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Design | Architecture | Visual communication | Identity | Perception | Sharing knowledge | Europe

Design and Governance Design Den Haag 2010 - 2018 |

Design Den Haag researches the relation between design and governance in Europe within an international context, from cultural, economic and social viewpoints. Starting spring 2010, Design Den Haag will organize a total of five public events biennially in the field of design, architecture and visual communication, with exhibitions, publications, lectures and debates, workshops and documentary films. Each edition will entail a collaboration between Den Haag and another European government Capital: Berlin, Stockholm, Rome, London and Paris. Every edition will be evaluated. The final evaluation of the five editions will be submitted as report to the European Union at the end of 2018. This report will contain recommendations concerning the betterment of relations between design and governance, and on governmental funds for the quality of design, architecture and visual communication.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

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preface International connections


introduction Forward with curiosity


mission, objectives and research area Design and governance


background A brief history of the cultural policy in The Netherlands


appendix A brief history of the cultural policies in Europe





Design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

Jar tops, 2008 Jorre van Ast These functional screw caps fit on jars from every country in Europe and from the rest of the world. You can re-use and preserve that memorable mustard jar from Dijon, France or that pickle jar from England. By screwing on plastic tops, these readily available jars are turned into vessels with a specific function. A generic jar is transformed into a sugar pot, milk can, spice cellar, chocolate sprinkler, general storage container, mug or a water jug, creating more practical and emotional value.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018



International connections The Hague is an international city of peace and justice. This is an active notion. One could say The Hague is a city of progress. Progress with respect to relationships between states. Progress with respect to cultural and economic areas as well, and of course concerning the administrational field. After all, The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government. And as such we look at a rich and instructive past, a dynamic present, and we look ahead, into the future. As the Dutch seat of the government we maintain contact with other government capitals in the world. We share our knowledge, we collaborate. And we investigate the value of our identity and our place in a European context. Design Den Haag 2010-2018 is a special project in which various important aspects – cultural, economic and administrative – are linked. The central ambition is the wish to share knowledge, to collaborate in order to make use of our mutual creative abilities for a truly European society. Design visualises ideas and makes them tangible; in buildings, in consumer products, campaigns and clothing. The Hague, jointly with its partners, wants to contribute to the European idea of solidarity through diversity. With respect for each person’s uniqueness and individuality. On regional, national and European levels, within an international context. Design Den Haag has a preliminary planning up to 2018, which is not just a random year. It is the year in which one city in The Netherlands will be the Cultural Capital of Europe. The Hague will nominate, because we are a city with a rich cultural tradition, with a dynamic and diverse agenda and appealing cultural events. We are also continuously making the effort to ensure a contemporary, international relation between the past, the present and the future.

Jozias van Aartsen Mayor of The Hague The Hague, December 2008

Design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

Stuhlhockerbank, 2007 Yvonne Fehling In this seating for public spaces, the dividing lines between different types of furniture (chair, stool, bench) are eliminated and the three types blend. The placement of the elements, that are fixed together to provide a stable constellation, reflects the various ways people sit with each other. Close together or distanced, attentive or distracted – this piece of public furniture provides a range of configurations for nonverbal communication.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018



Forward with curiosity Design is a modern word, a vogue word. A word the meaning of which may be understood in various ways. Depending on the cultural background, age and your place in society the word design may have a different meaning. For one it says something about fashion, for another it has something to do with buildings or useful products. For one it is black with silver, for another polished stainless steel. The word design is used in many locations and moments, cultural as well as commercial, for high quality and for low quality. The multiple meanings of the concept cause some devaluation and thus it becomes unclear what design actually means. And what you actually buy when you purchase a designed object. Design Den Haag does not wish to attach a new unique meaning to the word design. For this society is too diverse and the objects we surround ourselves with are being experienced with too much variety. Exactly this diversity is an interesting challenge to address, disclosing the creative potential that is present in society. Design Den Haag wishes to give direction to this collective creative ability at European level. In the investigation into the new role and function of design, architecture and visual communication the main themes are: identity, perception and the sharing of knowledge. Design may perform a communicating part in the ever-changing European society. Designers are trained to perform a creative editing role in complex social environments. Thus designers may perform a bridging function between education, culture, economy and science. An exchange of knowledge and ideas and co-operation in the area of design, visual communication and architecture must be aimed at society and the meaning of the objects we use in public space; the park bench on which we sit, the street where we walk, the building where we live and work and the way we inform each other. Design Den Haag is inspired by identity and interested in the social, cultural and economic meaning of design. In brief, design is a word that stands for curiosity, respect and progress. That is where the European government may perform an important guiding, supporting and thus communicating role.

Ed Annink Concept Design Den Haag 2010-2018 Intendant 2010 The Hague, December 2008

Design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

Vรถllig weichgekocht, 2007 Sarah Illenberger It does not matter where we live. In what country or continent and what colour of skin or cultural background. Every one of us has a heart, a soft and vulnerable organ, in a well and very individually designed package of skin, meat and bones. The functionality of our heart is inevitable, not only to function but also to feel joy, pain or sorrow. The heart is a wonderful and magical diamond. A magical private heart in public space. The things we use wherever we are, the buildings in which we life and work, the streets we walk, the parks we visit. These are places with content like memories, smell and sound. Very individual experiences and at the same time and moment part of all. Designed objects and spaces are transporters to collective memories and to individual values. Individual values in public space.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018


mission, objectives and research area

Design and governance

Dutch design forms an increasingly important component of the Dutch economy

Design Den Haag researches the relation between design and governance in Europe within an international context, from cultural, economic and social viewpoints. Starting spring 2010, Design Den Haag will organize a total of five public events biennially in the field of design, architecture and visual communication, with exhibitions, publications, lectures and debates, workshops and documentary films. Each edition will entail a collaboration between Den Haag and another European government Capital: Berlin, Stockholm, Rome, London and Paris. Every edition will be evaluated. The final evaluation of the five editions will be submitted as report to the European Union at the end of 2018. This report will contain recommendations concerning the betterment of relations between design and governance, and on governmental funds for the quality of design, architecture and visual communication. The objective of Design Den Haag is to investigate in what way design could make a contribution to a visible Europe in an international context and what part government may have in this. The examination will result in a publication that will be presented to the European Union in 2018. The area investigated by Design Den Haag involves design, architecture and visual communication. These disciplines make a contribution that is not to be underestimated to a strong cultural and economic position of The Netherlands. Dutch design has not only acquired an international reputation in cultural respect, but this sector also forms an increasingly important part of the Dutch economy.

Design may connect to the cultural diversity in Europe

The above objective is inspired by a number of urgent matters that are calling for our attention at the moment: –– The realisation that European co-operation in the field of design may present economic benefits and could reinforce the feeling of European unity. –– The need to examine how design may connect to the cultural diversity at national and European levels in an international context. –– The necessity of reflecting on new economic solutions in the areas of overproduction and overconsumption.

Cultural policy in Europe The Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe is an information and monitoring system for cultural policy, policy instruments, cultural debates and trends in Europe that is available on the internet. The Compendium was started in 1998 by the Council for Europe in co-operation with the European Institute for Comparative cultural Research (ERIcarts). Independent experts, non-governmental organisations and national governments are involved in the publication and actualisation of the Compendium.

European co-operation The Royal Institute of Dutch Architects (BNA) submitted a report on the requirements of the European expenditure procedures to the Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit (NMA); from a review of the BNA it appears that almost eighty per cent of the architects’ bureaus forego European business owing to the strict requirements. The requirement in respect of turnover and experience are the greatest stumbling blocks. Architecten klagen over EU-regels, NRC Handelsblad, 19 November 2008

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

mission, objectives and research area

An important premise is the desire to achieve agreement at European level in the areas of cultural policy and regulation. Continuing globalisation and the arising of new economic superpowers are, in fact an important motivation for a growing Europe to determine her identity. A stronger European self-image and an open attitude in respect of cultural diversity in the global society will lead to improved co-operation with the Arabian countries, Asia and India. To get a hold on the possible solutions that may be generated for the above issues, the range of the investigation comprises three interconnected areas: perception, identity and sharing of knowledge.


What is the identity of Europe in an international context?

How does the designer experience his own subject and how does the consumer experience design, architecture and visual communication? The image that exists in the media and the public domain is currently dominated by designers that produce expensive unique products and architects that produce conspicuous architecture. Through media success and also the relatively good selling of design and the international implementation of architecture in the decision-making of urban infrastructure, design and architecture are well-positioned in international interest. But what is meaningful to one person, is meaningless to another. A watch is a trade for its maker, for the conductor a means and to the heir of inestimable value. In limited editions, a current development in design, it is not so much the instrumental functionality, but the image, the craftsmanship and exclusivity that are emanated. Small design series that add to the collections of art collectors and museums. The enormous popularity of design may also be deduced from the increased usage of the word design, which has degenerated into a vogue word. So, for example we have for years come across designer sweets, designer choppers, designer tiles, et cetera. These are often products and services that have not been devised and designed by designers, but by entrepreneurs who have confiscated the term to reach a specific target group. There are designers of international fame who, on account of this devaluation

Dare2Connect Dare2Conect (Felix Meritis and SICA, Centre for International Cultural Activities) offers a platform for debate, exchange of knowledge, meeting, presentation and networking in the area of international cultural policy and international cultural and art presentations. The programme of Dare2Connect provides a varied mix of existing publicity activities and new programmes to develop and stimulate international cultural activities. An important impulse for Dare2Connect arose from the new policy letter Koers Kiezen launched for the international cultural policy on 11 May 2008. In Koers Kiezen the plans are represented for the revision of the international cultural policy of the past ten years. The major change is that in addition to executing a practical international cultural policy the ministries wish to put more effort into strategic policy that envisages the elevation of Dutch art and culture to a higher level and to make the international cultural policy more effective.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

mission, objectives and research area

Designers will make a meaningful contribution

What are the wants and needs of modern society?

of the concept design, no longer offer their talents to suitable products and distribution channels, but exert themselves in other areas of society, for instance welfare oriented products or services with a social dimension. A considerable number of current designers want to make a meaningful contribution to society by designing affordable products for everyone that at the same time make a contribution to questions such as environment and overproduction. Smaller production runs and concomitant smaller distribution areas are considered. It may be to service a regional culture, but also to realise a specific cultural expression. The more idealistically inclined designers wish to share their knowledge with other disciplines and fields, especially since the idea or concept is found more important than exclusively a good function or good use of material. The premise here is that only when the social, cultural, economic and technological factors are considered in context a satisfactory end result may be achieved. The expectation is that this integrated and conceptual approach to the field of design may present a better contribution to society and the environment. There is growing dissatisfaction with the practice that design is the result of market researches and less of experiment. The dominance of marketing thought has led to a soulless ‘middle of the road’ culture. The prevalent desire for new products and the quick dissatisfaction with purchases must make way for more responsible consumer behaviour. To effect this change a complete about face in the philosophy of the consumer is required. An adequate way for the designer to effect this is by promoting a feel for quality. By elevating the average taste to a higher level, fewer but better and not necessarily more expensive products will be bought. Here it is important to keep in mind the emotional value that a product may elicit in the viewer. If a person could form some attachment or other to the product, the chance that it will be speedily added to the rubbish dump is reduced considerable. The current designer is challenged to achieve equilibrium between the durable quality of the product and the presence of emotional dimension such as cultural identity and memories. At this time when we are confronted by all kinds of threats in ecological, climatological, religious, political and social areas,


Archaeology and design Lonny van Rijswijk (former student of Design Academy Eindhoven) made thirty cups and saucers from clay at thirty different places in The Netherlands under the title ‘drawn from the clay’. Every cup and saucer had a different colour after being fired. The colour is the result of the composition of the clay. By this means the product becomes a kind of magnifying-glass to history. And design becomes and informative illustration of anthropology.

Florarium Temporum It is interesting to look back into the past and make hidden knowledge visible in respect of the present and the future. The point of departure for the project Florarium Temporum is the homonymous world chronicle of Nicolaas Clopper jr. from 1472. The objective of this ancient source for South Dutch historical writing was to make the world easier to handle and to understand. The urge to make the world understandable still is a source of inspiration for modern designers. Twelve designers put the Florarium Temporum in a relevant context be means of their work. Together they created an exploration that led to the filling of a vacuum in our collective memory and opened new doors in this continuous search for insight in the world.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

mission, objectives and research area

What is the identity of Europe in a multiplicity of identities?

an involved and innovative attitude of the designer if of major importance. Designers ask themselves more often what role and position they occupy in the cycle of demand and supply. An important point is also the difference between the wants and needs of society. To counteract the current overproduction and overconsumption, various changes in the function of design and the role of the designer are essential. That the composition of the population currently is different than thirty years ago, is evident. The question is whether with the knowledge of thirty years ago we may manufacture products for today and tomorrow, which are addressed to a multicultural society. How should we deal with the customs and traditions of the diverse population groups and their perception of the design of public space and consumer products?

Identity What do we understand under identity? Do we measure and value it against the language, the culture, the national character, the lifestyle? Do clearly delineated identities of the various countries and cultures still exist, or have they blended? The increasing migration steams leads to a fast tempo of assimilation of the divergent cultures. How do politics, society, but also the designers and architects deal with this interculturalism? Can there, in the midst of this multiplicity of identities, still be a European identity and what does it consist of? How then does the European identity relate in respect of the various national and subcultural identities? At this moment there is tension between, on the one hand the need for visualising one’s own national identity, regard for instance the national logo and the national letter introduced in The Netherlands in 2008, and on the other hand the realisation that we live in a crucible of divergent cultures. In The Netherlands, for example, this is expressed as a desire to perform a clearly pronounced role at the cultural level in the international arena. Particularly in the areas of design, architecture and visual communication The Netherlands has a reputation to maintain. At the same time there is a growing realisation in the multicultural society that western tastes are no longer decisive. The current dominance of the western civilisation has led to the development of a worldwide threat

A new logo for the Dutch national government Not only does every ministry have its own in-house style, but so do the revenue service, Rijkswaterstaat and many other institutions of the national government. The in-house style density in the Dutch national government is enormous. The introduction of one logo and one in-house style are provisos for a united presentation of the national government. The new logo for the Dutch national government designed by Studio Dumbar must make an end to the visual fragmentation and contribute to greater recognition and accessibility. Letterrijk: presentatie van de nieuwe Rijksoverheidsletter, 13 November 2008

Dutch Design Fashion Architecture Characteristic of the need to give Dutch design, architecture and fashion a(n) (even) better reputation abroad is the recent founding of DDFA (Dutch Design Fashion Architecture). From 2009 until 2012 the DDFA programme will assume the role of initiator, advisor and stimulator of a programme of international activities in the area of design, architecture and fashion.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

mission, objectives and research area

Design can perform a

of cultural homogenisation. This requires that the inputs of designers should aim a searching for greater cultural variety in the supply. Mutual respect and understanding in western and non-western cultures should mean an important enrichment for the culture and society. Particularly the difference in the dynamics and inquisitiveness of the young and the old is an interesting subject in this regard. The overall question now is how designers should deal with the layered identities and dynamics that exist in and next to each other, in future.


Sharing of knowledge

role at European

A guiding idea of Design Den Haag is that design will perform a communicating role at European level. It is interesting to search for the possibility of a recognisable European identity, without detracting from the variety of the local cultures. A clear example of a successful European unity in national diversity is of course the European money, the euro. This produced much economic benefit and user comfort. A similar common European design could also be applied to the marking of public occupations and services. The uniforms of the military, the police, fire brigade, judges, et cetera come to mind. But also the clothing of sportspeople from countries in Europe who participate in the Olympic Games would be recognised by a European signature. So, as in the case of the euro, the nationalities could be discerned from the different accents. It also seems of interest to develop a common European formal language in the area of visual communication. Would it be progress if the road signs, the logos of public transport and public services such as chemists and hospitals were the same throughout Europe? An interesting thought in the sharing of knowledge and co-operation is the benefit it may produce financially. If we could design and produce European road signs under one management this need not be done 48 times. Time and money may then be reallocated to finance, for example, innovation in the area of social design.


Design Den Haag and design Technical innovation, new materials and fashion have always had an influence on the form in which products appeared and came on the market. Currently the international and local supply is overwhelming.


ResearchLab Design Den Haag intends to conduct a factual investigation into European Cultural Policy in a ResearchLab. This investigation will be aimed at the government cities and countries Design Den Haag will co-operate with from 2010 until 2018: Germany, France, England, Sweden, Italy and The Netherlands. Questions that will be examined include: What can we learn from each other’s policy? To what extent does regulation follow reality?

Mondriaan Foundation The Mondriaan Foundation was founded in 1994 with the objective to expand and deepen the interest in and demand for art, design and cultural heritage. In addition the foundation wishes to increase the international interest in modern plastic art and design from The Netherlands and reinforce their position, by, inter alia, organising Dutch participation in the Venetian biennial.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

mission, objectives and research area

The Netherlands has a welltrained creative ability

Throughout the world there are entrepreneurs who are able to build, to produce and to distribute. In most cases the motive is to earn money. However, the international market has become saturated. There is too much of the same. Too much of the same for more or less the same form, price and via the same distribution channels. A major motivation for the high production is the low final price of the product, by means of which a large group of international consumers may be reached. Thus large runs with small margins are realised. These mechanics are managed by marketing and then by innovation or social considerations. In international production and distribution distinction no longer applies. Everything looks the same. Nevertheless The Netherlands has an enormously well-trained creative potential that can support directed communication, manage design processes and decision routes, make fewer and better products that need not be inordinately expensive and design interesting buildings with attention to durability and the environment. The Netherlands distinguishes itself abroad in the field of design. This may also have something to do with the favourable design climate that the Dutch government has been creating since the end of eighties. This has also contributed to the brand Dutch Design being mentioned suddenly during the nineties. This is also due to the successes achieved domestically and abroad by Droog Design, Marcel Wanders, the fashion designers Victor and Rolf and the Design Academy Eindhoven. Droog Design has grown from a platform for innovative design to an international pioneering position. Marcel Wanders became one of the international stars of the past ten years and is compared with, for example, Philippe Starck. Victor and Rolf launched themselves in the world of high fashion. At present these designers are working hard to convert their fame into commercially well-run operations that distribute their products visibly, accessible and affordably. In addition a parallel movement that produces exclusive and expensive products developed in the past three years. This is an interesting project the results of which are now still being bought by collectors and museums. Over time we will know what the contribution of this movement is to a larger

Premsela Premsela, Dutch Platform for design and Fashion, has existed since 2002. Its objective is the improvement of the cultural design climate in The Netherlands. From a cultural angle the foundation wishes to ensure for good conditions and opportunities for the growth of design and fashion, where it will maintain as stated by itself a versatile, dynamic view. In its policy plan 2009-2012 titled Designworld, Premsela indicates that it wishes to combine the functions of a platform with the supporting tasks of a sector institute for the coming period. The foundation mentions four provisos for a positive development of the organisation: sensitivity for changes in the environment, relevance and identity, tolerance and decentralisation and a conservative financial policy. Furthermore the foundation illustrates in its policy plan a number of themes that according to it has influence on the development of the cultural design climate: amateurism, economy of meaning, awareness, cultural identity, mundanisation and popular culture.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

mission, objectives and research area

Products with attention to durability, the environment and social meaning

consumer market. Design Den Haag is interested in products that not only show an improvement in materials, technique and functionality, but especially have a relationship to the multicultural society with various identities and faiths. In addition attention is given to products attending to durability and the environment. Furthermore design may perform a communication role in the public space.

Design Den Haag and architecture The influence of government on the design of the world we live in is greater than many would suspect. This is mostly expressed in our built-up environment, where government is involved directly or indirectly to the extent of seventy per cent. What would The Netherlands be without its Royal Palace, the Rijksmuseum and the Central Station in Amsterdam, the municipal museum Den Haag, the museum KröllerMüller, the ministry of VROM, the Den Haag City Hall and the architectural institute in Rotterdam? And so one may continue, bearing in mind that all government buildings such as ministries, city halls, court buildings and also -in the past- government services such as the Dutch PTT and energy undertakings were effected on government instructions. In addition, government also finances the building and exploitation of many public buildings such as hospitals, theatres, museums and old-age homes. In addition as direct principal at national, provincial and municipal levels, government, as legislator and regulator, also puts an important stamp on the sphere of the national economy. A recent development in architecture is that in the field of city branding cities increasingly desire to profile themselves by means of spectacular architectural projects. The main idea here is that architecture is hot and gives a positive and creative emanation that has a good influence on the comfort and the economic, cultural and social climate of the city. However, the needs and wants of the urban society should be established, with ongoing understanding on the basis of the time we live in. The Netherlands embassies abroad have been designed for some time by famous architects. A good example is the embassy in Berlin designed by Rem Koolhaas. The interior is increasingly co-designed by means


Designworld Themes from Designworld, Premsela’s policy plan for 2009-2012; Amateurism: one in six Dutch people spends some time each month on their interior, one in ten makes clothes, one in twelve is involved in graphic design and one in twenty makes furniture. Design and fashion are increasingly becoming more open cultural fields. Symbolic economy: symbolic value creation is a core process in the creative industries. Design and marketing can determine the difference between completely uncharacteristic or highly distinguished products. Consciousness-raising: what are good ideas and products? The notable interest among designers for traditional production methods fits within this new consciousness. Cultural identity: people use design and fashion to give meaning to their experience at a variety of levels. What effects does multiculturalism have on design and fashion? Design and fashion can be employed to strengthen our national identity at home and abroad. Globalisation: the digitalisation of information and money has created a new and partially virtual reality of ‘creative capitals’ and a non-location-specific and dynamic network organisation with meeting spaces. Globalisation demands that the cultural design climate is given an international position. Popular culture: design and fashion operate in the area between art, amusement and folklore. This raises questions about the relationship between tradition and innovation, between professionals and amateurs, between local and global culture, and between culture and the market.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

mission, objectives and research area

Perhaps the back door of the embassy must become the front door

of products from the hands of Dutch designers and produced by Dutch or foreign industry. But are the embassies as trade missions, as portal of Dutch exports, not based too much on a period other than the one we are living in? It still often seems that the embassies aim exclusively in one direction, from us to them. Perhaps the back door of the embassy must become the front door to mutually share the creativity of the country involved, from them to us. The mission of the embassies could become more prominent if the exchange of creative innovation were involved. That would mean that we would not only exhibit our creativity by means of a beautiful building, but that we should reconsider the functions and objectives of the embassy.

Design Den Haag and visual communication Investigation has shown that daily we receive more advertising messages, news reports and other important or less important information, or not dedicated to the individual at all, than one person can process. The distribution of information has grown explosively due to the internet. So much reaches us that we are scarcely able to distinguish the one from the other. Much design is based on another, earlier design created for another purpose. Content and form are confused, causing messages to become unclear, if not unintelligible. The considering, making, seeing, reading and understanding of information in the public space are an important area of attention of Design Den Haag.

Visual communication performs an important communicating role in society

An important component of our living environment, visual communication, has a major communicating role in society. As mentioned earlier, visual communication, forms the greater part of the design world. This concerns matters such as road signs, street furniture, logos for public transport and in-house styles of public services. Much profit may be allocated to Dutch society if these visual sign could take into account the diversity and multicultural composition of the European population. Apart from these concrete forms of visual communication the more ephemeral and incidental forms of it may also expand the social dimension or the urban experience. During the last couple of years at a mundane level creative interventions could be

Royal Institute of Dutch Architects The Bond van Nederlandse Architecten (BNA, Royal Institute of Dutch Architects) is the only general Dutch occupational association of architects. The objective of the BNA is the stimulation of the development of architecture and the promotion of the occupational work of members. About 3000 architects are united in the BNA to create optimum conditions for their occupation by development of their expertise, reinforcement of their entrepreneurship and by the social, cultural and economic proliferation of architect and architecture.

Council for Culture The Raad voor Cultuur (Council for Culture) is the statutory advisory organ of government for both chambers of the States General in respect of culture and media policy. The council is independent. Most advices are presented at the request of the ministry of OCW. Other members of government and the first and the second chamber may also request advice from the council, but this does not happen often.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

mission, objectives and research area

found in the nerve tracts and centres of the major cities that led to new dynamics. Here the attention is called to socially involved expressions or interventions at the cutting edge of design and architecture involving an interactive relationship with the city dweller to evoke a feeling of belonging, engagement, intimacy or surprise. These interventions introduced a new genre that could be typified as open source urban design. As principal the Dutch government performs an important role in the design of public space.

Visual communication may expand the social dimension of the urban experience

Politics presents itself to the populace via posters. On television, the radio and via the internet we see campaign images and hear arguments. Increasingly often the programmes seem subordinate to the presence of the parties. Campaign images show the party canvasser as a captain of a ship or simply as an amiable person. The content of the party’s program is less important in the design of the party posters and other printed campaign materials. Of course, there are other, perhaps more suitable methods for bringing the message of the party to the notice of the voters. So Barack Obama installed internet during his campaign and introduced mobile telephone or personal ‘ambassadors’ in the public domain. Citizens started motivating and convincing each other to vote for Obama. The diversity of society and the resulting satisfactions and dissatisfactions are also in the area of visual communication an important motivation for putting questions about the assumptions used in the design of political campaigns. Visual communication is not only about the design of a legible contextual image but especially also the method by which and the manner in which the image is brought to the notice of the person addressed. The multicultural society, the various countries in a growing Europe, the identity of Europe in international context that is still to be established, international communication, sharing of knowledge and generosity are important characteristics to include in future projects in the field of visual communication from the national government and European regulation. Ed Annink


Association of Dutch Designers As designer organisation the Beroepsorganisatie Nederlandse Ontwerpers (BNO, Association of Dutch Designers) has a history that goes back to 1904. In that year the Vereniging van Ambachtsen Nijverheidskunst (VANK, Association for Craftsmanship and Artisanship) was founded. The BNO exerts itself for the business, social and cultural interests of designers. The BNO unites about 2500 individual designers, as well as 200 design agencies and design departments within companies.

The public meaning of the graphic designer In 2006 Annelys de Vet with students of the Design Academy in Eindhoven compiled the publication The public meaning of the graphic designer. In this publication she examined the diversity of Dutch society. The students made posters that gave expression to themes such as; how full is The Netherlands, what does the multicultural society and the individualisation mean for visual communication.

Design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

Multibet, 2006 Janneke Smale Multibet is part of the series ‘Nieuwe beelden voor Nederland’ (New images for The Netherlands), published in De publieke rol van de grafisch ontwerper, Annelys de Vet, 2006. Annelys de Vet investigated the role of the designer with a number of colleagues and students of the Design Academy Eindhoven. A discussion of democracy and the relevance of image in the public sphere led to a series of posters about The Netherlands.

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018



A brief history of the cultural policy in The Netherlands

In the eighties a clear policy came in the area of architecture and design

For some years it has been realised that the Dutch subsidy system was due for renewal

It is worthwhile asking oneself how the government went about the cultural policy in the past. This gives a clear picture of the valuable aspects of policy from the past as well as the hiatuses and any obsolete ideas in the current policy. In general it may be stated that somewhat belated the Dutch government is aiming at the promotion of architecture and design in a structured manner. Only recently, in the eighties of the twentieth century, a clearly defined policy for these areas was created. Before this time an incoherent system of government measures, that was scarcely based on clearly defined objectives, was the order of the day. For some years there has been an ever growing realisation that the Dutch art policy and in particular the subsidy system in The Netherlands require renewal. It is remarkable that the criticism was coming from the inside; the volume Second Opinion published in 2007 in which various solutions and suggestions from various points of views and quarters were presented with regard to a better art policy, is an initiative of the Mondriaan Foundation and the Netherlands Foundation for Visual Arts, Design and Architecture (Fonds BKVB). For the first time in the history of the cultural policy, there are voices proclaiming that the Thorbeckian principle -‘government is no judge of art and science’- should be abandoned. In some respects a parallel to the mentality of the seventies may be observed. In this decade, which has in the meantime become almost mythical, an important social role was allocated to creativity, art and architecture. The mission of art to elevate man from his one-dimensional materialistic existence and the design of our living environment in its most ideal form, had to invite the development of the ‘playing man’. The motto of the then most acclaimed artist, Joseph Beuys, ‘everyone is an artist’ was the most pregnant expression in this respect. The similarity between now and the seventies is not only limited to the application of art and culture to improve society, but may also be observed in the care for the environment and the accompanying ideas about the development of durable products.

Critic on the subsidy system The art subsidy system in The Netherlands leads to mediocre art, has a disastrous effect on the market for contemporary art and enlarges the abyss with the public at large. Clashing of interests and jobs for friends develop. This is the opinion of Lex ter Braak (director Fund BKVB) and Gitta Luiten (director Mondriaan Foundation) in Second Opinion - about the subsidies for art in The Netherlands (2007). According to this duo the subsidy system should be reviewed. In their opinion it is counterproductive and does not achieve objectives such as high quality, more visitors and a greater social involvement of art.

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke (1798-1872) The Dutch government has a long tradition of standing aloof from giving a contextual judgment over art. The starting point is the statement of Thorbecke (a Dutch statesman who indeed is called the founder of the Dutch parliamentary democracy) made in 1862 and quoted here: government is no judge of art and science. This was later erroneously repeated as: art is no business of government. Thorbecke did not wish to say that government should completely abstain from stimulating a flowering art life. It would indeed have to create the required conditions. This condition creating characteristic still is an important point of view.

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1945-1980: Government as stimulator of civilisation and welfare

The cultural politics in the whole period from 1945 until the beginning of the eighties was strong ideological

In the sixties and seventies art and culture even became a component of the welfare policy

Although the seventies, which were, partly, an effect of the ideals of the sixties, form the pinnacle concerning faith in the formative and cohesive power or art, it can be seen in retrospect that the cultural policy of the whole period from 1945 until the beginning of the eighties have a strong ideological character. Just after the war government involvement in the arts was to a major extent based on the ideology of the urban civilisation offensive. It was based on the conviction that the beauty of art has an elevating effect on mankind. In the sixties and seventies art and culture even became part of the welfare policy. This was connected to the faith in an achievable society, where artists would be able to make an important contribution. Furthermore, in the sphere of democratisation the participation and dissemination of art was high on the agenda. The social component of the policy, in fact, came to the fore in the extremely pro-artist approach of the legendary Beeldende Kunstenaars Regeling (BKR) as alma mater of our creative fellow man. Since this was an open final regulation and art was a favourite occupation in the milieu of the ideal of free development in the seventies, the number of artists grew exponentially in this period. A salient detail is that these monies originated from the ministry of social affairs, which confirms once again that this was a social and no cultural regulation. The selection process took place at local level and the quality requirements were very pleasant to put it mildly.

1980-1995: Government at a distance and guardian of quality At the end of the seventies this uncontrolled generosity of government started to get on the nerves of politicians. The unchecked increase of artists not only became too expensive, but also led to mediocrity and laziness. A reversal of the policy became unavoidable and it was Eelco Brinkman, minister of the ministry of welfare, public health and culture (WVC) from 1982 to 1989 who put the knife to the socially aligned art policy. His ideal was to conduct a more directional art policy where government would operate more at a distance in the arts sphere. The major spearhead of the art policy was the expert quality judgement that

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The expert quality judgement became the major selection criterion

was the major selection criterion for qualifying for subsidy. The gradual dismantling of the BKR (finally abolished in 1987) and the founding of the Fund BKVB (1988) and the Mondriaan Foundation (1994) were the major policy instruments for facilitating a flourishing art climate again, where only the so-called ‘top art’ was supported by the government. Now only a limited number of artists could qualify for subsidy and it was quite a tour to be certified for subsidy by the judging commissions, which were populated by the confounded experts in taste, for the funds. In spite of many woes on the part of artists especially in the initial phase of this paradigm shift, it can be stated without reservations that the quality principle still is the core of the art policy.

The nineties: Democracy of culture It is, of course, true that especially since the end of the nineties and particularly due to the rebellious impact of Rick van der Ploeg, minister of the ministry of education, culture and science (OCW) from 1988 until 2002 other themes were also introduced to the art-political agenda. He is the one who revived the mentality of the seventies by aiming at a larger public by including new subgroups such as the youth and immigrants. The different creative expressions of different groups in our multicultural society were to enter into an inspiring confrontation with each other to break through the hermetic monoculture. By also regarding popular art expression and pop music as acceptable forms of cultural expression his policy caused the commotion required. Instead of the elite culture that developed in the eighties and nineties he promoted the democracy of culture. His policy may be summarized as the stimulation of the quality of popular culture and the popularisation of inaccessible art.

The current policy: distinguishing, participation and renewal Minister Ronald Plasterk of OCW (2007 -) conspicuously follows the two policy guidelines introduced in the eighties and the nineties, namely quality, positioned by him as exceptionality, and the distribution and democratisation idea of Rick van der Ploeg. This translates into giving more to fewer creators and the promotion of publicity reach. A remarkable correspondence with the period when


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A greater public range by targeting new target groups such as youths and immigrants

the BKR came under fire is that criticism of the current subsidy system is becoming ever louder and according to many it has degenerated into a welfare policy again. The model of the commission allegedly maintains an enclave that puts art beyond the pale of social reality. Lex ter Braak (director Fund BKVB) typifies the character of this closed circuit with ‘whoever contributes even a little in art land sits on some commission or other’. Due to the consensus model nobody feels directly responsible for any judgement. In addition the subsidy model promotes a monoculture in which only avant garde design is supported. Consequently a schism between design for the elite and design for society develops in the world of design. On account of the liberal subsidies the subsidised designers allegedly do not exert themselves enough to obtain alternative sources of income. Subsidies cause a disassociation for commercial reality impeding any eventual joining of the business world. In reality this means that creators should position themselves differently in this society and ensure that they can generate their own livelihood.

Cultural entrepreneurship The item of cultural entrepreneurship explicitly put on the agenda by Rick van der Ploeg continues to grow in importance at this time. It would not be an exaggeration to state that during the past number of years there has been a transformation of art. This did not appear out of the blue, but the various developments seem to have reached a point of culmination and this is also apparent in government institutions. Thus there is an expansion of the concept of art by a fading of the boundaries between high and low art, an overlapping of the various creative disciplines, the globalisation of creativity and the overall importance of the new media. The old western quality standards no longer seem adequate, because the youth culture, the culture of immigrants, fashion, advertising, the vjs, the internet artists and commercial undertakings are being involved. The occupational practice of this new generation of creators (born between 1970 and 1988) are enriched by the above fading of the boundaries between disciplines, forms of expression and media. Digitalisation will cause art and culture to manifest beyond the traditionally accepted institutions to an ever increasing extent.

The rise of the creative class Richard Florida caused a worldwide sensation with his book The Rise of the Creative Class (2002) in which he found a relationship between the development of the creative industry and the (economic) growth and flourishing of a city. Since this publication there has been much interest in the creative class and the creative economy. Thanks to Florida these concepts have been embraced worldwide by cities and city managements and every city wishes to profile itself as a creative city.

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In addition the influence of non-western cultures and subcultures has an undeniable influence on the expansion of western concepts of quality.

A designer may use his creativity for projects that form direct part of our society

It may be clear that the current policy instrument of government no longer adequately provides for these changes. So for example the judging criteria are still largely based on the old artistic practice, where artistic quality in particular was emphasised. A start has been made with the extension of the testing of requests for subsidies to include criteria such as purchases, commissions, prizes, publicity, joint ventures, et cetera. In other words, the designer is now also judged on his quality as cultural entrepreneur. This mentality is of course in line with the enormous popularity of the creative industry and the creative city on the part of government as well as among designers, currently also called creators. In these concepts of the American sociologist Richard Florida art and culture are regarded as major economic factors in our society. This has ensured an upward re-evaluation of the designer who adds his creativity to projects that form a direct part of our society. In addition it is important that policy instruments should be adjusted to the ongoing process of the exceeding of discipline boundaries. At the moment the policy is too fragmented into various cells; art, design, architecture, music, dance, theatre, et cetera. This is contrary to the occupational practice where this division has no longer been current for quite a while.


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It is worthwhile asking oneself how the government went about the cultural policy in the past. This gives a clear picture of the valuable aspects of policy from the past as well as the hiatuses and any obsolete ideas in the current policy. In general it may be stated that somewhat belated the Dutch government is aiming at the promotion of architecture and design in a structured manner.

Government and design

The Netherlands Union for Arts and Industry stimulated a close co-operation between artists and manufacturers

In general it can be stated that only lately the Netherlands government has started attending to the promotion of architecture and design in a structured manner. Only during the eighties of the twentieth century a clearly formulated policy for these spheres was introduced. Before this time there was an incoherent system of government measures that were hardly based on clearly defined objectives. This late conversion of government to design is closely connected to the fact that since industrial design originated in the nineteenth century industry functioned as principal. However, this is not to say that the designer and industry cooperated as a matter of course since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century. The products of the nineteenth century were mainly factory copies of earlier style periods. In England where the Industrial Revolution was most advanced, William Morris with his Arts and Crafts movement reacted to this eclecticism during the second half of the nineteenth century by his efforts to involve artists in the production process again. The ambition to bring art and industry into contact was first realised in Germany by the founding of the Deutsche Werkbund in 1907. This ideal is also reflected in the Bauhaus (1919-1933) founded by Walter Gropius in 1919. In The Netherlands the Bond voor Kunst in Industrie (BKI, Union for Arts and Industry) was founded in 1924. The BKI also tried to make aesthetically sound factory products possible by a close cooperation between artists and manufacturers. The guild glass of Copier is a good example of this. Before the Second World War government support of the development of industrial design actually consisted exclusively of the financial support of academies and industrial art schools. After the war, when The Netherlands first started developing a clearly

Arts and Crafts The Arts and Crafts movement in England began primarily as a search for authentic and meaningful styles for the 19th century and as a reaction to the eclectic revival of historic styles of the Victorian era and to ‘soulless’ machine-made production aided by the Industrial Revolution. The founder of Arts and Crafts was William Morris (1834-1896). He was convinced that the beauty of everyday products would elevate humanity and thus also society to a higher plan. The artistic element in industrial products was in this case still the ornament. Machine production was disapproved by him, because art could only be produced by humans, not by machines. His ideal appeared unachievable, because products became too scarce and too expensive to reach a wide public.

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outlined art policy a start was made with support of the design sector. This support originated in the ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ), that saw a benefit in a qualitative improvement of industrial production with a view to export promotion. In addition EZ, together with the ministry of education, arts and sciences (OKW, now the ministry of education, culture and science), was involved in the founding of the Stichting Industriële Vormgeving (SIV, Industrial Design Foundation). The objective of this foundation was to provide guidance for good design and to promote market possibilities for Dutch design. On account of a lack of support in the economic sector this institute was closed in 1975. In 1984 a new cooperative union between the ministry of EZ and the ministry of WVC developed on the initiative of the organised occupational field and the employers’ organisation. This led to the founding of the Stichting Industrieel Ontwerpen Nederland (ION, Foundation Industrial Design The Netherlands). This initiative also was not destined for a long life and after six years it closed again. Around 1990 the ministry of WVC introduced new policy instruments in respect of design. The objectives were improving the quality of design, stimulation of interest in design and encouraging discussion of the subject. These were to be achieved by means of ad hoc subsidies, including subsidies for manifestations, exhibitions, publications and investigations, and by providing individual subsidies via the BKVB Fund. Since 1990 the design policy definitely resorts under the ministry of WVC. To achieve the above objectives the WVC established the Vormgevingsinstituut in 1990 and in 1993 the European Design Centre (EDC) was founded in Eindhoven by means of a subsidy of EZ. The EDC was an initiative of the Academie voor Industriële Vormgeving Eindhoven (now Design Academy Eindhoven) and was intended as a centre of knowledge in the sphere of industrial design and product development. The EDC still exists, but the design institute did not fare so well and at the end of 2000 it had to close its doors on the advice of the Raad voor Cultuur (Council for Culture). The restriction to a few thematic areas, the mainly international orientation and the closed nature of the institution was enough reason for the Council to stop the subsidy.


Bauhaus The Bauhaus (1919-1933) founded by the architect Walter Gropius was an architectural and applied art school funded by the state. On account of the emigration of many of the Bauhaus artists to the united States in 1933 abstract painting and functionalism in architecture (The International Style) would become of major importance in the western art world until late in the seventies. In addition the Bauhaus teaching methods were adopted in the western world, which in fact strongly promoted the spread of Modernism. After 1923 in particular the objective of the Bauhaus was to train artists in industrial production. In 1925 Bauhaus founded an anonymous partnership so that it could also sell products. The time before the war was clearly not ripe for these functionalistic products, because the sales did not succeed.

Deutsche Werkbund In the Deutsche Werkbund established in Munich in 1907 artists, manufacturers and shopkeepers were represented with as objective the functional and aesthetic improvement of industrial products. The movement tried to replace the natural forms of the Jugendstil by a more formal and utilitarian design language. At its peak the group had more than three thousand members. Important members included Peter Behrens, Walter Gropius, Henry van de Velde, Mies van der Rohe.

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The year 2001 may be regarded as a turning point in the history of design policy. This was the year when the temporary advisory commission of design presented a report on the design sector to minister van der Ploeg. The commission advocated an integrated government policy by means of which structural cooperation between the various departments (OCW, EZ, VROM, BZ) was to be established. In addition there was a need for improving the contact between the design practice and the production and distribution channels. Better cooperation between design education and the design sector also had to be established. Finally more attention was to be given to the retaining, developing and studying of industrial products. Premsela, the foundation for Dutch design, was established in 2002 to achieve these objectives. Government was getting well under way according to a cooperative project of OCW and EZ, Ons Creatief Vermogen that was set up in 2005. The objective of this initiative was to give Dutch industry a creative impulse and on the other hand creative industry sectors were stimulated to review marketing possibilities.

The architectural and design

A separate policy where the design sector is performing a major role during recent years is in the international culture policy. This is caused by inter alia the international interest of Droog Design. From government side there is a lobby for presenting The Netherlands to foreign countries as a design country. The major findings of an investigation in 2003 into the role of Dutch design in a number of European countries, however, led to a relativisation of our fame abroad.

sectors have

Government and architecture

been supported

In addition to be a direct principal on national, provincial and municipal levels, government also puts an important stamp on the national economy in its capacity of legislator and regulator. This was initiated by the introduction of the housing act of 1901, which provided that municipalities had to introduce building by-laws with provisions on safety, health and welfare. Since the first policy paper on the area of architecture, Ruimte voor architectuur 1991-1996, was published in 1991, the involvement of government in the built-up area and spatial design of The Netherlands was given

increasingly by government since the nineties

The role of Dutch design abroad The major finding of an investigation in 2003 into the role of Dutch design in a number of European countries (Reyn van der Lugt, Onderzoek naar de beeldvorming van de Nederlandse designcultuur in West-Europa, ministery of OCW, Den Haag 2003) necessitated some relativisation of our fame abroad: –– Dutch design is less important abroad than the Dutch designers think. –– Dutch design serves as a point of reference among a select group of foreign designers and principals on account of is conceptual and obstinate character. –– Dutch design benefits from export promotion. –– The unilateral culture-intrinsic orientation of the international cultural policy must be released for design.

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Apart from principal, legislator and regulator government also explicitly is quality guardian and stimulator

further impetus. The ministries of WVC and VROM (ministry of housing, spatial planning and the environment) joined hands to take the artistic quality and functional quality respectively of Dutch architecture to greater heights. In addition to being principal, legislator and regulator, government explicitly also is quality guardian and stimulator. This policy paper formed the basis of an order of architectural institutions and an architectural climate that could be called unique in the world. For the execution of this policy institutions were founded such as the Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi), the Netherlands Architecture Fund and the Berlage Institute. In spite of the late publication of this policy paper it must be stated that the Dutch government does know a certain tradition when the guarding of architectural quality is concerned. Already in 1922 when a growing government institution had to be accommodated, the national building service was created headed by a national architect. The end of the Second World War is regarded as a new phase in the building and architectural policy. Then production method and design changed and the scale on which building production occurred was unparalleled. The infrastructure had been largely destroyed and rebuilding was slow on account of a scarcity of raw materials, competent artisans and funds. Central government found itself forced to strictly regulated building activities. In the first post-war years the priorities were operating buildings for agriculture and industry, in second place came the building of dwellings, while the accommodation of government services came later. A new ministry was even created for this purpose; the ministry of public works and rebuilding. During this time government also developed applicable policy areas such as spatial ordering and urban renewal, which gained major importance during the sixties and seventies. In 1960 quantitative objectives in particular determine the architectural policy; the reduction of the housing shortage and maintenance of job opportunities in the building industry. During the sixties prosperity grew and thus the material provisos for better architectural quality arose. Government proceeded from the essentiality of building density; on account of the scarcity of land and the rapid population growth.


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This suburban growth cores with high buildings came into being. During the seventies a reversal in the building plans became noticeable. After extension locations were being built on for years, attention shifted in major cities to replacement and renewal and later to concentration. Building projects became smaller in scale and more varied. At the beginning of the eighties deregulation and decentralisation became new themes in national policy. In many spheres responsibilities and powers shifted from national government to provinces and municipalities. Lower authorities themselves obtained budgets and funds to control and the major municipalities in particular obtained scope to allocate building operations at their own discretion. The detailed building instructions that served as subsidy requirements made way for so-called flexible and generally drafted regulations. This only produced apparent freedom, because they were compiled by officials of VROM, where environmental experts achieved ever growing power. Consequences of the functioning of government at a distance are that control and involvement are considerably less and an ever increasing part is left to market forces. Involvement in social residential building is affected, therefore. Residential operations lend preference to more costly buildings, since these yield more. At the same time there was a strong realisation that a conscious experience of the built-up environment required certain knowledge. An essential component of the architectural policy, therefore, is the promotion of that knowledge through environmental education. A recent development in architecture is that in the field of city branding cities wish to profile themselves increasingly by way of spectacular architectural projects. The main idea is that architecture is hot and has a positive and creative vibration, which again promotes the economic climate of the city. This also presents government with the task to guard against excesses and waste of public money. After the first policy paper the terms of reference of the architectural policy were expanded considerably. In addition to architecture urban building, landscape architecture and infrastructure came into the picture. Other ministries joined: the ministries of OCW, VROM,

Knowledge through environmental education The promotion of knowledge through environmental education is realised by, inter alia, the founding in 1988 of The Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi) in Rotterdam. This institute organises exhibitions, lectures, symposiums and debates, conduct architectural investigations and takes care of publications in the fields of architecture and town-planning. Furthermore architects may apply, since 1988, to The Netherlands Foundation for Visual Arts, Design and Architecture (Fund BKBV) for an individual subsidy to further develop themselves. In addition a post-academic top training facility, the Berlage Institute in Amsterdam was established to guarantee and promote the level of Dutch architecture.

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LNV (agriculture, nature and food quality) and VenW (transport, public works and water management). In the architectural policy paper of the current cabinet, Een Cultuur van Ontwerpen, the focus is on the stimulation of a rich design culture to achieve a durable, functional and beautiful Netherlands. This policy was inspired by the current dissatisfaction with the lack of spatial and architectural cohesion. One also hears about the trashing of The Netherlands. Designers are called upon to develop innovative solutions that take into account ecological and economic factors as well as social and cultural aspects. This leads to a living environment that is prepared for the expected climatic change and the use of clean energy sources where people may lead healthy lives without getting bored quickly. All in all it may be said that since the nineties architecture and design will enjoy increasing support and attention from government. However, it remains important to keep reflecting on the optimalisation of creativity and experimenting in these fields in this period of globalisation and mixing of cultures. Government will have to make every effort to give a wide scope to the development of durable and environmentally friendly products. The abovementioned desires also seamlessly join the spearheads of the current cabinet: stimulation of excellence, innovation and e-culture, cultural participation and a more beautiful Netherlands. Attention will have to be given to cooperation with European countries to prevent interesting and promising initiatives are given no chance by red tape and unrealistic norms. Hestia Bavelaar


Design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

Wanted Creativity, 2003 Gabriele Riva By symbolizing the fast food and long drink character of design as ‘WC’, using fragments from the McDonalds’ and Coca Cola logos, this student at Fabrica simultaneously summarizes his critique and playfully calls for a change for the better: Wanted, creativity!


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A brief history of the cultural policies in Europe The five countries that Design Den Haag wishes to cooperate with from 2010 up to and including 2018 are Germany, Italy, France, England and Sweden. In this annexure the historical perspectives in respect of the cultural policies of these five countries are incorporated as they are published in the Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe ( The Council of Europe/ERICarts ‘Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 9th edition’, 2008 is a web-based and permanently updated information and monitoring system of national cultural policies in Europe. It is a long term project which aims to include all 49 member states cooperating within the context of the European Cultural Convention. This transnational project was initiated by the Steering Committee for Culture of the Council of Europe and has been running as a joint venture with the European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research (ERICarts) since 1998. It is realised in partnership with a ‘community of practice’ comprised of independent cultural policy researchers, NGOs and national governments.


Germany In contrast to most European countries, Germany was made up of many independent feudal states and city republics that each pursued their own cultural policies and established a host of cultural institutions. Among them were distinct cultural traditions that were not centralised nor assimilated in the German Empire (Reich), founded in 1871. While, the new Reich government was responsible for foreign cultural policy, the constituent states retained responsibility for their own cultural policies. The special autonomy of the municipalities extended to the area of cultural affairs which was supported by a strong civic commitment to the arts and culture. Under the new constitution of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), public responsibility and support for the arts and culture was divided among the Reich government, the governments of the Länder (the constituent states), the city and municipal councils. The approach adopted by the National Socialist regime (1933-1945) replaced the diversity that had evolved over the course of centuries with forced centralisation, stifling civic commitment and instrumentalising culture to serve the aims of the Regime. This experience with centralisation later led to the emergence of a strong penchant for federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany. The National Socialist tyranny and World War II ended on 8 May 1945. The German Reich was then divided

into three Western occupation zones. These three zones eventually became two: the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (formally a Soviet occupation zone). Following a brief period marked by co-operation between the Federal Republic and the GDR, cultural policy evolved independently and developed along different lines in the two German states. This changed following Germany’s reunification 40 years later on 3 October 1990. Cultural policy in the German Democratic Republic was based on a concept of culture that encompassed the ‘humanistic heritage’ of classical art forms, on the one hand, and new forms of everyday culture on the other. It enabled the working class led by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) to participate in cultural events, the ideological basis of which, however, was a one-sided view of history that embraced only certain traditions of the workers’ movement. In addition to the reactivation of the traditional cultural institutes, new institutions engaged in cultural activities emerged, such as ‘houses of culture’ or youth clubs. Particularly important were those activities organised by social and cultural associations as well as worker’s unions within larger companies, all of which were under tight state control. Such companies, along with the state, were the most important supporters of this ‘popular culture’. As a rule, the cultural work of all organisations was funded by the state and orchestrated by the SED. In the German Democratic Republic, a break was made with the tradition of cultural federalism that had prevailed in Germany until 1933. In 1952, the Länder were dissolved and replaced by 15 districts. From 1954, the statecontrolled cultural sector was headed by the Ministry of Culture. This phase of cultural policy development ended with the accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990 (‘Reunification’). Responsibility for many of the traditional cultural institutions supported by the state or the districts was passed on to the newly re-constituted Länder and municipalities. Virtually all cultural activities and facilities of the former state run companies and worker’s unions were shut down; responsibilities for some of these activities were taken over by sponsors. Since then, the structures for cultural policy development in Germany’s eastern Länder have essentially become similar to those of the ‘old’ Federal Republic. Following World War II, Western Allies prescribed a very narrow role for the government of the new Federal Republic of Germany in the field of cultural policy, mainly as a consequence of the National Socialists’ former abuse of culture and

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the arts. Following the restoration of the cultural infrastructure, cultural policy remained largely limited to the promotion of traditional art forms and cultural institutions. Not until the process of social modernisation got under way - accompanied by the youth and civic protest movements of the 1960s onward - did the scope of cultural policy broaden to include other areas of activity.


A ‘New Cultural Policy’ emerged in the 1970s as part of a general democratisation process within society, the thrust of which was expanded to encompass everyday activities. The arts were to be made accessible to all members of society if at all possible. In the 1970s, the call for ‘culture for everyone’ and for a ‘civil right to culture’ led to a tremendous expansion of cultural activities, the further development of cultural institutions and the emergence of numerous new fields of cultural endeavour financed by increasing public expenditure. This growth was matched by continuously rising popular demands for a variety of cultural goods and services. The reform-oriented cultural policy objectives of the 1970s were replaced in the 1980s by new priorities which saw culture as a factor enhancing Germany’s attractiveness as a location for business and industry. The 1990s were profoundly influenced by the unification of Germany. In the new eastern Länder, adoption of the administrative structure of the ‘old’ Federal Republic and its approach to cultural policy prompted a restructuring of and radical changes in the cultural landscape. These years have also been marked by austerity measures and budgetary constraints and by the increasingly evident structural problems of the major traditional cultural institutions. In the early years of this decade, cultural policy in Germany stabilised in comparison to the changes of the 1990s. However, the cultural policy still faces large challenges and requires re-orientation. The main issues are financial, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, are structural in nature and concern the conceptional basis of cultural policy. Despite an improved state budget, there is ongoing pressure on cultural institutions to increase their economic equityratio, to lead their institutions more economically, as well as to obtain funds from other sources such as sponsorship, patronage and marketing. In particular, the structural problems require a readjustment of the relationship between the state, market and society concerning the financing of cultural institutions, among other methods, through public private partnership models and a stronger integration of civic commitments. In addition, the conceptional basis of past cultural policies has been challenged by migration processes, rapid media development and a

change in the composition of audiences (a decreasing total population and an increasing number of older people). Currently, intensive discussion is taking place in Germany on the requirements of cultural policies, due to these societal changes. Norbert Sievers, executive director of the Institute for Cultural Policies (Kulturpolitischen Gesellschaft) and of the Fonds Soziokultur, Bonn Bernd Wagner, scientific director of the Institute for Cultural Policies (Kulturpolitischen Gesellschaft), Bonn Last update: 11-2007

Italy Italy is a comparatively young state, whose unification dates back only to 1860. The first laws pertaining to cultural matters were adopted by the Parliament in 1902 and 1909, focussing mainly on the protection of the heritage (‘tutela’). In fact, given the unparalleled wealth of the multi-layered Italian historic and artistic assets and the considerable burden of its maintenance on the public purse, heritage has always represented the prevailing domain of public policy in the cultural sector. A noteworthy parenthesis to this longstanding trend was to be witnessed during the 1920s and 1930s under fascist rule, when Italy was one of the first countries to create a ministry specifically in charge of the cultural sector as a whole: the Ministry for Popular Culture, which actually soon became quite unpopular. Despite the negative implications of such a Ministry being created under a dictatorship censorship, ideological propaganda, and the like - the farsightedness and the anticipatory view of the role of the state in the policies for culture of the fascist regime, as well as its understanding of the cultural institutional engineering, are by now generally acknowledged. A large part of Italian cultural legislation - not only on the protection of the heritage and landscape (Laws 1039 and 1042 of 1939), but also in support of artists and artistic creativity, such as the general Copyright Law (also extended to ‘droit de suite’), or the Law on ‘2% for the arts in public buildings’ - date back to the late 1930s and early 1940s. The same is true for many of the major cultural institutions that continue to operate, such as the Institute for Restoration (for movable and immovable cultural goods), the first national broadcasting company (EIAR, later RAI), Cinecittà (the state owned film company), ETI (the theatre agency) and ENPALS (the social security institute specifically aimed at the protection of performing artists). As in Germany, the Ministry for Popular Culture was immediately abolished after the war: yet, whereas cultural competencies were devolved to the Länder in the former case, in Italy they were instead retained

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by the state and split among several ministries. The ‘protection of heritage’, ‘freedom of thought and of artistic expression’, and the ‘promotion of cultural development’ were the key cultural goals indicated by the Italian Constitution of 1947 (Articles 9, 21 and 33). However, only the first two goals were actively pursued from the outset, while the last one remained in the background for some decades. Support for contemporary creativity was no longer a priority, and access to the arts was still for the happy few. Widespread participation in cultural life, however, gradually gathered momentum through the fastdeveloping cultural industries, and notably through the high level of post-war film production and through the new mass medium: television. A relevant turning point came in the 1970s, when many significant institutional reforms took place, innovating public policies in the cultural field. The process was started in 1972, when, according to the 1947 Constitution, the 15 ordinary regions were finally established. In particular, very active policies were undertaken by some of the regions (Lombardy, Toscana, Emilia Romagna...), soon becoming aware of the potential of culture and the arts as a positive assertion of their own identities. The municipalities followed this example and, around the mid 1970s, the promotion of culture and of broader participation in cultural life became widely debated national issues. Nevertheless, the demand for more cultural decentralisation remained unfulfilled, as the reallocation of competencies on heritage and the performing arts among the state, the regions and local authorities, which, according to Leg. Decree 616/1977, should have taken place within 1978, and was not enacted. Other relevant institutional changes have seen the light in the second half of the 1970s, when the long lasting rationalisation process of the dispersed cultural responsibilities at the national level was finally started. The first step was the creation, in 1975, of a separate Ministry for Heritage, by regrouping responsibilities for museums and monuments, libraries, cultural institutions from the Ministry of Education, for archives from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and for book publishing from the Prime Minister’s Office. The transfer of responsibilities for the performing arts to the new Ministry, which had been foreseen by Decree 803 1975, turned out to be premature, as the ghost of the Ministry for Popular Culture was evoked, both by the Ministry’s own officials and by the media, in order to question the idea of a comprehensive ministry for culture. The prominence of the exceptionally relevant heritage as the cornerstone of Italy’s cultural policy was thus emphasised; ‘protection’ and ‘restoration’ being the key functions absorbing most of the state’s activities


and financial resources allocated to the cultural field. Support for contemporary creativity and for wider access continued to be a low priority also for the new ministry: according to foreign cultural policy experts visiting the country in 1994, on the one hand ‘the philosophy of the historically based’ and it ‘operates against the interests of a lively visual arts sector’, while, on the other hand, ‘at the hint of any conflict between tutela and public access, the public were invariably the losers’ (Council of Europe, 1995). At the turn of the century, the new economic emphasis on the production of immaterial goods and services, and thus the central role acquired by cultural policies in the framework of development policies in Italy as in other industrialised countries, played a significant role in removing the last obstacles to a full rationalisation of the state cultural competencies. In 1998, the centre-left government extended the scope of the Ministry for Heritage to embrace responsibility for the performing arts and cinema, previously entrusted to the Prime Minister’s Office. Further responsibilities on copyright were added in 2000, when the reformed Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities had finally achieved the full status of a ministry for culture comparable to the ones of most European countries. Only responsibilities for support and regulation of the radio, television and the press, as well as artistic training and arts education, remain out of its reach. The devolution problem, though, has not yet been solved. In fact, further legislation adopted in 1997 and 1998, aiming at decentralising additional cultural responsibilities to the regions and local authorities, subsequently endorsed by Constitutional Law 3/2001, has not been fully enacted yet and appeals to the Constitutional Court are quite frequent. Whatever kind of institutional reorganisation will finally be achieved, any devolution should necessarily be linked to the strengthening, at the national level, of the planning, co-ordination, evaluation and monitoring capabilities of the cultural field as a whole. A ‘different state’ is actually needed for a positive outcome of the decentralisation process (Cammelli, 2003), and also in view of implementing policies and actions specifically aimed at overcoming the deeply rooted geographical and social imbalances still affecting Italy’s cultural life. The gap in cultural supply and demand between the rich and developed northern and central regions and southern Italy is a long lasting problem. According to the Rapporto sull’Economia della Cultura in Italia (Bodo, Spada, 2004), notwithstanding the significant thrust set in motion by the European Structural Funds to the Objective 1 regions, most cultural indicators show that this gap is growing even wider. In some regions of the economically underprivileged

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018


Mezzogiorno - an area extremely rich in cultural heritage and in artistic talents - arts policies are still endemically affected by the lack of public and private financial resources. Furthermore, the need to promote and safeguard not only the basic civic rights, but also the cultural rights of all those living in Italy, including the 3.5 million newcomers from the economically less developed areas of the world, has not yet been fully taken into account. To guarantee equality of access to cultural life for all citizens - also as a means to strengthen social cohesion - should be considered an utmost priority. An urgent and well focused effort by the national community is needed to rise to this challenge. Carla Bodo, director of Research at the Observatory for the Performing Arts, Italian Ministry of Culture, Rome Simona Bodo, independent researcher, Milan Last update: 12-2007


United Kingdom

Sweden Many important public cultural institutions of contemporary Sweden date back to royal initiatives in the 17th and 18th century, like the Royal Opera, The Royal Dramatic Theatre, The Royal Library, The National Archives, The National Heritage Board, The Royal Academy of Fine Arts, The Swedish Academy, The Royal Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities and the two royal universities of Uppsala and Lund. The single most important public cultural institution in pre-modern Sweden was The Swedish Church, responsible for basic popular education and for regional Gymnasiums. In the 19th century, these institutions and functions were reluctantly taken over by the civil nation-state. In the latter half of the century ‘the modern condition’ of cultural policy emerged through the rise of commercial massmarkets in printing, media and exhibitions, eventually followed by the film and gramophone industries. The modern state, taking over old royal cultural institutions, the secularisation of basic popular education through a compulsory public elementary school system Stockholm and the various spiritual challenges of mass popular culture, including radical popular movements in civic education, were the main levers of modern cultural policy in Sweden. Popular education, public museums, concert halls and public libraries were favoured areas of cultural policy in the early 20th century, typically with substantial contributions from private patrons. A modern key cultural policy institution - a monopoly public broadcasting company (‘Sveriges Radio’) - started in 1925. In the 1930s, the democratic welfare-state model for cultural policy, stressing equal access to quality culture, started to emerge. One innovative result was

the state touring theatre company (‘Riksteatern’) in 1934. In the 1950s and 1960s, established cultural institutions were modernised and many new ones were created, such as state touring institutions for exhibitions and music, the Film Institute, municipal music schools, and state art and drama schools. The Author’s Fund, supporting literary artists, was created in 1954. It was based on the innovative institutionalisation of lending rights to Swedish authors, whereby the government paid for loans in public libraries. In the 1960s, political engagement in the cultural policy issue rose dramatically, resulting in a very ambitious ideological and institutional renewal of the whole cultural policy field presented in the Bill on Culture in 1974. The democratic welfare-state model of cultural policy triumphed. A new central authority, the National Council for Cultural Affairs (later called the Swedish Arts Council) was created. Perhaps the most noteworthy result was a very substantial strengthening of regional and municipal resources for the distribution and production of quality culture. In fixed prices, public cultural expenditure rose from about SEK 8 billion in 1973 to about 16 billion in 2000. In the last decades of the 20th century, the most significant changes in the general conditions for cultural policy concerned, on the one hand, the revolutionary changes in media technologies and, on the other, the repaid increase of cultural and ethnic diversity through immigration and global mediation. The long overdue divorce between State and Church, in the year 2000, marked a symbolic end to Sweden’s self-conception as a mono-cultural nation. Svante Beckman, professor of Technology and Society studies at Linköping University, Sweden Last update: 11-2007

United Kingdom The United Kingdom is made up of four nations - England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, each with its own distinct culture and history. Three of these - England, Wales and Scotland - together make up Great Britain. The population of England is significantly higher than the three other nations combined. The present UK arts funding system has its origins in the 1940s; the international political climate at the time initiated a debate on whether there was a role for government in funding the arts as an expression of a free and democratic society. From this recognition sprang, in 1940, the first national body to support the arts, the Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA). This Council spent both charitable and public funds on the arts, eventually under the chairmanship of the great economist,

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018


John Maynard Keynes. His vision of state support for the arts was largely responsible for ensuring that CEMA evolved in 1946 into the Arts Council of Great Britain, still considered to be the first arts agency in the world to distribute government funds at ‘arm’s-length’ from politicians. Keynes believed that the Arts Council would only have a temporary existence during the rebuilding of cultural life in the Houses of parliament aftermath of the Second World War. Nevertheless, consciously or otherwise, what had taken place was a tacit recognition by government that it had a role to play in supporting the arts. The Council’s grant from government in 1945/46 was GBP 235 000. After 10 years it had grown modestly to GBP 820 000 (1955/56). The Council was primarily reactive - allocating funds for arts organisation and artists and providing help and encouragement. Gradually it cut back on direct provision for certain activities yet continued its support for the touring of art exhibitions and an ‘Opera for All’ touring programme aimed at smaller venues. Significantly the various ‘Charters’ giving the Council its mandate to operate never defined the ‘arts’, and although the number of supported arts organisations grew, the range of art forms was still fairly narrow after 20 years (poetry, photography and jazz, for example, were not supported for many years). Although legally part of the Arts Council of Great Britain, Scotland and Wales had their own Arts Councils. The Arts Council of Northern Ireland was established as an independent body in 1962. For much of the first 20 years of post war Britain, the government department responsible for the grant-inaid to the Arts Council of Great Britain, the national museums and galleries and the British Library etc. was the Treasury. However, in 1965 responsibility was passed to the Department for Education & Science. At that time, the UK Government’s First Minister for the Arts, Jenny Lee, issued a government White Paper setting out a Policy for the Arts, following which the Arts Council’s grant significantly increased by 45% in 1966/67 and a further 26% in 1967/68, raising it to GBP 7.2 million. Advice to national government on museum policy came from a Standing Commission on Museums and Galleries set up in 1931. It was given the responsibility of granting aid to national museums in 1963 and became the Museums and Galleries Commission with its own Charter in 1987. The 1970s were characterised by expansion of arts expenditure and by considerable debate about what forms of arts and culture should be subsidised. The protagonists were advocates of the ‘traditional’ approach to supporting excellence in the classical or contemporary arts on the one hand, and the growing number of practitioners from what might be labelled ‘alternative culture’ movements (built on the growth


of community arts and arts centres and rooted in local communities) on the other, who labelled the Arts Council’s approach as ‘elitist’. Local authorities began to expand their support, building or refurbishing regional theatres, museums and galleries and multipurpose civic halls, as well as running their own programmes and festivals. However, although government legislation in 1948 had given local councils legal authority to support arts and entertainment the powers were, and remain, permissive rather than mandatory. As a consequence, support was patchy. The 1960s and 1970s were also the period when regional arts associations developed in a piecemeal fashion, either as consortiums of local arts organisations, or set up by local authorities, as a reaction to the closure of the Arts Council of Great Britain’s regional offices. Regional arts associations were primarily intermediate organisations, acting as a link between the Arts Council and the regions. The 1980s were a decade when political and economic pressures led to a fundamental reappraisal of the funding and management of the arts and culture in Britain. While remaining committed to the principle of public sector support, government required the arts and culture organisations to look for new sources of revenue to supplement their income. As evidence of this change in public policy, witness the establishment in 1984 of the Business Sponsorship Incentive Scheme, which for the first time matched funds from business with a government grant, administered by Arts & Business to encourage new sponsorship. In 1990, the government asked the Arts Council of Great Britain to develop a National Arts and Media Strategy in partnership with the British Film Institute, Crafts Council, Scottish and Welsh Arts Councils and the regions. This was the first time in the Arts Council’s history that an attempt had been made to devise a co-ordinated policy to broadly guide arts funding developments. This process involved the organisation of some 50 seminars around Britain to take evidence and a series of commissioned papers. However, not long after its publication in late 1992, the report was, in effect, ‘shelved’. In fact, the 1990s were characterised by fundamental policy and especially structural change in arts and culture. In 1992, a re-elected Conservative government established for the first time a coordinated Ministry to deal with arts, museums, libraries, heritage, media, sport and tourism called the Department of National Heritage. Then, in 1994, a fundamental decision was taken to devolve the Arts Council of Great Britain’s responsibilities and functions to three new separate bodies: the Arts Council of England, the Scottish Arts Council and

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018


the Arts Council of Wales. Each nation therefore runs its own affairs in relation to arts funding. A significant development was the introduction of the National Lottery in the mid 1990s which brought a major new income stream for the cultural sector (approx. 28% of money spent on lottery tickets and scratch cards goes to the National Lottery Distribution Fund). In the initial years, the focus was very much on capital projects, for example the refurbishment of museums and galleries as well as new buildings. Subsequently, the funds were allocated in more flexible ways, for example small community projects, commissions or feature films, as well as to individuals. The Lottery’s 10th birthday, in November 2004, revealed that GBP 2 billion had been allocated through Arts Council England. A recent change that will enable the public to nominate where their money goes has lead to concern that culture will lose out to other good causes; there are fears that the successful 2012 Olympics bid will divert money away from culture, and uneven allocation of funds across the English regions. The incoming Labour administration elected in 1997 renamed the Department of National Heritage as the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. In return for increased investment in culture to end years of ‘standstill’ funding, the government also sought to reduce the number of arm’s length cultural agencies through a series of mergers. The Museums & Galleries Commission and the Library & Information Commission merged to become a new body initially called Re:source, and since 2004 known as the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council. The Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England was amalgamated with English Heritage. The UK Film Council was created in 2000 as a new strategic agency to develop the UK’s film industry and culture. The agency absorbed the British Film Commission, the production board of the British Film Institute (bfi), the Lottery film department of Arts Council England and the part private / part public body, British Screen Finance. The bfi retained its independence, but now receives its government funding through the UK Film Council, which channels the majority of government funding for film. An important early priority for the UK Film Council was to create for itself a dynamic strategy for film in the English regions. It had inherited not only the bfi’s regional strategic and funding functions but also relationships with agencies dealing with film locations, training and production. After a wide public consultation, the UK Film Council set up the Regional Investment Fund for England (RIFE) in 2001 to increase investment for film directly in the English regions. This led to the creation of the Regional Screen Agencies (RSAs), in the same year,

which took their place alongside film agencies in Scotland (Scottish Screen), Wales (Sgrin Cymru) and Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission). The agencies merged a range of smaller regional film bodies and have forged new partnerships with local stakeholders to become advocates for film and the moving image on a regional level. The UK Film Council and the RSAs share a common set of aims for talent, opportunity and access across all aspects of film development and RIFE is used to invest in production, education, film heritage, exhibition, training and location services. The funding and strategy has had an impact: investment has risen from less than GBP 4 million in 2000 to more than GBP 20 million in 2003/04 for all sources and is continuing to increase. This has resulted in increasing opportunities for talented individuals to develop careers in film, and the creation of networks of cinemas, film clubs and societies allowing people and communities the chance to see and enjoy the widest range of films in rural and urban use. The UK Film Council has worked closely with the three National Screen Agencies (NSAs) in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Based on a solid foundation of shared strategic vision, UKFC has ensured that NSAs are key consultees on all aspects of its UK-wide strategy and partners in its delivery. UKFC’s own funding and investment schemes have been made available across the UK and have been used to support shared projects in terms of film education, exhibition and production. A shared concern for all of the national and regional screen agencies has been the lack of positive images of non-metropolitan London appearing on the screen. This issue is particularly acute in such areas as Northern Ireland or the North East of England where a diet of negative images in the media has contributed to negative perceptions (albeit for very different reasons). Film and television exposure of the nations and regions in all their facets and cultures, offers a major opportunity to alter this negative perception, build confidence and develop regional and national identities. This ambition underpins much of the shared strategy of the UKFC and its partners. The UK Film Council seeks to maximise the contribution of major broadcasters, particularly the public service broadcasters, to the extension of audience choice. A 2006 concluded agreement with the BBC potentially doubles the Corporation’s commitment to UK film production, not only by increasing in-house activity but by buying the best of the UK’s independent feature production for screening on network television.

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The government also established eight Regional Cultural Consortia in the English regions outside London to develop integrated cultural strategies across England and ensure that culture has a strong voice in regional development (strategies for culture in London are the responsibility of the Greater London Assembly). Local authorities are also now encouraged to develop local cultural strategies by the DCMS, or to incorporate them into their Sustainable Communities Strategies. In April 2002 the Arts Council of England and the Regional Arts Boards were legally established as a single arts development agency for England. In February 2003 the organisation announced its new identity and slightly changed name: Arts Council England. Rod Fisher, director International Intelligence on Culture, London Last update: 12-2006


France The history of cultural policies in France, from their origins under royal patronage in the 16th century until the present, is marked by: the central role the state has played in promoting and organising knowledge (Collège de France, the National Library), the arts (Comédie-Française, the Louvre Museum) and culture, and the gradual creation of administrative structures and budgeted funds (creation of the Fine Arts Secretariat in the 19th Century and the establishment of a separate Ministry of Culture in July 1959).Paris, Tour Eiffel André Malraux, who wrote the decree of the first ministry stated that ‘the ministry in charge of cultural affairs has the role of making available capital works from humanity, and initially from France, to the greatest possible number of French people, of ensuring the largest audience for our cultural heritage, and of supporting the creation of the spirit and works of art which enrich it’ (Decree n° 59-889, known as the ‘founding decree’, of 24 July 1959). This decree opened the path for its successors in the areas of: heritage protection, contemporary creation, distribution and education, devolution of the administration and regulation of the cultural industries. André Malraux set up a Ministry of Cultural Affairs from the existing directorates of the Ministry of Education and the National Film Centre (Ministry for Industry). The new administration’s primary aims were to promote contemporary creation in all artistic disciplines and a broader participation in cultural activities, especially in the areas of theatre, music and heritage. André Malraux wanted to set up Arts Centres (Maisons de la Culture) in each French


département in order to stimulate contemporary artistic creation and disseminate culture on a broad scale. France is geographically divided into 96 administrative divisions known as départements. Maisons de la Culture were eventually set up in 9 cities. As part of the move towards déconcentration, three regional cultural affairs directorates were set up in 1969. Jacques Duhamel (1971-1973) carried out a simultaneously interdisciplinary and interdepartmental policy aimed at integrating culture into society. He set up procedures to establish partnership contracts between the government and cultural institutions (television, cinema industry, theatre companies). The Fonds d’intervention culturel (FIC) was created in order to finance innovative partnerships with other ministries. In the field of visual arts, the 1% system (which ruled that 1% of the construction costs of a new public building must be set aside for the funding of an art work for that same building) was extended to include all existing public buildings. While continuing to follow the policy lines initiated by André Malraux and Jacques Duhamel, the following six ministers introduced their own changes. In 1974, Michel Guy created a breakthrough for young artists and contemporary art by signing the first of a series of cultural development agreements with municipalities and régions. In 1977, the Georges Pompidou Contemporary Arts Centre was opened and the Museums Finance Act was adopted in 1978; 1980 was declared Year of National Heritage. During this period, the Ministry of Culture stepped up its moves towards modernisation and its involvement with contemporary society. Measures included an increase in cultural funding; the widening of the ministry’s scope of activities to include new art forms; the integration of culture into the economic world; and the development of audiovisual communications. The Ministry received ongoing support from the President of the Republic, François Mitterrand, who gave his stamp of approval to a series of major construction projects known as the ‘Grands Travaux’ (Arche de la Défense, the Bastille Opera House, the Grand Louvre, the National Library...). The Ministry’s budget was doubled in 1982 and gradually increased to represent 1% of the state budget: increasing from 2.6 billion francs in 1981 to 13.8 billion in 1993. Moves towards déconcentration were stepped up with the completion of a network of regional cultural affairs directorates (DRAC), which collaborate with the local authorities. Several major training institutions were either restored or established: École nationale supérieure de la création industrielle (ENSCI),

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018


Institut national du patrimoine (heritage), the two Conservatoires nationaux supérieurs de musique (Paris and Lyon) and the École du Louvre. Over a period of 12 years, more than 8 000 jobs were created in the cultural field. Arts education in schools was modernised, new disciplines were taught (theatre, cinema, art history...), and a range of schemes were organised to raise the awareness of children about culture, such as arts projects, school visits to the cinema, heritage projects etc. As a result of economic changes and the growth of ‘home-based’ cultural activity, the Ministry began to place more emphasis on the cultural industries (books, records, cinema, audiovisual) with a view to regulating the market (aid mechanisms for the film industry, price regulations on books, radio broadcasting quotas for French-language music...). The law on the use of the French language was adopted in 1994. A range of initiatives aimed at the ‘problem’ districts was introduced. Culture was included in regional development initiatives. Over a period of three years, the Minister of Culture carried out a policy aimed at broadening cultural participation with emphasis on the development of heritage, the performing arts and new technologies. Catherine Tasca’s initiatives were mainly directed towards cultural diversity, across-the-board access to arts education and state reform via decentralisation. With regard to audio-visual communication, she sought to reinforce the government’s regulatory function and increase high quality production in France without curbing the dynamism of the private sector. In May 2002, in the first government of President Jacque Chirac’s second term of office, Jean-Jacques Aillagon was appointed Minister of Culture and Communication. In one of his first interviews, he stated that ‘The right wing, heedful of modernity, is capable of [implementing] a far-reaching cultural policy.’ In March 2004, Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres became Minister. His term was mainly spent calming the crisis of ‘intermittent du spectacle’, and regulating access to new technologies. During the last forty years, local and regional authorities increased their public support for culture. The municipalities, as owners of certain cultural facilities such as museums, municipal theatres, libraries and music schools, are now the main providers of government funds for culture. Encouraged by the Ministry of Culture and Communication to draw up their own cultural policies, the municipalities, followed by the départements and régions, have become involved in local public cultural action to a degree far exceeding

the obligations laid down in the devolution laws of 1982, 1983 and 1992. Jean-Cédric Delvainquière, research officer in the Department of Studies, Future Trends and Statistics (DEPS) in the French Ministry of Culture and Communication, Paris Last update: 10-2007

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

Designers, stay away from corporations that want you to lie for them, 1999 Jonathan Barnbrook We are overloaded with messages through images and text. There are so many things we ought to believe according to companies. It is, of course, impossible to see, read and understand all of it. And to believe all of it. So we make choices for what we are able to believe. Often we choose for what is close and directly understandable. Sometimes people choose on the basis of curiosity and interest in innovation. But all of us have individual reference frames. Companies have other interests. Companies feel responsibility towards their employees and translate that into economic welfare. Companies must make profit. Profit is an ultimate goal. So they create messages for us to believe. Question is: how much can we believe, how much do we need and how much do we want?


Design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

colophon Design Den Haag is an initiative of the city of Den Haag. The concept of Design Den Haag 2010-2018 was formulated by Ed Annink (Ontwerpwerk) at the request of the city. This publication of Design Den Haag 2010-2018 occurred at the kick-off event of Design Den Haag on December 16th, 2008. The keynote speaker was prof. dr. Gerard Rooijakkers, crown member of the Raad voor Cultuur (Council for Culture).

Board Design Den Haag 2010-2018


Liesbeth in ‘t Hout, chairman

page 2 Royal VKB,

Hans Bergwerff, treasurer

page 3 Corb!no page 4 Yvonne Fehling,

Concept Design Den Haag 2010-2018

page 6 Andreas Achmann,

Ed Annink, Ontwerpwerk

page 16 Melissa Peen, Joris Visser, jannekesmale.

Programme Design Den Haag 2010

page 37 Jonathan Barnbrook,

Ed Annink, intendant

European houses, Job Martens,

Laura van Uitert, assistant programme Advisory board Arno van Roosmalen, director Stroom Den Haag Bruno Ninaber van Eyben, designer, Delft Dingeman Kuilman, director Premsela, Dutch Platform for design and Fashion, Amsterdam Els van Odijk, director Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten, Amsterdam Gert Dumbar, graphic designer, Den Haag Hans Kamphuis, Winkelman en van Hessen, Den Haag Max Bruinsma, head editor Items, Amsterdam Titus Yocarini, director Museum voor Communicatie, Den Haag Funds

This publication

European Regional Development Fund

Date: 16 December 2008

City Den Haag

Text ‘Design and governance’: Ed Annink Subscriptions: Ed Annink


Text ‘A brief history of the cultural policy of

Drukkerij van Deventer

The Netherlands’: Hestia Bavelaar

Steigenberger Kurhaus hotel

Research: Laura van Uitert Graphic design: Ontwerpwerk, Den Haag

Partners De Affiche Galerij, Den Haag Dutch Design Fashion Architecture Gemeentemuseum Den Haag Royal Academy of Art, Den Haag Museum voor Communicatie, Den Haag Stroom Den Haag Utrecht University

Print: Drukkerij van Deventer, ‘s-Gravenzande

design Den Haag 2010 - 2018


Design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

sources Literature Roel Pots, Cultuur, koningen en democraten. Overheid en cultuur in Nederland, Nijmegen 2000 Tijdelijke Adviescommissie Vormgeving. Advies vormgeving 2001, Den Haag 2001 Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class. And how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life, 2002 Ministerie van OCW, Reyn van der Lugt, Onderzoek naar de beeldvorming van de Nederlandse designcultuur in West-Europa, Den Haag 2003 NAi uitgevers, Nieuw engagement. In architectuur, kunst en vormgeving, Rotterdam 2003 Raad voor Cultuur, Advies Cultuurnota 2005-2008. Spiegel van de cultuur, Den Haag 2004 Beleidsplan Premsela 2005-2008. Verhoudingsgewijs, Amsterdam 2005 TNO Informatie- en Communicatietechnologie, Vormgeving in de creatieve sector, Delft 2005 Ben Hurkmans e.a., All that Dutch. Over internationaal cultuurbeleid, Rotterdam 2005 Themanummer Boekman, ‘Kunst en engagement’, 17 (2005) 64 Ministerie van OCW, Internationaal Cultuurbeleid. Koers Kiezen, Den Haag 2006 Lex ter Braak, Gitta Luiten, Taco de Neef, Steven Teeseling, Second Opinion. Over beeldende kunstsubsidie in Nederland, Rotterdam 2007 Ministerie van OCW, Kunst van leven. Hoofdlijnen Cultuurbeleid, Den Haag 2007 Raad voor Cultuur, Innoveren, participeren! Advies Basisinfrastructuur en Agenda voor het Cultuurbeleid, Den Haag 2007 Beleidsplan Premsela 2009-2012. Designwereld, Amsterdam 2008

Related websites A few websites we came across during the research:


design Den Haag 2010 - 2018

Barcode Europe, 2005 Rem Koolhaas The architect Rem Koolhaas made a ‘barcode’ flag for Europe in 2005 with vertical stripes using all colours that appear in the flags of the individual states of the European Union.

Throughout this brochure you can find European houses from the project ‘Europe!’: page 19 Italy page 21 Germany page 23 Slovenia page 25 Portugal page 27 Poland page 29 Norway page 31 Austria page 33 Spain page 35 Czech Republic page 41 Sweden

Europe!, 2008 Job Martens Exploring a boarderless continent. Expose relations in basic life: Food, Living, Leisure, Material. A registration of food, living, leisure and material. Elements in basic life which show differences between regions. Living is about houses. The way people build houses is different in every area. What people recognise as a standard for their house, for example in the north of Europe, is totally different to the standard in southern Europe. The shape, colour and material define the region where a house is situated. Job Martens, Design Academy Eindhoven We all need a place for shelter. Our human skin is, however an organ we cannot without, not protective enough. Nobody can choose the color of skin, it is the result of two others. Clothes make our second skin and clothes is what we can choose ourselves. And there are many fashionable and affordable clothes in the international market to choose from. So we follow tends, trained as we are to buy, and revitalize our looks many times in one year. Our houses are our third skin; well heated and well protected against the rain. For most people there is not much to choose from since houses are expensive. We generally change not that much in a lifetime. This project shows the diversity in Europe of our third skins. All more or less the same, with little differentiations. What a wonderful and challenging idea that we all have the same needs and yet present ourselves differently.

Design Den Haag

Chokolate, 2005 Frederico Duarte Whether you are in Europe or somewhere else in the world, there are always chocolate snacks available. It depends per country on how big the bar is, and how much chocolate it contains, but you can buy them. Because we want to be satisfied by tastes. We are trained to get satisfied by snacks. We have developed the ‘need’ to snack. The first impression is via the package, which differs per country, per brand. But the package does not reveal anything about the quality of the content. We believe in snacks. And in every country we believe in a different snack.

E-mail: Telephone: +31 (0)70 313 20 60 Postal address P.O.Box 45 2501 CA Den Haag The Netherlands Visitors address Prinsestraat 37 2513 CA Den Haag The Netherlands

Design and Governance, Design Den Haag 2010-2018  

Design Den Haag 2010-2018 researches the relation between Design and Government in Europe within an international context, from cultural, ec...

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