Page 1

Design Educate Liberate A Model for Design Learning

by Stuart Harvey


Design Educate Liberate II



Introduction & Context


Prototype Model 15



Notebook Tutorial 18

Author Student ID Date Programme

18 567 Stuart Harvey

List of Illustrations


Models - Intorduction to Theories


Development Thinking

19, 20, 21

August 2011

Authors reflections and thoughts


Humanist Learning Model Elements

22, 23, 24


Reflective Log


Humanist Learning Manifesto

Development 22

Humanist Learning Model Experiments

37 38-43

Case Studies 25 Conclusions 35 Bibliography 44 Further Reading 45 Appendix One



Introduction and Context At an age when many students elect to start an undergraduate education, creative students with a measure of ambition and an interest in career possibilities in art and design apply to undertake a Foundation Course. This is the traditional, diagnostic route for Fine Art and Design students, enabling them to identify a subject specialism and apply to suitable degree courses. In 2004/5 there were two hundred and three Foundation Diploma courses (Legg, 2006, p4) and today most degree courses prefer students with a Foundation Diploma. (Hilpern, 2010), (British Council) In most respects the students are adults but they undergo a rapid change both because of the rigours of a Foundation Course and because most are new to adult-hood and are expected to embrace the challenges of this phase of their lives, leaving behind school and classroom culture. Against this background, the role of the lecturer is complex, being partly art or design practitioner and lecturer but also coach and counsellor, guiding the student through a transitional process which takes them from an ‘A’ level subject to a specialist, industry based subject. Alongside this transition the students ‘grow up’, becoming self directed and reflective learners but also confident and reflective citizens, able to critically de-cypher their worlds.

Many educators observe this process, not least

the end of the course. This context has provided a

colleagues of the author, but it is the intensity of the

site in which to make a study of design teaching and

Foundation Course which forces it under the lens of this

this paper makes a distinction between Design and

paper. The sheer speed, one academic year equating

Fine Art and will concentrate on design teaching and

to nine months, at which the course progresses, the

learning. However, ‘The goal of education - any kind of

demands on the students and staff and the problems

education, but especially a humanistic education - is

associated with guiding young adults, some older than

traditionally understood as twofold. First the students

the usual eighteen or nineteen, through an intellectually

are supposed to acquire a certain professionalism in

stimulating yet challenging journey will be familiar

the field in which thay are being educated. Second,

to Foundation Course tutors. This paper examines

the students are supposed to be changed as human

that process from the point of view of the relationship

beings, formed anew by their education - to become

between the student and the tutor. It is the contention

different, more accomplished, even a better example of

of this paper that art and design learning and teaching

humanity.’ (Groys, 2009, p26)

must be humanist in approach to succeed and that a truly humanistic application brings with it responsibility

Designing and delivering a programme which aims to

and discipline. Furthermore, it is proposed that the

equip students with a range of design skills, an ethos

following models and discussions are relevant to design

which endeavours to prepare them for independent, self

education at all post-graduate levels.

directed study in combination with subject specialisms such as graphic design, advertising and illustration

The Foundation Course at Leeds College of Art, one of

which demand a critical engagement with contemporary

the oldest in the country, dating back to Harry Thubron’s

culture means that students are required to challenge

Basic Design Course (which was in turn based on

notions of how their worlds fit together. They are subject

Itten’s Basic Design Course) publishing its prospectus

to, what seems at first, a deeply unfamiliar learning

in1958, (Owen, 2003, p78) is split into four subject

culture, their understandings of what art and design is

specialisms. These are ‘Fine Art’, ‘Textiles, Fashion and

are completely overturned. The critical, reflective and

Design for Performance’, ‘Object and Spatial Design’

evaluative demands of design demand that the students

and lastly, ‘Graphics, Illustration and Digital Media’ for

change as people and it is this transformative learning

which the author is responsible. The students specialise

that this paper will address.

in October and remain in their specialist areas until


It is fortuitous that a study of humanist teaching and

schools is due to those students having a predisposition

learning practice has grown out of a course which puts

towards visual creativity (Barton, 1998) was part of the

great emphasis on one to one teaching. However,

inspiration for undertaking the required research for

design is usually taught in this way, (Schön, 1987,

this paper which aims to describe a relationship which

p45) with additional crits and seminars ensuring that

adressed diverse learning needs, model it, in order

students receive the full range of design learning

to understand its functioning, discuss how it can be

but it is this ‘one to one’ element which is the most

applied in the design studio and how it came to function

important to the development of the student of design.

in the authors practice of design educator and designer.

Design is reflective, evaluative and demands deep

Part one of this investigation (Harvey, 2010) aimed to

thinking and problem solving skills. However these

set out a manifesto for design teaching and learning.

things are difficult to learn individually. ‘Designing is

This second investigation is focused on the relationship

a holistic skill. In an important sense, one must grasp

between tutor and tutee but under pinning this study

it as a whole in order to grasp it at all. Therefore, one

are the same beliefs in critical theory, thinking and

cannot learn it in a molecular way, by learning first to

emancipatory education. In the section on the authors

carry out smaller units of activity and then to string

thoughts and reflections, these belief and convictions

those units together in a whole design process; for

are discussed in more detail.

the pieces tend to interact with one another and to derive their meanings and characters from the whole process in which they are embedded.’ (Schön, 1987, p158) The development of the designer as a person and self-directed, professional, creative being is also a design process itself. It requires understanding of the motivations and inhibitions which are affecting learning and a sensitivity to the relationship which must exist between student and tutor in order for learning to take place. It assumes and argues that students learn differently and so a single teaching and learning strategy is not effective. The evidence suggesting that the incidence of dyslexia, dyspraxia and ADHD in art


Literature By far the most influential and vital text in terms of informing this study is ‘On Becoming a Person’. (Rogers, 1961) Person to person approaches and attempts to understand and guide practices during tutorials coupled with the emancipatory aspects of critical theory and thinking drew the author to read and re-read this volume. There are other good studies of mentoring and tutorial techniques, among the most useful being Cohen,1995, but ‘On Becoming a Person’ addresses the problem of client centred learning.

the same section, Rogers confesses ‘As a consequence

‘On Becoming a Person’ establishes a hypothesis for

of the above, I realize I have lost interest in being a

personal growth and Rogers states that ‘in my early

teacher.’ (Rogers, 1961, p276)

professional years I was asking the question, How can I treat, or cure or change this person? Now I would

This statement also had deep felt consequences for the

phrase the question in this way: How can I provide

author who, was already questioning his role as creative

a relationship which this person may use for his own

being with ambitions related to a professional creative

personal growth.’ (Rogers, 1961, p32) He describes

practice and college lecturer. Was it possible that there

‘The Relationship’ (Rogers, 1961, p33) as having three

was a way of not teaching which may instigate a deeper

elements, the first being that the therapist should as far

and more significant learning in design students?


1  The period of study which has led to the development of the Humanist Learning Model has resulted in some decisions about my own creative practice. I still do not know what that

as possible be genuine. ‘This means that I need to be aware of my own feelings, in so far as possible, rather than presenting an outward façade of one attitude, while holding another attitude at a deeper or unconscious level’. (Rogers, 1961, p33) The second ‘condition’

Rogers sets out to pin-point the similarities between

is. Part of the aim of the year was to investigate a symbiosis

person centred psychotherapy and education,

betwen creative and educative practice but this did not

(Rogers, 1961, p34) is that the therapist should have

happen, the conclusion being that the two can never occupy

a ‘warm regard’ for the client. ‘It means a respect and

the same space. I am still not sure what I have learned.

liking for him as a separate person, a willingness for him

The PGCE felt a bit like I was not really doing it for myself

to possess his own feelings in his own way. It means

culminating in his earth shattering statement that ‘anything that can be taught to another is relatively inconsequential and has little or no significant influence on behaviour’ and ‘I realize increasingly that I am only interested in learnings which significantly

but the MA is and I have chosen to continue my PGCE. The original idea was that the MA should be an antidote to the PGCE but because of the MA I now think the PGCE was for

an acceptance of and regard for his attitudes of the moment, no matter how negative or positive…’ (Rogers, 1961, p34) The third condition is empathy to enable

influence behaviour’ so, ‘I have come to feel that the


only learning which significantly influences behaviour

The label of ‘teacher’ is given to me not so much by my job

is self-discovered, self appropriated learning’ and in

but by society. I am, if not a teacher, a kind of a teacher, but I

does not mean much until it involves understanding’

have come to realise that I am really not any kind of teacher.

(Rogers, 1961, p34) which creates a further condition

This is a recent experience and it is the first time I have

of freedom, ‘freedom to explore oneself at both

realised that this year of study has been for me. The aim to

conscious and unconscious levels’ and ‘freedom from

conclusion, ‘Such self-discovered learning, truth that has been personally appropriated and assimilated in experience, cannot be directly communicated to another.’ (Rogers, 1961, p276) So what of the role of the teacher? As this study unfolds it will be seen that the notion of ‘teacher’ is questioned and re-framed. In

find a coexistance between design and educative practices has failed but in re-reading Rogers and reflecting on learning models I have come to realise that I am just a designer and to design is to learn.

understanding of the clients feelings, ‘Acceptance

any type of moral or diagnostic evaluation, since all evaluations are, I believe, always threatening.’ (Rogers, 1961, p34) This final statement, far from calling into


question that notion that design students must be able

(Rogers, 1961, p280) The most important conditions

learn how the tutee learns and for that reason further

to evaluate themselves, their own and the work of

are Congruence and Empathic Understanding but firstly

reference to tutor will be made as Learner ‘T’ and tutee

other practitioners, addresses educational assessment

the client must face a problem. This is another place

will be Learner ‘S’ since both parties, in what will be

directly. The implication for this thesis is that design

where design education and practice find resonances

further discussed, have to become learners. The third

teaching should provide a stable trusting relationship

in humanist psychology because surely, design is, at its

condition is ‘Unconditional Positive Regard’ (Rogers,

with a tutor and should not transmit design knowledge

most fundamental, the setting and solving of problems.

1961, p283) ‘a caring which is not possessive, which

at all.

The student has the problem of setting out to learn

demands no personal gratification.’ (Rogers, 1961,

something, the processes which constitute design but


In connection with diagnostic evaluation is the attitude of professionalism which Roger describes as ‘aloofness - a “professional” attitude, an impersonal relationship.’ (Rogers, 1961, p52) Most education is subject to checks and procedures which make the process of learning impersonal and whilst assessment, moderation and verification are facts of life for all educators, they

also the problem of how to learn.3 The tutor also has to theories of a new opinion that design is thought. I use the term ‘realisation’ a lot as if the truth were ‘out there’ until I found it but I think that is what significant learning feels like. 3  Perhaps the one thing I am learning is that design is a way of freeing the mind. Rather than finding meaningful

Congruence is about being real or genuine. Rogers implies that unless the therapist is a ‘congruent person’ (Rogers, 1961, p282) ‘unified…integrated’ (Rogers, 1961, p283) therapy will not occur. The contention of this paper is that learning will not occur if Learner

structures to shape ones thinking it requires a banishing of

‘T’ is not congruent. ‘What I mean is that within the

must not affect the relationship between tutor and

the ‘D’ motivation to model thinking. It requires a dissolving

relationship he [Learner ‘T’] is exactly what he says he

tutee ‘it is safe to care… it is safe to relate to the other

of pre-conceptions which do not only exist in the eighteen or

is - not a façade, or a role, or a pretense…Unless this

person…’ (Rogers, 1961, p52) Rogers discusses the

nineteen year olds but build up like lime-scale in a water pipe

congruence is present to a considerable degree it is

conditions which have to exist within ‘The Relationship’ in more detail in the context of significant learning but first explains significant learning (and he is now discussing learning in psychotherapy), ‘It is learning which makes a difference - in the individuals behaviour,

eventually restricting clear thought and perception in all of us. Perhaps design is purely about thought - not thought that leads to products. Perhaps problem solving and production are aided by design thinking but at its purest design is, I am sure, about thought. But thought wants to be structured. It wants cause and effect, a model, a diagram and tries hard to

unlikely that significant learning can occur.’ (Rogers, 1961, p282) It appears to be the case that any hint of a front or façade causes wariness or caution in the other person.4 Trust is misplaced and the relationship, if it can perspective means both effective problem solving and

in the course of action he chooses in the future, in his

build a lifeworld and maintain it. But design wants to be free

attitudes and in his personality. It is pervasive learning

of all constraint, all structure.

which is not just an accretion of knowledge but which

What, then, of the brief? The brief supplies constraint just

4  How long has it taken me to realise that the students react

interpenetrates with every portion of his existence.’2

when our thoughts are freest but perhpas a brief cannot be

more meaningfully if I allow them to see me as a real person?

successfully interpreted without a liberated mind. When I and

Whenever this happens it feels dangerous but at the same

2  I have said that design is the setting and solving of

other commentators talk about emancipation and liberation,

time I am more myself with the students than not - well, that

problems but I am as a consequence of researching these

this is what is meant, that approaching problems from this

is the way it feels. Friends have remarked that they cannot

significant learning.


be called a relationship is not one ‘in which defenses

learner will ‘sense a climate of safety’. (Rogers,

Psychological Freedom means freedom of ‘symbolic

can be dropped or in which significant learning and

1961, p357) Not only will the learner be able to grow

expression… complete freedom to think, to feel, to

change can occur.’ (Rogers, 1961, p283)

psychologically and experience significant learning but

be, whatever is most inward within himself’ but not

will be operating in a creative environment, experiencing

at the expense of the rules of society as expressing

Rogers describes a further condition which has two

design. To be able to provide a climate of psychological

‘all feelings, impulses and formings may not in all

aspects. These are Psychological Safety and Freedom

safety means also the absence of ‘external evaluation’

instances be freeing. Behaviour may in some instances

and these conditions should have been arrived at as a

in which ‘we cease to form judgments of the other

be controlled by society, and this is as it should be.’

consequence of Congruence, Unconditional Positive

individual from our own locus of evaluation [my italics]’.

(Rogers, 1961, p359) Psychological Freedom however

Regard and Empathy. If these are achieved, the client,

(Rogers, 1961, p357) Structured education means

means symbolic expression so that rather than

or Learner ‘S’ exists in a climate of Psychological

assessment and however this is conducted, it threatens

physically attacking a hated object, a symbol of it is

Safety and Freedom. If Learner ‘T’ can genuinely feel

the stability and efficacy of the learning relationship

attacked and, in the context of this paper this means

that Learner ‘S’ ‘is of worth in his own right and in his

but, of course, assessment is a reality and in some

critically attacking an object. Students beginning a

own unfolding, no matter what his present condition

respects all students expect and want to be assessed

Foundation Course have not developed critical skills

or behaviour’ and can sense ‘the potentialities of the

so that they can receive a measure of progress. The

and appear to require permission to criticize established

individual and thus be able to have an unconditional

relationship a tutor has with her tutees must be resilient

art, design and practices. Psychological Freedom

faith in him, no matter what his present state’, the

enough to conduct formal, summative assessment

allows this critical thought to develop.

imagine me as a teacher and I have made the same kind

without affecting the learning of the student. In short

of remark to teacher friends. A student said to me whilst we

Learner ‘S’ must implicitly trust Learner ‘T’ who is

The phrase significant learning has already been

conducting the assessment in the understanding that

used and will continue to be used throughout this

assessment criteria are being applied fairly, carefully

paper. In terms of design teaching it signifies a deep

and rigourously and that Learner ‘T’ is not judging

understanding of principles, of evaluative and reflective

Learner ‘S’ on her own terms. As Rogers states,

praxis, of practical problem solving and manual skills

go for a coffee, have a break an hour later, take a long lunch,

‘Evaluation is always a threat, always creates a need

but all these are secondary to fundamental significant

have an extended afternoon break and pack up half an hour

for defensiveness, always means that some portion

learning. Only Rogers is definitive but from a tutors

before the end of the day. My speech was impassioned,

of experience must be denied to awareness’ (Rogers,

point a view, the student who has been the subject of

contained swearing, personal confessions of drug taking,

1961, p357) but, also cautions, ‘to cease evaluating

significant learning understands this significance and it

another is not to cease having reactions.’ (Rogers,

inspires him or her to seek this feeling or state of mind

1961, p358)

again. It is a peak experience which really does change

were talking about his aspirations to become a teacher that I had cause quite a few of them to re-evaluate themselves after a particular briefing. In the briefing I was trying to address poor attendance and a kind of relaxed attitude to the limited amount of time the students had. They would typically sign in,

alcoholism and time wasting. I pleaded with them not to waste their time. It was not an act. I was angry and the students saw me angry and a little out of control. (At the same time I know they value patience and control.)

the individuals experience and ‘interpenetrates with


every portion of his existence.’5 (Rogers, 1961, p280)

potentialities’ (Maslow, 1968, p33) but growth can

has developed the cognitive functioning to perceive at

also be affected by deficiency motivations or ‘deficit-

a critical level, to question this perception and to form

Abraham Maslow is the other major influence in the

motivation’. Maslow observes that ‘So called learning

judgements based on this perception can be said to

development of this thesis and he uses the term

theory in this country has based itself almost entirely

be critically aware and reflective. This is the goal of the

‘rubricizing’ to describe a kind of superficial learning ‘a

on deficit-motivation with goal objects usually external

Humanist Learning Model but it is justifiably conceded

cheap form of cognizing, ie. not-cognizing, a quick, easy

to the organism, ie. learning the best way to satisfy a

that this lofty ideal may not be achievable in all its

cataloguing whose function is to make unnecessary the

need.’ (Maslow, 1968, p44) Students leaving ‘A’ level

participants, however the principle under development

effort required by more careful, idiographic perceiving

courses are observed to exhibit deficiency-motivated

asserts that any progress towards this goal is significant

or thinking’ (Maslow, 1968, p141) in fact, just the

learning needs, often questioning why they are not


type of false learning the development of a Humanist

being taught anything and when they will be taught

Learning Model aims to avoid. Maslow focuses on

Photoshop or screen-printing or any other practical skill.

Not only are the students arriving from their ‘A’ levels

cognition like Rogers and Mezirow and defines the

The culture shift can be as difficult as the shift from

on the verge of adulthood, they are ‘D’ motivated ‘(D

goal of human growth by the term ‘self-actualization’

child-hood into adult-hood.

= Deficiency, B = Being)’ (Maslow, 1968, p223) and

but also confusingly warns that it is not the ultimate

are embarking on a course of education where self

goal and represents more of a ‘dynamic process,

The development of the Humanist Learning Model,

actualization is a distinct possibility because of the

active throughout life’ of becoming rather than ‘an

which this paper sets out to document, borrows

nature of design thinking and processing. (The reader

ultimate or final state of affairs’. (Maslow, 1968, p32)

Deficiency Motivation and Being Motivation from

must not confuse ‘D’ motivation with demotivation which

This is one reason why once the learning relationship

Maslow but deficiency and growth (growth and being

is a consequence of ‘rubricizing’ and something the

is established it cannot be left to see to itself but must

are interchangeable in Maslow) can be applied to

Humanist Learning Model has to address frequently.)

be fed and watered. ‘Growth’, Maslow defines as ‘the

perception and Maslow clarifies using a slightly different

To explain ‘D’ motivation in more detail, Maslow uses

various processes which bring the person towards self-

terminology. ‘I think our understanding of perception

‘D’ this time with cognition. ‘D cognition could be called

actualization’ (Maslow, 1968, p32) and these processes

and therefore the perceived world will be much changed

selfish cognition, in which the world is organized into

are broken down into ‘growth motivations’ like ‘talents,

and enlarged if we study carefully the distinction

gratifiers and frustrators of our own needs, with other

capacities, creative tendencies [and] constitutional

between need-interested and need-disinterested or

characteristics being ignored or slurred. The cognition

desireless perception. Because the latter is so much

of the object, in its own right and its own Being, without

more concrete and less abstracted and selective…[the

reference to its need gratifying or need frustrating

person] can perceive simultaneously the opposites

qualities, that is, without primary reference to its value

and dichotomies, the polarities, the contradictions and

for the observer of its effects upon him can be called B

incompatibles.’ (Maslow, 1968, p45) The person who

cognition (or self-transcending, or unselfish or objective

5  It is not only eighteen or nineteen year olds or university students who are struggling with design. Design requires constant learning because only significant learning can liberate the mind. Perhaps if I am not learning, I am not designing.


cognition)’. (Maslow, 1968, p223)6

world.’ (Mezirow, 1997, p5) In young design students

proposed herein that design has to address the self

this can also include preconceptions, expectations of

as well as the brief. Mezirow, extensively referencing

The Humanist Learning Relationship must adopt a

what design is, how it works and how it can be learned.

Habermas, borrows the term communicative learning

role of identifying ‘D’ motivations because these inhibit

The development of a learning relationship, aims to

where two parties aim for a consensus. ‘Communicative

true or significant learning, preventing learners from

affect change, transformation in the learners lifeword or

learning involves at least two persons striving to reach

transcending and initiating shifts in their own lifeworlds.

frames of reference, as Mezirow states, ‘Transformative

an understanding of the meaning of an interpretation

However, it is impossible to banish them entirely

learning develops autonomous thinking’ (Mezirow,

or the justification for a belief. Ideally communicative

and indeed they are essential in identifying practical

1997, p5) not just a component of design thinking but

learning involves reaching a consensus’. (Mezirow,

processes and skills which should lead to significant

an essential tool for future, significant learning and

1997, p6) The Humanist Learning Relationship aims

learning. ‘D’ motivation induces a desire to assimilate a

progression through education.

to establish a consensus that allows for critical self

practical skill without a reflective context. Jack Mezirow

reflection in both parties, both learners. It will be

uses the term transformative learning in the same

Mezirow breaks down frames of reference into two

proposed that the learning which takes place in the

context as Rogers uses significant learning but with a

components (which seem in some way to reference

Humanist Learning Relationship is not one way and not

subtle difference in that transformative learning implies

Maslow’s ‘Being’ and ‘Deficiency’ motivations) namely,

significant in just the student of design but in Learner ‘T’

a change in frames of reference so that as a ‘condition

‘points of view’ and ‘habits of mind’ which ‘are primarily


of being human…we have to understand the meaning

the result of cultural assimilation and the idiosyncratic

of our experience. For some, any uncritically assimilated

influences of primary caregivers’ habits of mind being

Critical Reflection, then, is the key to adult learning but

explanation by an authority figure will suffice.’ (Mezirow,

‘more durable’ than points of view.7 (Mezirow, 1997, p6)

Foundation students are eighteen years old and turn

1997, p5) Mezirow makes a direct link when defining

The primary means of instigating significant learning

nineteen on the course for the most part. To instigate

the term frames of reference with Habermas’s concept

is facilitating critical self reflection and in the design

significant learning, growth, becoming or being, that is

of lifeworld (see below) in which particularly adult

education context this means critical reflection of

personal growth, requires maturity and experience at

learners ‘have acquired a coherent body of experience

the results of design problem solving also since it is

least and this responsibility and inevitability cannot be

- associations, concepts, values, feelings, conditioned

7  Until recently my point of view was that I was a teacher

ignored. Mezirow calls this process ‘psychoeducational’

responses - frames of reference which define their life

who wanted to (re) build a design practice and that these

and warns that for adults to ‘overcome such ordinary

6  Having an MA means more options for earning money

two things had to mesh or I would not achieve what I wanted

existential psychological distortions’ requires ‘skilled

from something I love; a ‘D’ motivation. When I ‘realise’ I

to achieve. Perhaps a habit of mind has been broken in that

have certain views, that they fit together although they may

I realise its all about thought - not just accepting another

adult counselors and educators as well as therapists.’

be extreme, that those feelings are fleeting or dangerous,

opinion but a change in deep seated beliefs. And using the

that one of my students has this ‘realisation’, that they are an

term ‘beliefs’ is a little difficult because we are not supposed

individual because of the way they think...

to challenge our beliefs are we?

(Mezirow, 1990, p17) This statement provokes the question and point that teachers are not therapists so how can they ‘deal’ with the psychological needs of


students on a day to day basis? Mezirow adds that it is

two learners who are consensually transforming and

control reside in the learner; increasingly the role of

‘crucially important’ that educators address learning at

so requires constant nurturing because ‘reflective

the educator is to provide a sound board for testing

a psychological level ‘inasmuch as the most significant

discourse and its resulting insight do not make for

new learner realities.’ (Mezirow, 1990, p365) The

adult learning occurs in connection with life transitions.’

transformative learning. Acting on these emancipatory

Humanist Learning Relationship is the mechanism

(Mezirow, 1990, p17) Psychological distortions are

insights, a praxis, is also necessary…The learner must

that precipitates significant learning and the above

preconceptions arising from ‘presuppositions generating

have the will to act upon his or her new convictions.’

paragraph applies to Learner ‘T’ as much as to Learner

unwarranted anxiety that impede taking action.’

(Mezirow, 1990, p355)

‘S’. It also describes a design learning methodology.

Before leaving Mezirow it seems fitting to discuss a

Donald Schön describes the ‘predicament’ of the design

The Humanist Learning Relationship is a discourse that

final paragraph where he uses the term ‘precipitates’

student as ‘likely to find the costs of commitment greater

has to be developed in order for learning at a significant

and the reader will hopefully forgive this extended

than its expected rewards’ (Schön, 1987, p94) and

level to take place. It cannot isolate itself from the

quotation but there is some important definition in its

for many graduating Foundation course students this

psychoeducational processes of personal growth by

contents. ‘The adult educator actively precipitates

seems to hold true because it is not until later, on their

focussing on subject knowledge and maintaining what

transformative learning when, in the process of helping

degree programmes that the value of having undertaken

has been called ‘professional distance’.8 The Humanist

learners address their expressed needs, he or she

a Foundation course starts to be realised. Many

Learning Realtionship is a ‘dialogic community’ which

seeks to move the learners interest beyond their

students return to Leeds to talk about their experiences

Learner ‘T’ is responsible for facilitating and monitoring

articulated needs to understanding the reasons for

on their degrees with the benefit of reflecting upon

using reflective practices but enables ‘learners to

them and the way psychocultural forces have shaped

how Foundation learning has been applied in a

engage in rational discourse and action’ (Mezirow,

the learner’s interpretation of the worlds of others, and

degree course context. The author also speaks from

1990, p354) but it may seem that once the Learning

of themselves.9 Here, the role of the educator calls

experience here. Schön, however also defines the

Relationship is set up, it can be left to take care of itself.

for a higher degree of creative effort, to conceptualise

same ‘predicament’ but it also applies to what faces

The Relationship is a process, a praxis which contains

ways of drawing learners into critical self-reflection

students at the beginning of a four year period of design

8  Most educators have experienced their more senior

about their own ideas and assumptions. As this process

education. ‘More important is the sense of being at

colleagues’ warnings about ‘getting involved’. The

of transformative learning begins, its initiative and

risk. Swimming in unfamiliar water, the student risks

Humanist principles being discussed in this paper require

9  My perception of the students has changed steadily over

the loss of his competence, control, and confidence.

wholehearted involvement. Until developing these theories,

the past three years but this year has felt like letting go. My

I kept a little of myself hidden under the mistaken view that

colleagues say that I always say “Its been a great year” but

He must temporarily abandon much that he already

I should not ‘give’ the students all of myself. These words

because of this ‘letting go’, which seems like a much more

seem so naive now. There is no danger. There is no negative

intuitive approach to the relationship with the students, it has

consequence of being congruent.

been a great year.

(Mezirow, 1990, p16)

values… And he may fear that, by a kind of insidious coercion, he may permanently lose what he already values.’ (Schön, 1987, p94) Schön is talking specifically


about design but design students are routinely asked

almost the whole time he is discussing the problems

professional distance. In some respect it seems that

to ‘temporarily abandon’ ideas about who they are

posed by the architecture brief. Schön calls Quist’s

Schön’s model can be a little unsympathetic to the

and how they fit into the world so the passage above

series of responses to the students project ‘moves’.

‘predicament’ of the student. He correctly identifies the

equally applies at a psychological level. ‘Designing is

‘Each move is a local experiment that contributes

need for a dialogue between tutor and tutee and the

a holistic skill. In an important sense, one must grasp

to the global experiment of reframing the problem.

fact that the ‘student must be able to take part in the

it as a whole in order to grasp it at all. Therefore one

Some moves are resisted…while others generate new

dialogue if she is to learn the substantive practice [of

cannot learn it in a molecular way, by learning first to

phenomena.’ (Schön, 1987, p57) Although Schön’s

design] and she must design to some degree in order

carry out smaller units of activity and then to string

focus is reflection and learning he in no way addresses

to participate in the dialogue’ means that learning can

these units together in a whole design process’. (Schön,

any sort of client/therapist relationship as in Rogers or

be ‘hindered’. (Schön, 1987, p165) This would hold

1987, p158) Students beginning to think about this

Maslow, but he sets out the complexities of reflection

true for the Humanist Learning Model also but the tutor

notion can become confused and attempt to look for

in-action-in-design. For both parties involved, Schön

accepting and instigating the Model is seeking empathy

formulas, steps to follow, a flow diagram of design. The

uses the terms coach and student, ‘two kinds of

from first meeting the student and ‘as she learns the

task of shifting a mode of thinking attuned to an ‘A’ level

practice are involved in the practicum: the substantive

reflection-in-action of the dialogue, she increases her

syllabus to one which, asks for a massive reshaping of

designing she tries to learn and the reflection-in-action

ability to draw from it lessons useful for designing. And

psychologies and cognitive processes seems almost

by which she tries to learn it. Each kind of learning

the greater her design competence the greater her

inhuman and it is one which lays at the feet of the tutor

feeds the other, and the resulting learning circle may

capacity for the reflection-in-action of the dialogue.’

a huge responsibility. ‘However much the master may

be virtuous or vicious.’ (Schön, 1987, p164) There is a

(Schön, 1987, p165) The student new to design will

dislike asking the student to give up his autonomy, he

correlation in this statement to the effect that ‘one type

always feel overwhelmed and in awe of the task ahead,

must invite him to enter into a temporary relationship of

of learning feeds the other’ because the proposal under

of learning design and the realization that design cannot

trust and dependency.’ (Schön, 1987, p95)

investigation with regard to the Humanist Learning

be learned by rote. The Humanist Learning Model

Model is that lifeworld and psychological transformation

anticipates this predicament but also proposes that

Schön describes the relationship between a selection of

affect how learning, particularly design learning takes

psychoeducational change is part and parcel of learning

architecture students and their tutor Quist but it seems


design. If both learners in the Humanist Learning Model

from the perspective of developing a Humanist Learning

are to learn then personal transformation is necessary.

Model that Quist, although a skilled and reflective

There is no doubting Quist’s skill as a teacher. He is

designer, is not concerned with any other transaction

practicing ‘responsive listening, and asking ‘open ended

There are criticisms of Schön’s work on reflection

than the design process. He seems rather cold infact.

questions’, providing ‘descriptive feedback’, ‘perception

(Moon, 1999, p46) but within a design learning context

The purpose of Schön’s description of Quist and his

checks’ and offering ‘nonjudgmental sensitive

they appear to be helpful. Moon’s volume offers an

students is to demonstrate how he, Quist, is in reflection

responses’ (Cohen, 1995, p29) but he maintains

extensive overview of reflection and suggests sensible


practica in learning and professional development.

empowering adult learners (in my experience a majority

One of the criticisms of Schön’s work is concerned

of those who identify themselves as working in the field)

with terminology, in particular the term reflection-in-

must engage with Foucault’s work.’ (Brookfield, 2005,

Brookfield discusses Fromm in terms of ideology

action. (Moon, 1999, p46) From a creative point of view,

p121) The most important point Brookfield makes in

critique, Gramsci on hegemony (Brookfield, 2005, p170)

reflection-in-action is vital to the process of designing

terms of Foucault (apart from justifying him as a critical

and in particular consumer malleability (Brookfield,

and the Humanist Learning Model would not work

theorist) is that ‘Foucault criticizes the belief that society

2005, p160) and it is an aim of both design learning in

without subscription to this theory.

at large, and adult educational practices in particular,

both subject specialist terms and design thinking and

contain zones of freedom uncontaminated by the

processing, and the encouragement of criticality and

Central to the thesis being developed is the idea

presence of power.’ (Brookfield, 2005, p129) Even given

cultural awareness that are central aims of the Learning

of the lifeworld, a complex matrix of suppositions,

the strive for empathy and psychological freedom within

Relationship.10 In a similar way that is described by

preconceptions, and frames of reference which

the Humanist Learning Relationship, there is still an

Maslow as a property of peak experiences, the ‘self-

all adults have developed to enable them to form

issue of power that Learner ‘T’ must be eminently aware

validating, self-justfying’ moments which carry their

judgements about their environments and others who

of. It cannot be dissipated because the teaching team

‘own intrinsic value’ that are ‘so valuable an experience,

they come in to contact with. Design-Educate-Liberate

must be able to ‘police’ a cohort in order to maintain

so great a revelation, that to attempt to justify it takes

(Harvey, 2010) proposed that design learning required

the rules of a normal society but it will always threaten

away from its dignity and worth’, (Maslow, 1968, p90)

critical thinking that asked students not to accept their

the fragility of the Relationship as if ‘a multitude of

‘Marcuse turns to the liberating power of art…To him

worlds as they find them, to critique and question and

often minor processes, of different origin and scattered

true autonomy - separation from the contaminating

that personal growth was connected to this process

location, [which] overlap, repeat, or imitate one another

influences of conformity and consumerism - arises out

of becoming critical. This paper focuses down on the

according to their domain of application, converge and

of the individual’s opportunity to abstract herself from

mechanism for achieving those aims and the critical

gradually produce the blueprint of a general method’

the day-to-day reality of the surrounding culture.’11

theorists seem almost convenient in what they have to

of control. (Foucault, 1977, p138) Foucault makes the

10  My feeling is that design and consumerism are in fact

offer to the Humanist Learning Model. Kellner (1989)

onset of power insidious but it is not the purpose of

incompatible. I liken the antipathy to the music industry where

has the place of the most useful introduction to the

this thesis to discuss power per se. Since Learner ‘T’ is

disposable pop is produced to generate capital to support

history of the Frankfurt School and it consequent

responsible for maintaining the Learning Relationship,

incarnations but Brookfield (2005) places critical

it is Learner ‘T’ who is likely to be perceived as having

theory firmly in the context of adult education with the

‘disciplinary power’ (Brookfield, 2005, p131) so must

emphasis on emancipation.

trust the functioning of the Relationship so that the power balance does not undermine trust. Indeed

‘Any one who claims that adult education is about

Learner ‘S’ may even expect that the power in the

Relationship is mainly with Learner ‘T’.

new music. Design has answers but consumerism dulls the senses. For instance Defuturing or ‘confronting and removing the authority of the foundations of thought, upon which the narratives of the like of ‘world’, ‘future’, ‘production’ and ‘progress’ stand...’ (Fry, 1999, p2) 11  Design is a political act. Design as thought, frees perception from wordly, that is capitalist, constraint. The Peak


(Brookfield, 2005, p196) Marcuse, discussed by

‘When adults deal with situations that demand actions

the lifeworld contains when we are confronted with a

Brookfield, theorised that solitary appreciation of art was

from them, glimpses of the lifeworld become possible.

particular situation which demands action.’ (Brookfield,

liberating and revolutionary because ‘we are moved

Pieces of it also come into view in the process of what

2005, p240) This is when symbolic reproduction takes

by primal aesthetic and creative impulses, not the

Habermas calls symbolic reproduction.’12 (Brookfield,

place as the assumptions and collected knowledge we

dictates of majority opinion or common sense criteria of

2005, p240) The concept of Lifeworld is also central to

had relied upon cease to serve us in the challenges of

beauty.’ (Brookfield, 2005, p198) Although the Humanist

the functioning of the Humanist Learning Relationship.

a new situation. The Humanist Learning Relationship

Learning Relationship is central to the learning of both

Brookfield is sympathetic to those of us who have read

is a site of communicative action. ‘In communicative

parties involved, the learning it precipitates is more

Marcuse’s explanation and précis him thus; ‘I think of

action our assumptions and intuitive preunderstandings

important than the relationship because this learning

the lifeworld as the background rules, assumptions,

are all the time being put to the test as we are asked

should, if all is going well, be significant, deep and life-

and common sense understandings that structure how

tacitly to accept suggestions, justifications and social


we perceive the world and how we communicate that

arrangements that are presented to us as obvious

perception to those around us. This kind of primordial,

facts.’ (Brookfield, 2005, p241) The lifeworld, if not

The author has a belief that design can and hopefully

prereflective knowledge hovers on the periphery

addressed in learning prevents growth and underpins

will change the world, even save it from extinction.

of consciousness, a shadowy frame to all we think

conformity, in Habermas’ words ‘in communicative

Marcuse did not believe art could change the world

and do. The lifeworld is all pervasive, the oxygen we

action, which requires taking yes/no positions to claims

but did believe that ‘it can contribute to changing the

breathe without ever really being aware of our rhythmic

of truth and efficiency, the background knowledge of the

consciousness and drives of the men and women who

inhalations or the way they keep us alive. (Brookfield,

life world is submitted to ongoing tests across its entire

could change the world.’ (Marcuse, 1978, p32) Perhaps

2005, p238)

breadth.’ (Habermas, 1987, p321)

the goal of the Humanist Learning Relationship is to inspire designers who will make the best use of the

Although the Humanist Learning Relationship is

resources the Earth has left or has already used. It is

empathic, mutual and trusting, it must also be

they who will change the world.

challenging. The lifeworlds of both parties have to be tranformed. ‘Habermas allows the possibility of our

Experience is the phenomena of the self-realisation of the

becoming aware of the false knowledge, distorted

freed mind. Design is critical because it is not conformist or

assumptions and self-destructive presuppositions

shaped by commercial influences. Design is Marxian. Kellner uses this term instead of Marxist to denote the progression of

12  Discussion or discourse is essential for design as thought.

social theory from the original Marxist critiques to ‘a response

To challenge a lifeworld, problems have to be set which

to the vicissitudes of twentieth century history’. (Kellner, 1989,

induce shifts in thought, in motivation and so in lifeworlds.


Criticality can achieve this whether by self or another.


Models - introduction to theories Understanding, monitoring and establishing a learning relationship with a student is complicated, hard work and is time consuming. Previous research (Harvey, 2010) identified a manifesto for design learning but did not successfully examine the relationship between the tutor, Learner ‘T’ and the student, Learner ‘S’ which is the site of psychological transformation, growth and significant learning. This paper sets out to map this relationship which is based on humanist psychological principles so that it may be useful for educators working in a design education context. Although this thesis describes deeply held beliefs about teaching, learning and design, the one thing it does not set out to do is instruct. It may be that if these word are read by design professionals, they may recognise some of the problems or some of the difficulties of teaching something as intangible as how to design something and that is all one can ask because there are many things written about teaching and learning, wrong ways and right ways but herein we are dealing exclusively with design and adults striving to understand themselves as well the labyrinth of design process.13 13 

Even though I am reaching significant conclusions

about design, the Humanist Learning Model, and my practice, I am by so doing, ganing the confidence to swim into deeper, rougher waters. Design can not be understood

The above literature review identifies key concepts

the progression from yellow concepts, through red

which inform the thesis but to recap, the learning

to blue but this in hindsight adds to the mistaken

relationship revolves around two people, the student

supposition that the process illustrated has a beginning

and the tutor, Learner ‘S’ and Learner ‘T’ and is about

a middle and an end. However further development

their interaction. Both are considered learners because

made use of the squares to contain different aspects of

each has to embark on a cognitive journey, Learner

the model. The reflective notes that follow describe the

‘S’ into the intricacies of creative thinking and practical

context for the building of the Humanist Learning Model

problem solving combined with a growing maturity and

as it stands currently.

adult psychology, whilst Learner ‘T’ has to precipitate and support this process by learning how best to encourage it. The relationship between the two people is called the Humanist Learning Relationship (HLR) and wholeheartedly embraces the humanist principles of Rogers and Maslow with the transformative theories of Mezirow and the critical commentaries of Marcuse, Habermas and Fromm. The HLR also has the function of providing a model called the Humanist Reflective Model (HRM) and both together, the complete thesis is modelled and called the Humanist Learning Model (HLM). The discussion will try not to rely solely on abbreviations. The prototype model was a reflective template devised with guiding reflection in mind. (page 15) It is a little confusing and requires some effort to apply it to reflective thought, however it did serve to aid methodologies with case studies of which more later. The blue squares were positioned to visually separate as a totality. It is as if moving towards a horizon.


Prototype Humanist Reflective Model. 15

Author’s reflections and thoughts Throughout the development of this thesis, the author, in the context of a specialist design pathway on a Foundation course wrote up notes for case studies and kept a reflective log. The reflective log is unedited and tracks changes in thinking and the reasons for abandoning or continuing with a particular activity or methodology. They contain also some more personal notes on the case studies which may not have fitted tidily into the case study notes themselves. Of note is the struggle to instigate the practice of Leaner ‘S’ and ‘T’ drawing on the same sheet of paper intutorial. Time unfortunately did not allow for this experiment to proceed but it is proposed that in the next academic year it will be fully embraced as a vital part of the Humanist Learning Model. Also of note is the abandonment of any attempt to contrast the author’s design practice with that of the thesis research. When the tutor leaves the students workstation, the student is left to consider the time with their tutor. Rogers in particular is scathing of any procedure that will potentially undermine trust or empathy in the relationship between client and therapist but many lecturers are required to record tutorials on forms. This is very distracting and was the key determinant in selecting methodologies for conducting case studies.

Schön is particularly helpful in this context in describing

ago for the reason that she qualifies for Extenuating

how for his subjects ‘the graphic world of the sketchpad

Circumstances but the plan to make very brief notes

is the medium of reflection-in-action.’ (Schön, 1987,

during the tutorial was unfortunately forgotten about.

p165) It is very simple. Learner ‘S’ and Learner ‘T’ draw

However, there may still be some time to trial this idea

as they talk and Learner ‘S’ keeps the drawing at the

particularly in light of Schön. (See paragraph above)

end of the tutorial. The ‘drawing’ contains thumbnail

Staff room conversations between colleagues have

sketches, names of practitioners, websites, books,

often discussed drawing during tutorials but it seems

methodologies, visual possibilities and snatches of

that the practice of tutor and tutee both drawing as

the conversation. The purpose of producing a drawing

a focus for discussing work is a valuable one and

whilst the tutorial is in progress is not only to aid

could provide a practical record of the tutorial for both

reflection-in-action but also to establish a focus and to

parties. Schön describes a tutorial in detail between

produce a record which can be reflected upon after the

and architecture student, Petra and her tutor Quist. ‘For

tutorial by both parties.

Quist and Petra, the graphic world of the sketchpad

Reflective Log Semester 3

is the medium of reflection in action. Here they can draw and talk…The act of drawing can be rapid and spontaneous, but the residual traces are stable. The

May 5th 2011

designer [both designers, tutor and tutee?] can examine

This preliminary paragraph introduces the student case

them at leisure.’ (Schön, 1987, p75)

studies at a time when they are severely stressed and preparing for the end of the course. There has been

The prospect of constructing work in the transformed

a short break both for Easter and for me to hand in

studio space ‘throws’ most students as they have

assignments. There are two important developments

little experience of preparing for a public exhibition

connected with this. The first is that there are no

and presenting their work to a high and professional

longer any tutorials with the students. They are, at

standard. Many revert to ‘A’ level practices as they have

present installing their work for the final assessment in

no conception of what ‘professional’ is or means. This

the course and have two days left to complete. Work

lack of knowledge is not necessarily an inhibitor, but

continues with the case studies and all other students

most students, rather than apply their design education

with this focus in mind. Alex continues to be illusive

acquired over the past year to solve the problem, revert

but his work is progressing. Cat was seen a few days

to practices commonly seen on all secondary school


notice-boards. For instance, the use of black sugar

eliminating assessment so as to provide a ‘climate in

paper, drawing pins, etc. This behaviour has simply to

which external evaluation is absent’, (Rogers, 1961,

be stamped out.

p357) the fostering of a group identity as separate from

Written work for the previous semester established

the other pathways seems to benefit the students in a

that the Humanist Reflective Model was either similar

It seems natural for my team and I to build a group

positive way. For instance on the residential trips they

or the same as a model of The Humanist Learning

identity in our pathway specialism. Although the

look after one another. They are always accommodating

Relationship. This idea requires further investigation but

students are in competition with each other for

and polite to each other, well, for the most part and are

Rogers is correct when he criticises how procedures

university places I do not feel that I should encourage

nearly always polite to support staff. They are pleased

have been placed between the parties involved with

either my team or the students to take this competition

to be part of something which they feel is helping them

counselling and teaching. (Rogers, 1961, p52) Schön

too seriously.14 Perhaps it is my discomfort with conflict

to engage with the culture of design. I should discuss

talks of design education as having a ‘predicament in

or aggression which I associate with competition that

psychological safety and also psychological freedom

which design, by its very nature cannot be taught by

makes me want to build a supportive community within

(Rogers, 1961, p357) more fully in the thesis.

transference but requires the student to embark on

the GiD area. The other team members seem to agree


an enquiry into the unknown. ‘He [the student] must

with my ethos but they understand that they are in

The days immediately before the final project deadline,

temporarily abandon much that he already values. If

competition with so many other industry professionals

when students are installing their work in the exhibition

he comes to the studio with knowledge he considers

for work. But I do not think it is necessary to make this

spaces are strange transitory days where learning

useful, he may be asked to unlearn it. If he comes with

industry competition real on the Foundation Course.

changes to a reliance on the technical skills of the

a perspective on what is valuable for design, he may

Our unofficial motto is ‘Work Hard. Be Nice to People’

staff. In some ways this time is the culmination of the

be asked to put it aside.’ (Schön, 1987, p94) Although,

from the Anthony Burrel poster. Rogers discusses

Learning Relationship when both parties are under

the Humanist Learning Relationship must be mapped

Psychological Safety in On Becoming a Person.

pressure and working to a looming deadline. It could

in some way as to make it both useful/functional and

(Rogers, 1961, p357) Although in some respects,

be a test of the Relationship. If it has gone well, both

assessable, it must not be formulated in such a way

what he proposes is impractical in an educational

parties should be communicating easily and the work

as to restrict the participants in any way. It must be

setting - what I mean to say is that to embrace his

should run smoothly and to time. There should be a

liberating rather than binding, so mapping must work

recommendations fully would mean for instance

deep trust that the staff member is working at the same

with this concept. The work that has already been done

14  Is this capitalism - comodifying them if I encourage

level as the student, that is in the utmost best interest of

as far as studying the learning relationship must not be

competition? Even if I belive it is, cooperation above

the student and her work. Learning does not stop when

allowed to colour the objective which is to champion the

the studio is dismantled. It continues but the emphasis

humanist approach and facilitate design teachers. It is

is on practical problem solving and reflection happens

becoming increasingly evident that the act of applying

very much in action as there is not time to reflect post

the Humanist Learning Relationship should be one of

competition, in my view, encourages collaboration, partnership and group practices - that are nevertheless in competition with other groups but it seems a way to challenge capitalisms insistance on competition and profit.


liberation and enpowerment which begins to infer study

in that neither student or support staff are at liberty to

case study of Quist and Petra (Schön, 1987, p46-79)

of critical theory.

divulge any information but since the HLR requires that

describes the functioning of the design studio and

(all) inhibitors to learning are reflected upon, how can

process but falls short of illustrating the HLR (but Schön

this problem be framed?

of course did not intend to discuss the relationship

Schön will be continually referenced in the coming months because he offers insight into design teaching,

between the tutor and tutee, indeed his tutor is a little

reflection in and on action and the communication

May 31st

reserved and lacks integrity). What makes this process

which has to take place between tutor and tutee so

The opportunity to test the idea for tutorials has now

fascinating and important to the development of the

that learning can take place the purpose of this study

passed because this years cohort of Foundation

HLR is the joint drawing involved in the tutorial. Quist

is to get to the psychological root of that partnership, to

Course students graduate on Friday 3rd June. However

and Petra draw on the same sheet of paper. What if

understand its functioning and disfunctioning so that to

I have decided to test the idea on myself. The re-

this practice as embraced as part of the functioning of

model, in some way, what needs to be established for

branding of the design and educative identity of ‘Stuart

the HLR? Student and tutor could draw not only design

the relationship to exist and grow.

Harvey’ appears to have become an important part of understanding the conflict, dichotomy and parallels

May 17th

of Educative and Design practice. The brand of

I think it is important to consider originality as a factor

Lycanthrope appears to fit this concept with its folklore

when constructing the Humanist Learning Manifesto

and inherent sadness of the irreconcilable parts of the

(this could be the working title of the thesis). It is

self. So I have decided to conduct a reflective tutorial

also important to get to the psychological root of the

with myself to establish where ‘I’m at’ and to trial the

Relationship rather than (although it will be necessary

tutorial idea but first a synopsis of the idea.

to illustrate how the Learning Relationship facilitates the mechanisms of learning) concentrating on the

Tutorials are, as Schön argues, a forum for reflection.

communication and learning processes which result

They are the site of operation of the Humanist Learning

from the Humanist Learning Relationship.

Relationship (HLR) but established practice means two things. First that the tutorial should be recorded.

In the cases of students who are receiving support from

There are numerous procedures for this, forms and

tutors or specialists other than their tutors, the tutor has

practices. Second is that the student must be able to

a duty to communicate with these sources of support.

reflect on the tutorial after it is over. She must be able

These may be Student Services and Learning Support

to remember what was said and the aims set out in

tutors. however there is a problem of confidentiality

the tutorial, the advice given and support offered. The


variations but lists, aims, objectives, research leads in

will include promotional details and business cards. This

the functioning of the whole model would be changed.

fact anything that would mean that the tutorial becomes

will be screen-printed.

Perhaps it is becoming too complicated and a simple

deeply reflective and integral to the design process.

set of guidelines would suffice? I think I need to do

Could it take place in the sketchbook of the student?

The most pressing matter at the moment is re-

The first test is to self-tutorial by drawing in a note-book.

modelling the Humanist Reflective Model so that it

The aim is to stay with one page or open spread and

functions as both a reflective model and a model for

to not turn the page so that all thoughts are recoded in

the Humanist Learning Relationship. It is constructed

effect on one sheet of paper.

on three squares which are meant to denote three

some reading.

elements of the reflective praxis but in the original The results of the test will be summarised in due

they are not clearly defined as the model represents

course. It seems important that a period of days elapse

a flow of communication between the tutor and tutee,

before revisiting the tutorial.15

identified in the model as Learner ‘S’ for student and Learner ‘T’ for tutor because both parties are required to

June 23rd

learn. So the task is to define firstly the central system

My learning plan for the final semester of the course

which is the dynamic system of the actual Learning

includes the completion of the Red Hills Book - a

Relationship. Next the learning consequences of the

project which frankly has been dragging on because

central relationship need to be clearly identified and

it is always put to one side as other tasks take priority.

grouped together. One consequence is the ‘education’

So far I have done nothing to further this aim but I am

of both parties in that they understand, empathise

confident that I shall. The project is designed so that I

and trust each other but the other result is significant

can ink-jet print the main pages. The cover will function

learning in the student, changes in psychologies, beliefs

as it should but will also contain a fold out section which

and lifeworlds and coping mechanisms for what I am

15  I think in adult learning, reviewing the last tutorial is

beginning to term ‘inhibitors’ like autism spectrum

condescending and seems to undermine trust. It did not

conditions and negative past experiences of education.

seem necessary to do this in my self-tutorial. It felt like

Maslow uses the term ‘deficiency’ to denote a belief or

going backwards. Thinking had moved on. The drawing still

psychology which is blocking growth and it is not clear

maintains its function of being a focus for the tutorial and records thought processes at the time. I suppose in some cases looking back at what happened will be useful but it does not have to be a hard and fast rule.

as to whether this terminology should be included in the new models. The point would be to continue to use the squares but depending on the order and proximity

After some thinking with scraps of paper and mockup squares, the model seems a little more complete. The whole process which consists of establishing a learning relationship (for which there would still need to be some guidelines - another square?) and then guiding the learning which can happen as a result of the effectiveness of the relationship, which again can result in a number of applications, is complicated. The squares help to break the process down into understandable units. This is simply questioning whether the original Humanist Reflective Model is working. Does it say what it should say? Is it addressing the ideas it should be? This method of using rough rectangles of paper was also helping to establish if the new idea of using squares to divide and contain the


elements of the model will work. In this version both learners are separated but this

These are mock ups of the original Humanist Reflective Model clarified into three squares which represent the

As above but asking questions about the order of the squares.

actual Learning Relationship, learning for growth and applied learning. Applied learning also feeds back to

approach does not seem to fit since the whole concept

With the addition of what seem relevant test notes from

is about the interaction of Learner ‘T’ and Learner ‘S’.

the other tests.

Top middle has had Design Processing and Self Evaluation added to it. It is essential to remember that the completed model is intended for the design studio and hopefully design-like educational processes.

both learners and the red inhibitors Autism Spectrum and Past Negative Experiences (of education) are addressed by learning resulting from the Relationship and growth squares. The reflection and confidence ensuing positively affects the psychologies-growth cycle.


The test pieces have been made more square-like and

to do because they take place on Thursdays when

which might require a humanist learning model. The

refined. So here self reflection is represented with a

I am working. The first was during a weeks break

main one is the squeeze on funding which will mean

square on which appear two Learner ‘S’s, a Maslow

and the second was on a day when as a member

eventually that lecturing staff will be able to spend less

square, a square which is almost like the learning

of the University and College Union, I was on strike.

time than at present with the students. The benefits of

outcomes of the whole process and a square outlining

This classroom consisted of just my tutor and I so it

a structure that will enable them to quickly establish a

the qualities of the Humanist Learning Relationship.

functioned as an hour long tutorial towards the end of

learning relationship so that reflection and evaluative

which he asked me about my motivations for embarking

thought is ‘up and running’ so to speak cannot be

on this body of research. Where was it going to get me?


I found this a difficult question to answer because apart

Here, the expected colour coding has been added. Yellow represents elements which pertain directly to the Learning Relationship. Orange represents the transformation of the qualities of the Learning Relationship to its effects in the growth-psychologies cycle. Red represents psychologies and ‘D’ motivations. Purple represents applied learning. Possibly Design Processing should be added to the Red square which contains Peak Experiences and should be coloured Purple. This thinking may be subject to change because my feeling is that it is not quite there yet. July 3rd I was able to join two virtual classrooms recently which has been something I have never before been able

from making me a better teacher (I have real problems

So what are the possibilities for the HLR in terms of

using this title because actually the HRM is designed

professional development and how can it be used

to make better learners), I do not know where it will

to illuminate a way forward in terms of professional

take me. I don’t know the answer. Anyway here is my

ambition? If the Humanist Reflective model is supposed

response to the problem.

to be used for re-appraising problems through reflection and it has a self-learning application, it should aid the

It seems unnecessary even self-indulgent to consider

identification of personal goals and ambitions. I am

ones own motivations and career aims when designing

going to make an excuse, however, because I do not

a learning model for the education of young designers.

know where my career is going and at the end of an

Professional possibilities, the future, seem very unclear,

academic year I feel depressed, tired, burnt out and

even confusing because the journey to this point has

feel a sense of loss but I always feel like this at the

been unplanned. It is possible that the emphasis on

end of a year. To research and develop a humanistic

the belief that ‘other people’ have been responsible

learning model means that being involved with learning,

for career choices has highlighted a lassitude towards

particularly design learning, is something extremely

any personal ambition. There is a very clear aim when

valuable. When many teachers start to think about

working with young designers and that is to produce

course management and relinquishing contact for admin

thoughtful critical people who are more or less able

in order to take on greater responsibility, the study of a

to solve the problems that life might put in their way.

learning methodology means this is not a direction to be

Before addressing the problem of personal ambition,

contemplated. Perhaps roles which involve overseeing

it seems appropriate to wonder about the challenges

a year group, as now, can be considered but perhaps


at a higher and more prestigious academic level. But

Hills Book at present seem very difficult to manage. It

the problem remains as to a creative practice. I have

seems more realistic to continue ‘designing’ the two


models - I have begun to realise that that is what I

It may be necessary to adopt some pragmatism and

am doing. To begin with I accepted that I was simply

aim to secure some commercial work as soon as this

discussing and modelling something that was already

current phase of study is complete. If the contemplation

there, and in some ways it is because I use some of

of never giving up on creative practice is too much

the techniques in my educative practice but perhaps I

to bear, then perhaps more effort should be made to

am designing something new. The processes involved

embrace ambitions in developing a specialist graphic

do feel like the processes involved in design. It seems

design, landscape interpretation practice. The HRM

strange and cyclical. The aim of building a practice

is for guiding reflection-in-action so time should not

based on the completion of the Red Hills Book must

be spent reflecting on how to initiate action. In other

remain however - if only for my sanity.17

words, ‘just get on with it’. There is much capital as an educator in having a design practice and after all it is the reasonable belief that one cannot teach what one does not know - and to know is to do.16

Development The reflective log above outlines the problem of the prototype Humanist Learning Model in that it plainly

July 17th

requires more elements because it simply does not

Although it has been established that participating in

describe the Humanist Learning Relationship in real life.

design informs learning in the Humanist Models herein

It seemed to describe peripheral cognitive processes

developed, the practicalities of continuing with the Red

and did not address the core of the Relationship. The

16  The role of a tutor is to throw the proverbial spanner.

following represent the refinement of the model, aspects

If a tutor had not forced me to consider my own learning, I

of the model contained within squares in which these

would not have considered postponing The Red Hills Book

aspects relate. They are colour coded also.

Lifeworld The squares do not really have an order but this is the first square, modified by placing the wording in side, contained within it. The square represents both learners influencing lifeworld and preconceptions to precipitate learning.

positively. I cannot say that I am considering my learning in conjunction with my students but rather juxtaposed with it.

17  It is the correct decision to postpone The Red Hills Book.

The development of a model for student learning (although

I had proposed completing it but it is more important to

there are two learners in the model) and the falling of time

continue and see through this process which is transforming

means that as a consequence of developing the HLM, I am

thought. From this new position I will look again at the long

transformed, my thought is being freed.

postponed project.



Applying Learning


The second square addresses the cyclical influences at

The third original square includes severe inhibitors

This is the square that describes the core of the

work between growth and deficiency, those motivations

to learning but also represents that learning can be

Humanist Learning Relationship, the conditions which

which inhibit learning and those that promote it.

applied even under extreme circumstances provided the

have to exist for deep and significant learning to occur.

Humanist Learning Relationship is operating effectively.

The task of Learner ‘T’ is to create this climate in which Learner ‘S’ (and indeed Learner ‘T’) feel psychologically safe and that trust exists between the two.





This square addresses being and growth through critical

Being or growth and deficit or deficiency, applied to

The Humanist Learning Model is a guide to reflective

reflection and growing criticality resulting in practical

beliefs, which relate to the lifeworld and psychologies

practice and here Learner ‘T’ has become another

problem solving in design problems and life situations.

or motivations. The effects on learning speaks for

Learner ‘S’ engaged in deep critical reflection and

themselves but Learner ‘T’ has to be aware of all

autoethnography resulting in meta cognitive learning.

these elements. In extreme cases there can be ethical

Also learner ‘S’ is able to look back at him or herself to

problems because Learner ‘T’ may need to be in

reflect objectively on thoughts and actions.

possession of information that Learner ‘S’ has disclosed to another party, for instance a student counsellor. Learner ‘T’ must maintain the utmost level of trust in the relationship under these circumstances. 24

In the original this was intended to illuminate a flow

Humanist Learning Model. The following are extracts

idea of trends. Enquiries conducted in action research

through the diagram but perhaps the Model is not meant

from the project planning phase and highlight the use of

mode are usually to do with values, and it is difficult

to be read as any sort of progression. The colours now

McNiff (1988) to guide action research.

to capture the nuances of opinion associated with

signify relationships. Note all the backgrounds are

questions of value through the precise formulation of

washes rather than solid colours. This seemed to make

Tutorials and reflections by the tutor post tutorial

questionnaires. Questions of value often take the form

for more ‘human’ feeling visuals.

constitute both field notes and interviews. It was

of “Yes, but…” and this sort of tentativeness is not

concluded in previous research that taking notes during

accommodated in questionnaires.’ (McNiff, 1988, p78)18

tutorials was distracting for both parties and prevented

The students names have been changed and all signed

real reflection in action. (Harvey, 2010) ‘Live interviews

a consent form agreeing to be the subjects of research.

It is with some regret that the plan of making ‘drawings’

are, however, very valuable in giving immediate

(Appendix One)

during the tutorial as discussed above was not tested

feedback on the enquiry and suggestions for its future.

at all but the author is greatly optimistic that this

In this way such conversations are crucial in the

methodology can be tested and refined during the

validation of researchers claims that improvement has

next academic year. Reflecting, post tutorial appears

taken place.’ (McNiff, 1988, p79) The improvement that

March 8th 2011

to have provided some useful insights but there can

McNiff refers to arises from the ‘Perspectives of Action

Katherine understands the use of sketchbooks and is

be no doubting the potential of having ‘drawings’ on

Research’ (McNiff, 1988, p2) which provide an effective

beginning to conduct systematic visual experiments

which to reflect also. (It is envisaged that the drawings

structure through which to generate aims and outcomes

and is thinking reflectively about her research. The

will be made on an A4 layout pad and photocopied,

for action research. ‘The first perspective describes

initiation of her project is constituted of a healthy mix of

Learner ‘T’ keeping a copy for planning Learner ‘S’s

the outcomes when a teacher decides to intervene in

future tutorials and for reflection. To please the record

his own practice…The second perspective attempts

keeping protocols, the copy can be kept in the students’

to identify the criteria of these activities; to formulate

record cards.) It will be noted also that the frequency

systems that will account for the improvement that is

at which reflection took place, not tutorials, is perhaps

an anticipated outcome of the self reflective practice.’

not as rigourous as it could be but nevertheless, the

(McNiff, 1988, p2)

Case Studies

notes are useful. The dates are the dates when the


18  The purpose of producing drawings in a tutorial, (see my self-tutorial - I call this a drawing even though it comprises lists and memos) is not really to collect information for research. It is to record the tutorial for both Learners and to provide a site of visual interaction but it would also provide an effective mass of data. The drawing represents where structure meets the freedom of thought. The paper is the

notes were made. It is important to point out that these

‘Questionnaires. These are notoriously difficult to create

notes cannot be concluded in themselves because the

in order to get the information desired and are liable

experience of making them, and reflection inspired by

to misuse. In an action enquiry, questionnaires will

them, informed for a major part, the construction of the

probably be used in an exploratory fashion to get an

only structure containing the drawing but it is also free from institutional procedures because it is not an official form or in duplicate. It is free from outside influences apart from those of the two Learners and represents utopian thought and feedom from capitalism.


contextual research and visual testing. It all seems very

from her tutor. She makes affirmative gestures but I am

not pin down but she seems to have recognised this

confident and sophisticated. She becomes stressed

in doubt as to whether she agrees with my comments.

in the form of a deficiency and then set out to address

however, when doubts creep in and she wonders where

Her confidence and unique experiences on which

what she saw as an irrational belief that she was “not

it is all going. Her subject matter is her own childhood,

she is drawing so much for her project are her only

very good with three dimensional thought”. I suspect

in part, but she knows she will have to bring in new

constants and maybe inhibiting any thought processes

there are two reasons for her actions, the first being

ideas to augment her main concept which is about her

which may make her project more accessible. However

a rapidly developing understanding of her reflective

childhood memories of living all over the world as her

she believes that putting the hours into her work will

self and second being an innate belief that a risk is

parents travelled and worked. Her doubts concern the

move it forward and has the ability to reflect in action,

worth taking. My task is to keep up with her learning,

purpose of telling the story. Interestingly she is confident

maintaining an effective engagement with her practice.

in a way, because she may lose confidence as she

even when explaining her misgivings. She is reflective

To grow as a person she will have to recognise that her

works more and more with three dimensions. (In

and knows that her conversations with me are part of

(privileged) childhood may not have significance for

the Graphics Illustration and Digital Media specialist

this process. Her media play is inventive, thoughtful and

her intended audience, given that she has identified it.

area it is significant that a student is undertaking

sophisticated but she knows her work will be empty if

Although she is capable of engaging reflectively across

three dimensional work in an area that is perceived

she does not work on concepts.

media, concepts and intentions, she has yet to develop

as being a 2D area. However contemporary graphic

a more objective reflective practice which will help her

design approaches are increasingly addressing three

nb. The following have been made with some attempt

process these parts of her work. Nevertheless she is

dimensions). As her practice develops however, her

to use the prototype Reflective Model, what became the

beginning to demonstrate this skill and my conversation

reflective skill increases and she may be able to

prototype Learning Model, to contextualise the notes in

with her should encourage her to think reflectively and

see problems on the horizon and be ready for them.

terms of the future development of a Humanist Learning


Perhaps my task is to make sure she is looking for problems.

Model. March 27th March 20th


May 8th

From reflective model. (Abbreviated to RM from now

I talked to Katherine last Monday to find that the

The construction of Katherine’s work is nearing


reticence she had had about working with three

completion and she has solved the problems involved

Katherine recognises that she must make her idea

dimensional materials was being exorcised and she

with vacuum forming tiles from acrylic sheet which

relevant to an audience she has identified. She is

was investigating the possibilities of mapping the

represent a quantifiable ‘bit’ of memory. My last tutorial

interested in mapping and is setting out to investigate

data she was analysing using vacuum forming and

with her was focussed on how all these tiles would be

the methodologies of this discipline of graphic design.

blocks of carefully cut MDF. There was an obvious

assembled to make a Periodic Table of Memories given

It is difficult to tell if she is genuinely accepting advice

inhibitor/motivator at work, the cause of which I could

the constraints of the exhibition space, the aesthetic


of the whole piece and time. A plan was devised to

embark on a new process or train of thought but the

suspend the tiles on fishing line after considering other

HLR. It comes from both tutor and tutee as two parts of

cabling options which were deemed too complicated

a reflective praxis.

and intrusive. There are serious constraints as regards

It is easy to say that Katherine is intelligent and highly

fixing to the fabric of the building so Katherine’s work

reflective but not so easy to say why. Every new

will be suspended between wooden brackets and

cognitive thread thrown into the circle of beliefs, growth,

beams, painted white against a white wall on which the

psychologies and deficiencies caused growth in the

title for her work will be applied. This is constructed from

beliefs of the person and shifts in the psychological

laser-cut acrylic letters.

motivations of the person which resulted in significant and effective learning. She was out of her depth, but not

Susan March 8th 2011 Susan crossed her name off my tutorial timetable twice this week. I do not know why this is but when I had a spare time slot she was happy to speak. Her concern was with her sketchbook which she had abandoned in favour of another, identical one. This was puzzling to me because there is no reason at all why she should start again. She said she hated her first ideas and wanted

June 7th

for long. The brackets she designed which suspended

During the installation of her work it was evident that

her work in front of the wall broke when I tried to attach

Katherine was at once out of her depth technically,

them to the wall. To her this was intolerable and it was

reliant on my experience and also, in contrast to the

only at this point that I sensed how stressed she was

expected position one would find a student in this

but also how controlled she was. For me it was a matter

situation, in control. It took me a few minutes to realize

of a couple of screws but for her it was a major problem.

this. There was much she was unable to do and that

The HLR here was something she could trust implicitly.

was new to her, in terms of construction and joinery,

Also before we actually began to assemble the work,

but she insisted on understanding what was to happen,

I had to change the location of her work because of

the order things were to happen and when considering

a technicality. This also made her quite stressed but

the demands of other students on my time and skills

she trusted my decision and her work was installed

set. The easy thing about a student like Katherine is


knowing you can push them to do things that make

19  The HLR worked because Katherine was very able. She

them very uncomfortable, processes, materials

looked for new problems or risks because she knew that that

methods, thought processes but the hard thing is

is how to change her perception or thinking. Even if she did

am not sure how to do this at the moment but it could be that

knowing if they understand the significance of what

not fully understand the mechanism for this she understood

I must emphasis the necessity of seeing them regularly. I do

that a risk meant possible failure but could percieve the

not blame Robert. It is my fault that he referred (he passed

learning value in this. Robert, (see below) was not in the

eventually) and did not take as much from the course as

same position. One of my tasks for next year is to use the

I would have liked but this does not mean he will not be a

HLM to form a more effective relationship with the ‘Roberts’. I

success in the future.

you are asking of them. The HLR is crucial in not over powering the student with new cognitive pathways. It is not really the tutor who is suggesting that the student

to make a clean break with them. My explanations of decision making and evaluation seemed to be of no interest to her. She seemed worried that she had made a mistake, was doing it wrong. This is worrying because she does not understand the principle of evidencing her thinking at this stage in the course. Perhaps her ambition for a successful project and good grade have distracted her from this principle. I must investigate this with her at our next meeting. nb. Again RM means the Reflective Model is being used.


March 27th

typographic communication in the concluding processes

May 5th


of her project.

At Susan’s final tutorial before the students are due

Last weeks crit. was significant for Susan. She is

to begin preparing for the End of Year Show and

interested in multiples and repetition and initially set

April 3rd

assessment, we reviewed progress of here project

out to draw a single object in many variations. Recent

Recently Susan spoke to one of my colleagues. This

which had the predisposition to ramble and lose

interview experiences and the staff team’s Monday

is normal practice and it is healthy for the students

direction. Indeed, Susan felt that this was the case.

morning briefings brought it home to her that she

to talk to more than one tutor. This time, however

When looking through her note books however, it was

needed to address more in the way of graphic design

Susan wanted to change the direction of her work. The

obvious that there was a sensitivity to linguistics which

problems, namely type and lettering. She correctly

typographic element to her investigation, as relayed to

she could not see the potential of. So we discussed

identified a deficiency in her practice but was prevented

me by the colleague who had spoken to her was to be

this in the context of graphic design as previously I

from addressing type and lettering directly by her belief

abandoned in favour of a purely illustrative investigation

had worried that she was too illustration focussed and

that she had to have something to say, a message

of repetition. I will be seeing Susan after the end of

was not thinking in terms of communication and not

to communicate. The subject of typologies turned

term, two week break so cannot comment but I will not

exploring how type would accompany her images. The

into typographies in the crit and it seemed to those

be able to challenge this direction so near to the end of

word games she was hinting at were humourous, dry

present that there was a codification at work. Susan

the course. I wonder if she is avoiding my input because

and intervened with her drawings simply and inventively.

was excited by this, especially when it was suggested

it challenged her own point of view? She has applied

I was troubled however because she could not see

that her multiples could exist in sets of twenty six and

to a graphic design course but her work is illustration

the connection between the type, some of it made with

refer to type. When I saw her at a tutorial later she had

(although I do not subscribe to these two disciplines as

wood block letter-press, and the mixed media images.

started to produce abstract variations of the letter ‘A’ in

being absolutes). It is common that students will seek

In this instance, within the context of the tutorial I

a particular typeface by both adding to and subtracting

an alternative opinion if it disagrees with their own. I

insisted that she look up semiotics and continue to find

from its form. This process of actioning a deficiency

have to be aware that she might be right, that she is

links between type and image. For instance she had

motivation has meant that she has addressed a

‘glimpsing her lifeworld’ and instigating growth because

deliberately spelt pear, paer and had thought about hare

perceived weakness in her practice but I am not

the process if avoiding me is a ‘B’ motivation. But I am

and pair.

sure whether she has grown as a graphic designer

suspicious. June 12th

as a result. That remains to be seen. She is drawing motivated and this can prevent her from addressing

nb. I did not trust her a self-directed learner and I felt

Normally, perhaps at an earlier stage in the course,

communication problems but it is important for me to

betrayed. This is inexcusable and very selfish.

I would have tried to instigate reflection-in-tutorial so

allow this process to take her in the direction of practical

that the student would come to realise the possibilities

type treatments which may say something about

staring at me from her note-book but with Susan at


this late point in the project I decided to risk being

me because I though she would receive a Merit but

her natural (and nurtured) striving for success. Most

prescriptive in the hope that she would learn-in-action.

her work encouraged a slow read which began to

students begin to realise that not being selected for a

Perhaps there is a (simple?) relationship which can be

make sense as the assessors thought through it - like

particular course is not rejection of themselves or their

applied here? Since the student is not aware of what

osmosis. This is something many graphic designers aim

work, (however older colleagues remember the pain of

she is doing, from a theoretical point of view, the tutors

for. Perhaps I should give Susan credit for achieving

these rejections well into their careers) but with Natalie,

knowledge can come into play. The tutor must facilitate

this but I am not convinced she fully understands how

these feelings are amplified. I am very worried about

the student in researching the theoretical point. In

her work operates. This is acceptable at the end of a

her. I think there may be pressures at home also.

Susan’s case she was losing confidence in her ability,

Foundation Course, however because my hopes for

losing momentum, confidence in her manual skills and

her are that she develops this understanding at Degree

beginning a downward dip in motivation which must be


interrupted. The relationship between psychologies, deficiencies, beliefs and growth is changed by the interjection of new material, new knowledge or a new


nb. Reflective Model used from here. March 20th RM Last week again Natalie seemed distressed and said

March 9th 2011

to me “its over” meaning undoubtedly that she thought

Today I found out that Natalie had not been selected

she would not succeed on the course and her dream

She emailed me around the time that final products

for interview at Leeds College of Art BA Graphic

of a creative career was over. This is not ‘dramatics’. It

were being outputted and printed, extremely worried

Design. She was upset, in tears. She sees every

is her deep rooted belief that failure is inevitable. She

that her screen and letterpress prints were not

missed assessment point or forgotten submission as

is heavily reliant on myself and our learning support

achieving the finish she wanted. Curiously she had not

deep failure - catastrophic failure. She is dyslexic and

tutor Shaun. We informally speak about her but I think

contemplated digital methods but that is what I advised.

has ADHD which makes her both a perfectionist and

I should be having regular meetings with Shaun so that

It may be that the same thing was happening again,

unable to focus for lengths of time, unable to organise

our approaches have some coordination. The report

a loss of confidence and growth motivation causing a

efficiently and aware of her perceived inadequacies.

from her crit was that she was floundering under an

deficient psychology which prevented her from problem

Her learning is greatly affected by her ambition and

immense body of research which was worrying in the


20  No matter how empathic and trusting the relationship is,

extreme. I decided that I should bolster her confidence

sometimes the fact that the student wants only to please the

(and I am not sure how my reflective model has helped

teacher comes into play. If they feel unable to, problems arise

me come to that decision because it seems just a

growth motivator, in this case a look at semiotics.

At the assessment it was commented that the way she had hung her work was exemplary, each small pin precisely positioned at the edges of the prints. She achieved a Distinction which actually surprised

such as avoidance and this will never change. The trust built in the HLR should mean that any avoidance is short term and

human reaction - I want to make her feel better.)21

any negative learning consequences are offset. I wonder how this works in the meata cognitive situation?

21  Pefect. Thinking free of constraints.


March 27th

triggers from any part of her life can erode this state so

I understand ‘B’ and ‘D’ motivations. There are events


quickly. It seems that she can lose her place with her

taking place in her home life that are affecting her

To pin all Natalie’s learning motivations down to

learning so quickly. I have promised her that I will be

learning and I am unable to know what they are. Do I

organisation would be simplistic. Her father is a

there for her whenever and that she must find me if she

need to know? Is it enough to know that they are there?

dominant force in her life and she respects him and

begins to have doubts and find herself in a lost place.

That she would not, could not confide in me was a blow

wants to prove to him that she is clever, intelligent

but am I being egocentric? Has my fix all theory failed?

and academically robust. She is all these things. The

April 3rd

student counsellor has spoken to me about how she


Upon reflection it is vitally important that I am supporting

needs coping mechanisms to structure her learning and

Natalie had promised me she would not disappear. This

her on her terms and not mine. She did indicate that

her life outside of college. I would like our conversations

means that if anything happened that meant she would

she did not want to show weakness in front of me but

to affect her self-belief. She should be viewing her

not be able to come into college, she would contact

she is not weak, she is irrationally hard on herself.

lifeworld from her own perspective. Natalie is the most

me. However, she disappeared for four days. I saw her

She has to trust me but I must not ask her to confide

complicated of my case studies to reflect on and to

talking to her friend on Thursday evening but I did not

in me if this makes her uncomfortable. She may think

apply a reflective approach to. I am purely attempting

manage to talk to her until Friday when all students

that I will judge her. She may just prefer her tutorial

to be genuine and human with her but also offering her

were required to attend a final assessment briefing. It

support organised in certain ways that are conducive

questions which will help her to organise and reflect.

was plain she was avoiding me but could I be certain

to her learning. I have requested that she see me on

Her autism is compounded by negative educational

that she thought I was angry with her for breaking our

Wednesday, because generally she needs to see me

experiences at ‘A’ level and pressures from her father.

deal? I invited her to the office for a tutorial as it was

twice a week. The thought that a learning relationship

These have motivated beliefs which are inhibitors and

more private than the studio or computer suite where I

has been threatened by my selfishness is sickening

will not affect growth motivation in her psychology. I

eventually found her. The tutorial was effective and we

and I intend to repair this damage. I cannot identify her

have to over-turn these beliefs so that her learning can

discussed her project and her aspirations for it. The first

learning deficiencies clearly but I can reflect in action

soar. One belief is that her organisational problems

significant piece of information she gave me was that

on her growth motivations - her intellect, her obsessive

cannot be over-come. She is right in one sense but

she may have to move with her family again. This cast

tendencies, and her passion for her subject.

there is evidence that organisational structures are

doubt on what she would be able to do next year as far

helping her structure her actions and reflection. I

as taking up a degree place. The second, and by far

June 12th

wonder whether this is the key. If I can help her to

the more significant was that she asked that I did not

From a point two weeks before the Final Project

organise, that is, super-organise, she can reflect and

ask about her home life and that I was just her tutor.

deadline, I had the feeling that Natalie was avoiding

progress work within the timescale required.

This hurt me because I am convinced that I cannot

me. I had to insist that we have a tutorial. It is observed

This week she seemed to be on top of everything but

facilitate learning unless I understand the whole person,

that certain students will avoid tutorials of they feel


they will not be able to ‘please teacher’ and it may be

that her understanding of her subject matter, and I

but is imaginative and intuitive. He draws in the back of

the case with Natalie. I also thought that she may have

am talking design here, is profound. Her research is

his sketchbook if he thinks that particular drawing has

felt that my tutorial style was too informal or perhaps

skilful and thorough and she can interpret research

little relevance to his project work or his wider practice.

too personal, which the HLR is as it has to consider

to high level. Her main deficiency motivation is in

My primary task with Robert is to aid his reflection

motivations not immediately associated with the

decision-making. So does this mean that she not only

and learn how this is not happening. Sometimes he

learning taking place in the studio. Previously she had

grows as a person but challenges her own beliefs and

seems very tired and struggles to keep focussed in our

asked that I not ask too much of her personal life which

lifeworld, changes her psychologies and over-comes

conversations. It is too easy to imagine the distractions

I knew to be difficult particularly her family life. There

any resistance to change? It may well mean that she

of youth in trying to account for this. My feeling is that

is only one course of action in the HLR and that is to

is cycling round the middle section of the model which

he is unable to reflect effectively and has not developed

acquiesce. The students’ desires are paramount but

means she is reflective but that she cannot apply the

an intimate connection with his drawing. He seems lazy,

the Humanist Learning facilitator (what an awful title. I

learning which has resulted.

defaulting to drawing from his head rather than looking

must think about how the teacher can be labelled in the

for reference material.

HLR.) However, it seemed important that I remained

Natalie achieved the grade of Merit. She was ecstatic.

both genuinely understanding of her wishes but also

I have mentioned pressures from her father above. He

March 20th

available if she should wish to talk.

has requested clarification of her grade.

A recent crit which was lead by one of my colleagues,

The last tutorial I had with her was to explain that because of her severe dyslexia etc. she was eligible


has had some effect on Robert. He was spoken to firmly and accused of laziness in that he did not research for his drawing and did not put the hours into developing

for Reasonable Adjustments in which extra time can be

March 8th 2011

technically. This surprised me because I took a softer

given for her to submit. She seemed greatly relieved

Robert is often difficult to find. His attendance is at

approach with him although I am glad that Matt, an

after we negotiated an extension for her. When time

around eighty percent and he misses crits and tutorials

illustrator by profession, has spoken to him in this

came for her to submit her work she was not ready so

regularly. He has gained two university places and has

way. Matt cannot stand lazy drawing. However, I feel

I had to spend a couple of hours with her printing out

some inventive ideas, his project aiming to investigate

it is my task to deal with Robert’s inhibitors so that our

and making the final decisions on things like typefaces.

with illustration contemporary and historical music

conversations start to affect his reflective processes.

Exasperating but so fascinating.

recording. To understand his thought process, it seems

The students do not want me to intrude into their

necessary to impose some organisational rules on

thoughts or lives but I think I must without demanding

I am sure that the HRM is applicable to Natalie but I

him and the way he works in his studio notebooks. For

personal disclosures - and I mean both the serious kind

am unsure of the mechanism which prevents her from

instance, he has I believe, a drive to draw but this can

and others, like relationships with parents etc. I have no

applying learning. In fact, I am unsure of this. It is plain

be unsystematic and does not set out to solve problems

evidence that Robert has serious problems. He knows


he is struggling with his Final Project though. I manage

a derailing influence rather than a supporting influence.

To: Stuart Harvey

to talk to him regularly I think we can affect his learning

Even so, it is still my duty to make sure he sees me. It

Subject: Collecting Work

by challenging the way he processes his drawing, the

could be argued that his learning style has meant that

Hi Stu, hope you are well, due to unforeseen

way he thinks about it when he is doing it, reflection in

he could not complete his learning by the final project

circumstances i was unable to

action. That will be my line of questioning when I next

deadline and that the Referral system is there for

come into college on thurday and friday, so was unable

see him.

people like Robert. At least I can give him some efficient

to collect both my

May 5th

one to one time after the end of the course. It has

work and my results, is there any possibility that i would

Are my worries allayed?

been difficult to establish the relationship with Robert

be able to get

He seems to be working hard but does his work have

because of his tendency to avoid me but one of my

these tomorrow some time , or has the old work already

the invention I am looking for?

aims as a teacher is to reach this type of student.

been removed from the

Can it be said that I have not done my best to nurture

spaces. Regards Robert

the learning relationship with Robert?

June 7th

How can the relationship be summed up - or can it be

It is certain now that Robert has referred Unit 7, the

From: Stuart Harvey

summed up at this stage?

Final Project unit. For reasons of his own he was not

Sent: Sun 6/5/2011 3:56 PM

at the awards ceremony and so did not pick up his

To: Robert

May 15th

results. Nether did he come into college to remove his

Subject: RE: Collecting Work

I know at this stage in the course that Robert has

work from the End of Year Show. I have emailed him to

referred on his Final Project assessment. This makes

tell him his results (because the phone number on his

me question whether I have failed him and in some way

record card does not work) and to remind him to discuss

I have. It is easy to argue that Robert may not have

how he can re-submit so that he will eventually pass the

been my most able student and that he was a little

course. Not wanting to leave to chance the possibility

lazy or unmotivated but it is my duty to find out why

that Robert may not understand that a referral means

You’d best come and see me on Monday because I’m

he has these inhibitors. Where the Humanist Learning

the opportunity to re-submit I emailed him again. The

afraid you referred Unit 7. I am unavailable Tuesday,

Relationship breaks down is that it requires that the

transcript of the communications are below.

Wednesday Thursday because of meetings and am out

student and tutor must see each other regularly so

Hello Robert All remaining work is in room 170 now.

of the office on Friday. You need a tutorial to discuss

that the relationship can be fuelled by the developing

-----Original Message-----

what to re-submit.

communication and trust. The fact remains that I did not

From: Robert


manage to see him the week before the deadline even


though he was in college. It may be that he saw me as

Sent: Sat 6/4/2011 5:17 PM



From: Stuart Harvey

language was not his strong point but he convinced me

Sent: Tues 7/6/2011 8:13 PM

that he was ‘OK’ with his critical journal. He may not

To: Robert

have trusted me but I cannot pin point the epicentre

Subject: RE: Collecting Work

of any mistrust. To me the Learning Relationship has failed because he did not pass the course. If it had been successful his belief motivations would have

Hello Robert

been influenced but to the last his apparent lassitude prevailed. There is so much I do not know about him

I’m not sure if you understand that if you re-submit you

but he did not trust me enough to ask for help with

can pass the course. Any offer from Universities is not

his project. In the middle of his project Robert was

affected by your referral, so long as you submit your

beginning to understand the significance of everything

referral work which is agreed with me. I can see you on

he drew, even though it was difficult for him to research

Friday now because I no longer need to go to London.

and find references for his drawings. The crafting of the drawings was mature however. At this point I thought he

Don’t leave it too long Robert. Your referral work must

was beginning to understand the necessity of research

be submitted by 30th June.

and process in drawings but I was wrong.

Call me if you need to but come in on Friday.

With Robert I am perplexed. I have one last tutorial with him, I hope in which I aim to try to discover a clue


as to why his learning was flawed. As soon as I write ‘flawed’ I realise this is inaccurate because I think he


was learning but not in the way the course asks him to. This is difficult because the course teaches design and is predominantly constituted of sound practices. We

The notion that I have failed him remains. It is possible

will see but I cannot conclude Robert’s file until I have

that he may have referred on a technicality, namely

worked successfully with him.

not submitting his critical journal (the written element of the project). However he was warned that this was something he needed to put more effort into. Written

Zoe March 10th Zoe is struggling to build momentum in her final project for the Foundation Course. She has decided to research neurology and has done a reasonable and thorough job in assembling some useful source material. Her choice for the next three years is graphic design and so her task now is to identify the intention of her project and the means through which she will communicate her message. Not easy with such a complex theme. She admits that she does not know what she is doing or where her project is going to go, which, on one hand is good at this research stage of her project. Zoe is bright, intelligent and individual. She lacks confidence in her own reasoning powers but has produced some sophisticated resolutions to the set briefs she has worked with in the GiD specialist area. Our last conversation was as a result of the tutorial the same week. She had not figured out how she wanted to use the theme of neurology to investigate graphic design problems or how she would initiate some visual research. My line of questioning was to probe her for why she had chosen neurology ion the first place and what her real interest was but she is unable or unwilling to enlighten me. In previous conversations she has ‘closed down’ when she has not wanted to discuss something or at the thought of having to explain


her motivations for attempting a piece of work or a

tutee of mine who was struggling with some aspects

to be essential for life can become toxins if taken in

visual line of enquiry but this time she closed down

of her progression. In some ways this goes against

high concentrations, for instance vitamin A. Moreover,

altogether. I felt that something critical was happening

my decision to always be genuine. If I am angry with

our conversation was free flowing and comfortable

and took her aside to another small private seminar

her, why should I not show it? Rogers insists that we

with some humourous moments. Both parties seemed

room but to no avail. In the end I decided to leave

are genuine with our emotions in the presence of the

pleased with the new state of affairs.

her alone and not pressure her to explain her work.

client (quotation) but, in a situation where time is not

She will be attending a crit chaired by me and I do not

a resource, other actions must be taken. (This is an

May 8th

know how to approach her now. It is imperative that

important point in my personal humanist philosophy

I regularly make visits to the Printroom because

I find a way to communicate with her, hence my off

of learning. I have adapted my behaviour in response

many Graphics student can be regularly found there.

plan inclusion in my case studies. (I had intended and

to the student, based on reflective processes, so that

Zoe’s project will consist of a printed booklet so she

had started to use another student but this incident

the student has ‘space’ to reflect and knows without

is also to be found in the Printroom. She seems much

made me change to Zoe.) My only plan at the moment

doubt that her tutor is not judging her and continues to

happier and will enthusiastically chat or discuss her

is to reflect so that perhaps I can work through the

be on her side.) It transpired that Zoe and her friend

work with me when I visit the Printroom. She will talk

problem. Since, I propose that both student and tutor

discovered that I was at a concert that they had both

about a technical aspect of registration, of the quality

must learn through a dialogue and relationship forged

attended. This appears to have changed the way Zoe

and transparency of the stock on which she is screen

in the studio and seminar room, when that dialogue is

approached me, which she did later in the week, to

printing or the colour palette she has chosen. I wonder

threatened, action must be taken. But what action? At

consult me as to some new ideas. I had also decided

whether she has discovered her capacity to think in

the moment I only wish to talk to Zoe on a social level

that I would encourage her peers to feedback to her

action and reflect in action? I observed that she seemed

so that any discussion of her work is left to one side

as much as I could in the crit. which took place on

unworried by the tasks ahead of her and the impending

for a short period of time but she understands that I

the Monday morning. This further allowed me to step

deadline. She explained that she was only worried

do not disapprove in any way what so ever of her as a

back from her work so as to take pressure away from

when she was worried about her work. At the moment

person. It is important that she understands that she

her. Was she feeling that she was not achieving the

she said she was not worrying about her work so she

can approach me when she is ready.

standards I expected from her? Zoe asked me to talk

was not worried.

to her late on Thursday afternoon, after 4pm when I March 27th

usually finish teaching but I am always happy to talk to

nb. This is a case where ‘D’ Motivation is precipitating


them after time. Her project had progressed in terms

reflection in action and thus it becomes a ‘B’ Motivation

My action was to make sure I was not judging her in

of concepts, considerably because she had decided

as Zoe achieves significant learning.

any way. So I made a point of saying good morning

that neurotoxins were where she wanted to focus.

to her and talking to her about her friend, another

She had discovered that substances that are known


June 7th

her doing this because she should not have to but we

I found this perhaps, inaccurate description of a

had had a curious tutorial where she had been vague

complex set of cognitive processes and reflections

and distracted. Perhaps she should have the right to do

she was experiencing fascinating and have tried

this after all.

to understand this with reference to the HRM. (Humanist Reflective Model. Also Humanist Learning

Zoe’s beliefs have evolved so that she thinks as she is

Relationship has become HLR) I wonder whether she

making. This has motivated her to attempt a complex

has discovered what my team and I advise, being that

print project but has also affirmed for her ability to

to do nothing was to not solve the problem but to do

problem solve. This situation is not so unusual in

anything, something, a different action, a change of

design but what is a mature motivating psychology

process meant a change in thinking would occur which

is the realisation that significant thinking functions at

may help to work through the problem. The HLR is

a deep level whilst producing or making. I hope Zoe

there to underpin this process of reflection in action. It

realizes this. She achieved the grade of Distinction for

is not directly involved. This would inhibit the cognitive

her project but this is in no way a justification for the

processing which leads to reflection. It simply needs to

success of the HLR.

be there. It is like a safety net. When I meet Zoe in the Printroom, the HLR we share, means that I can accept whatever she is doing without question, advise, ask her how she is feeling and receive an interesting reply, affirm that I am intensely and genuinely interested in what she is doing and leave her to continue. Before this, Zoe came to see me twice on consecutive Thursday evenings when I am often in college. I could not give her my complete attention because I was with a colleague but both times she talked in detail about her project. I cannot turn my students away and perhaps I should but at this point she was eager to demonstrate that she needed my input. I was not comfortable with


Conclusions ‘The ultimate abstract, analytical thinking, is the greatest simplification possible, i.e., the formula, the diagram, the map, the blue print, the schema, the cartoon and certain types of abstract paintings.’ (Maslow, 1968, p229) The Humanist Learning Model and its counterpart The Humanist Learning Relationship are not meant to be simplified. To visualise one or the other means to distil and group certain elements so that a model, a diagram can be applied to a real life situation. The aim of this is to give the educator who assumes the role of Learner ‘T’ and possibly even Learner ‘S’ the means to nurture the many Humanist Learning Relationships that have to be formed in the average tutorial group. It is the expressed intention not to make a definitive model because although there are certain elements which will always occur in Humanist Learning Relationship, Congruence being the most important, the model has to deal with people, and as the above case studies have demonstrated, no two learning relationships are alike. By manipulating the squares or ‘Elements’ in Adobe Illustrator it is possible to find combinations which describe many aspects of a Humanist Learning Relationship, to reflect on how the elements apply to real life situations and two reflect on how the elements influence one another. It is envisaged that the HLM Elements be made available so that educators can

download and print them out or manipulate them in

The aim to develop something like the Humanist

Illustrator (or even Buzan’s mind mapping application)

Learning Model, the case studies and developing the

using simple arrows to examine how the Elements

Elements and diagrams, has crystallised for the author

influence each other. For instance, the Humanist

the theory that learning, particularly in design benefits

Learning Relationship can be modelled with particular

from these approaches. It has taken two years to reach

emphasis on ‘B’ and ‘D’ motivations or reflective and

this conclusion and the thesis was tested to some

practical processes.

extent over the course of academic year 2010/11 but next year will provide a more complete testing ground

This thesis attempts to prove that learning design

as the thesis was not formulated until near the end of

depends on a good relationship between tutor and

10/11. As for a final conclusion it seems appropriate

tutee, that learning design is inextricably linked with

to set out the thesis in conjunction with the Elements

personal growth and becoming critical and thirdly that

in succinct terms - a manifesto if you will. Following

learning can be framed within the HLM if Humanist

this there are six experiements with the layout of

principles are adopted. The Model does not assume

the Humaist Learning Model elements containing

that any tutor or lecturer has one or half a dozen

explanations which are brief but aim not to be over-

students to see in a week. That is all well and good if

explanatory. It only remains to put the Humanist

this is the case but realistically Learner ‘T’ interacts

Learning Model into practice.

with many more, each student engaging in one to one contact for as little as twenty minutes and no more than an hour and a half per week. The Humanist Learning Model is an aid to establishing and nurturing the Humanist Learning Relationship which will mean significant, effective learning, the Elements allowing

I need as a learner? And now where? I asked the above questions and then thought that I would rephrase to ask what do I need as a designer? The proverbial spanner most definately but also some time to apply my learning, apply my

what is going on in the studio and tutorial to be reflected

theories. I am not sure that I have had so many ‘realisations’

upon. No one is saying that at the end of every day,

over the past three years so I will look for more. Last year

educators should meditate on the Elements. This is

I realised that design could for-arm the person against

simply not practical but perhaps from time to time they

capitalism. This year it has released my world view from the

may find it useful.22

problem of design and productivity. Design is nothing to do

22  What about meta cognition, me on my own? What do

pure thought.

with consumerism and is capable of undermining it. Design is


Humanist Learning Manifesto 37







Design Educate Liberate II Bibliography

Groys, Boris, (2009) Education by Infection in Madoff, Steven Henry, ed. (2009) Art School: Propositions for the 21st Century, MIT Press, p26 - 32.

Marcuse, Herbert, (1978), The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics, Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts.

Barton, Susan (1998) Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, Inc. available at gifts last accessed August 1st 2011

Habermas, Jurgen, (1987) The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Maslow, A. H. (1968) Toward a Psychology of Being: Third Edition 1999. Foreward by Richard Lowry. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

Brookfield, Stephen, D, (2005) The Power of Critical Theory – Liberating Adult Learning and Teaching. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Harvey, S. (2010) Design - Educate - Liberate: A Manifesto for Design Education, available at last accessed August 23rd 2011

McNiff, J, (1988) Action Research: Principles and Practice, Routeledge, London.

Brookfield, S. & Preskill, S. (1999) Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. Josey-Bass, San Francisco,

Heidegger, M, 1968, What is called thinking? Hater Torchbooks, New York.

British Council, Undergraduate Courses: Entrance Requirements - subject specific available at http://www. last accessed July 31st 2011

Hilpern, Kate, (2010) Art: There are a huge range of art courses, but which one is best for you? The Independent on Sunday, July 30th 2010, available at

Cohen, Norman, H., (1995) Mentoring Adult Learners: A Guide for Educators and Trainers, Krieger Publishing Company, Florida.

Kellner, Douglas, (1989) Critical Theory, Marxism and Modernity, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Foucault, Michael, (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Vintage Books, New York. Fry, Tony, (1999) A New Design Philosophy: An Introduction to Defuturing, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.

degrees/art-1630750.html last accessed July 31st 2011

Legg, Chris (2006) Review and Evaluation of the Diploma in Foundation Studies (Art & Design) Learning Skills Council available at

Mezirow, Jack, (1997) Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice, in New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 74, Summer, 1997, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Mezirow, Jack & Associates, (2000) Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress, Jossey- Bass, San Francisco. Mezirow, Jack & Associates, (1990) Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood: A Guide to Transformative and Emancipatory Learning, Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco. Moon, Jennifer A, (1999), Reflection in Learning & Professional Development – Theory & Practice, Kogan Page Limited, RoutledgeFalmer, NY

uk/lsc/National/Review_and_Evaluation_of_FAD.pdf last accessed 31/7/11 Madoff, Steven Henry, ed. (2009) Art School: Propositions for the 21st Century, MIT Press.

Owen, Chris, (2003) Firm Foundations: The Process Continues, in Miller, Corinne, (2003) Behind the Mosaic: One Hundred Years of Art Education, Leeds Museums & Galleries. 44

Rogers, Carl, 1961, On Becoming a Person – A therapists View of Psychotherapy, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, New York. Rogers, Carl, 1969 Freedom to Learn, Charles E Merrill, Ohio. Rogers, Carl; Frieberg, H. Jerome, 1994, Freedom to Learn – Third Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey Schön, Donald, A., (1987) Educating The Reflective Practitioner, Jossey-Bass: A Wiley Imprint, San Francisco

Further Reading Austin, J., & Hickey, A., (2007) Autoethnography and Teacher Development in International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Volume 2, Number 2, Common Ground Publishing, Melbourne. Bauman, G, (1996) Contesting Culture, Cambridge University Press, Canbridge in Holliday, A., Hyde M., & Kullman, J., (2010) Intercultural Communication: an advanced resource book for students, Routledge, Oxon. Ehmann, Debra (2005) Making a Difference: 2005 Evaluations and Assessment Conference. 30 November-1 December, Sydney. Using Assessment to Engage Graphic Design Students in their Learning Experience Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia

Holliday, A., Hyde M., & Kullman, J., (2010) Intercultural Communication: an advanced resource book for students, Routledge, Oxon. Rayment, T. ed. (2007) The Problem of Assessment in Art & Design, Intellects Books, University of Chicago Press. Robinson, Ken, (2006) available at TED Talks http:// creativity.html, last accessed 21/6/2011 Tan, Shaun, Dir. Writer. (2010) The Lost Thing, (Animated Film), Interviewed in Extras, Passion Pictures, Australia Tschichold, J. (1928) Die Neue Typographie: Ein Handbuch für Zeitmäss Schaffende, Brinkman & Bose, Berlin, Translated by Ruari McLean, (1995) University of California Press, Berkley, Los Angeles and London.


Fiedler, Jeannine, Feierabend, Peter, 1999, Bauhaus, Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Cologne. Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G., (1998) Handbook of Social Psychology; Fifth Edition, Volume 2, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey. Hickman, R, (2007), (In Defense of) whippet-fancying and other vices: Re-evaluating assessment in art and design, In Rayment, T. ed. (2007) The Problem of Assessment in Art & Design, Intellects Books, University of Chicago Press. 45

School of Design Informed Consent Form for research participant Title of Study

Design - Educate - Liberate II

Person(s) conducting the research

Stuart Harvey

Programme of study

MA Design Professional Practice

Address of the researcher for correspondence Telephone

c/o Leeds College of Art, Foundation Office, Vernon Street, Leeds, LS2 8PH 0113 202 8153


Description of the broad nature of the research

Investigation of one to one teaching paying particular attention to humanist psychological methodology in a learning and growth context.

Description of the involvement expected of participants including the broad nature of questions to be answered or events to be observed or activities to be undertaken, and the expected time commitment

Questionnaires aim to assess the tutor tutee relationship with a view to future action research aimed at collecting data about the learning relationship and assessing its efficacy. Further research will involve interviews and notes made about individual students.

Information obtained in this study, including this consent form, will be kept strictly confidential (i.e. will not be passed to others) and anonymous (i.e. individual and organisations will not be identified unless this is expressly excluded in the details given above). Data obtained through this research will not be reproduced. It will not be used for purposes other than those outlined above without your permission.

Participation is entirely voluntary and participants may withdraw at any time. By signing this consent form, you are indicating that you fully understand the above information and agree to participate in this study on the basis of the above information. Participant’s signature


Student’s signature


Please keep one copy of this form for your own records

Appendix One 46

The Humanist Learning Manifesto and Elements are available to print for a small price at:

‘Design-Educate-Liberate: a manifesto for design learning’ is available at:

‘Design Educate Liberate II’ is available at:



Design Educate Liberate II  

Discussion of Humanist learning principles in the context of design learning.

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