e m b r o i d e r v .T h i s i n c l u d e d t h e so-calledtuohie dnglar. v,ith satin slitch and raised r r r n . r i r L h \ r n . e t h e n . 3 e n e" r ' " _ d . r e c _ ( r d l i o r h a su s e dt h e s et c c h n i q u e sf o r n r a r k i n g .B u t y o u h a v e pfobabl], olien noticed how the material tcars away . r t t h c s i d co f h e a v y r . r i s e ds a t i n s t i t c h a n d a t t h c d c c p i m p r e s s i o n sl e f l o n m a n g l e d a r r i c l e s .T h e s o - c a l l e d 'fil1ing i n ' r a i s e d s a t i n s i i t c h i s c o n s e q u e n t l yu s e d s p a r i n g l yn o w a d a y s .l n i h i s t e c h n i q u ec v e n t h c t h i n I i n e so f l h e l c l t c r s a r c r v o r k e db y o v e f c a s r i n ga t n g h l a n g l e sr o t h e u n d e r l y n r g f i l l i n g . R a i s e ds a t i n s t i t c h 'whippcd ihen. like o u t l i n c s t i t c h e s .i s r e a l h o n l y s u i t a b l ef o r m a t e r i a l ss u c h a s d l i l l , b i r d s e y e w e a v e a n dd a m a s k .O r d i n a | v s a t i ns t i t c h a n d s l e m s t i t c ha r c n o t s u i t a b l eo n t h e s es e l f p a t t c c d l a b r i c s . Satin stitch. Satin stitch is suilable for work on lirm. s m o o t hs u f l a c e s I. t ! r , a st h c l n o s l u s u a ls u f a c e - f i l l i n g s t i l c h i n t h c c i g h t e e n t hc e n t u f y w h i t e e m b r o i d e i c s a n d o c c u r sb o l h a s a s i r n i g h t s a r i n s l i t c h , w i l h t h c s t i l c h e sa l r i g h t a n g l e st o t h c o u t l i n e . a n d a l s o l v i t h

t h e s t i t c h e ss l a n l i n g i n o r d e r t o f o l l o w t h c s h a p eo f the pattem belter. lt is important to make sure that the stitches all slant the sameway. The outlines round satin stitch will be more raised and more even if you first work round the outline in back stitch or stem stitch. Another way ofmaking satin stitch more even at the edge is to work round it aftcrwards in a fine outline stitch. In many letters the satin stilch may be allowed to merge graduallv into stem stirch. Outline stitches. Of the outline stitches ,a.,+ riil(l] (see page 18) ^nd stem stitch (see pagc 19) are rhe simplest. Rich embroidcries wirh Renaissance rypc omamentation and letters worked in red and black silk in lincs of stem stitch only go back as far as the sixteenth century. Thc stitch can beworkedboth right handcd and left handed. A broader line is sirnply achieved by working several rows ofstcm stitch close against each other. F'or ncatnessbegin and end each row of stem stitoh with a smaller stilch. 'l:lthippd outlinc' sritch is a rclief stitch. lr originatcs from the outline stitchingin sixtcenlh.rnd seventeenth century applique work. In the rich and skilfully execuled eighteenth century white embroideries a 'whipped outline' sritch was used for ourlining the pierced or lilled grounds charactcristic ofthe period. li


It is suitable for work on closely woven fabrics, particularlypatternedweavesasit standsout enough to makethe monogmmconspicuousThe stitchconsistsofvarious overstitchedoutlinestitchesand consequentlydifers in thickness.The thinnestis worked over back stitch or stemstitchand the coarsestover chain stitch.The whippingis donefrom right to left 'whipping' lies exceptover stem stitch, for which the directionlo theslemstitch. in the opposite

stitchesin combinationwith other techniques.They shouldbe fastenedvery firmly to the fabric so asnot 'stalk' and on articlesto be to be left hanglngon a washedfiequently they are better replaced by small 'laztdaisy' stitches.A kind ofoutline stitch,in which small twisted chain stitchesform the knots, is also known as knot stitch.

Tambow stitch, Tambour stitch looks like chain stitchbut is workeddiferently. It getsits namefrom Chainsti!.his anothereasilyworkedoutlini 'trtch. the French word tambout (drtttr.'), and. refers to the commonin eighteenthcenturymarkings.Workedin fact that it is worked on fine fabric stretched over a fine thread in small stitchesit is suitablefor ornate frame. The thread is held in the left handasin ordinary letter folms. It is also used, like stem stitch, for crochet, but it is held ,ndemeath the fabtia, ^nd the tramming, loopsare drawn up with a crochethook and worked into a chain.This is a medievaltechniquewhich was Coucrig is usedfi$tly as an outline stitch,whm a fashionablein the eighteenthand nineteenth very single or double thread is laid on the fabric and centuriâ‚Źs.lt is excellentfor towelling and similar fasteneddown with small stitchesin the sameor a wherechaiflstitchis normallyrecommended. 'filling' with surfaces differentcolour,secondlyit is usedas a Tambour stitch is quicker to do and unlike chain its long trammâ‚Źd threads oversewn with small stitchis easyto undo,if oneshouldwishto changethe slrrcnes. monogram.On the wrong sidethe stitch looks like back stitch, which can easilybe madeattractrveby Knot stirch is a râ‚Źlief techniqueusually worked by overstitching. round of times number a certain thread winding the the needle. ln the eighteenthcentury white emlook Split stitch.This canalsoin somecircumstances broideriestheseknots covercd whole surfaces.In the right lies on of the thread Most stitch. like chain modem monogmmsknots are used as decorative l6


side ofthe fabric. The slitch takes its name from the l-ac1that one pierces the working th.ead with the needle on making the stitch. Split stitch is used both as an outline stitch and for filling as a sort of'shaded' sUrcn. Shadow stitch. Shadow stitch is onâ‚Ź ofthe eighteenth century techniques. It is worked on thin fabric with a fine thread (sewing cotton is quite suitable) in rhe colour ofthe fabdc. On the right side the work makes outlines rcsembling back sti tch, but m ost of the thread lies onthe back as a lilling. It consequently appears as a shadow against rhe thin fabric. The lilling also means thal the monogram is raised against the

Buttonhole stitch. One of the commonest lechniques v]Jsedin broderie a glaise. It used to be employed frequently with filling and as an edging to the work. Double buttonhole stitch is most suitable fur monograms. lt gives much the same effect as satin stitch outlined with stem stitch. Feather stitch is an easy stitch, closely allied to buttonholc stitch. Shadâ‚Źdstitch. This occu$ in one or two varrauons. It is a medieval technique which reached its highest peak in the eighteenth century, during which it was

executedwith great skill in silk- lt takes its name from the fact that it was usually worked in a number of dillerent shades of silk, which gave a softly blended colour efect. In modern monograms it is worked in one colour only. On articles to be washed frequently lhe stitches should not be too long nor lie too loosely on the surf-aceofthe fabric. The embroidery techniques described will be made clearer by the following diagrams and photographs of worked monograms, all enlarged for the sake of clarity. A certain number oftechniques, and possible variations not mentioned above are also shown_The diagrams often show the embroidery executed in two colours. This is for the sake of clarity and does not necessarily mean that the work needs contrasting The most important thing for a good result is, however, accuracy in execution. On loosely woven fabrics free style embroidery will be most successful if the work is stretched in a frame. Do not use too coarse needles. If the thread is coarse, use pointed tapestry needles, otherwise ordinary sewing needles. Do not leave the thread lying in long, loose loops on the back. Work with reasonably long lenglhs of thread and lasten ofcarefully.


Back sritchand

whipped back strrch

Laced back slitch

stitch Pekincse


W h i p p c d s r e m s tr r ch

Sten stitch worked to righl and left and rariation ol lazy daisy stilch

C a b l ec h a i n s l i l c h

Tambour stitchcrochclcd ihrough ihe fabric


Chrin stilch

W h i p p e d c h a r ns l i t c h

Varialion of !vhipped chain stilc!

Chain stiich over

Open chaln sritch { lth s t i t c h c sr n g r o u p s


B u L l o nh o l c s t r r c h

Doublc bullonholc slrtch

Two rows of buttonholc stitchwith chain

Slertingbuuonhole strtch

tsuttonhole stitch


Smrll chrln strtchcs as knots. or double chain sirtch

C o u c h i n ga n d (noLs

Darning over !tar Jhrpcd lhreads

Small freestvlcstilchcs as ofnamenrinside oulline \titch

Knotted ir butto


K n o l t e d s t i t c h .f l o w e r i n b u t t o n h o l es t i t c h

Knotted stitch and variation on twisted chain stilch

FIy sritch

Feather stitch

Chained feather slitch


Straighrsarinstitch. outlincsin running

Satin stitch ovcrseu n in back slilch

Satinsrilch and back stitch

Sarinsritchwirh stcn slitchoullines

satin stiich slal1ting to right a.d to left


Satin stitch

Raised satin stitch. stem stitch or back stitch filliDg

Raisedsatinstitch. split stitchor chainstirchiilling

Raised satin sthch running stitch

Looped holes


C l o s e dh e r f n r g b o n cs t ' t c h $i1h stemstiich oulhnc

S h a d o w s l r t c h( a s c d g i n gi b r c l o s e d hefingbone slitch)

Appljque work with

Trammccl threads overscivn with stemstitch

T r a m m e d t h r c a d so v e r s c w n with snlall back stitch

.,t,

.,'


D a r n i n gs t c h

Double darning stitchon ! h r e a d sl n i d c r o s s w i s e

S h a d e ds t r t c hw i t h o u l r hippedslcm stilch

S h a d e ds t i r c hw i t h stemstitchoutline

Splil stitch in outlines and filled sufaces


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If you wish to make a thin letter. trace the black line, otherwise trace the grey surface. suitable stitches are whipped outline stitch. stem sritch,

AE=,KffiGEHI Hm satin stitch, back stitch, chain stitch. two rows ofwhipped outline stitch, outline slitch filled with decorative stitches.

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which can alsobe turnedupsidedown simple monogramsresemblingideographs.Belowand right, variationson mirror monograms

64


ABI MFFG!-IiJKLI\fl N! IIIVWAYI OPO RSTLI] :ffmc = mffi += EEffi ffi tu; re ffi *f 0 "=1= "l* illl ffi |[l,Xll& W. | ff" | I

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Aboutthe author: Elsie Svennas is a well-known authority on all aspectsofstitchery and embroidery.Sheis the author of many books on the subject,the latest being PATCHCRAFT in the Reinhold Craft Paperbnck Series.

VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD COMPANY NEW YORK CINCINNATILONDON MELBOURNE



Handbook of lettering