Issue No.19 - Jul/Aug 2012
Energy The Future OF World
Unorthodox Renewable Energy Ideas! De-Inking Solutions for the Future! INDUSTRY
Ali Amri: KMP
Contents Jul/Aug 2012
Three Renewable Energy Fallacies! 6
Who is Using All The Power! 16
De-Inking the Future! 20
The Power of The Sun! 22
Ali Amri: KMP 26
Remanufacturing the HP LaserJet Enterprise 600/MFP 4555 Toner Cartridges 28
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 2
We are Overflowing
20 Tons of Ink waiting to be Dispatched from our New Warehouse!
+27 (0) 31 766 1032 firstname.lastname@example.org www.ocpinks.co.za
E d i t o r s Vo i c e E n e r g y, t h e F u t u r e o f Wo r l d P o w e r !
and is something in which we all need to play an active role, changing our lifestyles to include alternative energy sources.
As Africa is urbanizing faster than any continent in the world our resources will be not be able to cope, as we anticipate by 2035 that fifty percent of all Africans will live in urban areas. At this time water, electricity, waste management and sanitation in formal and informal settlements are already a huge, daunting challenge in most of our cities. The only solution is going to be renewable and sustainable energy from both homes to commerce and industry – this will be part of a world trend to change the way we use and abuse natural resources. With climate change, the soaring global demand for energy, coupled with the scarcity of fossil fuels, costs will inevitably spiral upward, making renewable energy gain in importance. This will affect the way we live and conduct business
The easiest sources of renewable energy for all developing countries are solar and wind energy. In our fantastic sunny country we have the ideal elements to contribute to renewable and sustainable energy projects. According to the African Green City Index conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit sponsored by Siemens our cities in South Africa are rated the most active in Africa. Our capital cities fall in the categories of average – Pretoria, and above average Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg. This can help countries lacking natural resources gain greater independence from fossil fuels and secure their own climate-friendly energy supplies With this firmly in the forefront of the business arena we as an industry need to become not only aware, but active participants in the new order of energy. This means a solid mindset change, together with a plan of how to filter this into the processes we use in
ummer is just around the corner and once again we have a bumper magazine for the industry, we are sticking with a themed edition as we have found this to be very successful and would like to touch on the highly published, and much discussed topic of renewable and sustainable energy.
conducting our businesses, now and in the future. At Consumables Magazine we pride ourselves in always being ahead of the current trends and cycles and have embraced change from the beginning. To this end, in this edition we have put together a series of articles with a variety of angles to this very important subject. These include “Who’s using all the Power?” an interesting expose of where the world’s power goes and how it affects us, followed by “Unorthodox Renewable ideas” – dancing girls! green exercise bikes! Plus many more creative ideas of how we can generate energy. We would also like to remind our readers of the upcoming CIFEX industry conference held in Zhuhai 23rd September 2012. Details are in the magazine. Once again we hope you enjoy this edition of the magazine and hope you will take the time to comment via email on how we are doing.
Editorial team Publisher Jose Bustamante Lopez
Maureen Van Der Riet South African Editor Consumables Magazine
Editor Maureen Van Der Riet No part of this publication may be copied or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Ediciones Consumibles SL. All rights reserved.
Subeditor Duncan Bouwer email@example.com 0828254448
Design and Layout Jeff Holbrook 0727888301
T: 084 511 5441 F: 2731 262 1096
Journalists Matt Campaign-Scott Mandy Barrett
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Published by: Ediciones Consumibles S.L. Spain CIF: ES B85340552
ENERGY Fallacies! by Matt Campaign-Scott
o it’s the 21st century and we can watch TV on our phones and be informed about anything and everything via the internet. Though sometimes what we consider a blessing can also be a curse. An abundance of information means we require discernment to judge between truth and fiction. This brings us to a world in transition. We currently find ourselves suspended between two eras: a time dependent on fossil fuels such as oil and coal, and a future potentially dominated by renewable energy sources. Not everyone is on board though. Options vary on just how dependable some of these renewable energy sources are, as well as how well they’ll be able to sustain us in a post-fossil fuel era, if there is such a thing. Such hesitation gives birth to fallacies, misconceptions and even blatant falsehoods. Below we’ll ignore the conspiracy theories and obvious tomfoolery and focus on what seem to be the fallacies that have been given credence of late.
Solar Power is Impotent Okay so your kids can have sparkly calculators that can get by on solar power and yet the latest formula one racing cars use fossil fuels. This doesn’t help the image of solar power very much.
Even if solar electricity, also known as photovoltaics (PV), was only capable of energizing our low-power gadgets many experts identify the statement “little steps can’t make a difference” as a major myth surrounding the green movement. While such gadgetry may seem to make little difference to global energy consumption, it’s a small change that forces others to think about the ecological matters at hand and possibly make both small and substantial changes in their sphere of influence. PV power may not be in a position to solve all our energy problems this year, but its potential for the future is great. Think for a moment, we are referring to acquiring energy from a gigantic star -- one that drives our solar system, our atmosphere and pretty much all life as we know it. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that the solar energy resource in a 100-squaremile (259-square-kilometer) area of Nevada could supply the United States with all its electricity. South Africa is one of the best located regions for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with some of the highest levels of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) in the world. The Northern Cape region of the country experiences levels of more than 2 900 kWh/m2, significantly more than some of the other CSP hot spots such as Spain
and Southern California in the USA and the Department of Energy’s (DoE) Integrated Resource Plan allows for 1 GW of CSP of a total of 18 GW to be delivered from renewables by 2030. Initial research by the University of Stellenbosch’s Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies (CRSES) indicates that there is a short term potential of 262 GW for viable CSP taking factors such as DNI, land slope, dispatchability, land use and water availability into account, and 311 GW in the medium term with further transmission infrastructure upgrades. Now that could blow the numbers out of your calculator.
Cleaner Coal Will Solve Everything. Clean Coal is an oxymoron. In short coal is filthy stuff. Scientists argue that the coal mining process alone prevents it from ever being “clean,” without even considering the other pollutants. South Africa’s energy resource is almost solely dependent on coal. For every unit of electricity produced and consumed, nearly 1 kg of carbon dioxide and pollutant by-products are released into the atmosphere.
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 6
Coal-fired power plants spew out sulphur dioxide, carbon particles as well as carbon dioxide (CO2). But coal continues to play a vital role in global energy production, and it would be unreasonable to expect people to return to pre-Industrial Revolution days either. Clean coal technology theoretically mitigates the impact of coal pollution until a better option is found. However there are a great deal of clean coal technology centres around capturing and storing pollutants that would otherwise be released in the burning process. This involves either pumping the gas down wells or into deep-ocean depths. Not only can the latter option potentially endanger marine ecosystems, but also they both require care and monitoring to prevent polluting the environment anyway. Some scientists insist that these measures amount to a redirecting of pollution, not a true reduction of it. The fallacy of clean coal solving everything is easy to unveil. We may have to put up with it for a while but we should never be fooled into believing that it is either green or renewable. It certainly isn’t inexhaustible.
Wind Power Kills Birds and Deafens Humans Wind farms are accused of being bird deboning and feather-plucking plants. Alas this is not entirely untrue, wind turbines do kill birds. One may argue that so do many other things do too:
vehicles, buildings, pollution, poison, transmission lines, communication towers and the introduction of invasive species into their habitats. Despite the daunting sight of a field of wind turbines the statistic for bird deaths is low, that’s 1 in 30 000 according to the U.S. Department of Energy. As for noise, modern turbine technology keeps turbines relatively quiet- essentially no more than the soft, steady call of wind through the blades. In Canada the Ontario Ministry of Environment breaks it down like this: If 0 decibels is the threshold of hearing and 140 is the threshold of pain, then a typical wind farm scores between 35 and 45, sandwiched between a quiet bedroom (35) and a 40-mile-per-hour (64-kilometer-per-hour) car (55). Regarding the cost: research indicates that the average wind farm pays back the energy used in its manufacture within three to five months of operation [source: BWEA]. Since wind farms depend on variable weather patterns, day-to-day operating costs tend to run higher. Simply put, the wind isn’t going to blow at top speed year-round. If it did, a wind turbine would produce its maximum theoretical power. In reality, a turbine only produces 30 per cent of this amount, though it produces different levels of electricity 70 to 85 per cent of the time [source: BWEA]. This means that wind power requires back-up power from an alternative source, but this is common in energy production.
Wind power has huge potential as a renewable energy resource. Something worth noting when examining such fallacies is that while renewable energy certainly offers the prospect to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, regrettably, solar and wind power requires substantial parcels of land to deliver relatively low volumes of energy relative to fossil fuels. By way of an example, a natural gas well producing 60 000 cf per day generates more than 20 times the energy per square meter of a wind turbine. Transferring to renewable energy will result in a substantial “energy sprawl” that will pose challenges for the conservation of bio diversity.
Sources: Rainharvest; Energy Find; How Stuff Works; CIA Factbook; New York Times; The Sustainable Energy Society of Southern Africa)
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 7
Static Control First to Market with Release of HP® CP1025 Drum Unit Components
tatic Control has released a full colour system to remanufacture the drum unit on the popular, low-cost HP® LaserJet® Pro CP1025, 100 M175 MFP and TopShot® Color LaserJet® Pro 200 M275 MFP as well as Canon® LBP7010/7016/7018 printers. The new components include a new Odyssey® OPC drum with patented ZeroTwist™ Gear Technology, drum unit chip, wiper blade and drum unit shipping protector. Static Control also offers a full system of components for the toner cartridges, which are remanufactured separately from the drum unit. Product Codes: HP1025DUCHIP – Drum unit chip PGDRHP1025 – New Odyssey® OPC drum with patented ZeroTwist™ Gear Technology HP1025BLADE-10 – Replacement wiper blade HP1025DRSHPROT – Drum unit shipping protector with two “T” shaped pins
Universal Waste Bin Converts HP® P4515 Cartridges into HP® LaserJet® Enterprise® M4555 MFP, 600 Series M602/M603 Cartridges
tatic Control has released a universal waste bin that converts HP® CC364X empties into CE390X empties, expanding remanufacturers’ access to these expensive and hard to find cores. The replacement waste bin (Product Code: HP4515WBIN) also converts CE390X empties into CC364X empties. Static Control offers dedicated toner and chips for use in CE390A/X cartridges as well as an Odyssey® OPC drum with patented ZeroTwist™ gear technology.
Laser Printer sales Rise as Inkjet sales fall in India Laser printer sales rose four percent in IndiaÕ s top 65 cities in Q1 2012, whilst inkjet printer sales fell five percent.
report by CyberMedia Research on NetIndian has found that laser printer sales have increased in Q1 2012 in India, with inkjet printer sales falling by five percent in the same period. A4 printer sales in the top 65 cities were said to have exceeded 550,000 units, but the whole market only saw a 0.4 percent growth, due to the fall in inkjet printer sales. The India 65-City Monthly Printer Market Review added that the results were possibly due to “modest demand from the domestic SMB enterprise base”, which “triggered a growth” in laser sales, and a “lack of a strong consumer demand” starved inkjet printers of growth in Q1. In terms of OEM market share, HP leads the way with a 56 percent share of the market, followed by Canon, Epson and Samsung, and whilst HP lost share in both markets, Epson gained in inkjet whilst Canon gained in both laser and inkjet. HP also saw 71 percent of inkjet printer sales, with Epson and Canon following, and also dominated laser sales with a 53 percent share, with Canon and Samsung second and third. Nationally, the report notes that laser MFP sales grew prominently in the west and south of India, and that HP may
have held a bigger share in laser had it not experienced supply issues with its 1020+ consumables. Epson’s new L100 and L200 helped it gain a bigger share in inkjet in India, whilst HP lost more of its inkjet share in the east and north to Canon and Epson. The OEM did however consolidate its position in the east, west and south in laser printer sales. Sumanta Mukherjee, Lead Analyst at CyberMedia Research, stated: “The weak macroeconomic outlook and hard disk drive supply chain dynamics did not help the India printer market register healthy growth rates. “A weaker rupee is exerting pressure on vendors to increase printer prices ahead of the coming festive season. This may not act as the perfect incentive to lift the sombre mood of the market.” Maninder Singh, IT Channels Research Analyst at CyberMedia Research, added: “The inkjet multifunction printer market had been growing steadily. With improvements in technology and TCO coming down over the years, this category has found greater acceptance in the home and SMB enterprise segments and in some cases, with corporates as well. “But in the absence of a buoyant consumer/SOHO sentiment, it will remain affected in the near- to shortterm. A dull market has influenced channel partners’ preference for trade promotion schemes. Partners would prefer to avail on-the-spot ‘cash’ discounts, as opposed to overseas trips and backend incentives. “This reflects the increasing importance attached to managing cash flows better, in a high interest rate regime.”
New concept Òc ircleÓ p rinter revealed... Designer Yang Jae Wook has presented a conical desktop printer concept that aims to Ò minimize size without losing functionalityÓ .
get a printed copy from it”. The diagrams suggest that paper is placed in folded to a curve, with the toner top loaded into the device. From here, the paper revolves around the toner, and receives the printed information before exiting the device on the tapering side.
he “Circle” printer is discussed on design blog Yanko Design, which states that printers are “one of the most annoying computer peripheral[s] on anyone’s desk”, and notes that this design “look[s] at minimizing size without losing functionality”, as it “looks more like [a] humidifier or a fancy pot”. The site concludes its analysis by stating its “wish that manufacturers would look in this direction too; HP are you listening?”
Whilst impressively designed, a number of comments on the website reflected the sheer impracticality of the device, including individuals commenting that they “want their paper to come out flat and straight” and not a “paper jam waiting to happen. One commenter even states that “it’s a good attempt at going in a different direction, but it may pose some serious mechanical problems” in execution.
Images of the device give more information on its workings, claiming it is a “courteous printer” that requires “no additional space”. The designer claims that “for those who don’t use a printer often, they would feel the printer takes too much space”, and that “there should be enough space to
New Developer Roller Sealing Blade from Static Control Prevents Toner Leaks in Aftermarket Cartridges HP® CP1518/CP1525/CP2025/M351/ M451 and Related Printers
tatic Control has released a new developer roller sealing blade that addresses the problem of occasional toner leaks and print defects in color cartridges used in HP® CP1518/CP1525/CP2025/M351/M451 and related printers.
The new blade (Product Code: HP1525DRSBLD-4T) features a thicker blade design that overcomes a lack of rigidity of the hopper that allows toner to leak through a gap between the sealing blade and developer roller. The print defect, a small puff or “spitting” of toner at the top of the first page of a print job, has been observed in OEM and remanufactured cartridges. Static Control’s thicker blade design has been tested for thousands of pages in multiple printers and has shown to eliminate this particular print defect.
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Jul/Aug 2012 Page 9
Dubai counterfeit trader arrested Anti-Economic Crimes Unit arrests trader dealing in counterfeit Brother toners.
ubai police have successfully arrested a local trader dealing in counterfeit Brother toners, following a raid on the trader’s showroom and warehouse, and has seized a substantial number of the offending materials, reports Emirates 24/7. The OEM assisted Dubai police by aiding in efforts to determine the difference between authentic toner and its fake counterpart. The suspect will be charged with a breach of intellectual property rights. Soichi Murakami, Managing Director, Brother International (Gulf) FZE, commented: “We extend our thanks and gratitude to Dubai police and its AntiEconomic Crimes Unit for the successful raid that they have recently conducted, which has resulted in the seizure of a large volume of fake Brother toners. We would also like to thank our legal consultants for their support. “Local UAE agencies and authorities have implemented key programs and initiatives to help aid the campaign against all forms of product piracy, with the chief aim of protecting both the consumer and the companies who manufacture authentic products. “Rest assured, we will remain steadfast in our commitment to assist and aid local police authorities and help curb the proliferation of counterfeit products in the local market.”
New INX cylindrical printer used to print drink bottle graphics The ink manufacturer has developed a cylindrical ink printer that has been used by ETS Express to print graphics on the sides of drink bottles.
NX, which claims it is the “third largest producer of inks in North America”, developed the INX CP100 printer, which can print UV LED inks onto cylindrical products at a resolution of 300 dpi in four colour graphics. ETS Express meanwhile is a graphics company based in California, whose use of the device has “grabbed the attention of drinkware distributors”. The machine was purchased by the graphics company to “develop attention-getting, high impact promotional premiums” and was demonstrated at the PPAI (Promotional Productions Association Industry) Expo in Las Vegas earlier this year, with a plan to “elevate interest” in its bottle graphics printed using the device from INX.
difference. No one else offers bottles like these. “We strive to be on the cutting edge in offering customers the newest and best drinkware from a printing perspective, but even our best screen-print 4-color can’t come close to what we get with the CP100. Once a customer puts one of these bottles in their hand, they get pretty excited about its unique potential for their brand. “The CP100 is our first step of a big step in the digital world, and we expect that our next big challenge will be keeping up with the demand.”
The company stated that the results were “overwhelming” and that it had received “a strong number of orders already”, with two 24 ounce bottles offering seven to 10 basic bottle colours, with additional options to be introduced later this year. Adam Kovar, Vice President of Operations for ETS Express, stated: “People walking by our booth noticed the rich, vibrant colors from the aisle. When they picked up a bottle, the textural quality cemented the
Static Control Releases New Samsung® ML1610/2010 Developer Roller
tatic Control has released a new replacement developer roller for the Samsung¨ ML-1610/2010 family of cartridges that is electrophotographically matched to work as a system with Static Control toner, wiper blade and OPC drum to provide optimum, consistent performance (Product Code: SAM1610DEVRL). Worn components increase possible field failures in remanufactured cartridges. Worn developer rollers often have flat spots that cause horizontal lines across the page, and damaged rollers can cause light print backgrounding or banding. Dents and dings on used developer rollers can lead to black spots on the page. Replacing worn or defective developer rollers with a new component removes uncertainty in remanufacturing and improves the quality of remanufactured cartridges.
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 10
OKI recovers from disasters and launches new devices
KI Data are back to manufacturing printers at full capacity following year of devastation, with new models announced in the UK. The OEM’s President Takao Hiramoto told iTWire that the company has recovered well from the Japan earthquake and Thai floods last year, which both affected the business dramatically. Despite recovering its engineering and production operations, supply chain issues for the company continued for several months following the 9.0 magnitude earthquake, which hit Japan in March 2011. However, it was the Thai floods that affected the company the most, with one of its two main production facilities becoming submerged under “four to five metres” of flood water last November. Whilst some production was transferred to facilities in China, Japan and northern Thailand, the water took six weeks to subside enough for the company to retrieve the dyes used in the manufacturing of its printers, with production at the main Thailand facility not resuming until the start of 2012. However, the facility’s production “has doubled since March […] and has now reached 140 percent of the 2011 capacity”, with new offices and a demonstration centre recently opening at Sydney’s Macquarie Park and the company planning to reinvest in its sales and marketing.
In addition, OKI Systems UK has recently announced a major expansion of its printer and MFP portfolio, including products tailored to the needs of businesses of all sizes. Hiramoto announced the product expansion programme at the company’s recent Smart Business Conference in Barcelona, detailing how the portfolio aims to combine innovative new models with the enhancement of existing products to offer business customers products that are both affordable and reliable. Micro and small businesses are expected to benefit from new models including OKI’s B401 mono printer, which lowers the entry price for a professional quality duplex capable device; and the “ultra compact” C822 series A3 colour printer. The company’s new C300 colour range of printers, along with a choice of mono MFPs are also deemed to be good value “providing top performance at a price point previously only delivering basic functionality.” Products aimed at SMBs include the C500 Series colour printers and the C831 compact colour printer, which all offer enhanced performance compared to previous models, with the C831 boosting output performance to 35ppm. Products such as the new MB491 have been approved by the company for larger businesses as the model offers “superior performance with efficiency improving features” including encrypted secure print and
The Japanese tsunami and earthquake saw many Japanese companies suffer factory damage and supply issues.
the ability to forward incoming faxes to an email address or folder on the network. Graham Lowes, Marketing Director at OKI Systems UK Ltd, stated: “We looked hard at the market requirements, together with customer feedback, and have developed the new models to be easier to use and to have low power consumption. They offer affordability for those on limited budgets, together with low total cost of ownership for the larger business.” OKI also sees itself as “leading the way” in reducing energy usage and carbon emissions by including energy saving features such as ‘Deep Sleep’ mode and ‘Auto Power Off’ technology in its products.
Static Control Modifies Chip to Convert Samsung® ML-4551 and Xerox® Phaser® 3600 Cartridges into Dell® 5330 Cartridges
tatic Control modified its replacement chip for Dell® 5330 cartridges to convert Samsung® ML-4551 and Xerox® Phaser® 3600 cartridges into Dell® 5330 cartridges (Product Codes: D5330CHIP and D5330CHIP-EU). An indentation cut in the chip board
allows the chip to fit the housings for the Xerox® and Samsung® cartridges, creating more empties and greater flexibility for remanufacturers.
J u l / A u g 2 0 1 2 P a g e 11
Unorthodox Renewable Energy Ideas by Matt Campaign-Scott
n every sphere of life there are eccentrics. Why should renewable energy be any different. Rather than wait for the oil wells to run dry and coastal cities to disappear beneath rising sea levels, many people are looking ahead to cleaner alternative sources of energy. Some of the unorthodox examples that follow have been tried and are already catching on whilst others are very much in the minds’ of some very lateral thinkers.
300 million-year-old mudstones could one day reduce our dependence on conventionally-obtained fossil fuels, according to researchers at the University of Leicester. Shale gas can be found in the stones, much as it’s been found in sandstone for many years. But mudstone yields up to four times as much gas as sandstone. However, extracting the gas from the stones could be challenging since the stones aren’t consistent in their gas retention.
Balloons in Space
Orbiting Mirrors to Transmit Solar Energy, does that sound like a Bond movie? A fleet of balloon like satellites, which would inflate once in orbit. That’s the brainchild of Massachusetts Institute of Technology engineering professor William F. Schreiber. Once inflated and orbiting, and as the Earth’s position changes with respect
to the sun, the spherical mirrors would be adjusted continuously to catch and focus solar energy and transmit it in concentrated beams to receiving stations on Earth. At those receiving stations, that solar energy would be used to heat water into steam and drive turbines to generate electricity. While Schreiber’s idea for using giant shiny balloons may sound a little eccentric, scientists increasingly have been looking at the possibility of using satellites to harvest solar power and transmit it to Earth. At the International Academy of Astronautics in Paris a statement was released to this effect: “It is clear that solar power delivered from space could play a tremendously important role in meeting the global need for energy during the 21st Century.” Similarly U.S. Air Force Col. Michael Smith, the director of the Pentagon’s Centre for Strategy and Technology, was quoted as saying that the concept has the potential to supply safe, clean energy to earth if it can be made to work. [Source: Daily Mail; HSW]
Tornadoes are usually seen as very destructive forces, but one Canadian engineer believes that we can one day harness the power of the tornado to power entire cities. Louis Michaud believes that by pumping warm, humid air into his Atmospheric Vortex Engine
(AVE), a chamber 200 meters wide with 100 meter tall walls, he can create an artificial tornado. The rotation of the tornado would then power wind turbines at the chamber inlets, creating enough electricity to power a small town. Michaud proposes using waste heat from power plants since they typically reject more than half of the heat they generate. He admits that the tornado would probably cause some extra precipitation in the surrounding area, but says that the whole setup would be inherently safe.
Save Energy – buy a cow (Bagging Methane Discharges from Cattle)
We humans are notoriously poor at taking responsibility for our actions. So it should not come as a surprise that cows farting, excreting and belching is being blamed by some for climate change. In all seriousness though a 2006 United Nations report estimated that cows, along with other livestock like sheep and goats, contribute about 18 per cent of the greenhouse gases that are warming the planet -- more than cars, planes and all other forms of transportation put together [source: Lean]. This is not without good reason since bovine discharges are rich in methane, a gas that’s 21 times more efficient than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 12
the atmosphere [source: Los Angeles Times;HSW]. Researchers have developed a means of acquiring methane from cattle excrement and converting it to a biogas fuel that’s of a quality that can be fed into a standard natural gas pipeline. In Kern County, California, a company called Bioenergy Solutions uses that method to produce 650,000 cubic feet (18,406 cubic meters) of biogas from manure, enough to power 200,000 households [source: Levinson]. Argentina is one of the world’s leading beef producers. Herds amount to over 50 million cattle, outnumbering the human population. Scientists have created a special bovine backpack that captures a cow’s emissions via a tube attached to the cow’s stomach, and discovered that the animals produce between 800 and 1,000 litres of gas each day [source: Zyga;HTW]. One might even call it a kind of wind energy.
When was the last time you made the world a better place by clubbing all night? Sustainable Dance Club was formed in the Netherlands with the idea that dancing bodies could create enough kinetic energy to actually power a building. Lots of music festivals have turned to bicycle generators to power their concerts. And some hipster bars are even making customers pedal for a few minutes to get their pitchers of perfectly blended margaritas. Rotterdam was the first to install the Sustainable Dance Floor, but SDC is looking forward to taking their technology all over the world to other clubs, festivals, and wherever there are people willing to dance for the good of the Earth. Projects range from permanent installations at museums in Miami and Philadelphia to pop-up events around the globe in Vancouver, Shanghai, Salvador and Abu Dhabi. Their mission statement is “To create personal experiences where sustainability and fun are combined. To inspire (young) people worldwide to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle.” They hope to spread the knowledge that living a greener lifestyle isn’t all about sacrificing the things you love.
Several innovative gyms are popping up that convert human energy into useable electricity. One of them, in
Hong Kong, has exercise machines that look perfectly ordinary from the outside, but have generators inside that create energy from movement. So while you’re busy sweating it out, your efforts are creating electricity to power the exercise console and supplement the electrical juice it takes to keep the overhead lights on. The owner of the gym maintains that the average person can generate about 50 watts of electricity per hour on the machines [source: Blume]. Then there’s the Pedal-A-Watt bike stand, which works by powering a generator with the movement of the bike’s rear wheel, comes with an optional PowerPak that stores the energy you create for later use. The PowerPak has an outlet where you can plug in and power any appliance that runs on less than 400 watts of
electricity. For a frame of reference, a large television uses around 200 watts, a stereo 20 watts, a desktop computer 75 watts and a refrigerator 700 watts [source: Convergence Tech, Inc.;HTW] Clean and healthy energy is starting to catch on in U.S. gyms. There are now converters on exercise equipment in more than 80 locations in North America, including My Sports Clubs in New York City and Washington. The Green Microgym, a 3,000-sq.-ft. (280 sq m) gym has more than 200 members, is doing so well that owner Adam Boesel has started franchising. The gym doesn’t generate enough electricity to be carbon-neutral yet, but if all the equipment gets used at one time, it can produce twice as much as it needs to run the facility at any given moment. [Source: Time]
Konica Minolta releases new colour MFP New bizhub PRO C754 colour MFP launched by the OEM.
Océ announces 350,000 trees planted in 2011 The OcŽ Eco Start Program funded the planting, held in partnership with Trees for the Future.
cé, a Canon Group company, has announced that over 350,000 trees were planted in 2011, funded by the Océ Eco Start Program and in collaboration with Trees for the Future. The trees planted on behalf of the OEM’s customers are intended to help offset CO2 emissions attributed to the energy usage from production equipment during the first year of operation.
Konica Minolta bizhub PRO C754
he printer also includes scanning features, and an “intuitive and customisable” user panel to allow walk-in users self-service for their copying, printing and scanning needs. Konica Minolta also claims that the printer has an “unfailing print engine” and an affordable price, along with “powerful finishing features that increase productivity and allows print runs to be automatically completed without requiring any further manpower.” The printer’s time saving capabilities are emphasised by the company, which states that the bizhub PRO c754’s scanning features “easily turn it into a central scanning facility, offering direct digitization into workflows so that users are left with more time to concentrate on their real tasks.” Mark Hinder, Production Print Market Development Manager at Konica Minolta, said: “The bizhub PRO C754 is particularly suited to Central Reprographics Department (CRD) printing. It provides a great mix of productivity and economic efficiency, especially on mixed short run jobs. And its embedded Fiery controller offers a range of valuable tools.”
The scheme has garnered support from Océ customers, with Mari and Gary Reed, owners of Dakota Press, commenting: “Our business is now a certified green business and that could not have been possible without the help from Océ.
We were delighted that the Eco Start Program was in place as it showed us that together we can make a difference in the future!” Jodie MacLellan, Marketing Manager of Field Programs, Océ North America, added: “Our customers are taking sustainability very seriously and looking for more environmentally responsible ways to do business. “We are extremely proud of our leadership in this arena and of the Océ Eco Start Program in particular. We are delighted at the response we’ve gotten from our customers, who have contributed their ideas and feedback, which has been an essential component of honing our sustainability efforts.”
New desktop MFPs “for busy workers” from Xerox OEM launches new MFPs helping office workers “do more, fasterÓ .
he Xerox WorkCentre 3315/3325 multifunction printers and Phaser 3320 printer are said to produce up to 33 and 37 pages per minute respectively, with the first page being printed within 6.5 seconds of being sent to the printer. Users performing larger print jobs can benefit from the printers’ optional second paper tray, which allows an extra 520 sheets to be loaded at a time. In addition, double-sided printing and the option to use high-capacity cartridges enables businesses to cut costs and reduce the environmental impact of producing printed documents. The printers produce an image quality of 1200 x 1200 dpi and boast security features such as Secure Print to protect confidential documents. Wi-Fi connectivity comes as standard with the Workcentre 3325 and Phaser 3320, which the company states will allow offices to “place the devices anywhere, maximizing productivity and workflow”; and remote device management can be “easily handled” from a computer browser using Xerox CentreWare IS. Colour faxing and speed dial is another feature of the printers, along with colour scanning options such as san to email, network scanning and scan to USB devices. Jul/Aug 2012 Page 14
Katun® Corporation Names Todd Mavis President and CEO
atun Corporation, one of the world’s leading suppliers of OEM-compatible supplies and parts to the office equipment industry, today announced that Todd Mavis has been appointed President and CEO of Katun, effective August 13, 2012. He replaces Carlyle Singer, who has held the position of CEO since June 2005. “We are very excited to have Todd join Katun as he comes to us having run a number of successful mid-size global companies,” said Justin Hillenbrand, partner at Monomoy Capital Partners, which acquired Katun in 2008. “Todd not only brings his background in the office equipment industry, but he also provides Katun with the necessary leadership and experience to excel in today’s market.” Hillenbrand also expressed gratitude to the outgoing CEO Singer. “I would also like to thank Carlyle Singer for her dedication and many contributions over the last seven years.” Mavis most recently served as Chief Executive Officer for First Advantage Corporation, a leader in global HR outsourcing services and Executive Vice President of Operations for Corelogic, a risk mitigation service company. Mavis brings to Katun a wealth of office equipment industry experience, having served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Danka, a $1.3B global distributor of office imaging products and services, from 2004 to 2006. “Katun’s value proposition of providing high quality OEM-compatible imaging products - at a substantial cost savings - has never been more relevant then it is today” said Mavis. “I’m excited to join the Katun team to help the company accelerate their growth initiatives around the world.” Mavis holds an Executive MBA from San Diego State University with concentration in Entrepreneurship and Operations Management. He graduated from the University of Oklahoma with a Bachelor of Business Administration. Mavis is a member of the Katun Board of Directors and has served on numerous public and private company Boards.
Conference@2012: The Next Wave Printers, The Next Opportunity will be held on September 23 in Zhuhai
onference@2012: The Next Wave Printers, The Next Opportunity will be held on September 23 at the Zhuhai Holiday Inn, organized by Recycling Times Media Corporation. It is expected that over 200 industry leaders from many countries and regions will attend the conference. Some 20-year old imaging and printing patents are due to expire and the print market is expanding year by year. Some companies have worked hard to develop new printing technologies, foster the personalized print market, capture more of the traditional print market or give birth to some new supplies opportunities. It is also a time when some Asian companies have developed, manufactured and started shipping their own printers. Their presence could change the print market, and cause a revolution in the print consumables industry. If you are one of those companies who have been around a while, you must be asking: what is the direction of technology development is taking? Where are the new opportunities? Which marketing strategies should be used? What new improvements will they create for the industry? Listen and ask questions of the experts and seize the new printing era opportunities to maximize customer needs while maximizing your profits. Currently 5 speakers have presentations on the hot issues in the industry: Dr. Edul N. Dalal, Research Fellow, Xerox Corporation. Subject: The Growth of Color Printing Based on Digital Imaging Technology. ·Dr. Xiaoying Rong, Associate Professor, Graphic Communication Department, California Polytechnic State University. Subject: The Transition from Analog to Digital Printing. ·Jan de Kesel, Managing Director, In-Map. Subject: Transform your
leads into sales in an MPS approach: getting the customer involved and wanting more. ·Art Diamond, President, Diamond Research Corporation. Subject: Cartridge Remanufacturing for the New Wave of Printers. ·Dr. Bobo Wang, President, Aetas Technology (ZhenJiang) Co., Ltd. Additional speakers will be announced soon. And there’s more… CIFEX|RemaxAsia Expo, the world’s largest computer printing industry show, and iPrint (China) Expo, the China’s first digital press and commercial printing show, will be held on September 24-26, at Zhuhai Airshow Center. It is estimated there will be 15,000 trade visitors from more than 81 countries and regions and more than 450 exhibits over the three days. For more information, please visit www.iRecyclingTimes.com or www. iPrintExpo.com. Jul/Aug 2012 Page 15
WHO IS USING ALL
Article by Mandy Barrett
onsidering South Africa as a emerging power, a relatively “new country”, one may be forgiven for assuming that we would use less energy than other large countries. An investigation into this revealed some interesting statistics. On electrical use alone, China leads with an annual consumption of around 4,603,700,000 KW-h (Kilowatt hours, not to be confused with kilowatts, which relate to power and not energy) per year. The USA follows closely behind, using 3,741,000,000 KWh. South Africa numbers 16 on the list, using 212,200,000 KW-h. (2005 figures) Per Capita usage – which is based on an average per person, requires further note, and a substantial actual increase from 2005 is apparent.
e know that in many countries, South Africa included, large portions of the population may not be able to access electricity, therefore, per capita indicators give an interesting peek into the developmental status of a country. There are other factors
which influence electrical usage per capita, including inclement weather. China’s per capita usage is listed as 2516 per person, while Iceland tops the list with a huge amount of 52980. South Africa runs in at 4389, a higher level than China, a frightening statistic considering the level of population that has access to electricity. The USA stands out glaringly in studies as being the global glutton of energy resources, with one source claiming that for every dollar spent, one cup of oil is used to produce what is purchased with that dollar! A comparison of population versus energy consumption shows that the USA’s population makes up 5% of the world, and claims 20% of the entire global energy consumption. Compare this to India’s Population, making up around 16% of the total and yet using only around 6% of the energy. South Africans should be ashamed, as even though our population is much lower than that of the USA, our energy consumption is still way over the top! If we use a barrel of oil per person to indicate energy usage, an Americans total would be 57 barrels of oil, and a
South Africans’, 19. In mathematical terms, the total energy used by South Africa makes up for 1.45% of the entire global usage. This sheds light on a common misnomer – that developing countries have population control issues – in fact, developed countries, like the USA, should be more aware of having less children. “Next time you hear about a woman in India who has 7 children, remember that she’d have to have more than 10 children to match the impact of an American woman with just one child!” (Source - http://www. worldpopulationbalance.org), or in other terms, for each child born into an American family, the global impact on resources is equivalent to 25 children living in India!
hat aside, in total consumption, worldwide, China is still in the lead, eating up a whopping 23% of the energy cake. Our own energy usage can be broken down into the various sectors of the population and business. A quick look at the electrical usage for the city of Cape Town reveals that 43% is residential, 40% commercial, and the Industrial sector uses only 13%. When breaking down what portion of household electrical use is used for lighting, cooking and Jul/Aug 2012 Page 16
general living, water heating takes a massive hold as the leader at 50%, while lighting only consumes are mere 14%. It is mind boggling to realise that we spend so much electrical energy on water heating – no wonder the drive for solar heaters, fuel blankets and other alternatives is so high! A country wide scale of electrical consumption per sector, details that industry uses around 53%, Residential around 29% and agriculture around 2%. It is hard to understand the massive portion of residential consumption, in a country where so many are still without (legal) electrical connection.
he main provider of our power, comes from the burning of coal. We all know that coal is what is called a “non renewable” resource, or perhaps more aptly “a non renewable solar resource”. So too, do we realise the negative impacts that the production of coal has; the mining, the transport costs, the water usage and the environmental impact of the by-products and emissions. Even the average man in the street understands that we are consuming copious amounts of this particular resource, with apparent abandon. According to Eskom, coal has several advantages for usage however, one being that we have abundant coal reserves, set
to last at least another 200 years. Apparently coal fired stations are also more reliable – a statement with which some South Africans may beg to differ. Basically, the real value of coal lies in its’ burning power. Huge amounts are used to boil water, creating steam, which in turn mobilizes giant turbines, which turns a coil made of copper wire (the rotor) inside a magnet (the stator). Together they make up the generator. The generator produces an electric current, which is sent to the homes and factories of consumers via power lines, which gives us the power we use every day. Solar, wind and water are all being looked at as alternative energy resources, as well as the much debated and dreaded nuclear power production.
o why not burn all the rubbish in our landfills you may ask? This interesting idea has been investigated and implemented. Called Biomass Energy, this clever avenue of power production uses alternative products to generate energy. Basically, wood, municipal and other waste, and alcohol fuels (mostly from the corn industry) ,are used to create electricity in much the same way as coal does. The biomass fuels are processed and moved into suitable giant furnaces, burnt and used to boil water, to create steam, which mobilises those fantastically large turbines. Another method of Biomass
energy production is the use of what is sweetly called “Landfill Gas”. Methane gas is harvested from burning or decomposing garbage through special pipes and used for energy production. The positive side of Biomass is that it uses renewable resources, and efficiently utilises our very own waste, another massive issue of human habitation. Although there are negatives to Biomass like noxious vapours and what to do with them, the idea seems, at least to encourage one to want to see a shining orb at the end of the tunnel instead of yelling “turn out the lights!”
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is refined and mixed with the required pigments and waxes. Although the colour pigments and additives are not entirely environmentally friendly or edible, they are still less harmful than traditional inks. Soya is an environmentally effective choice, due to the low level of VOCâ€™s (volatile organic compounds) and the growing process of soya requires less water and agricultural nutrients than many other crops, yet another energy saving plus, but the production of the ink alone is not the biggest energy saver.
nergy savings made from recycling ink cartridges are enormous. Moving away from just being environmentally friendly, and looking towards the actually savings in energy is a satisfying study indeed. According to www.agreenrefull. com, 375 million cartridges are thrown away per year: that equates to 1,000,000 cartridges per day, or 11 cartridges per second. The site also quotes frightening details of more than 40 000 tons of plastic and metal being saved from landfills annually due to recycling. For every 100,000 used cartridges recycled, we can save 9599 kilograms of aluminium, 40 tons of plastic, and 1,000,000 litres of oil. Discarded ink cartridges take between 450 and 1000 years to decompose, making them a landfill nightmare. Moving away from the cartridge to the actual ink, we know now that carbon
black (toner) has been classified as carcinogenic and that the petroleum based inks contain compounds that make the recycling of paper not only harder, but less energy efficient. The search for cheaper and more environmentally friendly inks is not really new at all. It all started way back in 1970, when the Newspaper Association of America tested over two thousand different oil based ink solutions. Traditional petroleum based inks were proving too expensive and already the fuel wars were starting to make business nervous. By 1987, the first tests on soya based ink had proven it to be a useful and effective choice and the National Soy Ink Information Center was established in 1993 by the Iowa Soybean Association to promote the research and use of soy ink in the United States. To make Soya ink, the soy oil
y far, the biggest energy savings come into play with the recycling of printed paper, as soy based inks are much easier to remove from paper in the de-inking process. The de-inking process is long winded with most petroleum based ink products, and this ups the energy consumption dramatically, as well as leaving environmentally unfriendly vapours hanging in the air. Added to ease of removal, is the added benefit of requiring less ink for the same amount of print, as soya is 15% more effective than other inks, based on its spread. According to Science Daily, September 2008 â€œthe greatest challenge in paper recycling is the removal of polymeric ink and coating; and the most difficult paper is mixed office wastepaperâ€?. The very nature of paper makes it a product that cannot be recycled forever, eventually it breaks down to the point where it has to be discarded and therefore the less processing required in the in ink removal step, the better.
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 20
the FUTURE Article by Mandy Barrett
The challenges with Soy ink lie in the personal printing and food related industries. It takes longer to dry (due partly to the lack of evaporative VOC’s), and it therefore cannot be used in ballpoint pens either. Currently studies are being done on UV reactive additives to speed up the drying process.
n exciting solution is being worked on at Cambridge University – The Laser Unprinter. Using a laser, inks are removed from paper, making is reusable almost immediately and taking the need for recycling away completely. Imagine the long lasting and positive effect that this would have on energy costs and usage, the environment, recycling and the need for new paper from the tree growing industry. Dr Julian Allwood, Leader of the Low Carbon Materials Processing Group at the University of Cambridge, and David Leal-Ayala, PhD student at this group, tested toner-print removal from paper by employing a variety of lasers. Dr Allwood claims “Thanks to low-energy laser scanners and laserjet printers, the feasibility for reusing paper in the office is there.” Xerox is experimenting with paper and a complimentary printer that produce documents with “invisible ink”, in which fades within 16 to 24 hours, rendering the paper reusable for printing on again and again. The paper and printer could hit the market in the next few years. The same sheet of paper can be used hundreds of times, and
a special function on the printer will mean that users don’t have to wait for the print to fade, it can be erased and printed over immediately. Think of it in these terms; to produce one piece of paper consumes around 204 000 joules of energy and to recycle that same piece, about 114 000 joules. Although the energy use in producing the special paper would be the same, the estimated energy savings made by not needing to recycle are amazing. To reprint over a previously printed page, using the printer to erase any current images would only eat up around 1000 joules of energy, but, allowing the printing to fade naturally results in a total of a paltry 100 joules being used in the reprinting process. All of this print-breaking research is being carried out at the Palo Alto Research Centre (PARC), a Xerox baby. Although this technology would not be suitable for all industries, the wide reaching positives are hard to not take careful consideration of.
erox’s research found that around 45% of documents are printed for one time use, and that 25% get recycled the same day! And if you thought the future was paperless, think again. Currently, 15 trillion pages are printed a year, and this figure is set to grow 30% in the next ten years. Using an environmentally safe, friendly and energy efficient ink can result in huge savings. This added to the energy savings of using recycled
ink cartridges, makes it an easy choice for consumers all round. In the ever changing world of ink, all new and better options are worth consideration and investment, not only for a better business profit, but for the future of our world.
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 21
To p i c a l N e w s
The POWER of
he Sun has affected human cultures since mankind first walked on the earth and has played an enormous role in the shaping of ancient civilizations dating as far back as the Sumerian’s 5000 years ago. With its’ massive prescence, infinite power and the reason for all life on earth, it is little wonder that the sun was considered a god and worshipped by our Ancestors. The sun is a large fiery body in space that is 150 million kilometers away from earth. The sun’s interior has a temperature of 14 to 15 million kelvin and its surface about 6000 kelvin. The radius of the sun is about 700,000 kilometers, in fact, the planet Jupiter would fit 13 times across the diameter of the sun. The sun’s energy makes all life possible on earth and the heat from the sun creates our weather and winds. A fascinating fact is that the amount of solar energy from the sun reaching the earth’s surface is 6000 times the amount of energy used by all human beings worldwide or about 126 trillion horsepower. Yet what is truly mind boggling is that most of the sun’s energy is lost in space. The Earth only receives about one billionth of the sun’s total energy, as mentioned, mind boggling! The strength of the solar energy available at any point on the earth depends, on the day of the year, the time of day, and the latitude of the collection point. The amount of energy collected
can be further changed depending on the orientation and shape of the object doing the collection. Insolation is a measurement of the amount of solar energy that reaches the surface of the Earth. The amount of insolation an area receives depends upon the Sun’s angle, the amount of dust and water vapour in the air, and the amount of cloud cover. Less than half of the radiation energy we receive from the sun makes it to the ground. The rest is absorbed by the atmosphere or reflected back out into space. The strength of solar radiation at the outer edge of the earth’s atmosphere when the earth is taken to be at its average distance from the sun is called the solar constant.
hat if we were able to capture solar energy from space! Before a large portion of this energy was lost reaching the surface of the earth! What would that mean for the energy on earth for our future generations and could this captured energy completely wipe out the need for fossil fuels that power our world today? There is a group that believes so! The sun’s abundant energy, if harvested in space, could provide a cost-effective way to meet global power needs in as little as 30 years with seed money from governments, according to a study by an international scientific group. Orbiting power plants capable of collecting solar energy and beaming it to Earth appear “technically feasible” within a decade or two without laying
out a road map or proposing a specific architecture. “It is clear that solar power delivered from space could play a tremendously important role in meeting the global need for energy during the 21st century,” according to the study led by John Mankins, a 25-year Nasa veteran and the US space agency’s former head of concepts.
he academy is headed by Madhavan Nair, former chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation. The study was billed as the first broadly based international assessment of potential paths to collecting solar energy in space and delivering it to markets on Earth via wireless power transmission. The study said government pump-priming likely would be needed to get the concept, known as space solar power, to market. Private-sector funding is unlikely to proceed alone because of the “economic uncertainties” of the development and demonstration phases and the time lags, the study said. Both governments and the private sector should fund research to pin down the economic viability of the concept, the study said, amid concerns about humankind’s continuing reliance on finite fossil fuels that contribute to global pollution. The study did not estimate a potential overall price tag for completing the project. Space solar power is a potential long-term energy solution for Earth with “essentially
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 22
Article by Jeff Holbrook
zero” terrestrial environmental impact, according to the National Space Society, an advocacy publicised the academy’s 248-page final report. A copy of the study was obtained by Reuters ahead of its release. The idea is to put first one, then a few, and later scores of solar-powered satellites in geosynchronous orbit over the equator. Each as wide as several kilometres across , the spacecraft would collect sunlight up to 24 hours a day, compared with half that, at most, for surface panels now used to turn sunlight into electricity.
he power would be converted to electricity on-board and sent to wherever it is needed on Earth by a large microwave-transmitting antenna or by lasers, then fed into a power grid. Skeptics deem the concept a nonstarter, at least until the cost of putting a commercial power plant into orbit drops by a factor of 10 or more. Other hurdles include space debris, a lack of focused market studies and high development costs. The study, conducted from 2008 to 2010 then subjected to peer review, found that the commercial case had substantially improved during the past decade, partly as a result of government incentives for nonpolluting “green” energy systems. A pilot project to demonstrate the technology even as big as the 400-tonne International Space Station could go ahead using low-cost expendable launch vehicles being developed for other space
markets, Mankins said in a telephone interview. A moderate-scale demonstration would cost tens of billions of dollars less than previously projected as a result of not needing costly, reusable launch vehicles early on, said Mankins, president of Artemis Innovation Management Solutions, a California consultancy. “This was a really important finding,” Mankins said, referring to a relatively modestly priced pilot project. His company has been awarded a Nasa contract of a little less than $100,000 to pursue space-based solar power options - small “but at least it’s a start,” Mankins said. Ultimately, tens of billions of dollars would be needed to develop and deploy a sufficiently lowcost fleet of reusable, earth-to-orbit vehicles to launch full-scale commercial solar power satellites, the study group estimated. The group said the necessary research and development work should be undertaken by countries and organisations in concert,
including space agencies, companies, universities and nongovernmental organisations. International interest in the concept has grown during the past decade, spurred in part by fears that in coming decades global production of petroleum and possibly other fossil fuels will peak and start to decline. Adding to a quest for new energy sources are projected jumps in worldwide per capita demand for energy to fuel economic development and concern over the accumulation in Earth’s atmosphere of fossil fuel-derived greenhouse gases. The idea of harnessing solar power in space has been studied off and on for 40 years, including by the US Energy Department and Nasa. US and Indian business, policy and national security analysts in September 2011 called for a joint US-Indian feasibility study on a cooperative program to develop spacebased solar power with a goal of fielding a commercially viable capability within two decades.
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Talk from the
Renewable Energy Ð Can We Really Afford Not To? by Sade Moneron
ith the world economy expanding at its current levels, energy demand is only going to increase at rapid rates as well (Johansson, et al., 1993). The use of fossil fuels is currently the primary choice for many countries to meet their energy needs. South Africa is no exception. South Africa currently relies on coal, oil and natural gas for its energy, materials which are finite and harmful to the environment. These limited resources of energy will become increasingly expensive as they continue to deplete and even more environmentally damaging to retrieve (Kruger, 2012). With world concerns about global warming and climate change (mainly as a result of human activities and the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere), focus is shifting to renewable energy as one of the solutions to combat and reverse the effects of global warming. Given adequate support, renewable energy has the potential to meet the needs of the ever-growing demand for energy (Johansson, et al., 1993). Renewable energy holds two main draw cards in that it is not only able to be regenerated for an indefinite period of time (eliminating our current problem of resources running out) but that it is a ‘clean source’ of energy i.e. they don’t emit any/emit less GHGs. Renewable energy sources include solar (sunlight), wind, geothermal (heat energy generated from the earth), hydro (water) and biomass (plants and plant materials). These natural resources are infinite and free of charge (Kruger, 2012). Renewable energy initiatives provide an array of advantages according to Kruger (2012). Renewable energy is dependable and reliable as the sources of energy can be continually renewed and regenerated (they will never run out). These renewables also have
the potential to supply us with surplus energy. Solar energy is an example of this as every day the sun provides the earth with more than ten thousand times the amount of energy required by people around the world. With new and better technologies constantly evolving, renewable energy will only continue to be more efficient and more economical and cheaper than conventional methods in the long run. Therefore, investment in renewable energy makes more practical and economic sense than investing in old non-renewable sources of energy. Another benefit of renewable energy is the generation of these energy sources can be produced in smaller, decentralized areas rather than the current situation of large-scale power stations making these sources less dependent on delivery. Many new jobs will also be created for local communities in remote areas as a result of this. A benefit of moving to renewable energy that is especially applicable to South Africa is that by producing our own energy, we will be less dependent on foreign imports and foreign countries (South Africa imports all our oil resources) making our energy sources more secure and reliable.
ne of the main reasons renewable energy is so popular is its capability of emitting less/ no GHGs compared with conventional energy sources. GHGs in the atmosphere trap the sun’s energy and retain much of the heat that would be otherwise be emitted. The combustion of fossil fuels is one of the main causes of climate change as carbon dioxide (GHG) is released as a byproduct when fossil fuels are burnt for energy. Many renewable utilize energy sources that would otherwise be wasted (adding more GHGs into the atmosphere), and converts them into a resource that can be used instead. This is the case with biogas that taps methane given off by landfills (methane is also a potent GHG) and converts it into electricity (Kruger,
2012). This method of energy extraction not only supplies us with electricity but simultaneously removes GHGs from the atmosphere reducing our carbon footprint (the total set of GHGs released by a person, organization, etc.).
enewable energies have become a reality, the technology exists, the processes are tried and tested and there are countries with success stories. South Africa has currently set a target of 10 000 GWh of electricity to be produced by renewable technologies by 2013. This has the potential to create 35 000 jobs and adding R5 billion to South Africa’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Visagie & Prasad, 2006). Other countries are also on board, with the European Commission adopting a target of 20% renewable energy use by 2020. Given the concerns about global warming and the current crisis regarding limited energy resources, do countries and people have any other choice? References: Johansson, T.B. et al. 1993. Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity. Washington D.C. Island Press. Kruger, T. 2012. Renewable Energy – Power Production. The Enviropaedia. Simonstown. Ecological Publishing. Visagie, E. & Prasad, G. 2006. Renewable Energy Technologies for Poverty Alleviation: South Africa: Biodiesel and Solar Water Heaters. Energy Research Centre. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
Jul/Aug 2012 Page 25
y r t s u d y n t I i l ” a n n e o e s r r “G Pe
Ali Amri- AN ACTIVIST AT WORK
e previously featured Ali Amri , Managing Director of KMP South Africa in Consumables Magazine. He’s proving to be a real activist for the industry, and as such we thought we would highlight some of the breakthrough he is seeing in his work.
GO STRAIGHT TO THE TOP In June 2011 Ali wrote the following letter to President Zuma “The Honorable President of the Republic, Mr Jacob Zuma Dear Mr President, REMANUFACTURING of LASER TONER AND INKJET CARTRIDGES MEANS JOBS! KMP PrintTechnik is a company with German roots, which was launched in South Africa shortly after Nelson Mandela was released from prison in 1991. We believe that the laser toner cartridge remanufacturing industry is ideally positioned to create permanent jobs, saving the environment and reducing the country’s carbon footprint. Anything manufactured can be remanufactured many times and the cost to companies using remanufactured products is reduced exponentially over time. Products are as good and in some cases better than new.
Know how in modern printing Consumables Magazine
For this young economy and in the face of the recession worldwide it is imperative to save money for an equivalent or better than the original product. Using remanufactured products, the government could be instrumental in the creation of an estimated 2000 new jobs for now and that figure could grow very quickly and saving of valuable forex on importing consumables. Jul/Aug 2012 Page 26
Ali Amri Managing Director of KMP South Africa.
i r Am
The industry does not need any incentive or monies from the government or private sector, only opportunity. A large bank (name available on request) has started using remanufactured cartridges, and is estimated to save a million Rand annually. Mr President this is a win-win situation. Not only could the government, by agreeing to use only remanufactured cartridges, save money, but at the same time small businesses which remanufacture cartridges would benefit and increase, jobs would be created and the environment would benefit. Please contact me with any questions you may have. I would like to discuss with your staff ways in which you might be able to help our industry in creating more jobs in South Africa. Sincerely yours Ali Amri , Managing Director of KMP South Africa”
President Jacob Zuma and the deputy mayor of Cape Town, Ian Neilson.
adly he didn’t get a response from the president, but as a result Prof. Den Turok sent a letter to the DTI IDC (Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa), which tendered for the following: Request for proposal to conduct a Market Study on the recycling of Printer Cartridges and Inkjet in South Africa. Closing Date 03 May 2012. Progress!
CITY OF CAPE TOWN GOING GREEN Ali recently met with the deputy mayor of Cape Town, Ian Neilson. He promised that all tenders for cartridges for the City will be for the remanufactured variety.
KMP South Africa
Ali has it in writing from the city of Cape Town, that the city is going green. It is the timescale that is the issue. Stay posted for that. The Western Cape Premier Helen Zille promised Ali that she would come back to him on this matter since she is very interested in job creation, which can quickly be achieved if the provincial government changes their methods of procurement. We will let you know as soon as you have news.
NEWS FROM THE OEMs Ali reports that the OEMs have approached the ETIRA (the association for reman lazer and toner cartridges) to help them identify who is importing clones (cartridges
identical to the orginals—which are patented). This is a big development, since the OEMs have the muscle to sue whoever is responsible should they be able to identify them, benefiting both the OEMs and the reman industry. Strange bedfellows indeed! We look forward to hearing of any future developments.
Te c h n i c a l Remanufacturing the HP LaserJet Enterprise 600/MFP 4555 Toner Cartridges By Mike Josiah and the Technical Staff at Uninet Imaging
irst introduced in March 2011, the HP LaserJet Enterprise 600/ MFP 4555 engine is a 43-62ppm (depending on model), 1200 dpi multifunction engine. The new CE390A and CE390X cartridges are rated for 10,000 and 24,000 pages respectively. As with all mono black HP cartridges to date the chip is mainly controlling the toner low functions and of course the HP/Non HP cartridge message. HP initially released the MFP machines first, then a few months later the Enterprise 600 series was released. These are nice cartridges to do in that there are no plastic rivets to cut or drill, All the screws are the same size, and no glue type seals are used anywhere inside. The current machines that use these new cartridges are as follows: HP LaserJet Enterprise 600 M601n HP LaserJet Enterprise 600 M601dn HP LaserJet Enterprise 600 M602n HP LaserJet Enterprise 600 M602dn HP LaserJet Enterprise 600 M602x HP LaserJet Enterprise 600 M603n HP LaserJet Enterprise 600 M603dn
HP LaserJet Enterprise 600 M603xh HP-LaserJet M4555h mfp HP-LaserJet M4555f mfp HP-LaserJet M4555fskm mfp These cartridges are also very profitable to make! The retail price for the CE390A is $238.50* and the CE390X is $398.56*. Pricing as of December 2011. One very interesting note is that the printer uses the laser scanner unit to eliminate residual charges from the OPC drum. Here is what the service manual says on this: â€œThe residual charge on the photosensitive drum surface is eliminated to avoid uneven image. The residual charge of the previous image is left on the drum surface after the transfer operation and this affects the following image formation. The product eliminates this residual charge by emitting a laser beam to the drum surface. The drum charge elimination is operated only during the last rotation periodâ€?. So basically after the wiper blade cleans the drum, the laser fires again at a different intensity to electrically
clean the drum. The PCR is still charging the drum with both AC and DC signals so it is still cleaning the drum electrically too, but the laser is helping do this by eliminating most of the charges before the PCR fires. This is most likely needed because of the speed of the machine.(Up to 62ppm) Figure 1 shows the shipping seals in place on a new OEM cartridge. The main seal separates the two halves of the cartridge relieving some of the pressure on the various spring loaded and foam assemblies. Printer usage, as well as some common printer/cartridge problems will be covered at the end of this article.
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Te c h n i c a l
1) Toner approved vacuum 2) A small Common screwdriver 3) A Phillips head screwdriver 4) Needle Nose Pliers 5) Magnetic roller press
Polyester based toner; 1100g for the HY, 725g for the LY Replacement drum Wiper Blade Doctor Blade PCR Magnetic roller sleeve Conductive Grease White lithium grease Replacement chip
Place the cartridge with the toner hopper facing up and towards you. This will orient the cartridge for right and left sides.
Remove the five screws on the right side end cap.
Open the drum cover towards the back of the cartridge. Remove the right side metal bar by pressing it out of the small clip.
On the opposite side of the cartridge, carefully pry off the drum cover plastic arm. The spring will probably pop off, take care not to loose it. We will go over the installation at the end of this article.
Remove the metal bar from the left side, and remove the entire drum cover assembly. Make sure you put the spring in a safe place.
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Remove the 5 screws from the left end cap.
Remove the right side end cap from the cartridge. Note that the gears do not come off the end cap.
Remove the left side end cap. Both halves will come apart easily. Be careful not to damage the drum or mag roller sleeve.
Remove the plastic drum bushing/gear train assembly and screw.
Remove the drum. Lift it up from the large gear side, pull over and remove. There is no need to remove the drum axle pin. If it is removed, there is a chance that the hole in the plastic wall that it seats in will become enlarged slightly allowing the axle and drum to move slightly. This will cause banding.
Remove the PCR.
11 Remove the two screws from the wiper blade.
12 Due to the high speed and page counts of these cartridges, we recommend that the wiper blades be replaced.
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Note that there is not any type of sticky sealant on the wiper blade. There is just normal foam and felt seals under the blade. Remove the wiper blade from the cartridge, and clean out the waste toner. Be careful not to damage the spring coming out from the black PCR holder.
Clean the PCR with your standard PCR cleaner.
Clean the felt and foam seals under the wiper blade. Make sure they are not compressed or they may leak.
Install the wiper blade and two screws. Be careful not to damage the small contact that comes off the PCR spring on the black holder side.
Install the cleaned PCR. Place a small amount of conductive grease on the black PCR saddle. Remember, when using conductive grease, more is not better! Also place a small amount of white lithium grease on the white holder side.
Install the drum, drum bushing assembly and screw. Make sure the gears from the bushing assembly align with the drive gear on the hopper.
Place the waste chamber aside. On the supply chamber, carefully pry off the Magnetic roller (MRS) cover, and remove.
22 Remove the MRS drive gear.
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Note the location of the spring that sits between the MRS holder and the hopper. Remove the two screws, spring and the holder.
Remove the MRS assembly. The left (non-gear) bushings may come off with the roller. If they do not, remove them so they are not lost or damaged.
Lift up on the clear scraper covers and remove the two Dr. Blade screws. Remove the two scrapers and the doctor blade.
Remove the fill plug from the hopper.
27 Clean out all remaining toner in the supply hopper.
Note the magnetic seals on the MRS and the DB sealing foam. Make sure both are clean.
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There are two separate mixing blades in the toner hopper. The largest is on the bottom, with the smallest on the top. Each is driven by its own separate drive gear.
The upper mag roller section of the toner hopper â€œFloatsâ€? on a series of foam seals. The upper half can be removed from the hopper, but some of the seals will be destroyed. This may become necessary in order to seal the cartridge. We will keep you informed on the availability of a seal system and how to install it as our testing continues. The foam isolates the mag roller from the vibrations of the mixing augers, and allows smoother prints. Clean the mag roller contacts, and replace the conductive grease. If the plating on the contact is worn they should be replaced or banding will most likely occur.
Install the doctor blade, be careful of the alignment pins. For now do NOT install the scrapers or screws.
Clean the mag. roller with a dedicated mag roller cleaner. On the left side of the mag roller there is a small hub that is keyed into the MRS holder. Align the hub with its slot and install the hub as well as the entire MRS assembly.
Install the two doctor blade scrapers and screws. The clear scraper covers must sit on top of the roller. Installing them now will lessen the chance of damaging them or getting any grease on them.
Install the holder and spring. Make sure that the spring is compressed so it fits into its slot. This is easily done with a small screwdriver as the holder is pressed in place. If you are having a hard time getting the holder in place, take a moment to look at the angles of the plastic holder. They have to align with the corresponding angles in the hopper for it to fit. Install the two screws.
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Install the MRS drive gear.
Install the keyed MRS cover. Make sure that the keyed hole in the cover matches the keyed end of the magnet in the MRS assembly. Note that the post on the front or DB side is longer than the back post.
Fill with appropriate amount of M4555 toner, replace the fill plug.
Install the left side end cap onto the toner hopper. It is easier to install the end cap on the supply hopper first, install one screw and slide the waste chamber into the end cap. Install another screw from the end cap into the waste hopper to hold it in place.
Install the right side end cap and 5 screws.
39 Install the remaining 3 screws on the left side end cap.
Install the metal bars from the drum cover on both sides of the cartridge. Place the bars in front of their slots and press in place with a small screwdriver.
Install the spring into the drum cover arm as shown. Pull the upper tail of the spring until it fits into the notch in the arm hub.
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Install the arm onto the cartridge. Pull back all the way and release the spring from the notch so that the tail fits as shown.
Replace the chip on the top of the cartridge. Replacing this chip will enable the toner low functions of both the cartridge and the machine again.
Install the plastic separator seal. This seal keeps the two halves slightly separated relieving the pressure of the various foam and spring assemblies.
Repetitive defect chart: OPC Drum: 94mm Upper Fuser sleeve: Lower Fuser pressure roller: Cassette Feed and separation rollers: Tray 1 Feed roller, separation roller: Magnetic Roller Sleeve: Tray one pickup roller: Pre-registration roller: Feed roller: Transfer roller: PCR: 37.7mm
79mm 79mm 63mm 50mm
94mm 94mm 63mm 50mm 47mm
Test pages from both the laser printers an MFP machines: Running the Cleaning Page From the HOME screen, touch the Device Maintenance button Open the following menu’s: Calibrate/Cleaning Cleaning Page Touch the Print button to run the page This process can take a few minutes to complete
Running Test Pages From the HOME screen, touch the Administration button Open the following menu’s: Reports Configuration/Status pages Choose the Configuration page, Administration Menu map, Current Settings page or Status page, your choice. Touch the Print button to run the report
Printer error Codes There are literally hundreds of error codes listed in the service manual on these machines. I have listed just the more common cartridge and paper jam codes here. 10.XX.YY Supply Memory Error: An error has occurred in one or more of the printers supplies. HP again call the chip a “memory tag” and the machine cannot communicate with one of them. 10.XX.33 Used Supply in use. (Chip not changed) 10.XX.40 Genuine HP Supplies installed 10.XX.41 Unsupported Supply in use. (Wrong chip installed) 10.YY.35 Incompatible supply in use Error 13.XX.YY: All the error 13 codes deal with paper jams or a door open. There will always be a text message under the number code tell you where the jam is. These messages are very specific.
DEFINITION: ‘Waste to Energy’ (WtE) or ‘Energy from Waste’ (EfW) simply put: is the conversion of any carbon-based material into clean energy via a surfeit amount of scientific processes. Some basic examples include, but are not limited to: 1. Biogas for electricity production through a gas turbine 2. Producer gas for the clean production of thermal energy in the form of steam and heat for electricity generation through either a steam turbine or combined-cycle turbine OR; 3. Synthetic gas (syngas) for clean conversion to liquid fuels.
he topic of ‘Waste to Energy’ is everyday natter outside of the African continent for me and my company, with high value contracts in effect and no shortage of funds; but sadly not so within our continents borders, least of which within our own South African borders. The lack of governmental knowledge, tedious processes and legislative limitations are a massive hindrance to an untapped market which accounts for 45% of Europe’s renewable energy mix and is proven at scale. This article is purely to introduce a topic which till now has been limited in its acceptance and its rightful place within the South African and greater
African power sectors. I attended a talk in which well-known ‘Super-Entrepreneur’ Dr. Gunther Pauli spoke of the limited criteria he places on making a sensible and forward-thinking decision. He based his decisions on 3 items: 1. Was the project (product, service, demand) sustainable? 2. Does the project (product, service, demand) alleviate multiple problems/issues? 3. Is it possible to generate 2 income streams from the single input source? If you can answer “Yes” to ALL 3 questions then the decision was almost a no-brainer. This is the case with ‘Waste to Energy’.
e live in a World which is looking for every opportunity to secure its energy resources and ensure a future for its citizens that is clean and promising. A landfill to me is a goldmine, trash is like gold bullion to my company and yet as we try to rid our horizon of the scars our landfills make, we find ourselves being caught between the past and the future and in the face of ever-increasing energy and fuel costs there are great benefits for South Africa in implementing strategies that use ‘Waste to Energy’ technology. By converting waste into liquid fuel or electricity, South Africa can show a
high degree of leadership in solving energy, waste and employment issues.
sing local resources to generate heat and energy is as old as gathering wood to burn in the fire to boil water. Yet as humanity has grown more advanced and sophisticated, that hasn’t been necessary. Fuel in the form of natural gas, coal and fuel oils has been readily available and relatively cheap, so there hasn’t been a need to seek alternatives until the price of crude went to $111 a barrel in mid-2011 and the 2nd Eskom electricity hike virtually doubled our energy spends. Regrettably, this reliance on cheap energy has proved troublesome in our ability to look for alternatives to intermittent solar and wind and the never-ending nuclear debate. Now I am being approached daily by provinces, governments and industries around the World who are now looking for alternative, more strategically secure and cleaner means of generating energy from previously untapped and devalued garbage and landfills. A secure means that utilizes a locally produced, plentiful, sustainable and renewable source of fuel is the ‘Waste to Energy’ process. And just so we all aware, recovering energy from waste isn’t a new idea
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Waste to Energy
By Gary W. Reilly Vice President Clean Globe Energy Corporation
either, but it has evolved over the years from the simple incineration of waste in an uncontrolled, environmentally unfriendly way, with very little energy recovery, to the highly controlled combustion of waste with energy recovery, materials recovery and sophisticated air pollution control equipment insuring that emissions are well within any of the World’s tightest regulations.
In conclusion, South Africa stands on the precipice of determining the interest and direction it will take in modelling an attitude that says: “we want to take care of this earth and its resources. Will South Africa choose to continue its abuse of resources and therefore become ‘energy impoverished’? Or will it choose to become more ‘energy rich’?
‘Waste to Energy’ methodology across the World has now proven itself to be an environmentally friendly solution for the disposal of wastes and the production of valuable and useful energy which, for South Africa, would conserve valuable coal, crude oil and gas resources plus mitigate the many other issues which surround waste management in South Africa at present.
ne key power strategy point is that WtE doesn’t suffer from the intermittency issues of other weather dependant renewables and therefore adds to base-load power. Just like coal - as long as the MSW is delivered - the power can be generated and the emissions controls can readily outperform coal or gas.
The figure (top right) shows a general breakdown of MSW in South Africa, by material type.
If we turn a blind eye to new, energy efficient technologies, then energy poverty, which is a detriment to labour productivity, economic growth, and social well-being, will be its end result.
Our Positive Contribution Cloud The following are the individual crises which ‘Waste to Energy’ has both an indirect and direct positive effect on, both in South Africa and globally:
However, if we wish to be on the cutting edge of energy technology, it will choose to explore and buy into waste to energy as a base-load offering that is proven and broadly accepted EVERYWHERE except in sunny South Africa. Gary W. Reilly 071 864 5032 073 963 9443