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Summary - Resumo - Resumé Foreword Acknowledgements


URBAN AREAS REHABILITATION PLANNING - GENERAL CONCEPTS11 Chapter I - REHABILITATE THE URBAN OR HOW TO GIVE PUBLIC ESTEEM BACK TO THE CITY How to Make and Unmake the City����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 The Meaning of Urban Rehabilitation �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 The Didactics of Rehabilitation of Historic Centre ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20 Urban Rehabilitation - a Process for the Development �������������������������������������������������������������������� 23

Chapter II - IMAGE AND CONCEPT OF CITY The City’s Image����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 The Image Formation������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 Individual and Collective Image��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28 The Concept of City����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29 Evolution of the Concept of City������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32 Clarification of the Concept of City��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33

Chapter III -DEVELOPMENT AND LOCAL PLANNING Human Needs and Development���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 36 Difficulties and Development Requirements ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 38 Development and Municipal Power ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 39 Development and Local Planning���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 40




Chapter IV - METHODOLOGY Objectives��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 Object ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 48 Method ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 48

Chapter V - PHASE I - TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL PREPARATION Objectives �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 53 Intervenients����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55 Method������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55 Step I - Formation of a Technical Opinion on the Area and its Rehabilitation������������������������������� 57 Step II - Formation of a Technical and Political Opinion at Municipal Level�������������������������������� 62 Step III - Setting the Technical and Political Municipal Opinion at Regional and Central Level.��� 62 Step IV - Definition of the Technical and Political Proposal of Planning/Action��������������������������� 63 Results of Phase I ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 63

Chapter VI - PHASE II - COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC DISCUSSION Objectives �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 65 Intervenients����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 65 Method������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 66 Results of Phase II �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 67

Chapter VII - PHASE III - URBAN REHABILITATION PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING Objectives��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 68 Intervenients ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 68 Method ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 69 Results of Phase III ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 69

Chapter VIII - PHASE IV- PLANNING/ACTION Objectives �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 70 Intervenients and Method ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 70 Planning Methodology - Summary Table����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 71


Summary - Resumo - Resumé Urban Areas Rehabilitation Planning - General Concepts and Methodology We define the concept of urban rehabilitation, as well as the importance of the images in the knowledge of reality, in behavior and in the formation of the concept of town. Relates the development with human needs, the local power and the local planning. Describes the key aspects of a method for planning the rehabilitation of urban areas, and its fondaments, general phases and the objectives, content, method of implementation, the agents and the results for each phase.

Planification de la Réhabilitation des Zones Urbaines - Concepts Généraux et Méthodologie Le concept de réhabilitation urbaine, ansi que l’importance des images pour la connaissance de la réalité, des comportements et de la formation du concept de ville sont définis. La relation entre le développement, les besoins de l’homme, le pouvoir et la planification locaux, est présentée. On décrit les aspects essentiels d’une méthode de planification de la réhabilitation de zones urbaines, ses fondaments généraux et les phases de la méthodologie elaborée ainsi que les objectifs, les contenus, la méthode de mise en oeuvre, les agents et les résultats relatifs à chaque phase.

Planeamento da Reabilitação de Áreas Urbanas - Conceitos Gerais e Metodologia Define-se o conceito de reabilitação urbana, assim como a importância das imagens no conhecimento da realidade, nos comportamentos e na formação do conceito de cidade. Relaciona-se ainda o desenvolvimento com as necessidades humanas, o poder e o planeamento locais. Apresentam-se os aspectos essenciais duma proposta de método de planeamento da reabilitação de Áreas Urbanas. Enunciam-se os fundamentos gerais e o faseamento da metodologia elaborada e indica-se, relativamente às diferentes fases, os seus objectivos, conteúdos gerais, método de realização, intervenientes e resultados a alcançar.



n the studies I developed at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC), over nearly three decades, the interest in topics related to the resolution of everyday life began to take special emphasis to the knowledge of urban problems, inseparable from their physical framework, guidelines, conditions and values ​​of society and the way the “city government” is exercised.

It became a central issue to this study, in the questioning and formulation of proposals regarding the contents and methodologies of technical contributions for the resolution of urban issues, the interdependent relationship that unites the places and the people, the social life, the territory and the organization and political-administrative practices, as well as the role of multiple social agents in that relationship and in the resolution of problems arising from them. The increasing or increasingly felt, individual and collective difficulties in organizing the daily life in the big city, reconciling the satisfaction of economic, and cultural requirements, of social life, leisure and affective; the clear and marked physical decline that hit large parts of the city and the discomfort that the new spaces and images generally provide; widespread feeling of loss of the meaning and practice of belonging to a community and to a territory, concrete and recognizable; the distance of intimate contact with the natural environment, with the origin and the making of things, as well as the ignorance or denial of the roots, in the dazzle of other origins and destinations and consequent loss of identity, forcing us to question social paradigms that guide us, the knowledge and technical-political practices in general, and especially those involved in the local political/administrative action, in the direct transformation of communities and their living spaces. Due to the concerns expressed, we have focused our study on local planning issues, on the scale of intervention corresponding to urban areas and on their rehabilitation action. The study of the local planning provides knowing the informal, technical/political and administrative practices and those of social development and territorial transformation and the motivations and various forms of relationship of the social agents. It also requires the integration of knowledge and methodologies of intervention in the city of the ordinary citizens, of the institutions and the various disciplines that contribute to it and the impossibility to ignore the political component of any approach to the social reality. The action of urban rehabilitation, given that it exerts on the living, inhabited city, excludes the possibility of thinking it and proposing it through an abstract technical action, directed at the population and to imagined activities which will hypothetically be settled. It consequently leads to the knowledge and critical assessment of the present reality in all its complexity and to consider the indispensability of engaging people which it concerns to. The intervention in urban areas takes place in a spatial dimension that allows direct relationship and detailed knowledge of a specific community and territory and establishing communication between the social agents involved in it.

As we consider that there is no real and sustainable development without collective involvement in the values ​​and actions that generate it, we look for concepts, information and intervention methodologies that serve to improve communication between social agents, that provide common bases of knowledge, discussion and agreement of social technicians among themselves and among the politicians and the citizens in general. Our vast technical knowledge which is so difficult to be put into practice, will thus have greater operating efficienc y. Its disclosure, discussion and consequent re-elaboration will be facilitated, which wil l contribute to the building of a culture of development that can reflects the time, the values ​​and stories of people and places, elaborated through the critical evaluation by the communities themselves, their values and practices. It should be added that such practices allow citi z ens an effective development and the full exercise of their citizenship This publication brings together the texts that convey the results that I consider most significant from the didactic point of view, resulting from the work I did, in the scope of the described concerns. The texts are organized into three volumes: •  Urban Areas Rehabilitation Planning - I - General Concepts and Methodology – Explanatory statements of the general concepts regarding urban rehabilitation, local planning and development and the proposal of a methodology for planning the rehabilitation of urban areas. •  Urban Areas Rehabilitation Planning - II - The Reading of the Urban Image Explanatory statements of a method of knowledge, assessment and diagnosis of the problems and potential of an urban area based on the reading of its urban image. •  Urban Areas Rehabilitation Planning - III - Communication and Public Discussion – Presentation and proposals regarding the issue of public communication and discussion, which corresponds to the 2nd phase of the planning methodology. Mainly due to the initial follow up of completion of the Plan to Safeguard Old Centre of Sacavém, I have come to the following conclusions: •  The method of planning the rehabilitation of Urban Areas represents a comprehensive reference framework that should be used as a related collection of tools that help to carry out the task of knowing, assessing and developing action proposals for the rehabilitation of an urban area, and that the user himself will have to use and manage, adapting it to his way of working, to the issues, dimensions and characteristics of the study area. Relevant aspects in certain urban situations may have little or no meaning in others and categories formulated to describe an urban characteristic, in a given area, sometimes have to be reformulated to fit another type of intervention area. This fact corresponds to the concern we had in establishing an open method, able to define a comprehensive and coherent approach to the basic problems without confining the terms of this approach, and without seeking to create a “ready to use” that does not require the intelligent and creative contribution of those who use it.

•  It is important to warn possible future users of the reading method of the image to issues that arise in the first application and that can lead to lack of interest in their use. The image reader is initially suspicious of what he sees, feels unsafe to interpret and assess the area through the opinions he will gradually form, and tends to want to make exhaustive inquiries and surveys, to seek support in alleged scientific studies, methods that he knows and which are generally accepted as proving the veracity of knowledge gained; he feels the discomfort of not being supported by “objective and demonstrable” data and arguments, but only in their opinions. Interestingly, any urban planner who presents the studies on the basis of traditional analyses, knows that it was his knowledge, experience of urban issues and the direct confrontation with reality, that have fundamentally determined his interpretation and the formulation of convictions regarding the changes to propose, that the key is in the “unsaid” in the “not proven”, with all the drawbacks, because it is not clearly assumed and subject to registration, and cannot be criticized, rethought, corrected or completed through specialized studies and public discussion. To take the reading of the image as a method of analysis and diagnosis is to take decisive importance of our knowledge of things and simultaneously being able to recognize, in the direct contact with reality, which is always new and unknown, what we cannot perceive, we know not interpret and explain and that we must try to overcome formulating new hypotheses and seeking other methods of analysis to prove them. Accordingly the method gives us tools to question our knowledge and look for answers to new perplexities. •  The interest of the image reading results and its correction basically depend on the knowledge and the urban experience of the observer, and it is therefore important that the observation is made by a member of the staff, qualified in these terms. •  The first application of the method, intended to be expeditious, is slow, due to the offered resistance and also to the consequent delay of simultaneous studies which we consider that, although indispensable, because they concern issues that the reading of the image fails to answer (e.g. socio-economic characteristics of the population or housing tenure) should start after the reading, not to interfere in the results. Once familiarity and confidence in the method is acquired, it proves to be of rapid application. •  The proposed methodology seeks to overcome the lack of attention to the aspects that relate to the issues of design, meanings and urban representations, of the character capture of the area or parts thereof, of urban space subject in three dimensions, which cannot be reduced to a plant is not even the draft subject of a single author. Because these issues are usually not addressed at the planning level and are, consequently, remitted to the overall responsibility of buildings designers, are generally considered non-priority issues and are gradually pushed to further study, until the urgency in delivering the work, eliminates them. The proposed method emphasises its importance and addresses these issues, informs them and organizes them in terms of their discussion for later detailed treatment, at project level. •  Another difficulty in applying the methodology regards the technical-political

coordination, given the difficulty of obtaining from politicians, during the course of the proceedings, the expression of their opinions and decisions on presented proposals and, with regard to municipal technical services, because they are not available to discuss and agree on the implementation of actions to assume in the rehabilitation intervention, nor to adjust their programs of activities and ways to intervene. •  The planning methodology is not compatible with the current planning vision of urban regeneration that continues to confuse planning with the development of rehabilitation plans of buildings and outdoor spaces in paper which are, at best, applied as a result of the political and economic opportunities without the interference of the population they are intended for and without its integration function and promotion of all municipal, central and private actions, which are exerted over the area in rehabilitation. The persistence of the incapacity to understand the planning as technical support to the political action, essential for this one to be rational, legitimate, realistic and effective in pursuing the interests of the population, maintains the ineffectiveness of the planning contribution for the development and territorial qualification. If this difficulty is not overcome, whose foundations are in deviations of interests of the political action for immediacy objectives and electioneering based, it will be impossible to give planning a practical effectiveness in the fulfilling of its objectives, whatever the adopted methodology may be.



want to point out the opportunity that I was given at the Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC) to carry out the studies which led to the texts that we present below, which at the time were considered of little interest and usefulness to a research organization in engineering, but it was due to the open mind and prospective vision of engineers Manuel Rocha and Júlio Ferry Borges, directors of LNEC at the time, that I actually could carry out my studies.

I also want to express my gratitude to architect Nuno Portas, whose influence was decisive for the choice I made of a research career and for my theoretical training. The participation in the Safeguard Plan of the Old Centre of Sacavém(1),from the beginning and at the level of consulting and Plan coordination, has allowed to test the applicability of the method to a real case and was especially gratifying, due to the enthusiasm and ability manifested by architect Maria João Gonçalves and by the group of technicians who, at the time, worked in the referred the Plan . The combined efforts of collaborators who have developed work with me, in LNEC,(2) without forgetting a group of students of the Master in Urban Design of the Institute of Labour and Business Sciences (ISCTE (1995-1998) have allowed to test the method of reading the urban image and have helped revealing problems of the knowledge gaps I had and of the elaborated proposals. The collaboration of two scholars of the National Board for Scientific and Technical Research (JNICT) (3) must be noted, which resulted in the achievement of sectoral studies in the fields of landscape architecture and sociology to support the reading image and the deepening of their respective sectoral themes. I wish to highlight the collaboration of landscape architect Maria Isabel Ferreira Caetano,(3) since she has allowed me to introduce the analysis of the landscape as a structuring element of urban analysis. The idea for this publication arose from a proposal of architects AnnaLaura Spalla(4) and Ana Luísa Martins, and which served me as a guideline for the current edition. My deepest thanks to everyone as well as the remembering of the moments of enthusiasm (1) Loures City Hall, technical coordination of the architect Maria João Gonçalves (1989 -1993) (2) Architects José Manuel Santos, Francisco Serdoura and Maria Isabel Brito. (3) FERREIRA, M. I. CAETANO - Contribution of the Landscape Analysis for the Planning Rehabilitation of Urban Areas - Case Study Madragoa/Lapa e Benfica. Lisboa, LNEC, 1991. FERREIRA, M. I. CAETANO - Socio-Urban Development Planning of Urban Areas. •  1st Part- Contribution of the Landscape Analysis for the Planning Rehabilitation of Urban Areas, Lisboa, LNEC, 1989. •  2nd Part- Environmental Quality Rates. Lisboa, LNEC,1990. ANTUNES, A.A. ROSA - Contribution to the Definition of Social Needs at Everyday Level in an Urban Area. •  1st Part - Everyday Social Practices and Social Appropriation of the Space, Lisboa, LNEC, 1989. •  2nd Part - Use and Appropriation of Urban Areas, Lisboa, LNEC,1990. (4) COMET/LNEC Scholar and author of the report “Un intervento di Recupero nella Periferia Orientale di Lisbona: piano di riqualificazione ambientale e urbana della Freguesia di Sacavém e progetto di transformazione dei fronte d’aqua”, Genova, Universitá degli Studi di Genova, Facoltá di Arquitettura, Lisboa, LNEC, 1993.

and discouragement we have shared, which are part of the spices of life. To Ant贸nio I owe the everyday support, the stimulating and friendly presence, the unconditional affection and the emotional and material stability that are decisive factors for the full personal fulfilment. Olhalvo, 2013.

Translated by Maria Manuela Santos Godinho, February 2015



•  Urban Rehabilitation •  Image and Concept of City •  Developpement and Local Planning



istory shows that the way the town was formed and developed, to whom, for what and on behalf of which values ​​it was done and gradually and transforms itself, have different answers, each time and according to the country, region or place under consideration and observation. The city is the most complex creation of society, crystallizes the social processes, its physical shape is connected to the morphology of the places and gradually reflects the change of those processes, keeping its testimony and acquiring, through these means, its own character that takes root and builds the identity of its inhabitants, encourages and organizes the ways of living and the collective and individual behaviours and influences the successive forms of urban transformation. The cities that we have are composed of what has become built, that is to say, of what the social (1) Text written in 1986 and revised for this edition

agents of each time, when relating themselves and expressing their modernity, have taken from the past, from their tradition, through what they have considered “modern”, “usable”, or that merely “does not get in the way of progress” and also through what they have added and changed in the accomplishment of social changes, satisfaction of new needs, values and ​​ tastes, the introduction of new technologies and in the struggle for survival in a space that did not even contemplate all and of which some, sometimes many, had to appropriate for themselves, in the marginality. In the post-industrial era the process was similar, guided by a notion of progress that demanded a break with the past, its destruction and renovation supported by a market with increasingly speculative characteristics and by a planning guided by a functionalist and universalist dwelling model. This model of development had the corollary of consequences we know and was based on technical and administrative / political assumptions which we still have not liberated ourselves from - it was the technicians job to define the shape of the city, “the best shape”, as they had the “science of space organization”, the urbanism, and the politicians and the administration had the task of taking decisions and appropriate measures to implement and manage these proposals. It was for the population, to inhabit them, give them the appropriate and present use, in accordance with technical quality criteria. In most cases, these roles were not fulfilled, run down by decisions and initiatives that escaped assumption procedures, due to imbalances between standardized models and multiple realities of the population. The present city will be done and undone by the same means - the relationship between today’s social processes and the spaces where they take place, guided by the values, ideas and models of modernity and progress that we will gradually have. Any urban intervention, either of rehabilitation, regeneration, renovation or expansion, does and undoes the city, is produced on the basis of the appropriate relationship and has to assume all its dimensions and protagonists if it wishes to contribute to the building of the change that collective unease requires, and which manifests itself in multiple ways before the city we have today. The voluntarist attitude of transformation of the city, that the territorial planning presupposes, must adopt practices that influence social processes, values a​​ nd collective models of progress or fail to meet its objectives. Which city do we have today? A sparse city in a vast territory that includes wide spaces of rural landscape, urbanized under the unsuspecting eyes of technicians and administration and where, in unforeseen circumstances, activities and urban buildings are gathered and scattered, spaces that are gradually being added to the growing peripheries of consolidated and compact urban fabrics of the old city, where the so-called urbanizations, semi-renovated neighborhoods mingle without connecting themselves., green areas, decaying industrial areas, tent zones, remains of old villages and farms surviving among allotments, tangled pathways that develop at various levels and the mangled remains of the pre-industrial town sector with some more or less degraded islands and which maintain the virtues that our

malaise aspires for: A structured and attractive physical framework, with character and scale, inhabited by a population that maintains an “ old way of living” which contains the quality desirable to us and that comes from the ownership relationship with space, the unbroken continuity of collective life and its place, and from the expressive diversity of the mixture of different people and activities, the magic that places have. It is in this context of fragmented city, random and disjointed sum of remnants of old and recent histories and leftover spaces, emptied of meaning, crystallization of social processes, values, ideas and models resulting of the types of development put in practice over time, that urban renewal seeks the current meaningful direction to transform of the city, new forms of development that reflect in it, restructuring it to make it the place one cherishes, where one likes to live in. Urban regeneration acquires all its meaning in the search of the city that expresses us today, such as we are and in the assumption that this way of being includes critical ability and willingness of becoming other people, happier and able to build a better, rehabilitated city. This is the meaning of urban regeneration that is necessary to assume and which implies deep changes in the way of being a citizen and, consequently, in the processes, models and values ​​that guide the construction of our habitat.

The Meaning of Urban Rehabilitation

LisbonChiado1-CCBYSA� por Scalleja [2] - Flickr [1]. Licenciado sob CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons - jpg#mediaviewer/File:LisbonChiado1-CCBYSA.jpg


hat distinguishes the rehabilitation of other types of urban intervention? We believe that the essential difference lies on the intentions it explains and on the administrative and technical procedures it requires. Those intentions and procedures seek to find answers to the consequent concerns and which undermine the social processes, spaces and concepts of the city we have today.

By consulting the dictionary(1) we find that rehabilitation means: •  “Recover from the good and old concept”. •  “Restore the good concept previously lost”. •  “Re-establish the credit and the earlier concept through an action of justice”. •  “Restore to public esteem”, “re-establish in the previous state what had ceased to be”. Perform an operation of rehabilitation, therefore presupposes and, if we are not mistaken in the denomination, that one will seek to intervene in the city, so as to recover the credit that the city had and to give the city back to public esteem, re-establish it in its former state and which it had ceased to be. Urban rehabilitation presupposes that we recognize the loss of the ability to make the city of our esteem and that we want to reacquire it. Urban rehabilitation, initiated to preserve the historic centres, the testimony of excellence of the old city and resistant to the passing of times, has especial interest if seen as being able to contribute to respond to our current perplexity; to teach us how to grab the city that is fleeing from us and remains in them, though unadapted and ruined; we reacquire the ability to build the spaces of our habitat, to find the meaning and the form of our collective living and of reconciling the contradictory needs that characterize us. What is involved in rehabilitation are not only, nor even mainly, the historical centres, but the city as the current and universal way of life, built reflection of our aims and development processes. Interestingly, the areas that are subject to priority rehabilitation are those that preserve the predicates we are looking for, the areas that would be the most “qualified”. We are not, however, facing a collective delusion, as the logic of speech could lead to assume. But rather, the priority given to the historical centres is explained because they are threatened with ruin and are gradually being emptied of their functions; because we feel the need of not letting them vanish; because we need them to relearn the city, in order to be able to understand, to deal with all its dimensions and “live”, to rehearse practices that not only restart the dialogue with the existing city, but are support by a tissue that teaches us, encourages us, helps us rediscover answers to the fundamental problems of the present city and that the historical city centres do not have, exactly, in the aspects that concern us today and which are the following: •  The lack of stability of the physical environment in uncontrolled mutation, which does not allow establishing lasting relationships between people and their environment and elaborating the character and culture of the places and the people, in time . •  Lack of vitality of the city, the loss of the city as a place of residence that is both a production, commerce and leisure and not only of consumerism and bureaucracy, a place where one goes, but where one does not dwell. •  The lack of social and cultural appropriation of the space, through the loss of control (1)  Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa, coordination of José Pedro Machado, 1968.

by the citizens of the areas of their daily lives, spaces that have become dispersed, amorphous, illegible, uncomfortable, changing and unsafe. •  The loss of sense of scale, coherence and formal harmony, ability to express all the set of dimensions of human needs and, through the over valuation of the requirements and economic values. •  The loss of ability to elaborate and express a culture that affirms the dignity of belonging to a community and to a place to be a citizen, to be a whole part of a place. If one accepts the broad meaning of urban rehabilitation, deep reasons for its emergence as a way of intervening in the existing city, we can conclude that the problem of urban rehabilitation is primarily a cultural and social problem, of setting practices that provide a development that integrates the community and territory, to open the way to a better life, and to a happier society. Rehabilitation essentially invests on concepts, values ​​and urban practices that we feel lost in today’s city, to find and give them expression, so th at the city can be restored and “is cherished once more.” The search for the good city concept is not done by remaking the past, but is rather drawn with it, in the enlarged and critical learning of the existing models, the very practices of interaction with the living city and in all its dimensions. To achieve the “good old concept”, “restore the city in its previous state” corresponds to an idea of ​​progress and not of retrogression. One does not want to go back and repeat history. Urban rehabilitation explains a desire for development, but another kind of development, based on learning from our roots; on the experience cemented on the existing city; on the discovery of who we are and what we need to build our modernity; on the mystery of certain samples of the city, older and paradoxically much more modern; on the enigma of its ability to survive and keep our esteem, to resist to successive transformations, staying alive, culturally empowered, and keeping the “good concept”. The urban rehabilitation: •  It is a new urban policy, a perspective on how to intervene in the city to modernize it and not a singular operation applied to a natural area so that it only keeps its historical testimony. It regards the whole city. •  It is not the historic centre that is at stake nor the different areas that have maintained a heritage that witnesses old and successive eras and ways to solve them, but rather knowing how to act to give the city, the whole city, to the public esteem, to recover the lost good concept of inhabiting.• •  It requires that one of the fundamental features of the new urban policy is establishing the connection between technical, political and everyday citizens’ practices, withdrawing the exclusiveness of the dialogue with the city from the administration, the landed property and the professionals who serve them. The concern with the heritage of historical value shows that we realize that the social

processes developed, especially in the post-industrial period, according to a developmental model that the urban culture of the modern movement technocratically interpreted and the management practice partially applied, has separated us from the wisdom to deal with the existing city, as a way to transform it, and we try to resume this dialogue that the ancient city reveals. Urban rehabilitation requires implementing a new urban policy, that is to say, a new way of intervening in the transformation of the city, and this intervention should: •  Commit to the construction of social transformations. •  Be attentive to the phenomenon that combines the decline of the city as a place of living with the occupation, by the urbanite, of the forgotten so-called rural space, which is undergoing an intense, ignored and tragic transformation. •  Be aware of the need to find answers to the serious environmental problems, of exhaustion of natural resources, extinction of animal and plant species and destruction of the landscape, problems that result from the type of development and urban occupation. •  Face the multiplicity of dimensions and urbanity territories and take the vastness of conquered spaces by the city that this one refuses to accept as its own, marginalizing them and being marginalized because of it. The new urban policy will therefore have to give priority to: •  The social and symbolic dimension of the enlarged city, the manner and quality of life in the expanded territory of urbanites, rather than simply being attentive to the expression, within the traditional urban perimeters, of economic competitiveness interpreted by city interests that reflect themselves on the use of real estate property and that imposes the values ​​and products of the economistic development. •  The structuring of the existing urban fabric and new forms of urban growth instead of promoting random construction boom, the disintegration of tissues for the construction of buildings as independent units, replacing the existing ones or dispersing in the urban voids and rural landscapes and the introduction of roads exclusively controlled by the logic of mechanical circulation. •  The learning of the urban developed in the critical discussion, multidimensional and extended to different social agents, of the existing habitat, which includes rural and natural areas; •  The knowledge of the history, of its evolution, constitution, relation and ownership of its spaces, the meanings attributed to them, rather than exclusively learned in urbanism manuals and in models of published in leading market magazines. •  At urban planning practices decentralized to the level of the parish, neighborhood and street, to enable the direct contact with the community and its space, to join on a concrete territory, politicians, technicians, interest groups and population who act in it and enable them to interact, to know each other, discuss, find the contents, the values​​,

procedures and development and spatial transformation resources, to define the action programs that realize them and to organize the management that ensures the control of their transformation in time.

The Didactics of Rehabilitation of Historic Centre

Lisboa - Foto Américo Simas - CML


team that faces the responsibility to study and guide an operation to rehabilitate a historic centre does not have a substantially different problem from those that are currently solved in public administration and in the multiple private offices, when ordering, designing and executing allotments, plans for new urbanizatons or the so-called housing sets. The city and its transformation are always the issue. We could even say that if there are differences, they would lie in the fact that rehabilitating is a simpler task, since one does not have to create the city; it is made and ​admittedly wellmade and the operation would be limited to repair the ruinous effect of time, to introduce improvements in the living conditions of buildings and outdoor spaces, to replace installed uses that clearly disrupt the balance among the population, their everyday liv es and the space in which it develops and to introduce new and attractive uses that contribute to the maintenance of that balance, for local development, for the fixation of residents and to better integration in the surrounding city. It is, however, with this “simplicity” t hat it has been difficult for us to handle. In the making of new fabrics, the city is absent (or makes itself disappear in the name of the imagined city) and the operation appears “clean” of the urban reality: a terrain that

the bulldozer shapes according to a certain aesthetic taste, a client who orders and pays a given product, whose program appears from the abstraction of a technically defined user, reducing filters and distorting the reality, which the technicians try to compensate with their professional skills with their idea of ​​the city, with their values ​​and personal dwelling experiences, with the creation of quality standards of the officially approved habitat. In urban rehabilitation it is not possible to i gnore the real city, unfilt e red, reacting to every touch, imposing itself as a body that in e xtricably links social and physical body, which resisted the changes together and which present themselves still alive and modern as today’s belonging, despite being degraded and without conditions that habitability currently requires, because of its misuse (on occupation and excessive traffic and parking), neglect (lack of maintenance and sanitation works) and the mandatory application of regulations that reflect the setting of requirements, sometimes hardly compatible with the use of old buildings. Faced with an operation of rehabilitation of an historic centre, which does not so evidently and in an inhibitory way happen in the planning and design of other types of urban operations, we are forced to be aware that: •  The city cannot create itself in the quietness of the offices, either they are private or municipal. It is not transportable to the drawing board, in order to be invented or operated on it and returned, after being executed and ready to use by the population. Desenhar e construir uma urbanização e criar um trecho de cidade não são sinónimos e é o papel dos técnicos e dos outros intervenientes formais no planeamento e na construção da cidade que é posto em causa. •  The city cannot also dedicate itself to the current processes of territorial management (with or without a plan) that are involved in it, ignoring the people who live in it, acting piece to piece, sector by sector, guided by general rules of land use and urban quality, by generally inadequate and contradictory legislation, unable to overcome the dominant models of progress and where important decision-makings result of the pressures of the land market and the demands of the construction industry . The management of the soil should derive from the citizen’s city government or else it will run into insurmountable difficulties in order to meet the goals of rehabilitation. It is the so-called realistic management planning, because it undergoes, unarmed, to the interests of the dominant groups that has to be revised. •  We lack expertise, or we should say, a technical culture that allows us capturing the character of a place, knowing the fundaments of our modernity and the current values​​ of progress, making a new city that responds to the concerns of our way of living. We do not know the content, the meaning, the image of the contemporary city, we do not know how to configure it, and we need to review concepts, methods design and building processes. The architecture, construction and the planning, as they have been practiced, are in crisis, the basic concepts of urbanism prove to be inadequate. The didactic of urban rehabilitation of an historic center consists of the fact that this is a living

fabric that intervention should not destroy, which makes us taking an empirical approach, leaving the safety of the achieved knowledge, pre-defined action models, architectural forms taken from magazines, the regulations made in offices and applicable to any situation. The rehabilitation of historic centres has already promoted and will continue promoting the transformation of the social processes that make the city and the emergence of new values​​ and concepts of our modernity, that is to say, has already contributed and will contribute to the formulation of new urban policies, of a new planning and a new architecture. Is this teaching of historical centres that we should not ignore.

Urban Rehabilitation - a Process for the Development


e have seen that urban regeneration is not just an operation of physical rehabilitation, it does not separate the community of its living space; it does not divorce the space qualification of the social development. The maintenance of the presence of the past in the urban fabric is legitimate to the extent that the community knows how to use or, even if not with any practical use, needs it to take root, to build itself culturally, in order to elaborate its future. As a local development process, urban regeneration is a dynamic transformation that the community performs when approaching, assessing and developing its own evolution, the building of its modernity, the search for a better life in a more qualified environment, the achievement of everyday life appropriation and its spaces. To meet the demands of urban regeneration, as we have defined it, it is necessary to consider it as a process of intervention in the existing city, assumed by the community as a whole to promote and accomplish its development. It is therefore essentially a political process of how to exercise the city government, which implies finding the political and technical procedures that make space for the community to consciously define the development it wishes to achieve and the city that performs it. •  Which characteristics should the city government have in order to promote urban rehabilitation and self-sustained development? •  Which urban policies are suitable to achieve it? •  What kind of technical support and administration organization allows formulating and implementing them? •  Which planning methodologies should be applied to provide the development of concepts and practices that promote the development of populations and the appropriation of the territory? An effective urban rehabilitation requires creativity in the search for political and administrative practices and technical procedures that allow finding answers to these questions. In the texts presented in the following chapters and books II, III and IV of this series we aim to contribute to increase the discussion of some of these issues. e nos livros publicados da série reabilitação urbana


(1)  Text written in 1984 and revised for this edition

The City’s Image

The Image Formation


he city’s image, the image of the territory in the multiplicity of its expressions, is a vital study field of what we were and what we are as a community, of how we’re transforming, the social relationships we establish, of its diversity, values and ways in which these transformations are spatially expressed. The importance of image in the knowledge of the reality derives from its formation process - people learn, become aware of the external environment and of themselves through their senses. These are stimulated by what surrounds us and the excitement is transmitted to the brain, sensations are created that the brain interprets and perceives; perceptions are memorized and people learn, come to have knowledge and to remember them, and create images. These are located in the space, which allows us to understand what surrounds us, respond psychologically, appropriate things, get an overview, and feel safe and grounded. So we develop the ability to act through sensory knowledge, emotional, instinctual knowledge, spatialised and summarized in images. The images are complex frames of spatial and significant references of things that were felt, understood and memorized are fuzzy models, independent of the stimuli that provoked them, are the set of sensory memories that one has of the multiple experiments made. To give an example we quote the image of the horse. This does not refer the particular knowledge that is acquired from an animal, but the generic model that enables recognizing any horse of another color, size, race, in photography, drawing, or caricatured, viewed from any angle, presented in more or less detail. The information contained in an image of the horse will be all the richer, the more diverse has been the experience that formed it, that is to say, it will be different whether it is obtained

through a photograph or is the result of the practice of a horses’ handler, of a horseman, a veterinarian or a tamer. The image of the horse may include information that evokes the shape, smell, sound, tactile sensation, fear or pleasure, usefulness, its history in the life of man, the care it requires, how it is composed, the habits it has, what it represents. Its image can determine the action before the presence of the animal or its evocation (want to ride or be afraid of it) or get instant information about the breed or age, whether it is sick, or healthy, and be able to draw it, or describe it to others with more or less detail. The scheme developed by Downs, R.M.(1) which is presented below, describes the reception cycle of stimulus of reality to the action decision and corresponding behavior.







BEHAVIOUR The image summarizes the knowledge of reality. It does not contain all the information about her, but is keen to represent, for each individual, a comprehensive and meaningful vision that allows him to behave faced to a reality. The subsequent behavior of the perception of an image can be of perplexity and inaction, or research, if this is unknown. (1)  Geographical Space Perception: Past approaches and Structure Projects, Progress in Geography, 2 (1970), 65-108.

For example, the reaction of those who find themselves in the desert without the experience of a Bedouin, and unlike the latter, would not knowing where to go, what references should he seek to get out of it. The image of the desert is the non-survival to our common experience. The space only exists and has meaning through the image/perception we have of it. The latter affects our ability to read it, understand it, and all the subsequent reactions, including the stimulus for new learnings that complement and enrich its image.

Individual and Collective Image


he city image is thus the result of the cities which, directly or indirectly, were learnt through the senses and were understood. It is the generic and diffuse memory of the multiple lived experiences of the city and that enables recognizing any city, get information on it, and act on it, even if not previously lived. The image of the city that matters to the planning is the one which corresponds to the collective memory, that is to say, of what has remained from the multiple experiences / pictures of the city and that allow differentiating fabrics and features, the centres, neighborhoods, meeting places and collective celebration, the nightlife area, the prestigious avenues, the old town and many other words / images that, taken together, form the idea / collective image of the city. These images define eras, social groups, and types of activity. These are images that belong to everyone or only to some, with identical or different meanings. It is this knowledge that allows us understanding each portion of the territory, read it, recognize its own characteristics, qualify them, determine in the light of criteria and values​​ of each time, the ones that matter saving and changing. We can conclude from that knowledge that the image of the city is the one of a diverse territory where they express and remain side by side or mixing images of many ages and of the expression of the most diverse communities and interest and power groups. The main feature of the collective image of the city is that of a territory defined by the common denominator of the various images, created over time, through values, manners and old ways of living, which remain and are of the present day. The reading of the city image is therefore a key instrument of intervention in city, in the planning and architecture of its space.

The Concept of City


concept is a general, abstract, intellectually expressible and precise idea. It is a coherent set of ideas that accurately define the object model of the concept. It is “a mental representation” of an abstract or concrete object that appears as a fundamental instrument of thought in its task of identifying, describing and classifying the different elements and aspects of reality. It is the abstract notion of the words of a language to designate, in a generalized and somehow stable way, the properties and characteristics of a class of beings, objects or abstract entities.(1)

The concept of the city is a mental representation that allows us identifying, describing and (1) Dicionário Houaiss da Língua Portuguesa, Instituto António Houaiss de Lexicografia, Circulo de Leitores, Lisboa, 2002

classifying the different elements and aspects of the city reality - indicates what is meant by it, identifies what essentially characterizes it, what distinguishes it, even from other social / space concepts such as countryside, neighborhood, suburbs, neighborhood unit, metropolis, urban settlement ... While the image is diffuse, felt, subjective, it is a set of impressions and sensations, the concept is accurate, objective, cold. The concept is formed from the image, making it precise / accurate, making it abstractly transmissible, and selecting its fundamental and distinctive characteristics, seeking strict and exclusive definition of the concept object. There are multiple definitions of city that have in every era and over time. We can state that there is no clear and agreed view of what the city is and that an image and not a concept correspond to it. The intellectual exploration of that image and its discussion were not done and therefore it is not clear what characterizes the city; “we do not know of our social system and ourselves as participants in it”(1) Many different definitions of city are found, which cite, among others: •  A collective place and way of living as opposed to rural life and to the countryside.. •  A place built with certain equipment. For example, to Pausanias (2nd century) the city was the place that had administrative buildings, gymnasiums, theaters, fountains and public squares with fountains. The idea of city is still connected to that of urban city centre, place where there are opera houses, headquarters of big companies, important museums ... •  A given political / economic organization, highlighting the role of trade and industry. •  An urban settlement with a given number of inhabitants varying however, from country to country, the number of inhabitants considered and that number is related to the respective population density. •  The power head office. •  A social and space production process and its product. •  The expression of the values ​​of collective civilized life. From the perspective of the historian Georges Duby(2) he states that “throughout its history the city is not characterized, either by the number or by the activities of men who live in it, but by the particular aspects of the legal status, sociability and culture. These aspects derive from the primordial role that urban body fills. This role is not economic; it’s political. The city is distinguished from its surroundings by being, in the landscape, the point of power rooting. The State creates the city. The State settles upon the city.” Further on he states “...the city, since the darkness of the proto-history has dissipated, appears, in its essence, as the central capital. It is a place and a central one. It is a place and a means (1) A.N Cousins, H. Nagpaul - Urban Life, The Sociology of Cities and Urban Society, New York, John Wily & Sons, 1979 (2) George Duby - Histoire de la France Urbaine, Vol I, Seuil, 1980

of a sovereign system. The ability to manage and ensure the general order condenses in this focal point ...� “the city is therefore inseparable from rustic areas that surround it and which it is destined to organize. What distinguishes it is that it represents luxury, pride; she shows the model of its perfect order. The originality of this urban space lies on that�.

Evolution of the Concept of City


he city concept varies over time(1), but it remains attached to the idea of place of civilization, prestige, culture, art, political power, economic power, order, freedom, and rationality, the expression of dominant ideologies, money and innovation. In contrast, the countryside is defined as the place of difficulty, effort, and rusticity, the satisfaction of basic needs, bondage, ignorance, poverty, and conservatism. The cities become from birth to death, the urban framework is modified, social relations change. The modern city has developed, has spread, strangled and slashed itself. The city/countryside contrast is blurred in the territory, but the confrontation remains, though in different terms. The city it is the highest and most prestigious expression of social relations, the way and place of collective living, simultaneously of its degradation: the violence, crime, loneliness, alienation, consumerism, exploitation, inability of self-sufficiency; of mental disorders, fatigue. The countryside appears as a promise of happiness, of future and livelihood guarantee, health source, available time, socializing and of freedom. The appreciation of the countryside is however made by a privileged city population, which adds, in its way of living and spatial planning, the urban and the rural, which has access to the city that can dispose of it, and that will mitigate its damaging effects, not because it humanizes it, but because it brings together the benefits of the countryside. For the non-privileged, not having the city at their disposal it is to be limited to the satisfaction of the basic needs and not to take advantage of the features that are historically connected to it.

Clarification of the Concept of City


n an extremely expedited basis, we have indicated aspects related to the concept of city. One might conclude that there is an image of the city, but that this is not clarified as a concept.

We have a diffuse understanding of our social system and of how we participate in it, how are social relations and their spatial expression. It is necessary to clarify, discuss and qualify the concept of city, look for answers about the social relations we want, its values ​​and its spatial expression: what it means being a neighbor, what are the residence conditions, what relationship is established between residing and working, what do the meeting, socializing and urban recreation mean, the relationship with the sources of subsistence, the equilibrium conditions between the constructed framework and the non-urbanized territory, which is the distribution of our daily time, the space and (1) On the evolution of the concept of city it is recommended to read Georges Duby’s work, already mentioned.

what to do in it; what family or socializing groups do we need; which type of mobility; which equipment and where, with which accessibility. Is this discussion, or lack thereof, which guides explicitly or implicitly the social and spatial transformation of the city. Discuss the concept of the city is discussing ways of living and values ​​in struggle played by social actors in conflict, it is putting them into perspective, it is b asing and planning development decisions. In the planning process of the city, one should seek to discuss and respond to these issues, set priorities according to the concrete conditions of each place; indicate the action that is considered to have transformative effects in the mentioned directions. The collective discussion of the concept of city and its territory fed by the concrete experience of who we are and by the discovery of what we want to be is the basis for guiding the development planning process: •  To define the planning objectives and principles - What individual and collective life, in that kind of territories? •  To structure methodologies, techniques and planning tools - how to discuss, with whom and when? •  To establish contents and planning policies and the way to implement them - What to do, how and by whom?


Human Needs and Development(1)


rban regeneration is a developmental process that involves a territorialized community and aims at giving the city back to public esteem, i.e., the reconciliation of the community with urban life and its spaces, the appreciation of the habitat and of the quality of social relations that build it. The planning of urban rehabilitation is a technical /political intervention organized by local administration, by the local government, to meet the constitutional objectives of pursuing the interests of the population, development objectives, in response to the people’s aspirations for a better life, in a qualified territory. Live better, be happier, does not have a unified definition; it is possible to make a list of the human needs than is not an inaccurate statement of generalities. The human needs and expectations relating to its satisfaction are diverse; vary according to the previously lived experience, the historical period and conditions of the moment, the concrete characteristics of the places, the system of collective and individual values ​​and the existing technical possibilities. (1) The text concerning to human needs and development is based on the publication - Henriques, J. M.E. “As Necessidades Humanas e a Problemática do Desenvolvimento: o Conceito de «Necessidades Básicas”.. Lisboa. Damião de Góis Institute, 1983. 

An important feature of human needs should also be referred: they are conflicting, sometimes difficult or impossible to reconcile individually and, more importantly, at collective level. The degree of satisfaction obtained by the development still depends on what is considered possible to achieve in every moment, in every place, by every community. Development objectives are not therefore definable to begin with, and in the abstract and once and for all, and actions that meet them are then triggered. The development is a continuous and open process, since human needs evolve as they are being accomplished, or even before that, if the value system that guides them changes. The definition of development contents is closely linked to actual existence situations; it evolves with them, and includes aspects of material, physical and psychological well-being. The latter depends on the feeling of acceptance, dignity, prestige and social inclusion, safety and personal fulfillment, of appropriating the lifestyle and the space where it is exercised, feeling responsible and able to guide and conduct our daily lives, controlling the territory with the support and acceptance of our fellowmen. The psychological well-being requires the ability to create relationships with others, and is deeply connected to the system of values ​​and the notion that the community in which we operate allows us exercising these values, recognizing us and honoring us for that. Therefore it requires a solidary society, responsible, able to self-determination in the field of its own interests and the guidance of our daily lives. The development, as human needs, has multiple dimensions: •  The certainly very important economic dimension may not be dominant, as soon as economic issues are minimally resolved. However, it has been overestimated in such way that it arises, in practice, as an almost exclusive development concern. •  The cultural dimension is fundamental, since it is the values’ system that sets the well-being standard of each community, and the appreciation or depreciation of the objectives and achievements of development depends on it. The importance of this dimension has taken increasing importance or, rather, the awareness of its importance has become increasingly more general, a fact which is expressed on the intensive use of the media, as the preferred way of creating the system of collective values ​​considered suitable for the acceptance of the characteristics of the ongoing development in each country, or their lack. •  The social dimension is the poor relative in the hierarchy of developmental concerns. Society has organized itself to advance the economy, it creates the values’ system that serves it and considers the social life and the territory as raw materials to achieve these objectives and it automatically benefits from them. The social dimension has not been directly taken into account when looking for the development accomplishment. •  The territorial dimension is only recently beginning to be regarded as essential to development because of the economic damages and the depletion of resources that its forgetfulness entails.

Only in a perspective of urban rehabilitation, as we have defined it, is possible to carry out a participatory, holistic and integrated approach of the community and the territory that development requires.

Difficulties and Development Requirements


he complexity and the difficulty of organizing and conducting the necessary development tasks, especially due to the current social reality, are evident.

This is the result of the industrial development model, which was based on the principle that the acquisition of well-being and social justice were the direct product of technological progress and economic growth. The practical consequences of this model were, among others, fabric and social relations disorganization, uprooting, breaking of relations between the population and its territory, the multiplication of minority and marginalized social groups. The decline of the city as a place of residence, the accentuating of difficulties of urbanrural integration, the waste and depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation, alienation of labor and leisure, the demonstration of the inability of the Employer and Providence State, centralized and bureaucratized, replacing the initiative, organization and empowerment of citizens, the loss of the values ​​of solidarity and social appropriation, of the expression of diverse cultures and development models are also consequences of the development paradigm of the industrialization era. It is due to the awareness of these difficulties and profound socio-economic and cultural changes that meanwhile have occurred that new prospects for development have been sought, other forms of distribution of political power and new values ​​and mentalities. In this context, the recognition of local government and of the importance of local planning in the support of its exercise are essential, since it presupposes, as we will subsequently see, the assertion of community autonomy in the direction and completion of its development and the possibility to develop and implement urban policies to meet the new needs. The renewal of the contents, procedures and planning tools are essential to enable technical support to these tasks.

Development and Municipal Power


he concept of development which we subscribe is, as we have seen, multidimensional, evolutionary and manifests itself in the continuous action that the community takes over and performs in the search for its living improvement, for clarifying and giving creative response to its needs, solving its problems, defining its own values​​, being happier.

The possibility of development is therefore dependent on the existence of territorial based communities, with power and ability to independently undertake the management of their interests. The Portuguese Constitution guarantees this existence by defining the organization of a democratic and decentralized State, which recognizes the municipal government. The communities whom, constitutionally, this ability to manage their own interests is given to, are the Regions, Municipalities and Parishes, in descending order, with respect to their territorial scope. The Regions, two decades after its recognition, are not yet materialized, and its creation is currently in doubt. As for the Parishes, only recently have they begun to express requirements regarding allocation of power and resources to give effect to the essential role they should play in local development. The Parishes are the closest, most appropriate for their direct responsibilities in communication and social stimulation, control of land use in the creation and updating of location information based on the achievement of implementing the power of the people, more directly identifiable with them development actions and the assessment of its direct consequences. If the need to establish Regions can be controversial, while recognizing the indispensability of finding instances with capacity and legitimacy to take unifying interests of communities linked by common problems, whose solution is beyond the scope of the municipal territory, the need to give expression to the role of the Parishes, highlighting the issues of rehabilitation of urban areas that are part of its territory, is hardly debatable. Municipalities are the basic cells of the democratic and decentralized state, they exist and are organized, like the other authorities, to respond to the interests of their respective populations within the limits of the existing legal framework and the achievement of national interests. They represent the communities installed in them and take the political, administrative and regulatory autonomy necessary for their development, for the fulfillment of their responsibilities and duties, which thus have to cover the range of the interests and needs related to the execution of local everyday life, to the control of the use and quality of the respective territory. The need for rooting and local autonomy for the development cannot be confused with localisms and caciqueisms, with the closure and disinterest by external communities, with conservatism. External openness is essential for local development as well as regional, national and international integration. This double requirement of taking care of its own interests and to

cultivating relationships with the exterior defines the City as a place of maximum interaction between civil society and the State, the logic of State, national and international development and of everyday life logic of communities and individuals. The municipality is this articulating essential element that enables the approximation of the state to the citizens making it understandable, transparent, accessible, manageable and making citizens visible to the State, the latter realizing the real country it manages, adjusting national development policies and giving them opportunities for success. The role of municipalities in the development of communities is intertwined with the very raison d’être of its institutionalization: the municipalities exist to respond to the interests of the community they cover, to enhance their development. The role of municipalities is thus clearly defined, once development and the need to take into account its endogenous and exogenous facets are understood: the need for autonomy regarding the satisfaction of personal interests and integration, of adult dependency and openness, with respect to the interests of the wider community. There is no real development without facing and promoting these two perspectives on reality, without getting them to interact, without reconciling and integrating them. Municipal institutions must organize their management in order to create favorable conditions for endogenous development, whose model is locally elaborated, to set it in motion and sustain autonomously. Simultaneously, they have to support and nurture the process of interaction with the wider community in order to open perspectives and expand capacities, to understand and assess the overall development models, to be inserted in them and contribute to their reelaboration.

Development and Local Planning


e have seen that urban rehabilitation is the responsibility of the local government and that the Parishes are the best placed local government to assume direct responsibilities for communication and social dynamism, for the monitoring of land use, the feeding of the land, the feeding of local basis information, on the definition and local basis, on the definition and implementation of development actions, on the control and assessment of their consequences. The municipality has the responsibility of integrating and harmonizing the decision and implementation of these tasks with the interests of the wider community that it manages; ensuring and coordinating relations with the central government; providing financial and technical resources and establishing, implementing and monitoring compliance with municipal regulations, general planning and management rules necessary for the proper functioning of the municipality in general. The local planning is the technical component of local authorities of political action, is their possibility of exercising the local government in a development perspective, i.e., the

possibility politicians have to make rational, legitimate and realistic decisions and of creating maximum efficiency conditions for their execution. Decisions based on local planning are: •  Rational, because they are grounded in thorough and multidimensional knowledge of the local community and its context, and supported by social, economic and culturally adjusted and technically solid solutions. •  Legitimate, because they are built with the community through processes of selfknowledge and critical assessment of the reality, of their needs and the possible ways of satisfying that reality. •  Realistic and efficient, because they are established in accordance with the will and the ability to create the social, financial, technical and management conditions capable of complying them. The existence of local planning for the development is a condition of rationality, legitimacy and efficiency of the exercise of municipal government, of democracy and transparency, of possibility of creating and organizing the social dynamics that performs the development. Clearly, not every planning is a means of achieving these goals and, particularly, a planning that is solved in the publication of a plan and a regulation technocratically elaborated, not inserted in social practices, which is incomprehensible or ignored by most citizens. The planning for development requires a change of mentality of its protagonists regarding the one which presided industrial development, the model which, although widely criticized, has not abandoned us and is still rooted in the practices and ways of thinking. A new paradigm of planning is elaborated in order that this change takes place over time and sets the local planning as a process of transformation anchored in a cultural base. A new mentality necessary for the development requires: •  From politicians, the will to rationalize and justify their decisions, to understand that the power given to them at the polls is not a means to express their ideas and achieve their interests but rather to make it possible for them to express the ideas and interests of the community, which has elected them, considering that voting is not a magic power that automatically makes them capable of this task. •  From the administration, that it organizes itself in order to facilitate the interaction between the different social actors involved in development; not to set rules from top to bottom; to act transparently, unbureaucratically, open to new requirements, instruments and agents; abandon the characteristics of the community police, and to assume the administrative expression of their functioning and their assessment requirements and control. •  From technicians, that they consider that they are not the only ones with all the knowledge, that they envisage their task not as the application of prefabricated knowledge, imposing a passive, ignorant, amorphous and irresponsible community, but rather as

a continuous learning process, critical assessment of reality in its multiple dimensions, held together by different social actors. Technicians have to practice pedagogy in depth, justifiably clarifying the issues, assuming the role of social agents and major contributors to the discussion of the problems. They must keep serving, not only the power but the community as a whole, creating arguments and solutions for reducing tensions and conflicts. It is their job to develop knowledge that enable producing a comprehensive and integrative view of the problems to make them understandable, which even favors their communication and discussion •  From the community, that it keeps being informed, open to innovation and communication, creating the conditions necessary to be able to trust the politicians, technicians and administration, rejecting the demagoguery and the show as argumentation and policing as a form of control, requiring dignity from them, a clear action and the creation of spaces and procedures that lead to the development of their capacity for expression, communication, and accountability procedures. Planning, itself must be a developer of the mentality that produces development. The politicians and technicians have heavy responsibilities in this field, responsibilities that translate themselves in how they trigger and sustain the planning process, in the contents they define to feed them, in the interlocutors that they privilege to build the planning process, in the instruments that they elaborate to guide, control and assess its implementation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY APPLEYARD, D. - The Environment as a Social Symbol: Within a theory of environmental action and perception, Journal of the American Planning Association 45 (2), April, 1979. •  Towards a Urban Design Manifesto, Berkeley, Institute of Regional Development University of California, Berkeley, 1981. BAILLY, A.S. - La Perception del Espacio Urbano - conceptos, metodos de estudio y su utilization en la investigacion urbanistica, Madrid, Instituto de Estudios de Administracion Local, 1979 BOGANOVIC, B. - Symbols in the City and the. City as o Symbol, Atenas, Ekistics, 39(232), 1975 (140-146) CANTER, D.; LEE, T. - Psychologie and the Built Environment, Architectural Press, 1974. COHEN, S. - Physical Context, Cultural Context: including it all. Oppositions, Institute for Architecture and Urban Studi 2, Jan . 1974. COSENTINO, N. - Una città senza qualità - Controspazio Nº 4/ 1984 pp. 106 a 112. CUNNINGHAM, M. C. - Framework for Historical Explanation in Urban Design, Atenas, Ekistics, 204, Novembro 1972. CURTIS, W. A. - A Functional Definition of Scale, A.I.A. Journal, 55 (2), 1971 (33 - 38). DOWNS, R.M. - Geographical Space Perception: past approache and struture projects. Progress in Geography, 2 (1970), 65-108. DUANE, E. e al. - City Size and the Qualiy of Life, Standford, California, State Research Institute for the National $cience Foundation, Novembro, 1974. HENRIQUES, J.M. - As Necessidades Humanas e a Problemática do Desenvolvimento: o conceito de necessidades básicas, Lisboa, Instituto Damião de Góis, 1983. LEDRUT, R. - L’Espace Social de la Ville - problémes de sociologie appliqué a l’amenggement urbain, Paris, Anthropos, 1968 . •  L’Espace en question ou le Nouveau Monde Urbain, Paris, Anthropos, 1977. •  Les Images de la Ville , Paris, Anthropos, 1973. DUBY, G. - Histoire de la France Urbaine, Seuil, 1980 . ELMER, F.L. SUTHERLAND (P.B.Jr.) - Urban Design and Environmental Structuring, Journal the American Institute of Planners 37 ( 1 ) Jan . 1971 ( 38 - 41). EWALD. W. R. (ed.) - The City as a Mechanism for Sustaining Human Contact, Environment for Man - the next fifty years, Indiana University Press, 1968. FORTE, F. - Sviluppo Urbano - teorie ed esperienze, Padova, Marsilio Editori, 19699. FORTIER, B. - L’Atlanti di Parigi 2. Le Strategie della Memoria, Casabella Nº 618, Nov., pp. 40 a 49.

JACOBS, A.; GOULD, L. - Observing and Interpreting the Urban Environment. Case Study: Naglee Park, San Jose, California, Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Working Paper Nº 372, February, 1982. •  Making City P1anning Work, Chicago, American Society of Planning Offici1s, 1978. •  A P1anners View of the City, P1anning, 46 (3), 1980 (20-23). KRIER, R. - El Espacio Urbano, Barcelona, Ed. Gustavo Gili, 1981. LEDRUT, R. - L’Espace Social de la Vi11e - prob1ème de sociologie app1iquée a l’amenagement urbain, Paris, Anthropos,1982. LYNCH, K. - A Imagem da Cidade, Lisboa, Edições 70, 1982 (1ª edição, Harvard, Mass. 1960). •  A Theory of Good City Form, MIT Press, 1981. MARTIN, A. - Aesthetics & Architectural Control, Topeka League of Kansas Municipalities, 1967 MAS, A.N. - Estudios de Historia Urbana, urbanismo y centros historicos en Francia, Ciudad y Territorio, Julio/Septembro, 1985. PORTAS, N. - Notas sobre a Intervenção na Cidade Existente, Sociedade e Território, Tomo 1 Nº 2 Fev. 1985. RAPOPORT, A.; KANTOR, R.E. - The Perception of Urban Complexity, AIP Journa1, March, 1970. •  Human Aspects of Urban Form: towards a man-environmernt approach to urban form and design, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1977. REDDING, M. - Aesthetics in Environmental P1anning, Washington, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Agency, Nov. 1975 •  Remarques a Propos de Sémiologie Urbaine, Architecture, d’Aujourd’hui, 153, Dec. 1970 (9 - 10). SAAVEDRA, L. - Tradicion y Progresso en Urbanismo - consideraciones sobre la conservacion del patrimonio urbano, Ciudad y Territorio, Julio-Septembro, 1985. SCHNEIDER, K. - The Architecture of Urban Space, Architectural Forum, 134 (5), 1971 (4 8 - 51). SEGAL , M. e al. - The Influence of Culture on Visual Perception, New York, Bobbs-Merril, 1966. STRIPE, R. editor - Perception and Environment: foundations of urban design, Chapel Hill, N.C., University of North Caroline, 1966. SANTOS, C.N.F., VOGEL, A. - Quando a Rua Vira Casa, Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Brasileiro de Administração Municipal de Pesquisas Urbanas, 1981. VALENTE-PEREIRA, L. - A imagem da cidade. O conceito de cidade. Leitura, análise e diagnóstico da imagem urbana. O Plano de Desenho Urbano de São Francisco, Califórnia,

U.S.A. - Textos de apoio do Seminário Nº 309 - O Desenho de Forma Urbana a Nível do Planeamento. Lisboa, LNEC, Fev. 1984. •  Metodologia do Planeamento Municipal. –  Relatório 1 - Bases para a Renovação da Metodologia do Planeamento. Lisboa, LNEC, 1984. –  Relatório 2 - Os Estudos Sumários de Planeamento. Lisboa, LNEC, 1984 •  O Planeamento Municipal - Metodologia para o Desenvolvimento Local. Revisa/IUR, Ciur/Jnict, Lisboa, vol. 1, nº 1, Julho 1984. •  Planeamento Municipal. Lisboa, LNEC, 1984. •  Atelier Experimental, Internacional e Interdisciplinar para o Ordenamento Harmonioso duma Zona Contígua ao Centro Histórico de Évora, Lisboa, LNEC, 1986. •  Planeamento Municipal e Exercício da Acção Política Local. Lisboa, LNEC, 1986.



•  Phase I – Technical / Political Preparation •  Phase II – Communication and Public Discussion •  Phase III – Planning and Preliminary Programming Formulation •  Phase IV – Planning/Action

(1)  Text written in 1991 and revised for this edition.

Chapter IV - METHODOLOGY Objectives


he aim is to develop a methodology, to propose methods and appropriate techniques to support municipal technicians and municipal politicians in their action of development of territorialized communities in an urban area. This action should be continued in time, cover the social, economic, cultural and territorial own dimensions of the communities and increase its accountability in the decision and effecting the changes necessary for the development and qualification of its space. A planning methodology of urban regeneration should fundamentally define how to create and sustain a development dynamic and qualification of the territory, that is to say, clarify the technical action / policy that helps to organize and feed, over time and with adequate information, the communication and the necessary coordination between the multiple social agents operating in the concerned territory and which are the actual protagonists of the development and transformation of the territory. The methodology to be developed should seek to organize in such a way as to meet the needs of the preparation of the formal intervenients in order to feed and stimulate this communication between the stakeholders of the urban regeneration and, through it, to structure the planning/ action that manages and performs development and qualification of the territory. The planning methodology to develop should enable establishing: •  The contents, i.e., the information needed to feed the multiple dialogues forwarding them to clarify the problems, create and make solutions feasible; •  Social agents necessary to interest and sit at the same table on the subject of successive issues to be addressed; •  The procedures that organize and feed the communication and cooperation between the social, formal and informal agents, since it is through this communication means that guidelines are defined, as well as the contents, the policies, the strategies and planning instruments, the programs and instruments for the execution of agreed actions and the processes and monitoring tools and the actions assessment; •  The type of technical action that allows the elaboration and integration of technical expertise in social practices and, through this means, serve the dynamics of development and define the means and the tools of decision-making , implementation, monitoring and support of urban regeneration; •  The type of operation of the local authorities that favors the creation, management and support of the rehabilitation dynamics.



he object of study is the territorialized community in the Urban Area bounded by the municipality in order to establish a process leading to its rehabilitation. This limitation is artificial, does not define an isolated object, independent of the whole urban fabric which it is part of. An urban area is part of the urban settlement which it belongs to and it is necessary to know how to express that belonging. The relationships that the area establishes with the urban settlement are especially sensitive in their immediate surrounding fabric. Continuities of use and image occur in it or barriers that cut them and it is necessary to understand and assess, as appropriate, in order to eliminate discontinuities, reinforcing the opening and integration of the area with its surroundings, or keep them and eventually accentuate them, as it was considered of interest to safeguard a certain isolation, or a clear change of image that strengthens the individuality of fabrics. If we are facing an area that, for its size, could prevent an intervention that covers its entire fabric, it is necessary to study it first in general terms to identify areas of the territory and social groups with specific problems and priority resolution and which will be subject to deep and intervention study. As the needs of knowledge that planning for the rehabilitation of the urban area demands, successive objects of study and intervention are thus being defined: the community and the territory of the area, if they are large enough to allow its comprehensive treatment, or portions of the territory and social groups that stood out, after the general study, for revealing specific problems which were considered to require solution in the and medium term.



hen the planning of the rehabilitation of urban areas starts, a team of technicians and politicians should be established, at the level of the Municipality and Parish Councils, directly responsible for its preparation and monitoring and connected to services and responsibilities of municipal planning, both intercity and central, where appropriate, regardless of the use of external teams to the local authority to carry out consultancy, studies and other specific tasks. It is recommended that the external order of specialized studies, in order to have the highly specialized technicians’ collaboration, as it is gradually revealing to be necessary and to ease the planning team that, otherwise, would have to include technicians with multiple specialties and variable intervention needs throughout the process. Planning for the rehabilitation of urban areas is developed covering the following phases: •  Phase I- Technical /political preparation to carry out the planning / action rehabilitation of the area

•  Phase II - Extensive communication and public discussion of the planning technical/ political proposals. •  Phase III - Formalization of the planning and preliminary programming of rehabilitation of the area. •  Phase IV - Planning/action versus current management. The Phase I is the technical/political planning preparation of the rehabilitation of urban areas and meets the definition of a proposal for preliminary planning and programming of development actions and qualification of the territory prepared and coordinated by the responsible formal agents and to be submitted to public discussion. The technical team must start the work by acquiring a global and critical view of the Area, its transformation dynamics and the prospects for its development. The formation of this opinion implies the knowledge of how the Area is within the urban context it belongs to, and how it is expected that its role will be, according to the identification of problems and potential of the community and its territory, connecting one with the other, that is to say, spatializing the information, by the proposal of objectives, policies and development strategies and by the establishment of hypotheses for solving the identified problems. It is also necessary to form an idea of the agents, modes, means, procedures and resources, necessary for their rehabilitation. Since one of the essential functions of the technical preparation work is to establish the information base that allows starting, integrating and facilitating the communication between the social agents involved in the process of transformation of the Area, which have the most diverse backgrounds and education levels, it is essential that the study result is expressed in a clear and attractive way and that it specifically indicates the reading and interpretation that was made of the Area and its problems, the proposals that were elaborated, the modes, agents, methods and procedures that were considered necessary for the implementation of solutions. The communication with the population begins at this stage, following the preparation of technical work plan from the very start and as part of the planning process. The referred communication is established through direct collection of information during the observation, interviews with privileged partners; sending for publication in the media, as the work progresses, information about the Area and urban issues in general and the creation of a public service station (connected to the Parish (es) and to the planning team) for forwarding and resolution of current management problems that are presented by the population. The work done by the planning technical team is presented to local politicians and technicians and to regional and central governments thereafter, in aspects involving the exercise of its powers, for discussion and decision making on the guidelines and actions to be undertaken at short term and to establish the necessary arrangements to ensure the viability of its implementation. The Phase II corresponds to communication and public discussion and serves to supplement

and correct the technical/political information obtained to present, discuss and fix, to define with the community the guidelines, policies and general strategies and priority actions and capable of being carried out at short-term, to identify capacities, agents and of local development dynamics, understand conflicts and bottlenecks, adjust continuous processes of territory ownership and participation and initiate, through these channels, the legitimacy of the proposed technical/ political planning and its inclusion in the local social practices. It is an intense communication phase, of opening and encouraging community participation and construction of dialogues between the many stakeholders in order to engage them in the rehabilitation, to motivate them to take part in an active and sustainable way, in their own development. At this stage there is a whole set of tasks to accomplish with the population, with the different interest groups and the local media so as to make possible to generalizing and deepening the knowledge of the Area and the aims and methods of rehabilitation, create discussion and conciliation spaces and boost the independent production initiatives, such as debates, interviews, reports, exhibitions and other cultural and urban animation events, of civic education and promotion of socialization and social solidarity. The preparation and holding of public discussion is a hard work that takes time, creativity, means and organizational capacity, which must be prepared with the support of communication and cultural animation professionals and that is oriented towards the inter didactic exchange development, the accountability and participation of formal and informal social agents, to detect and capture capacities and existing dynamics and to include the development planning processes in social practices, the only way to give them the necessary effectiveness. The Phase III is to set out the technical/political, planning and preliminary programming team, according to the results obtained from public discussion and in the preparation of the planning/action. The analysis of the elaborated information and the social dynamics brought about by public discussion, along with the carrying out of technical studies considered necessary and that have not been made in the initial phase, will allow setting the objectives, policies and strategies, executing and organizing the operations of restoration of buildings and public spaces and the social measures to be implemented in short term and preparing the procedures and the planning and management tools that control and make rehabilitation possible. To foster and sustain the planning/action that begin thereafter, the means, procedures, resources and the establishment of the necessary planning technical team are defined. Its composition will depend on the type of actions proposed to continue rehabilitation. The initial requirements for technical means to inform and structure the planning process will certainly be different from those needed to carry out and develop the planning of short-term measures and the reformulation of their subsequent planning. The planning/action versus current management corresponds to the 4th and final phase, in which simultaneously with the design and execution of the actions decided for the short term, the preparation takes place of those which, in turn, will gradually be decided and

the maintenance of communication and participation of social agents during the successive transformations. Some of the tasks of this planning phase are the permanent updating and deepening of knowledge of the Area, the assessment of the results that are gradually being obtained as the interventions and the establishment of a continuous management that keeps the series of processes and decisions that ensure the support of development participated and “empowerment” permanent territory chained. The detailed schedule, the project and the execution of operations and decided rehabilitation measures is already executed in terms of planning / action. The possibility of effecting the planning / urban regeneration action for the development is considered in the stage of preparation and is deeply dependent on the ability and on the technical and political will to give legitimacy and transparency to the way it operates, it develops communication, it creates and sustains mobilizing dynamics, it fosters them on a ground which make the community increasingly conscious of what it is and what it wants to be, and therefore be better able to intervene in order to build its future. It is essential that this dialogue is practiced since the beginning of the work linking the collection of information and the elaboration of proposals to the various stakeholders, gathering and discussing their specific knowledge and experiences, analyzing the ongoing programs of activities, the available resources and the procedures for decision-making and management of current issues relevant to the rehabilitation of the Area. The essential discussion on the city, rather than being limited, as usual, to discussing general principles and statements of intent, often difficult to understand by non-specialists and of barely visible translation in the current practices may, hereby, become clear to most citizens, considering that it is exemplified in a particular location and it shows, either in space, or in time and in the actual operation conditions, as the abstract social objectives are put in practice, as well as the generic qualification concerns of space and reorganization of the ways of living. The information on the Area and on the wishes and possibilities of its rehabilitation, suggested, agreed and made possible by the formal social agents is, as we have stated, the base that supports communication and extended discussion of operations to perform in order that the community becomes aware of its problems and intervention possibilities, contributes with the knowledge and perspectives, expresses its needs and values, seeks information and forms itself. The planning / action is characterized by “planning by doing and doing by planning” with the direct, active and organized involvement of social agents, formal and informal and should culminate in a current management that includes the planning concerns, that integrates it as an indispensable part of the management process. The planning and programming of the implementation of actions to be performed in the short term takes place in direct relation to the planning/action. This one remains, therefore, open and is gradually confused with the current management, management that can be adapted, according to the experience developed to ensure continuity of attention, the

evolution of transformations that the Area will suffer and the “permanent qualification� of the maintenance process that these changes must lead to. We believe that, through the sophisticated of planning practice, elaborated on the basis of this methodology, it is possible to evolve mentalities and behaviors, put technicians of different specialties in connection with politicians and the community, define and implement a development adjusted, participated to the local reality and self-sustained.



he purpose of this phase is essentially preparing the technical information and establish communication between the formal stakeholders of rehabilitation of the area, so that it is possible to know and assess the present reality and its transformation dynamics, develop a set of objectives, policies, strategies and action proposals, agreed at the level of formal stakeholders and define the priority actions, to be held in short term and viable before the administration availabilities. In this initial phase of the work, in an expeditious way, a technical/political opinion should be obtained on all the issues involved in the knowledge and promotion of rehabilitation of the area. The work to be done in order to meet these objectives corresponds to the preparation of summary planning studies, discussed and agreed between technicians and politicians, whose action has impact in the area and that acting at different levels of administration. The elaboration of the referred work lays the practical foundations of understanding and collaboration among them, that is to say, establishes the dialogues and the first agreements and commitments necessary for a broad and diverse knowledge of the many issues involved in rehabilitation, to make decisions and to define a coherent and realistic program of priority actions that perform it. It is essential but difficult to achieve, that this dialogue is established from the start of the operation, by linking the collection of information and the preparation of proposals for action at the different formal stakeholders, gathering and discussing their specific expertise, programs, resources and modes of action, repairing outlook, objectives and intervention policies. The information on the Area and on the wishes and possibilities of its rehabilitation, prepared, discussed and agreed between the formal agents is still the basis of support of communication and extended discussion, to be held in the next phase, so that the community becomes aware of its problems and intervention capabilities, to rule over them, contribute their knowledge and perspectives, express their needs and values, to inform, form and participate. The opening to discussion and public criticism of the studies and planning proposals for rehabilitation of urban areas entails specific requirements in its elaboration, reflects in the way to organize and present them, implies the active collaboration of the technical team in the establishment and maintenance of a network of relations with the media and with the various social agents with interests in the area. We consider of utmost importance that the technicians quickly form an opinion on the area, even if provisional and with important subjective burden, as this allows them to: •  Get an integrated and critical view of the multiplicity of issues that they need to

equate, match and resolve in pursuing its action, a view that enables them, even when thoroughly treat a sectoral aspect, maintaining a global perspective on the Area. •  Check their capacity for analysis, interpretation and proposal, when facing the stimulus that the Area represents, and exercise the methodology to develop, by following from the beginning, all the phases and aspects that need to be treated, realizing their difficulties, and their knowledge general, sectoral and of procedure that require and will eventually have to acquire through studies specialized, identifying the social agents that will need to be heard. •  Not to close themselves in their own ideas and solutions before exposing them for discussion and criticism. The awareness of the still fragile foundation of the judgment formed by means of the summary studies favors the possibility that technicians have to cause and absorb the contributions of other social agents, to reformulate their knowledge and proposals according to their relation with social practices. It also makes them adopt an attitude of openness and commitment to creativity that allows rethinking ideas and ready-made solutions. •  To describe and interpret the actual present reality and develop motivational intervention proposals for an operational dialogue with policy makers and technicians from local government and central and informal social agents involved in the study and action, thus building a continuous planning, implementable and closely linked to municipal management practices and social practices of the community. •  To contribute to the training and public information on urban issues in general and of the Area, in particular, increasing the collective ability of conscious and effective participation in urban regeneration. To develop a participatory planning process it is essential to prepare a kind of information that is accessible to the understanding of the ordinary citizen, well-structured and founded, to present the concrete actions to be taken in the short term and not just principles and broad objectives and no defined term intervention proposals. It is necessary to show the utopia that guides the transformation, utopia that is proposed, not as a reachable promise, but as a reference framework to stimulate and guide the transforming action and define the paths, which at technical/political level, were considered important to pursue in order to get closer to it. It is important to convey the reasons for the enthusiasm of building and rebuilding the utopia, to invent and reinvent, over time, the lived experience, and the routes of their approach. The importance of ensuring is also emphasized, through the planning process, the close relationship between the study/proposal of planning technicians, the technical-political discussion/coordination and public discussion/participation because it seems undeniable that the technical planning action includes important responsibilities in the information and training, in the promotion and coordination of social agents who, formally and informally, lead the rehabilitation of the Area. The involved and concerted planning didactic and dynamics form and inform the various



his phase is mainly performed by the planning technical team of the rehabilitation of the Urban Area and by the Parish Board (s) it encompasses, and still participates in it, and according to the needs: •  Technicians and municipal politicians, technicians and staff from the central and regional administration and public service concessionaires, according to the needs and their responsibilities relating to the rehabilitation of the area. •  The main organized informal social agents which are active with particular impact in the area. •  Individuals who, for any reason, have a thorough knowledge of the area.



o achieve the objectives of this first work phase, it is necessary to organize it so that the technicians, politicians and public administrators, whose activity has important implications in the rehabilitation of the Area, in the development of its population and in the qualification of its territory, may:• •  Establish a network of technical/political relations, covering the different levels of administration and create the dialog bases and agreement that will successively firm and expand, according to the existing dynamics and the one that the planning process develops, in order to combine knowledge, establish the commitments and agreements necessary for the preparation and implementation of the urban regeneration: •  Build a global opinion and criticism of the reality in the Area, its transformation dynamics and how it operates in the urban context it belongs to, as well as on what should be done, by whom and how, in order to improve the ways and local living conditions. •  Identify the main agents, both public and private, with capacity for intervention in the Area and the essential aspects of the content, process and dynamics of their modes of action. •  Identify and evaluate the planning and control instruments existing and acting on the Area. •  Establish the necessary information to get a first concerted decision on objectives, strategies and development and territorial qualification actions to implement in short term and on procedures and of planning and management instruments to develop. •  Establish the instruments and procedures needed for communication and expanded

agents, including technicians, directs and nourishes the very intervention process and it is essential to plan and implement actions with real possibilities of accomplishment and of producing, in a sustainable way, the development and maintenance of a qualified space. It is also at this stage that sectoral technical studies are started, which deepen the necessary knowledge to detail priority intervention programs and communication and the assistance of the population is initiated. In short, the objectives to be met in the technical/political preparation phase are: •  To form a technical/political opinion on the Area, its problems and potential, objectives, policies, strategies and rehabilitation measures, agents, means, resources and procedures necessary to decide, plan and execute the development and the corresponding territory qualification; •  To establish the network of relationships and dialog, coordination and commitment bases between the technicians and politicians involved in the rehabilitation of the Area at the different levels of government. •  Prepare the information that will serve as a common basis of knowledge of the different social agents. •  To decide at technical and political level about the actions that are considered of interest to be taken in the short term and which, as they are concrete proposals for immediate implementation, may motivate public discussion, streamline the rehabilitation process, and by these means, insert the planning in social practice. •  To start creating conditions for community participation through public information and training on urban issues and the creation of public service structures to support the resolution of current management issues. Technical and political preparation is, therefore, the stage in which the technicians form and express their opinions about what is the area, define their problems and potential; start public participation; propose scenarios and development actions and territorial qualification they consider desirable and possible to do this; discuss them with policy makers and other technical public administration to establish a network of relationships and dialog bases and consultation required between formal actors of urban regeneration for run; define the guidelines and take the first decisions on actions to be undertaken in the short term and to be submitted to public discussion, including those relating to the participation of the social partners and the definition and organization of the structural rehabilitation procedures dynamics.

discussion on the opinions and proposals made, as well as of the permanent supply of public information on urban issues in general and about the Area and its transformation, in particular. Phase I of the planning method of rehabilitation of urban areas develops in four stages as described below: •  Step 1 - Formation of a technical opinion at the level of the planning team - at this stage the technical planning team prepares to provide the technical support and assume the role of promoting the rehabilitation process, performing the studies necessary to form an opinion on the Area, its problems and potentialities, objectives, and rehabilitation policies and strategies, solutions, means, resources and social agents involved and their respective roles. You must also define how to proceed so that your work will serve to inform, organize and promote communication and the participation of social agents. •  Step 2 - Adjustment, agreement and technical and political decision making at municipal level - during this step, information and proposals prepared by the planning technical team are discussed, adjusted and completed with the technicians and municipal politicians, the dialog, coordination and municipal agreement bases are set up, coordination and municipal agreement, the first decisions are taken up on the objectives, policies, strategies and actions to be taken in short term and the means, agents, procedures, instruments and resources for further work are defined. •  Step 3 -Adjustment, agreement and technical and political decision making at regional and central level - are carried out, at this stage, in order to complete and deepen the information and to discuss the municipal decisions with the heads of regional and central administration and with public service operators, whose powers are exercised significantly to the resolution of the Area’s problems. Agreement modes and programs’ conjunction and actions with the referred social agents are set up. •  Step 4 - Definition of the planning technical-political proposal and preliminary programming - the technical team reformulates the work according to the results obtained in the previous steps/stages and with a view to preparing the information base needed to realize the communication and discussion extended to informal intervenients, which takes place in the next step.

Step I - Formation of a Technical Opinion on the Area and its Rehabilitation


t this stage the technical team should get the knowledge, expeditiously and in general terms, interpretation and assessment of the area, to define its characteristics, problems and potential. From this analysis, assessment and corresponding diagnosis, results the formulation of

objectives, policies and rehabilitation strategies and the proposed solutions to the identified problems. It is also necessary to form, in parallel, an idea of the agents, means and procedures needed for discussion and implementation of the rehabilitation. At this early stage, all types of work corresponding to the technical tasks of planning the rehabilitation intervention should be covered, even if with little depth. It is a work to be done expeditiously on the basis of direct observation, interviews and gathering and consultation of the available documentation. It is a work subject to gaps and errors, with subjective connotations, but which should have the virtue to include the multiple dimensions of the community and to demonstrate how, from that knowledge, we discuss and find solutions, who is involved in them, which means, resources, and forms of organization are required to materialize them. The value of this work lies in the demonstration of how one thinks and organizes the development of that community and qualifies its space, which contents inform the objectives, policies and development strategies, who are the agents and instruments available and not so much in the undeniable truth of the information and proposals for the Area, which will successively be completed and corrected along the way. Since one of the essential functions of the technical preparation work is to establish the information basis that allows starting, regulating and facilitating communication between social actors from different backgrounds, it is essential that it is expressed in a clear and attractive way, to explain the whys and that concretely exposes the reading that was made of this fact, the proposals that were elaborated, the ways, agents and resources available to implement the solutions. It is this effort of clarity and simplicity (and not the attempt to create information that crushes other people’s arguments through the technicality of its grounds), which facilitates the dialogue with the other non-specialist social agents and specialists of other matters, that opens up to and develops the teaching that motivates participation, that recognizes the social agents as builders of their own development and not as simple receivers and performers. The explicit admission that the work presented corresponds to an informed but problematic opinion and not a proven and unquestionable truth, the presentation without the own doubts and difficulties is the openness and the invitation that motivates the involvement of the different social agents, and their participation in development. Technicians and politicians have to state their opinions, to pass them, explain them, defend them in accordance with their beliefs (as professionals and as citizens) but have to do so by demonstrating, in practice, that they know they are a fundamental contribution, but that it is far from being the only one, and that their knowledge and technical opinions need to be well-informed and reworked in social practice, and not only through literature and the work in the offices. The need to accomplish this first stage in a short time and the use objectives of that knowledge lead to the use of methods that: •  Lead to the perception and interpretation of structural aspects, key issues, most

significant features and the main problems and potential of the Area and its transformation dynamics: •  Favor the simultaneous analysis, assessment and construction of intervention hypotheses•  Allow benefitting fully of the knowledge available, either they are expressed in documents or result from individual experience reportable through interviews; •  Identify the key intervenients and their ways of doing things, the means and action programs, and facilitate their participation in the transformation of the Area. Included in this step are the following studies: •  Image Reading(1) to know, interpret and assess the Urban Area. •  Characterization of Urban Area as part of the Urban Settlement which it belongs to. •  Characterization of the general morphology of the landscape of the Area and its Surroundings. •  Knowledge of the evolution history of the urban fabric. •  Socio-economic characterization of the population. The preparation of the technical planning team for the rehabilitation process also includes gathering the existing mapping and start collecting all the material that is available on the Area. We refer the interested reader to see Volume II of this publication, which is entitled Reading the Urban Image and where the studies related to this planning stage are presented in detail. As knowledge about the area and its rehabilitation are obtained, they must be provided to the local media for dissemination and as a way to interest the public opinion in the issues that directly interest it and thus promoting participation. It is essential, from the beginning of the work and according to its development, to keep the population informed, to transmit the knowledge that is being obtained about the area, its transformation on the urban environment in general and the capabilities and existing difficulties in promoting and managing social development and territorial qualification. This action of disclosure should emphasize the importance of people’s participation in the expression and defense of their interests, in the construction of their own development and ownership of the territory, calling for its implementation and indicating the ways and procedures that the municipality and the parishes will organize together to achieve it. This information must work by communication experts, conveyed by the local media and feed the action of cultural animators and local initiatives. To accomplish this task the technical team must include a media technician. (1)  This Method is based in the proposal of Allan B. Jacobs and Leslie Gould Observing and Interpreting the Urban Environment. Case Study: Naglee Park, San José, California. Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley, WP372, 1982. Summary Table of Stage 1 of Phase 1

It is also important to create a public service point connected to the parish Council (s) and to the technical planning team to provide the contact with the population, facilitate and direct the resolution of their problems, display information about area and its rehabilitation, as it is being worked, and collect criticism, proposals, information and local initiatives. Below we include a summary table identifying, in general terms, the tasks to fulfill at this First Step.

Step I - Summary Table






General characterization of the Urban Agglomerate and its transformation dynamic. Identification of objectives, policies and transformation strategies - General and sectorial. Definition and assessment of the relationship of Urban Area with its surroundings. Potential, problems and proposals for amendments. Identification and characterization of social actors and political / administrative and financial organization capable of intervention. Assessment of the main instruments of urban planning and management applicable to the urban regeneration. Characterization and assessment of the Area and its transformation dynamic. Problems, potential and elements for the construction of proposals for intervention. Establishment of precautionary measures.

Preparation of proposals for intervention and priority intervention to be carried out in short term. Identification and characterization of formal and informal social agents to involve in the following stages per type of intervention. Identification of the means, methods, procedures and tools necessary to continue the study, organization and rehabilitation implementation. Identification of the means, methods, procedures and tools necessary to continue the study, organization and rehabilitation implementation. Dissemination to the local media of the information obtained through the study and organization of cultural animation actions.

Establishment of a public service station.

Step II - Formation of a Technical and Political Opinion at Municipal Level


he work effected in the previous step by the technical planning team is formally presented to the Parish(s) covered by the Area and the politicians and municipal technicians in order that they: •  Know, discuss, complete, and carry out adjustments and corrections to the work. •  Take decisions on proposals to present and discuss with the different social agents. •  Define means, agents, processes and resources needed to continue the work. This step is fulfilled by having general and sectoral working meetings with the different technicians and municipal politicians, with responsibility in the issues to discuss and resolve, and with the Parishes. It is essential to define the collaboration to continue with the municipal services to structure and coordinate the rehabilitation and its implementation and to initiate the coordination that will allow doing the current management of the Area, in a decentralized way and, simultaneously, inserted in municipal management. These meetings should be carefully prepared and this requires: •  Gather the documentation that was prepared in the previous step and prepare it to be presented and discussed •  Choose the participants for each meeting carefully and ensure the presence of all who meet the defined call criteria. •  Distribute the documentation in advance. •  Organize meetings in a sequence that facilitates exposure and understanding of the issues, and that allows addressing those of general character first and go forth, facing sectoral and more particular aspects. •  Develop detailed minutes of these meetings in order to bind the participants to the opinions and decisions taken.

Step III - Setting the Technical and Political Municipal Opinion at Regional and Central Level.


his step corresponds to the setting of the municipal technical-political proposal of rehabilitation of the Area with the social agents acting at regional and central level and to the coordination of activities relating to the continuation of their study and implementation. In this step working sessions are held with technicians and those responsible for the Central/

Regional Administration, the public usefulness companies and other organized social agents, whose action is essential for the resolution of identified problems, and to be solved at shortterm . The referred working sessions are intended to supplement and adjust knowledge, coordinate and define strategies and actions taken on issues, whose resolution depends on the aforementioned agents, interest and engage them in its resolution, by setting up commitments and necessary protocols. Objectives are coordinated, as well as strategies, procedures and programs and collaboration bases are set up with regional and central level intervenients, as they were defined in the previous stage with municipal intervenients. It should be noted that depending on the importance of the Area in its urban context, this coordination may be waived or become essential.

Step IV - Definition of the Technical and Political Proposal of Planning/Action


he planning proposal and preliminary programing of rehabilitation of the Area is defined through the reworking of the work done in the other stages, according to the results of the information, decisions and arrangements established in the second and third stages and taking into account the resources, capacity and the dynamics of development demonstrated by the social agents involved. This proposal, in its final phase, must be presented and discussed in the municipal and parish assemblies to gather a final approval and to provide the interest in the monitoring and collaboration in the next phase of communication and public discussion where these institutions should play an important role which should be signed on this occasion.

Results of Phase I


t the end of this first stage of the work that helped identify the essential characteristics of the Area and fit it in its urban and historical context, the technical team should be able to: •  Establish the characterization, interpretation and assessment of the Area and its transformation dynamic, identifying problems, potential, processing trends, areas of the territory and social and economic issues requiring intervention priority, and collect elements that provide building solutions and rehabilitation actions. •  Establish protective measures. •  Develop proposals regarding objectives, policies and rehabilitation strategies of the

Area; •  Define alternative proposals for intervention and the priority actions, giving emphasis to those considered to be held at short-term and that support the beginning of the planning / action. •  Complete and deepen the identification of formal and informal social agents whose action have or may have an impact on the transformation of the Area and to engage, in subsequent phases of rehabilitation, in a discriminated manner by the different types of actions. •  Form an idea about the means, procedures, instruments and resources necessary to continue the study and organization of rehabilitation proposals and establish the appropriate routines for planning and management of the area, decentralized and concerted with the standard practices of planning and municipal management.



n the previous phase, technicians and politicians with assignments that directly involve them in the rehabilitation of the Area met and discussed their knowledge and proposals related to the problem in question, and expressed their views and concerted action intentions, estimated means and instruments to carry them out.

At this stage the results of this work are presented and discussed in an open and extended way to the community territorialized in the Area and to the various social agents whose interests and activities relate to it and to the actions of urban rehabilitation.



hrough communication and public discussion one tries to establish an information exchange that generalizes, completes and deepens the knowledge of the Area and of the aims and urban issues and that allows the following: •  Discuss and adjust the intervention proposals, checking their acceptance or rejection and viability, and opening them to the initiative of the different agents; •  Cause the production of new knowledge and proposals. •  To promote and capture capabilities, resources and agents to develop the planning / rehabilitation of the Area. •  Undertake broad civic training action oriented to stimulate the interest and participation in the development and qualification of the territory. •  Open perspectives of solidarity, cooperation and social appropriation. •  Raise awareness and give responsibility to the community for its development.



hey have a key role in the organization and nourishing of this phase, in addition to the planning technical team of rehabilitation of the area, which should include communication experts and cultural activities: •  The Parish (es).

(1) In Volume III of this publication the content of this Phase is developed. 

•  Politicians and municipal technicians. •  Technicians and those responsible at regional and central level, according to the initiatives decided. •  The collective entities and other organized local groups. •  The various social agents who defend specific interests (traders, industrialists, developers, investors, owners, tenants ...), encouraging them to create initiatives to get information, expose and defend their interests and requirements and to define ways and active participation conditions in the resolution of their respective problems. •  The local media. •  The general population and individuals who shown initiative applicable to the tasks of this phase.



he completion of this phase requires defining with the Parishes and the City Council the organization’s communications and public discussions, establishing the places, the receivers, transmitters and channels of communication, the resources and logistical support necessary to effect and also: •  Prepare the material for presentation and public appreciation of the work done in Phase 1 in order to enable good communication with the general population, interest groups and other regardful public and private entities. •  Perform communication/discussion of the rehabilitation of the Area, distributing in space and time the various achievements in order to achieve the various social agents, to create an initial impact and sustain it until it is considered that there are no more possibilities to gathering information and to interest and capture for the action the social agents with transformation dynamics. •  Define the communication/discussion structures that should ensure, at all times, the relationship of social agents with the Parish Councils and the City Council and which will be fundamental for the planning / action versus current management.The communication is performed through: •  Presentation sessions and general discussion extended to the population. •  Workshops and roundtables with groups representing specific interests. •  Sequences of cultural events and urban animation that arouse interest, inform, train and motivate involvement, expression and accountability of social agents in urban rehabilitation.

•  Edition of publications, posters, leaflets and other material for public distribution. •  Issuance of texts and implementation of programs on their own initiative and the local media. It is necessary to establish the framework and the organization that makes the record of the information possible, the proposals and the indication of the social agents who have expressed interest and dynamism to contact and engage them in the process of planning / action to be developed subsequently.

Results of Phase II


n this phase the insertion of the rehabilitation planning of the area in social practices of urban transformation is done, through the opening to the ownership and accountability by their agents and conditions are created to define and formalize the planning and preliminary programming and start a continuous process of planning /action taken by the local community, adapted to the capabilities and the means available, agreed between the different formal and informal social agents at different levels with a focus on the rehabilitation of the Area and able to evolve, adapting to the changes brought about by the rehabilitation action. At the end of this phase, information is still obtained that allows having: •  The view that local people have about the Area, its problems and possible solutions. •  Prospects, bottlenecks and development local dynamic and territorial qualification. •  The identification of conflicts, consensus and partners able to participate actively in urban rehabilitation, contributions and requirements, rehabilitation procedures that best suit local conditions.



t this stage the technical planning team elaborates and prepares the document that conveys the technical/political opinion on the area and on the direction and execution of its rehabilitation, that is to say, the opinion that formal social, technical and political agents, from different levels of government with responsibilities in the transformation of the Area, have for its characteristics, problems and potential of and what they think should be done, and how it should be done, in order to rehabilitate, to make the inseparable task of socio/economic development, as well as cultural and of spatial skills. When planning and programming technical/political proposals are presented, and discussed previously to the rehabilitation of the Area, in the previous stage, the technical team is able to rework, and formalize them, to instrument and organize their implementation and to prepare the implementation of the interventions decided for short term, that is to say, to define: •  The final version of the planning and programming that will guide the rehabilitation action of the Area. •  The planning and management tools considered necessary to express the guidelines and the decisions taken and their grounds. •  The organization and procedures appropriate to further action. •  The assessment and control criteria and the information system to support the current management of the area. •  The ways of participation and coordination of the social agents and the rules and procedures that regulate them and the commitments already agreed to carry out the rehabilitation operation. •  The planning and programming of actions to be taken in the short term in order to implement its execution in the next phase



his step is carried out by the technical team for the rehabilitation planning of the Area, supported by local technicians and municipal politicians and at regional and central level, when directly involved in the issues concerned and according to the previously agreed procedures.



he formulation of the planning and programming of the rehabilitation of the urban area is made from the combination of information, guidance and decision making, resulting from the studies and discussions held and from the established commitments and it transmits the technical/political proposal and programming of the rehabilitation of the Urban Area. According to the decisions taken, and in order to express and to formalize the common ground on which the planning /rehabilitation action of the area will be built, the plan(s) and work programs will be elaborated at this stage, and the technical planning team will be formed that will be needed to start and execute the next stage (planning /action).

Results of Phase III


s a result of this working phase, the necessary tools, as we have said, are obtained to start the planning/rehabilitation action of the area, that is to say:

•  Plans and urban renewal programs (urban and of socio/economic and cultural development actions) - general plan of the Urban Area and /or sub areas of the letter, as it is considered appropriate, and their programming; plans and social action programs related to specific sections of the population or of control of activities installation. •  Criteria and assessment rules and control of the use and of land occupation, design and urban construction. •  Geographical based information system for the Area.

•  Instruments of participation and coordination of the social agents, rules and procedures that govern them. Another aspect to consider concerns the definition of the tasks to be carried out (in terms of the project and its execution) by the municipality (Town Hall and Parish Councils) or through an outsourcing arrangement, under the programs formulated and approved in the planning process. It is the very practice of planning /action that will enable implementing, testing and thoroughly indicate the elaborated instruments, redesigning them, as well as the current management, in order to keep them both suitable to the successive requirements of development and territorial qualification that the process itself reveals.



his phase corresponds to the permanent planning completion, organized and interrelated, of management and implementation of the rehabilitation of the Urban Area. The planning/action should be merged with the current form of technical/political support to municipal action of development and territorial qualification, in order that the latter maintains its legitimacy and effectiveness, according to the evolution of needs, capacities and social values and territorial expression. One aims at, when executing this phase, putting the described procedures into practice, which we consider contributing to the operation and credibility of the planning, in supporting urban regeneration, in real-time and continuously.

Intervenients and Method


ccording to the described methodology, the actual development of the procedure will successively report on the knowledge and appropriate methods for the resolution of the issues that occur, as the situation develops. It is considered that the methodology used, up to this stage, provides the basis from which the technical/political municipal team is able to make the necessary adjustments and developments according to the successive knowledge of the area and the dynamics of its transformation. After the “peak period�, which corresponded to the stages previous to taking the initiative of, explicitly and in an organized manner, rehabilitating the Area, a current work of definition and implementation of public initiative transformation actions, and encouragement, monitoring and control of the private sector, based on Parish Council (s) and supported by the municipal services and the participation of other social agents as indicated above. The urban rehabilitation operation starts being confused with the non-routine daily management, that is to say, a management that integrates the planning /action as a continuous decision-making process and actions’ assessment, that are being carried out.

Planning Methodology - Summary Table





1 Formation of a technical

Technical team of local planning and Parishes.

2 Adjustment and agreement

Technical team of local planning, Parishes, municipal technicians and politicians.

opinion about the Area and its rehabilitation.

at the municipal level of the

work done in 1. First decision making.

3 - Adjust and consultation at


Characterization and diagnosis. Alternative proposals for planning. Precautionary measures Identifying agents, media, resources and tools, for the realization of the intervention. Public information. Technical/political proposal of preliminary planning and programming.

Technical team of local planning, Parishes, technicians regional/central level. Second and responsible at municipal decision making. and central/regional level. 4 - Preliminary definition of Technical team of local the planning and programming planning. of rehabilitation of the Area.

Establishment of dialogue and technical/political agreement at different levels.

5- Organization of public

Local perspective on the area and their rehabilitation, bottlenecks, local development dynamics, conflicts and consensus.

communication. Preparation of necessary materials for presentation.

The different social agents that are considered appropriate after completion of the previous phase.

6 Accomplishment of

communication and public discussion of the preliminary planning and programming.




Final version of preliminary planning and programming.

8-Preparation of tools for

planning and management.

9- Definition of planning


Decision on the actions to be implemented in the short term.

Opening the ownership and responsibility of local agents and the general population. Technical team of local planning.

Formulation of the preliminary planning.

Agents directly involved in the implementation and management of rehabilitation according to their areas of action.

Preparation of continuous planning action. Implementation and current management of the urban renewal area.

Chosen according to the established network of agents and the dynamics initiated by action itself.

Organized, self-controlled and instrumented dynamic of development and qualification of the territory throughout time.

10-Planning and scheduling of


the actions in the short term.

11- Continuous planning

through evaluation of rehabilitation actions performed, successively decided and from current management.

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Rehabilitation of Urban Areas - Volume I - General Concepts and Planning Methodology  

We define the concept of urban rehabilitation, as well as the importance of the images in the knowledge of reality, in behavior and in the f...

Rehabilitation of Urban Areas - Volume I - General Concepts and Planning Methodology  

We define the concept of urban rehabilitation, as well as the importance of the images in the knowledge of reality, in behavior and in the f...