Page 1

63

BY

Rosalind Nightingale

A GENERAL HANDBOOK

ISBN NO: 0-620-32608-5 Revised – 2010

R. NIGHTINGALE


LIST OF CONTENTS      

PAGE

Dedication Acknowledgements Introduction Map 1 Breeders Prefixes By Region South African Appaloosa Horse

8

Chapter One    

Maps 2 & 3 Facts about the Horse The Appaloosa and the Nez Perce Indians Early History of the South African Appaloosa Horse

Chapter Two     

Appaloosa Horse Characteristics Coat colours and patterns (All horse breeds) Appaloosa Coat Patterns Coat colours – a closer look Face and Leg Markings Roaning, greying and dilution factors

Chapter Three    

50

Appaloosa Horse Breed Standard The Registration Procedure Photographs for Registration/Inspection Appendix Grading IRIP

Chapter Five  

44

Touching on Genetics Breeding Appaloosas Necessary Vaccinations and Inoculations Equine diseases

Chapter Four     

22

60

Showing the Appaloosa Dress Codes for the Show

Chapter Six 68  

Foundation Stock (with picture of one progeny) Imported and Local horses :

Chapter Seven 76     

The Appaloosa Sport Horse The Appaloosa Pony The Appaloosa Miniature Pony Other Types and Breeds of Spotted Horse Bibliography and References

Chapter Eight  

The Appaloosa Sport Horse, Pony and Miniature Other Spotted Breeds

Chapter Nine  

94

98

Bibliography and References Useful Names/Forms

SHOWING TIPS Cover page: ‘Appaloosa Horses in Landscape’ oil/acrylic painting by Amanda Jephson

101


My gratitude and thanks to all the local and overseas people who so willingly helped me with my research and supply of photographs (particularly old ones) and: The British Appaloosa Society (UK); the Arabian Society (USA & SA); The American Quarter Horse Society (USA & SA); The American Saddler Horse Society (SA); The Historical Boerperd Society (SA); The Thoroughbred horse Stud Book (SA) and SA Appaloosa Breeders and owners. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that all the information is unbiased and that photographs and maps are correct, current and of the best possible standard, the Author is not responsible for misprints, errors or mistakes that may have inadvertently occurred during research writing or printing time.


INTRODUCTION

Whilst researching the Appaloosa horse gene pool in South Africa, it became obvious that there was very little written information in South Africa about this breed of horse. The only literature available to the Appaloosa owner or breeder being through costly imported books, which were not always readily accessible. Appaloosa breeders in South Africa had a small genetic pool to breed from as, although there were several Appaloosa/Spotted horses residual from some Boer War stock, less than 10 imported Appaloosas came into the country over a period of thirty years, the progeny of these horses being scattered far and wide. Many out-cross Appaloosa horses were bred using other horse breeds but fortunately the Appaloosa characteristics were not lost due to selective use by the early breeders, thus improving the existing stock at that time. These earlier bloodlines were introduced to later imported stock thus bringing about great improvements to the standard and quality of the Appaloosa Horse as it is today. Initially it is the colour of the horse that catches the eye, particularly in that the Appaloosa is a horse breed with a colour preference. The colour patterns may sometimes not be carried through to progeny, especially when there are many solid colour horses in the ancestors close up, but fortunately with careful selection of the dam and sire and their colouring this happens with less frequency. If you are uncertain as the breeding of a particular animal, contact the original breeder, the SA Appaloosa Horse Breeders Society or the South African Stud Book for details.

Kiowa Sahara With handler/rider C. Nightingale at Western In-Hand Show 2009


APPALOOSA HORSE BREEDERS In South Africa and surrounding countries


CURRENT STUD PREFIXES - REGIONS STUD PREFIXES GAUTENG

GAUTENG

FREE STATE

A.A. Stud* Amarillo Appaloosa Stud* Aquilla Stud* Bakdan Stud* Belloosa Appaloosa Stud Big Sky Appaloosa Stud * Black Arrow Stud Bon Cheval Stud Bradbury Appaloosa Stud* Border River’s Stud* Bosjes Appaloosa Stud* Broken Arrow Stud* Carmen Stud* Celtis Stud* Conty’s Pride Stud* Cornerspot Appaloosa Stud* Cayuse Stud* ESP Stud* Elnandie Stud* ENYM Stud* Fabel Stud Flint Appaloosa Stud* Grandwest Appaloosa Stud* Hersa Stud* Hondo Stud Little Acres Stud* Kondos Appaloosa Stud Leopard Rock Stud Li’l Loosa Appaloosa Stud * Mayas Stud Meadowlark Appaloosa Stud Micmac Appaloosa Stud* Moreland Appaloosas * Nehemenuh Appaloosa Stud* Nez Perce Stud* N H F Stud Nightingales Appaloosa Stud Pablo Stud Sharad Stud Shekan Appaloosa Stud* Shoshone Appaloosa Stud* Somaca’s Vreugde Spotted Pride Stud* Starlight Appaloosa Stud Supernova Stud* Smoking Rock Appaloosa Stud* Rivero Stud * Riverwood Appaloosa Stud* Roosa’s Stud* RTA Appaloosa Stud Klipkop Stud* Taino Arawak Appaloosa Stud*

Tanglewood Appaloosa Stud* Temple Island Appaloosa Stud* Top Spot Appaloosa Stud Van Graan Stud* Wigwam Appaloosa Stud* Wappo Stud* Wapiti Stud* Warpaint Appaloosa Stud* Wichita Stud * Xube Shonge Appaloosa Stud Yuma Stud* Zilke Stud Zonnderend Appaloosa Stud*

Langha Appaloosa Stud* Les Chevaux Appaloosa Stud Klipkop Stud* Maluti Appaloosa Stud* Middlepoint Stud Middlepunt Appaloosa Stud Montagu Appaloosa Stud * Pacific Stud * Perdeberg Appaloosa Stud Purple Rein Stud* Raindrop Stud Saamspan Stud* Talifants Stud* Two Moons Stud

KWA ZULU NATAL

WESTERN CAPE

Black Forest Stud * Cranford Stud Carmi Appaloosa Stud * Caro Stud* Dalton Stud Dreamin Stud* Elegant Spots Stud Hunters Pride Stud Ibala Stud Meadowstar Stud* Kaloosa Stud* Misty Forest Appaloosa Stud * Mistbelt Stud* Montrose Star Stud* Otters Creek Stud* Singita Stud* Takoda Stud Umkhumba Appaloosa Stud * Valencia Appaloosa Stud* Zelrista Stud*

Bitoubrook Stud Champion Stud Lulus Appaloosa Stud Painted Appaloosa Stud Overberg Appaloosa Stud * Indian Creek Stud* Sajama Stud Shaman Appaloosa Stud* Siebrits kloof Stud Tswaing Stud Windstone Stud *

FREE STATE Accolade Appaloosa Stud Acacia Valley Stud Alpha Appaloosa Stud Black Eagle Appaloosa Stud * Eagles Cliff Stud* Gomez Stud Henjolo Stud Jaydee Stud * Javta Stud Juitzoo Appaloosa Stud

MPUMALANGA Ambleside Side Arizona Stud* Brave Heart Stud Caprica Stud Chambers Stud Glen Bar Appaloosa Stud* Lebombo Stud Manaja-Cadia Stud* Njari Appaloosa Stud* Perdepoort Stud Rock Appaloosa Stud * Rossak Stud Spot On Appaloosa Stud* Utaga Creek Stud


EASTERN CAPE

ZAMBIA NORTH WEST PROVINCE

Africa Appaloosa Stud Arikara Appaloosa Stud* Intulo Stud Jenzo Stud Mountneys Appaloosa Stud* Sancturian Stud* SOUTH WESTERN CAPE Afterglow Stud* Altimira Stud* Arrowhead Appaloosa Stud* Beyleveld Appaloosa Stud Bitoubrook Blackhawk Stud* Bluegum Appaloosa Stud * Collingwood Stud * Daktari Appaloosa Stud * Dimo Stud Globoedery Stud* Kaleidoscope Stud* Kilidies Stud Northridge Stud Painted Stud Rocklands Stud* Southern Light Stud* Stardust Stud Sunshine Bay Stud* Thunder Appaloosa Stud *

Hemaroed Appaloosa Stud* Raindrop Stud

Chundukwa Stud* Luyts Stud OTHER

LIMPOPO Bitter Creek Stud * Cheyenne Appaloosa Stud* Keltar Appaloosa Stud* Lebombo Stud Majorca Stud* Ringo’s Appaloosa Stud* NORTHERN CAPE Asuul Stud Sandflats Stud Tiara Appaloosa Stud Toto Stud* BOTSWANA Dansawil Appaloosa Stud* NAMIBIA Andster Stud Cilliers Appaloosa Stud Die Rante Jones Stud Togekry/Robberts Appaloosa Stud *

Fairlands Stud* SSM Stud* Xaria Stud*

* may not currently be Registered or found


MAPS FACTS ABOUT THE HORSE THE APPALOOSA AND THE NEZ PERCE INDIAN EARLY HISTORY OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN APPALOOSA HORSE DOLLS TOBY ARRIVES


FACTS ABOUT THE HORSE The origins of today’s horses can be traced back some 60 million years to the Eohippus, a small browsing animal no bigger than a hare, with four toes which were designed for travelling on marshy land. As the lands became drier and harder, the horse adapted to the changes and evolved through time to a single hoofed horse (Pliohippus), the direct ancestor of our modern day horse. It is assumed that the distribution of the horse began from Central Asia, spreading out and wandering into Southern Russia, through Europe, viz., Austria, Germany and the Netherlands right through to France. Some could have travelled over land bridges during the glacial age when the glaciers were joined to form huge tracts of semi-permanent land on the continental shelves where grasslands developed. The search for food and better grazing probably encouraged the movement of animals to move across the Beiring Straight from Alaska to Siberia. When the rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age cut off this land bridge, populations of horses were separated and the herds changed and adapted to their new environments and whilst some moved on to better grazing, others stayed where they were. Fossilised remains of horses have been found in many parts of the world and interestingly enough, the first Eohippus in the United States of America was discovered in Wyoming in 1967. In South Africa, fossilised remains of four new horse species were discovered along the Schoonspruit River near Cornelia in the Free State. In 1909, fossil remains of the extinct giant Cape Horse, Equus capensis, were recovered near Cape Town and remains of the extinct three toed horse, Hipparion lybicum, though rare, can be found throughout South Africa, these were thought to be grass-land grazers that needed to be near to water sources. Generally through artist’s impressions, these early horses are depicted with spotted or dappled coats. The APPALOOSA is one of several of the spotted horse breeds that can be found in the world today. Spotted horses go way back and are inter-woven with the history of mankind and pictures can still be seen drawn on cave walls and rocks indicating a spiritual bond between man and horse that is many centuries old, probably even before the horse became a pack animal or was used for riding. At that time the horse in all probability, was hunted for meat and skins and the mares’ milk. Keeping in mind that these horses may have evolved in cold countries, it is easy to imagine how the coat patterns would develop that would blend into the surrounding area quite easily. Solid coat colours would have been seen by predators over many miles, especially with a snowline as a backdrop thus these grazing animals developed coats that would blend in with the snowy mountain slopes, forests and grass lands so that they could be mistaken for something else amongst the background shadows, fooling predators and giving the herd time enough to escape.


Although certain well-defined characteristics mark the Appaloosa as a breed of its own, there are other spotted horse breeds or types throughout the world. These horses have their own names and/or breed type definitions:          

North America Argentina Austria England Denmark France Mexico Persia Spain Italy

- Appaloosa - Tigre, pintado - Pinzgauer, Noriz - Chubarry, Blagdon - Knabstrup, Tigre (picture) - Tigre - Guiduri or Wynduri - Kuran dagh - Chubarri, Antitrade - Neapolitan

Other common or local names in some regions included: Nez Perce horse, Raindrop, Dollar Spot, Leopard Spot, Colorado Ranger, Calico, Heavenly Horses, Celestial Horses, Horse of the Royals, etc. It would appear that there were numerous types and breeds of horses in many parts of the world with the spotted horse a minority group. There is something rather royal and mystical about these spotted horses. In Chinese art the spotted horse was depicted on many vases and wall hangings, dating back to around 500 BC. The Persians had a great breed of War Horse whose description was similar to our current day Appaloosa horse. In France there are caves in the Lacaux area, the Grotte du Pech Merle at Caberets, where there is a panel measuring 13 feet with a painting that includes two spotted horses. (picture below). Over a hundred kilometres away at Boutigny-sur-Essone at the Grotte de la Justice (Essone in the Ile de France) there is another painting of a spotted horse. These paintings are of horses with a leopard coat pattern. At the Hallstatt site in Austria, artefacts from the 8th century (BC), include a sword scabbard on which the pattern of three spotted horses has been carefully inscribed. In the late 2nd century (BC), the Emperor Wu T of China campaigned for superior horse stock that could be crossbred to the inferior Chinese horses. As many spotted horses appear on the Artwork of that time, it is presumed that stock from spotted horse breeds were used for improving their existing stock. Legendary Persian hero, Rustom, according to the Persian poet Firdausi (10 th century AD) had a well loved mount named Raksh, noted as a spotted bay, which ran with a herd of spotted horses. Later depictions of the Rustom legend show the horse, Raksh to have a leopard spot coat.


The famous Lipizzan horse had some foundation stock of spotted horses although the spots have been bred out successively over time. The Lippizaner foals are born black or brown and most of them roan out to white within a few years. See painting below by Johann Georg Hamilton with informative caption re early Lipizzaner breeding stock.

HEMAROED QUADROON 11

The versatile Appaloosa ‘Quadroon 11’ with 4-wheeler cart.


THE APPALOOSA HORSE AND THE NEZ PERCE INDIANS The generally accepted view is that horses spread throughout the regions of North America due to early nomadic travellers and later due to the need for war mounts and for horse racing. Many Spanish ranches were established during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries in and around Mexico, Santa Fe and San Antonio and it is assumed that there was plenty of inter-tribal trading as well as inevitable livestock raids. This could have brought about the spread of the horse far up into the North and the East where the Crow, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Dakota, Plains Cree, Flathead, Shoshoni Indians (to name but a few tribes) lived.

MAP (above) SHOWING PROBABLE/POSSIBLE SPREAD OF HORSES THROUGH THE AMERICAN STATES


It is probable that the Nez Perce Indians of inland North-Western America managed to barter with early traders for Appaloosas or capture some wild ones. Unlike many other Indian tribes, the Nez Perce Indians were renowned horsemen who selectively bred with their horses (they were the first recorded people who gelded inferior stallions). Their resulting carefully bred horses were sure-footed, fleet, strong and courageous. With them they chased buffalo herds, carried meat and skins, people, wigwams and goods when the tribe moved and during skirmishes. Man and horse became one. The spiritual connection between these horses and the tribe was a strong one that ran deep. There was no fencing at that time, but the Appaloosa herd stayed within invisible boundaries close to the tribe and were part of their everyday life. The name ‘Appaloosa’ is most likely an adaptation from the Palousie river valley name where the Nez Perce Indians were settled (i.e. A Palousie horse). With the arrival of the white settlers in the Indian Territory, the legacy of the Nez Perce horse was almost destroyed. The Nez Perce Indians rebelled against the treaties that were imposed upon them and war ensued. Fleeing from the U.S. Cavalry, the Indians travelled over some 1300 miles of rugged and mountainous terrain during a period of several months on their home bred Appaloosa horses, using them as both mount and packhorses. When Chief Joseph finally surrendered in Montana, the tribe was forced to relinquish their herd of horses. Hundreds of horses were killed to ensure that the Nez Perce could not escape on horseback and any remaining Appaloosa horses were bred to draught horses to dilute the bloodline and diminish the speed for which the horse was well known. The Appaloosa horse breed was almost completely wiped out after the 1877 war. During the early part of the 20th century, several concerned Appaloosa horse admirers and breeders realised that the Appaloosa horse strain could disappear altogether and they had the good fortune to make contact with an Indian horse breeder, Sam Fisher. This man was a Palousie Indian, from a tribe of river people, living apart from the Nez Perce Indians. The Palousie Indian tribe were less affected by the war and thereby managed to preserve some of the pure bred Appaloosas. Sam Fisher had dedicated his life to breeding well coloured purebred Appaloosas and it was from this stock that early breeders such as Claude Thompson, Floyd Hickman, Guy lamb and several others, improved their own herds. The Toby line traces directly back to this historical bloodline. As recently as 1998, a group of Nez Perce Indians started an Appaloosa breeding program within their reservation reinstating themselves as the horse breeding Indian tribe they were known as for centuries.


EARLY HISTORY OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN APPALOOSA HORSE South Africa is home to many different horse breeds, including the Appaloosa horse, but it is primarily recognised for its indigenous horse breeds, namely: the Basutho Pony, Nooitgedacht pony and Boerperd (Farmers Horse). All of these horses are decedents of the early Cape Horse. The earliest recorded shipments of horses and ponies into this country were during the years 1652 to 1836. Most of the horses were shipped here from Java and Persia and these were mainly of Arab and Barb stock, primarily used to supply the farmers and settlers in the Cape with a means of transport or animal power for farming purposes. From 1836 onwards a number of other horse breeds were imported to South Africa, amongst which were black Flemish stallions from the Netherlands (for pulling wagons), Hackneys, Norfolk Trotters, Cleveland Bays, Morgans (for riding mounts) and Oriental and English Thoroughbreds (early racing stock). Many of these Thoroughbreds were decedents of Herod, Matchem and Eclipse and it was from this Thoroughbred stock particularly, that the ‘Cape Horse’ was bred and developed. In all probability some spotted horses may have been in any of these shipments, but the earliest recorded Spotted or Appaloosa horses were the two mares General Manie Maritz acquired in Maitland in the Cape Province, after a shipment of horses was brought in by the British from the United Kingdom and the U.S.A. in 1904, after the Boer War. Along with these spotted mares, General Maritz had the good fortune to become the owner of the pure bred black Arab stallion with the name of ‘Gentleman Joe’. This stallion became a well-known horse, not only had it been the riding horse of Lord Roberts but ‘Joe’ was also portrayed in several overseas paintings from that time. General Maritz farmed for a while in the Ventersburg-Odendaalsrus area but around 1912 when he moved to the Transvaal, he sent a number of his horses to a friend’s farm. This was a Mr L.H.J. (Henry) Nel, owner of the farm ‘Vaalbankskuil’ near Ventersburg, where, over the following years a herd of coloured horses increased in number. By 1914, Mr Henry Nel was well known in the Northern Free State region for colourful spotted horses that were spirited, hardy and good riding horses with a kind nature. At the time of the Rebellion in 1914, the Government was requisitioning all available horses for military use. Mr Henry Nel knew that his colourful appaloosa stallion, ‘Bontes’, could be commandeered and that he might never see the horse again so he asked a close friend and ardent horse admirer, General Erwin Conroy who was living in nearby Virginia, to use ‘Bontes’ as his own riding horse. During the Rebellion, ‘Bontes’ was well known as the mount of General Conroy and there were many times that the colourful stallion had to have a cloth thrown over his spotted coat so that he would not be recognised by the enemy. When General Conroy was eventually captured, ‘Bontes’ was taken away for use elsewhere but fortunately the stallion was later recovered and returned to the farm ‘Vaalbankskuil’.


‘BONTES’. The stallion ridden by General Erwin Conroy during the 1914 Rebellion in Southern Africa.

Mr Nel sold many of his horses around 1918 and farmers from the surrounding areas bought stock from him. These farmers included Mr K. Serfontein, (from the Kroonstad district); Mr H. Oosthuizen, (a farmer near Ventersburg) and Mr K. Roos (of district Heilbron). They continued to breed Appaloosa horses for a number of years. Mrs D. Krog (Mr Serfontein’s daughter and well-known South African writer) and her husband were still breeding Appaloosas in 1981, with horses that originated from this early stock.

Mrs D. Krog on ‘Bontes 11’, Mrs Krog’s fathers Appaloosa riding horse in 1955

During the late 1960’s, Chipperfields Circus sold the four spotted stallions that they had originally imported from the U.K. into South Africa. The shipping records for these horses are no longer obtainable and whilst it has been ascertained that a horse dealer in the United Kingdom acquired these horses for the Chipperfields Circus in the U.K. and Denmark, the actual breeding of each horse is not known. In the early 1970’s, two of the Chipperfields Circus stallions, Spot and Pasha, were used as Foundation Stock by the Appaloosa breeder, Mrs Claire Amm, (founder of the S.A. Appaloosa Horse Club).


This breeding was the beginning of the increase in the gene pool of Appaloosas in the country and added further variations to the colour patterns of future generations. The two other Chipperfields Circus stallions, IAC and Comanche, were sold on to new owners, with at least one of the stallions settling in Natal. Although there is no record of either of IAC or Comanche being used for breeding purposes, it is interesting to note that there have been a number of colourful Appaloosa horses found in Natal over the past years, with untraceable backgrounds.

Mr H. Oosthuizen of Ventersburg with a pair of his Appaloosas in 1960

Kolbooi (aka: Mr. Fire-eyes); Fairlayne (sp.) and Heilbron (Mr Dirk Odendaal’s early Appaloosa stock in Barkly East), were all located or purchased in and around the Free State some years prior to recorded imported stock. It is interesting to note that the horses from the Free State had strongly marked spotted blanket coat patterns - this patterning was mostly confined to the hindquarters, with the usual Appaloosa characteristics, including a tendency to roan out in the solid forepart of the coat. The same patterning can still be seen today in the descendants of these early SA Appaloosa horses. It is from this colourful background that a number of the present day Appaloosa stock is founded on.

Appaloosa stallion - Kroonstad - 1981


During 1970’s, five Appaloosa horses were imported from the U.S.A. into South Africa, thereby improving and enlarging the existing gene pool and stock. These were: * * * * *

Africas Quadroon (colt), Southern Beau (colt), Dolls Toby (stallion), Peter Ehrlich (colt) and Keutans Mini (mare).

In the early 1990’s, a further three Appaloosas were brought into the country, namely: * * *

Robins EZ Breeze (mare), Air Orion (gelding) and Apollos Moonbeam (colt – later gelded –not used for breeding).

*

Wap Spotted semen was imported into South African and successfully used with several mares.

See further imported horses in Chapter Seven

During the early part of the 21st century, further Appaloosas were imported into South Africa from the U.S.A and Europe (see Chapter Seven). With all of these imported additions plus the more recent ones, our South African Appaloosa Horse bloodline stock has gone from strength to strength.

ROSSYNTJIE Stallion tri-colour spotted blanket. Own son of Kolbooi out of an Anglo Arab mare. (Photo courtesy of Mr J. Greef)


DOLLS TOBY ARRIVES IN SOUTH AFRICA Coverage on the first Appaloosa imports from USA – articles courtesy of the Newspaper and the Appaloosa Magazine ‘Appaloosa News’ – 1977.


Kondos Yioryaras (Descendant of the Africa’s Quadroon Bloodlines)


APPALOOSA HORSE CHARACTERISTICS APPALOOSA COAT PATTERNS COAT PATTERNING TERMINOLOGY ROANING, GREYING AND DILUTION FACTORS


APPALOOSA CHARACTERISTICS AND COAT PATTERNS The Appaloosa is primarily recognised by its coat pattern but it must be stressed here that the Appaloosa horse is a HORSE BREED A WITH A COLOUR PREFERENCE and therefore a ‘true’ Appaloosa should display one or more of the other characteristics that make this breed truly unique. The following characteristics are usually clearly visible, especially in combination with visible coat pattern colours. Solid base coat Appaloosa horses often have one or more of these characteristics even though they may have no coat pattern whatsoever. *

White Sclera clearly visible around one or both irises of the eyes;

*

Parti-coloured skin;

*

Mottled skin;

*

Striped hooves.

WHITE SCLERA

The Appaloosa horse should display white sclera around one or both irises. This is a very distinct feature of the breed and has a similar appearance to the human eye. (The sclera can easily be seen from any angle and does not appear only at certain times, e.g. if the head is thrown up suddenly or if the horse is frightened).

The area of the eye surrounding the dark pigmented iris may lack pigment. This is common in Appaloosa horses and sometimes when a foal is born with a solid coat colour, this may be the only indication that it could roan out or colour in later but this is not normally visible until the first few weeks after birth. White sclera may not always be readily visible in some Appaloosa horses. It is possible to detect the white of the eye in any horse that ‘rolls’ its eyes; therefore the horse should be relaxed and standing with its head level with shoulder, to enable the observer to look for the presence of the white sclera. Some other non-Appaloosa breeds also display sclera, particularly those with large white facial markings.


PARTI COLOURED SKIN

The term parti-coloured is used to describe the patches of pink (or salmon) and black skin commonly found under the tail area, the udder and genital area. Appaloosa horses are generally born with this characteristic but it may develop with age. When an Appaloosa coat is wet, patches of parti-coloured skin may show on the body under the hair. There is no hard and fast rule as to how much parti-coloured skin the Appaloosa should have.

MOTTLED SKIN Mottled skin is generally found around the muzzle and eye area. It can also occur around the dock and genital area. If on the face, this may show as irregular speckles and small blotches of pink (un-pigmented) and grey (pigmented) skin but does not include the inside of the lips. Mottling on the other areas is more of an irregular pattern of pink and grey patches with smooth or jagged edges. Mottled muzzles may also occur in grey and coloured horses in other breeds.

In South Africa it is not particularly desirable to have un-pigmented skin on or around the face because of the risk of sunburn. Sun block creams are available for horses from Veterinary Suppliers or your local Veterinarian.


STRIPED HOOVES Whilst other breeds of horses (including other spotted breeds) may have one or more striped hooves, these stripes are usually found in conjunction with white socks, stockings or ermine marks on the coronet. These stripes are often broader than those of the Appaloosa. The Appaloosa has striped hooves with or without corresponding stockings, socks or white leg hairs. The stripes are usually thin and vertical, running down the hoof from the coronet band. Many horses are born with striped hooves and others without, but striped hooves tend to appear at a later stage, mostly before a year old. The colour visible on the wall of the hoof will be light (white), dark (black), or dark and light vertical stripes.

BLUE EYES

One or two blue eyes are acceptable within the breed and occur quite often with well coloured or solid coloured Appaloosa horses. The horse is born with this eye colour. Sometimes a foal is born with dark coloured eyes and either one or both eyes may develop a small patch of blue within the dark eye pigment. (Photo courtesy – L Pitt)


APPALOOSA COAT PATTERNS In this section the coat patterns described are defined for the recognition and clarification of the different patterns that are found within the Appaloosa horse breed. Some coat patterns do not fall within an exact description, as each Appaloosa horse has its own truly unique pattern, (rather like our own fingerprints), with no two Appaloosa horses sporting identical coat patterns. The size and shape of blankets, white markings size and number of spots on areas of the body, will differ with each particular horse but almost all coat patterns will fall within one of the descriptions of the following coat patterns. Pattern variation can be immense, ranging from:           

dark spots on dark base coats; dark spots on roan base coats; dark spots on white coats, spots on large or small blankets; blank blankets; lace blankets with or without spots; frosting with spots; snowflakes; dark hip spots; dark base coats with several white hairs; white spots on dark coats, etc.

By studying the following coat descriptions, it will be easier to define, distinguish and classify a particular pattern. The patterns described in this chapter are as follows:  Leopard  Near Leopard  Few Spot Leopard  Spotted Blanket  Extended Blanket  Blank Blanket  Snowcap  Lace Blanket  Frost  Snowflake  Roan – including Varnish and Marble roan  Solid colour coat pattern


LEOPARD

The base coat colour of the Leopard Appaloosa is completely white, covering the body from the tip of the nose, to tail and including the legs to the coronet bands. Spots of varying sizes and shapes are distributed over the entire coat, being either small or large or a mixture of both.

Kondos Comanche Bay Leopard Vaal Show 2003. (Photo courtesy Mr G. Contos) Owner : Tiara Appaloosa Stud

A ‘red’ leopard may have chestnut or bay spots (the legs of a bay leopard have black or dark bay spots on the lower parts of the legs); A ‘black’ leopard will have black or dark bay spots; A ‘tri-colour’ leopard may have chestnut, bay, black, palomino, dun or other coloured spots.

Nightingales Monarch Bay Leopard (Photo courtesy – Lebombo Stud)


NEAR LEOPARD The Near Leopard pattern is often mistaken for the Leopard pattern. The difference is that whilst the white coat colour of this pattern encircles the body, part or all of the neck area and most often the head - is dark and the legs are dark from the hock or knee downwards (as in the normal bay coat of other breeds). ‘Flash marks’ – white marks that look like lightening flashes may be visible on the legs. The dark forepart (neck and head) may roan out with age with or without further spots appearing, giving a likeness to the Leopard but the lower leg area will remain dark.

Big Sky Utah Black near leopard (Owner : Mr A Vosloo)

Nightingales

Kalahari Dark Bay near leopard


SPOTTED BLANKET This aptly named blanket pattern can range in size covering partly or completely, the area of the quarters over the hips, reaching as far downwards as the stifle to midway along the back or up to the wither area. Often these blanket patterns are ‘connected’ by a girdle or girth of white hairs around the underside of the belly region giving the appearance of a blanket that is ‘well fastened on’. Spotted shoulder patches may be very visible. Whilst the spots within the blanket will be the same colour as the base coat colour of the horse, it is not unusual to find spots of other colours. New spots may appear on the blanket during seasonal coat changes but the spots contained on the blanket at birth will remain the same for life. The darker base coat, foreparts and legs may roan out with age on some Appaloosa horses but the blanket pattern will remain whiter than the rest of the coat (especially noticeable when the coat is wet). Spots may appear on the rest of the body and the horse may eventually appear to have one of the other coat colour patterns.

Nightingales

Indian Alphabet Dark Bay spotted blanket

The connecting white ‘girth’ and the shoulder patch is quite visible

Perdeberg

Eagle Creek Dark bay spotted blanket (Photo courtesy : Carol van Wyk)


EXTENDED BLANKET The Extended Blanket description is similar to the Spotted Blanket but the area of this blanket is larger, in that it reaches and may extend up to and over the wither region and include much of, but not the entire barrel, of the horse. Spots can be visible in the darker foreparts of the body and spotted shoulder patches are usual but not necessary. This blanket pattern generally reaches to the stifle area of the hind legs.

Bosjes

SEUN (bred by Mr Basie de Wet)

Extended blanket - dark bay or black. Shoulder patch and spots clearly visible.

Hersa

Lilian Extended Blanket - dark bay with clearly marked shoulder patch (Photo courtesy Author)


BLANK BLANKET This blanket pattern may have the same size and shape description as the spotted blanket pattern but maybe entirely blank or have only a few spots in it. The contrast of this pattern on a dark base coat colour can be striking.

Bluegum SPOTLIGHT (photo courtesy Mrs L Pitt) Blank blanket over quarters on bay base coat

Les Chevaux DIJON (photo courtesy Mrs M Serdyn) Extended Blank blanket on dark brown base coat (may also be considered a Snow Cap in USA)


FEW SPOT LEOPARD As the name suggests this Leopard coat pattern has only a ‘few’ spots on the white base coat colour. In some cases there may be no spots at all. True Few Spot Leopards are born with this coat pattern and generally the knees, elbows, hocks; stifles and ears are dark, being chesnut, red, brown, dark bay or black. Lightning marks on the lower leg and triangles above the hoof on the front of the leg are usual as with dark coronet lines. Few Spot Leopards display most other characteristics.

Nightingales San Domingo Chesnut few spot Leopard (photo : courtesy author)

Some other Appaloosa coat patterns, such as the Blank blanket and Snowcap pattern, may roan out to a Few Spot Leopard coat pattern with age and may be re-classified as such. Black Few Spot Leopards appear to be more common than chesnut, brown or red Few Spot leopards. The Few Spot Leopard does not originate from Albino or grey gene parents.

Kondos Total Eclipse (photo courtesy – Mr G Contos) Owner : Mrs P Huff


SNOWCAPS A Snowcap (USA spelling can also be: ‘Snocap’) blanket pattern is a blank or white blanket that covers the quarters and extends from the stifle upwards along the quarters along the back up to the withers. This pattern is most often accompanied by shoulder patches and ‘flash marks’ on dark legs. The tips of the ears are often white and there may be white marks on the inside of the stifle area. This pattern may also include one or two spots on the blanket.

Jenzo TT Mighty MarshallQ Chesnut snowcap (photo: courtesy Jenzo Stud)

Kondos Eagles Vision Dark bay snowcap Rider - Philip Matthee Owned by Otters Creek Appaloosa Stud (photo : courtesy G Contos)


Few Caps Currently there is no clear cut description of a Few Cap – Gene Carr and Robert Lapp are still researching this (2011) and I quote from Colour Genetic Myths :

‘Subsequent research reports will identify the defining characteristics of the four established homozygous Appaloosa patterns: few-spot, snowcap, few-cap and sky eyes. A future research report will introduce a new homozygous pattern—the ‘few-cap’—a pattern displaying characteristics of both few-spot leopards and snowcaps. While research is ongoing, we highly suspect some of the Appaloosas described as ‘near’ fewspots or snowcaps are actually ‘few-caps,’ and some of the ‘near-snowcaps’ are the false snowcaps.’

About the researchers Gene Carr: Gene joined the ApHC (USA) in 1962 and has been raising Appaloosas for more than 40 years. He was first elected to the ApHC Board of Directors in 1997 and continues as a current Director, serving the ApHC in many different local, state, regional and national capacities. He’s been researching and publishing articles about Appaloosa bloodlines and color genetics for more than 30 years and was instrumental in developing the first scientific DNA study of Appaloosa genetics at the University of Kentucky’s Gluck Institute. Gene and Bob started their genetic team-work research in 1997. Robert A. Lapp: Bob has been involved with horses since the 1950s and joined the ApHC in 1984. He served two consecutive terms on the ApHC Board of Directors (1995–2001), during which time he started researching Appaloosa color genetics and presented seminars to the Board of Directors and ApHC membership. His research has continued since leaving the board in 2001. As a long-time student of Appaloosa history, Bob has been the author of Appaloosa Journal’s Lapp’s Apps Trivia Contest since 1994.


Roan Coat Patterns (Appaloosa roan) The Roan Appaloosa is generally born with a solid base coat colour, i.e. black, brown, bay, chestnut but not white. There may be one or two white hairs visible in the coat at birth (usually around the hip or quarters area), or first seasonal coat change (or as late as ten years old) and these can develop into dense roan areas over the loins and hips. The mane and tail may turn completely white. Spots often appear during this roaning process. The horse can roan out and develop spots to give the appearance of another coat pattern. It is usual for roan Appaloosas to have varnish marks on the facial bones and dark hip spots. The stifle, ears, neck, shoulders and lower legs usually stay the colour of the original coat colour. These dark marks separate the Appaloosa roan from other horse breed roans.

Nightingales Tinsel Town

Born dark/liver chesnut with visible white marks on hip – roaned with dark hip spot

Les Chevaux Simplicity Showing distinct roan phase with dark hip spot and facial varnish mark (photo courtesy of Mrs M Serdyn)


VARNISH ROAN : The Varnish Roan has a dark base coat colour with a fairly even spread of white hair throughout it but few or no spots. There are dark areas of hair on the facial bones, ears, lower legs and hip points. These darker areas on the face are also known as ‘Varnish Marks’ or ‘Antler Horns’ and the dark hips areas known as ‘Dark Hip Spots’. MARBLE PATTERN : The Marble Roan has a dark base coat colour with an uneven spread of white hair in it. There are usually white hairs of blotches (made up of white hairs grouped together) and dark or white ‘veins’ as well as dark spots in this coat pattern. Dark varnish marks may also accompany this pattern. SNOWFLAKES : Along with any coat pattern there may be groups of white hairs that appear like Snowflakes in the darker base coat.

Tanglewood Cloud Dancer (photo courtesy DiDi Venter)

Marble roan pattern with visible Varnish Mark on facial bones. The Marble pattern is quite pronounced.

FROST PATTERN A ‘Frost’ blanket pattern is a light sprinkling of white hairs on the hip, quarters or loin region and it appears as though frost has settled on the horse. The frost may extend along the back in the manner of a blanket and is often accompanied by spots and visible roaning

Lace and spots on bay base coat with frost or frosting


Coat patterns can change…….. Examples of how Appaloosa coat patterns can alter with age and seasonal coat changes. Temple Island Starbuck Blue Roan with lace and spots as a young horse has changed to almost complete contrast as an older horse. (Photos courtesy - R. Yates)

Temple Island Foxfire (below) Coat is chesnut as a foal (on left) and later developed a roan coat pattern as mature horse (on right). The dark hip spot is quite visible although the base coat colour is very light, there is still contrast. (Photos courtesy – Mrs M. Fitzpatrick)


SOLID COLOUR COAT PATTERN A horse with either one or two patterned Appaloosa parents may be born with a solid coloured coat. These horses have no visible coat pattern and often no characteristics nor do they roan out or change their coat colour. Such horses are considered to be an Appaloosa horse by virtue of their breeding and are eligible for registration. The colours that are most commonly found with Solid Coat colours are black, brown, bay and chesnut (liver and sorrel). Also acceptable but less common are dun (a diluted bay coat), palomino and grulla (a diluted black coat).

Alpha Tobys Napolean A dark bay Appaloosa with no visible coat pattern or characteristics. (Owned and ridden by Mrs Su Fairman)

Top Spot Tineke Solid bay (photo courtesy of Mrs A Fourie)


LACE BLANKET

This blanket pattern is made up of sprinklings of white hair in small groupings over the quarters, these groupings often joining up and giving the appearance of lace. The edges of this blanket have more jagged edges than other blankets. The size and shape of this pattern can be the same as any of the other blanket descriptions.

Stars Array Lace blanket on Chesnut base coat (photo courtesy Two Moons Stud)

Spot On Indian Beauty

Small lace blanket on dark bay base coat


Coat Patterning – some terminology :

Ticking : The ‘ticking’ (small clusters of dark hair) in the forepart of this coat pattern is clearly visible, as are the ‘peacock’ or ‘halo’ spots. A white blanket pattern is also clearly visible underneath the leopard coat pattern

Maluti Tobys General de Wet (owned by Mr S. van der Westhuizen)

A good example of the ‘Snowflake’ pattern on the forepart of this attractive Appaloosa horse.

Africa Appaloosas Miss Winterbottom (Owned by Mrs R Conroy Evans)


‘Peacock’ or ‘Halo’ spots

In many of the loudly coloured Appaloosa coat patterns, one can find Peacock or Halo spots. Around the outline of the spots, a ring or halo appears, giving the appearance of the Peacock feather ‘eye‘. These can develop at any time and may circle one or many spots of any size on the coat.

Peacock spots Also known as ‘Halo’ spots

Alpha Tobys Magic Carpet

Nightingales Hypnotica

Raised hair Raised hair is mostly noticeable when the horse has a winter coat. The coloured spots within a coat pattern will be raised or longer than the rest of the coat. Although quite common this does not occur with every Appaloosa horse.

Raised hair spots Particularly noticeable in Winter


ROANING, GREYING AND DILUTION FACTORS THE ROAN FACTOR Factors that create lack of contrast in the Appaloosa coat pattern are the ‘roan’, ‘grey’ or ‘dilution’ genes that have been introduced into the breed from non-appaloosa horse breeds. “It would be well to examine whether any relationship exists between ordinary ticked coats and roan (R) and the form of roan in spotted horses …” (Reiner Guerts: Hair colour in the Horse)

The Appaloosa roan gene, where neither parent has a greying factor, is strong in some Appaloosa bloodlines but is different from the roan gene in other horse breeds. A foal may be born with a clearly marked coat pattern or born solid but over time, white hairs appear in the base coat colour and can cover the entire body. The Appaloosa roan gene can diminish the dark base coat colour but will not have any effect on spots within the coat or the pattern and often more spots may appear whilst the coat is changing, outside of the actual coat pattern. The roan effect in the Appaloosa will start from the hindquarters or body forwards towards the head - with the head and legs often staying the darker base coat colour. At birth or shortly thereafter, tell-tale white hairs on the quarters or a small bunch of white hairs on the hip point can be a strong indication of later colour change. Roan Appaloosas have the distinction of recognisable characteristics such as the mottled or parti- coloured skin, striped hooves and/or white sclera. In other breeds, roaning will lighten from the head backwards along the body. This roaning factor will cause the entire coat, inclusive of any spots, to change entirely over time. Usually the hair around the eye is the first to whiten and change (goggles), becoming noticeable in the foal as early as a few days old. THE GREY FACTOR They greying factor in Appaloosa breeding has been a point of controversy for many years, here in South Africa as well as overseas. Grey is determined as non-Appaloosa grey, white, strawberry and blue roan coats of other breeds. The greying gene, when introduced into the Appaloosa breed, usually means that a horse will eventually loose all the colour that it was born with, including any coat pattern and spots (although these are usually the last to roan out). Many foals from Appaloosa x Grey are very colourful at birth but generally lose all colour and the coat will roan out to grey or white with age. This can happen slowly over a period of years or suddenly with a seasonal coat change. Some Leopard coat patterns that occur from grey parent breeding often have odd shaped spots, either oblong or banana shaped, with many of the spots overlapping and appearing rather like blotches.


Although there have been several grey horses used in various breeding programs, albeit unintentionally (and particularly if that grey horse had other merits), it is not recommended to continue using them. Progeny of grey factor parents have a separate registration grading, clearly marking these horses as ‘G’ with their allocated number. Whilst there is no strict enforcement of this rule, breeders using stock with the greying gene could find it appearing up to the third generation, it is that potent. Some Appaloosa Breed Societies will not accept any Grey out-cross breeding due to the fading effect of coat patterns.

GREYING FACTOR (Appaloosa X Grey) Left - greying starting

at muzzle area and around eyes. Right - several years later.

THE DILUTION FACTOR The Dilution factor is another consideration when out-crossing to other breeds. Dilution of coat colour is the lack of contrast obtained when using dun, palomino and cremello breeding stock. The base coat colour is light enough that the Appaloosa coat pattern does not contrast well with it and the spots within the pattern are barely discernable in the white blanket. Future progeny of this cross may be bred in time to another dilution factor horse with a resultant albino, sorrel or palomino foal having little or no Appaloosa colouring.

Dilution Factor – The spotted blanket pattern of this young Palomino is barely discernable from the base coat colour.


COAT COLOURS AND PATTERNS (ALL HORSE BREEDS)

FACE AND LEG MARKINGS

Kondos Moonbeat Champion Stallion


COAT COLOURS AND PATTERNS (ALL HORSE BREEDS) Horse coats come in a variety of colours, patterns and markings. Certain horse breeds may only have one coat colour (e.g. Friesians) or there can be a number of different base coat colours. Others, such as the Palomino in the U.S.A., are defined as a breed due to their coat colour. Below are some of the many other coat colours and patterns found on both Appaloosa and non-Appaloosa horses:

BAY

Bay ranges from tan, reddish brown to light auburn. The mane, tail and legs from the knees and hocks downwards will always be black. White markings are permissible.

DARK BAY or BROWN

Dark bays are entirely dark brown with lighter bay markings found on the head, around the eyes and the muzzle, shoulders, flanks and behind the elbows. The mane, tail and lower legs will always be black. Brown horses will generally have less of the bay markings but with the usual lighter hairs around the muzzle area (mealy mouth). Mane, tail and lower legs will be brown. White markings are permissible.

BLACK

The body colour is black with NO lighter body hairs and the mane and tail are likewise black. White markings are permissible. No lighter colouring on flanks and muzzle.

WHITE

The base coat is pure white, with pink or very light coloured skin. White horses often have one or two blue eyes.


CHESNUT

Liver Chesnut

There are many different hues within the Chesnut base coat although each colour will be uniform throughout the base coat. Colours can range from gold to copper to liver. Liver Chesnuts often have darkish marks or spots on their coats but these are not necessarily Appaloosa spots. Mane and tail colours also differ with Chesnut coats, from pale flaxen to the same colour as the base coat, or darker, but not black.

DUN / BUCKSKIN

Dun coat hair is light, almost yellow or gold (or slightly darker) to a dull copper colour. The dun horse always has a dorsal stripe and may have zebra markings on the legs. A Buckskin does not have a dorsal stripe but the coat colours are in the same range as the dun coat.

GREY

This coat, including the head, legs, mane and tail is sprinkled with white hair and eventually as the horse ages, the entire coat will become grey (almost white in some cases). The area around the knees and hocks usually take longer to turn grey than the rest of the coat. Grey horses often go through the very attractive stage of ‘dappling’ of the coat.

FLEA BITTEN GREY

Grey base coat, flecked with brown hair which can appear almost pitted or flea-bitten.

ROAN

A dark base coat that has plenty of ticking and white hair spread throughout and generally the coat becomes lighter with the passing years but can retain some of its base coat colour and thus gives the appearance of ‘strawberry roan’ (bay or chestnut base coats) or ‘blue roans’ (darker base coat colours). The Appaloosa ‘roan’ should not be confused with this type of roan.


PALOMINO

This coat should be of a newly-minted gold to a dull gold colour. The mane and tail hair should always be lighter than the base coat colour, from flaxen blonde to almost white. Palominos often have darker patches or dapples on the coat. This colour can fade during winter to a paler colour and in summer returns to a darker coat colour.

SKEWBALD

Skewbald coats have a base coat colour of brown, bay or chestnut broken with large patches of white over the body.

PIEBALD

Piebald coats have a base coat colour of black broken with large patches of white over the body. – within the large areas of white on the coat of both the Skewbald’s and Piebald’s there may often be clusters of dark spots which are often thought as a sign of ‘Homozygosis’.

SPOTTED

Small or large spots on white areas, usually due to spotted horse breed influence.


FACE AND LEG MARKINGS – all horse breeds The following diagrams and descriptions clearly indicate facial and leg markings that may be found on horses. BALD FACE The ‘blaze’ on the front of horses head will cover the entire face and will include the area from the outside of the horse’s eye, or both eyes, the entire centre of the face and include the top of the muzzle and the nostrils. It is usual with a Bald Face for the chin to be white or to have a snip of white on it. Often one or both eyes will be blue. BLAZE The ‘blaze’ is a wide mark that extends the length of the face from the forehead, stays within the eye area, but usually includes either one or both nostrils entirely or partially. A thin facial blaze is known as a ‘race’. SNIP The ‘snip’ is a white or flesh coloured mark that begins below the edge of the nostrils to the top lip. This can extend over the top lip to include the bottom lip. STRIPE A ‘stripe’ is a thin, thick or curved vertical mark that runs down the centre of the face starting below eye level, often running into one nostril. This is usually accompanied by a star or snip. STAR A ‘star’ is a white mark of any shape, usually directly between the two eyes and can be large or small in shape and size. Quite often these facial marks can be oval, diamond, fan, triangular, round or irregular in shape but will still be referred to as a ‘star’.

FACIAL MARKINGS

Top left Top right Middle Bottom left Bottom right

-

Star Race Snip Blaze Bald face


LEG MARKINGS White leg markings extend to or from and include the coronet regardless of where they begin or end on the leg. HEEL A white mark that crosses the entire heel or only on a side of the heel. As the heel is divided into two parts, the marking can be either ‘inside’ or ‘outside’ the heel CORONET The coronet is the area that surrounds and connects the hoof to the leg where the hair begins. A white marking can circle the entire coronet or partially. Sometimes ‘ermine marks’, small black or dark spots, are found within the white markings. PASTERN This covers the area that extends from the top of the hoof to the fetlock joint. This entire section can be white but this does not extend over the fetlock joint. HALF-PASTERN

Only half of the pastern is white.

SOCK A sock marking extends from the coronet to over the fetlock joint. STOCKING coronet.

A stocking covers the entire lower leg and extends from the knee or hock joint to

BOOTED The entire lower leg is white from above the knee or hock joint, sometimes including the stifle area, extending to the coronet. HALF STOCKING The lower leg is white, but only extends mid-way up the cannon bone from the coronet.

WHITE LEG MARKINGS Top

- left to right:

1. Heel; 2. Coronet; 3. Pastern; 4. Half-Pastern Bottom – left to right 1. Sock; 2. Half-stocking; 3. Stocking


GENETICS BRIEFLY

BREEDING APPALOOSAS

NECESSARY VACCINATIONS AND INOCULATIONS

Lulus IVORY QUEEN (Breeder : M Serdyn)


GENETICS - BRIEFLY Appaloosa breeding – characteristics and colour Although this chapter only touches the subject of genetics and the Appaloosa, the intention is to cover the aspects that are pertinent to the layman in an easy-tounderstand language. It is not possible to discuss the Appaloosa gene in its entirety here, as the subject would necessitate a book of its own plus there is still much research currently underway regarding this elusive colour gene. Simply put - this breed of horse is a distinct ‘type’, which breeds true to itself. As many breeders have already discovered, blending two loudly coloured Appaloosas together does not always mean the resulting product will be a loudly coloured foal whilst two Appaloosas with very little colour may produce a brightly coloured foal. It is rather like rolling two dice: one might get the high numbers (colour) or one may get the low numbers (marginal or solid colour). Leopard to Leopard pattern mating can, but fortunately not often, result in a solid coloured foal with few of the other characteristics, i.e. mottled skin, white sclera, parti coloured skin or striped hooves. Breeding an Appaloosa means careful consideration of the breed standard, type, characteristics, patterns and personality. Progress can be made if one has a clear idea of what one is aiming for in future progeny. Out-crossing always means diluting the Appaloosa type and one must think of the effect out-crossing can have on the breed in the future as all breeding undertaken now will impact on later generations. Obviously one will stay within the breed standard and utilise outcrosses that are accepted by the breed society in the event of using another breed within the breeding program. A serious Appaloosa breeder will try to uncover as much of the history of the horse that they wish to breed with, to establish coat pattern and colour within that particular line. Although it is not possible to predict the foals exact colour and pattern beforehand, a higher percentage of the pattern and colour one is seeking will be obtained if the sire and dam are selected for coat pattern, colour of base coat and their respective family colour trends. Character and personality of the stallion and mare are essential as this is one of the strongest Appaloosa traits and will certainly be carried through to the offspring. A homozygous stallion with good modifiers crossed to mare of likewise ancestors should produce likeness of parents. Appaloosa colour patterns crossed with solid other breed horses produce a mixture of coat patterns, including a high percentage of solid coats. Each horse carries genes in pairs and each gene is made of two allele. At the time of fertilization, the stallion passes on one allele from a gene pair to the offspring, likewise with the mare


Of all the coat patterns, the Leopard pattern is the most consistent and the blanket pattern the most inconsistent as it seldom breeds true to the sire and dam coat patterns. The blanket is either smaller or larger and it appears that a different gene is responsible for the size and number of the spots contained within the blanket. One cannot tell by looking at an Appaloosa whether it is homozygous (with two doses of the colour gene) or heterozygous (one dose of the colour gene) but generally Few Spot Leopard patterns are homozygous and less coloured, mottled skin horses lacking the usual characteristics, tend to be heterozygous. It holds true that the larger the amount of white in the coat pattern of the parents plus the necessary characteristics, the higher the chance is for the foal to have colour. A solid or marginally coloured Appaloosa with all the characteristics may throw foals with good colour, or no colour at all. A homozygous horse will produce only coloured and patterned foals. To test whether an appaloosa horse is homozygous, it must produce 11 foals from solid out-crosses which in turn must produce coloured or patterned foals. (This would include solid or marginal coat patterns that colour in at a later age). An Appaloosa stallion bred to solid coloured Appaloosa mares that produces 11 coloured foals is considered homozygous. An Appaloosa with any coat pattern may be mated with other solid coloured horses and could produce its own pattern, as well as every other pattern type that can be found in the breed, in the resulting offspring. There is no doubt that the contrast of a white blanket, with or without spots, on a dark base coat is striking and one might wonder why breeding to solid Appaloosas or other solid breed horses is necessary. The reason is that when purebred Appaloosas are bred to purebred Appaloosas year after year, the white (w) factor increases and slowly the contrast of the coat pattern is lost. This results in an increase of Few Spot Leopard patterns. It is interesting to note the Lipizzaner horse breed had many spotted pattern coats in their foundation stock. In nature, the male of some species (i.e. birds) have more colour than the females. This could be that the brightly coloured male draws attention away from the breeding or nesting mother and young, thus distracting any predator’s eye. It holds true with the Appaloosa horse in that the male is generally more colourful than the female possibly for the same reason although there is no longer a predator situation as such. Geneticists have endeavoured, over the years, to understand the complexity of the range of patterns found in this breed to establish whether each pattern had a different genetic make-up but it appears that these patterns all fall under the same dominant gene.


There are breeding records of solid Appaloosa to solid Appaloosa resulting in coloured progeny, though this is not common. Breeding with a solid coloured Appaloosa does not mean that the quality of the breed diminishes (but it does reintroduce the solid gene) which generally originally resulted from out-crossing to other breeds. One has not failed in a breeding program with ones stock when solid coloured offspring are produced. If they do not change coat colour, these foals usually have characters that make up for lack of colour and in turn will produce colourful foals when selectively used in future breeding programs. It has been recorded that the Nez Perce Indians were very selective horse breeders; they gelded inferior or solid coloured stallions. Using this criteria over an extended period, a very strong genetic pool developed – so strong that even after many years of out-crossing to other breed horses by the white settlers in America in an attempt to eradicate the Appaloosa, the characteristics and colours were never lost and even today, a beautiful colourful Appaloosa foal will pop up after years of solid out-crossing.

Two well marked near-leopard foals.


BREEDING APPALOOSAS Some hints and suggestions Before one starts breeding horses, particularly with Appaloosas, there are many issues that should be addressed. The very first of these could be: Can one afford to breed horses? Not everyone has the good fortune of owning land to run horses on and many horse owners keep their horses stabled at private livery yards with high costs of fodder and labour which is expensive. Taking a mare to a stallion (or the AI process) involves the costs of dourine tests, travelling, service fees, vaccinations, vet fees, stabling and mare care. Obviously if one has their own stallion, mares and some grazing land, the costs are appreciably lower. Planning ahead: Breeding horses, especially of a particular breed, is no simple matter. The genetics of the breed must be considered. One needs plenty of space and time. One must ascertain the lineage of both the Sire and the Dam before breeding and assess each horse, not only for its best qualities but also for faults and possible defects. A first class stallion of exceptional conformation, nature and characteristics may improve offspring from an inferior mare but it is preferable to use only the best stock with traceable history and bloodlines. Breeding may appear as easy as putting the mare to a stallion and waiting for the result but if the foal is of poor quality, this foal will not be of saleable or breeding type and will certainly not improve the breed, nor will it show that any consideration went in the selection of the Sire and Dam. A ‘poor’ quality foal will also reflect negatively against the breeding stallion or mare as well as the Stud. Start with an idea of what you want to breed, in so far as coat colour pattern. Do you want to breed leopard or blanket pattern Appaloosas? Whichever the case, one must select breeding stock from these particular lines, or as near as possible. If you are buying young stock, remember that these horses will have to be well cared for until breeding age. Sometimes a colt can cover mares as early as 10 months old so a separate camp for the colt is necessary. It is a breed society requirement that colts and fillies are at least two years of age and in good condition before being used for breeding purposes - this age criteria allows for a head start in the good growth and development of breeding stock. Many stud owners and breeders will only consider using their stock for breeding purposes once the horses have reached three years of age and may only use a brood mare every second year instead of each year depending on the condition of the mare and foal. Take a critical look at both the stallion and the mare you intend to use, consider the standards as laid out by the breed society and compare your stock carefully with the requirements.


A stallion with a short back, short pasterns and a small neat head may offset a long back, long pasterns and a larger head in the mare, with the resultant foal often showing the best conformation qualities of the both parents. Take time to select a stallion, look at his progeny is there are any available and when you have decided, make enquiries well in advance as the stallion may be booked for the breeding Season (sometimes up to a year in advance) or there may be no space available to take another mare for covering. Establish that the stallion does belong to the Stud owner and if not, that the stallion may be used for covering your mare and that you are entitled to the stallion-covering certificate. Ascertain the correct stud fee, mare care costs, etc. The stallion owner may recommend that you insure your mare for the duration of her stay and ask you to sign an indemnity form. It is usual that the stud offer a free service to the mare if she is tested not in-foal after the initial covering. Keep a note of the mare’s oestrous (heat or season) cycle. Typical oestrous lasts 5 days, with 15 days (dioestrus) until the next cycle. These dates are of great help to the stallion owner and may also correctly establish the predicted due date of the foal. Mares should be used to handling before they go to the stallion and the mare owner should inform the handler if the mare is a maiden mare or if she kicks or has any other vices. Ideally the mare should be unshod before going to the stud. Breeders should have long-term goals and plan their foal crops several years in advance. The genetic pool in South Africa is small, therefore one has to look at the bloodlines that are available to ensure that there will not be close in-breeding. Selective and planned line-breeding is acceptable though as well as out-crossing to ‘approved’ (AHBSSA) other horse breeds, to improve stock where necessary. Checking your market Having an idea of what you would like to produce is important and consideration must go into what the current market trend is, i.e.: Western Riding, Dressage, Eventing, Endurance, Utility, Show Jumping, In-hand-showing, etc. On an almost annual basis, trends towards a particular type or breed of horse change. Warmbloods and Thoroughbreds have always been very popular but expensive to keep and with the change in the economic climate in South Africa, many people are considering hardier breeds. * * * * *

Does your stock fill the need of what is currently in vogue and selling? Will you be able to sell young stock easily in the area in which you are living? Is height a prerequisite? Can you afford to keep foals for some length of time before they are sold? Do you have enough land to run your stock on and is the grazing of adequate quality to sustain horses for some period of time?

These are some pertinent questions for a breeder to consider beforehand.


Breeding with horses is expensive. Each mare can only produce a foal every 11 months and the foal will probably be at least six months old before weaning and possible sale. Keeping healthy breeding stock Whether your breeding stock is stabled, kept in camps or large grazing areas, it is vitally important to consider the role nutrition plays in bringing out a foal’s full potential. One should consider the best situation for the mare in-foal and for the mare with foal-at-foot, the best time of the year for foaling down and the time of year when good fodder is available. Poor nutrition could result in under developed growth and abilities. Under nourished mares often have under sized foals with crooked legs, poor hoof shape plus a number of other problems (not including genetically inherited faults). These problems may have been avoided if the correct feed, vitamins and mineral supplements had been supplied or available. South African soils are most often deficient in calcium and phosphorus and this may be one of the reasons that horses often do not do well on grazing lands without some additional feeding. If a good quality ration and forage is given daily, there may be no reason to give additives. Your local Veterinarian or Agricultural Department will give you advice regarding the minerals and vitamins that your horse might need in your particular area. Soils can be tested for a nominal fee and if need be, the necessary fertilisers can be applied to deficient lands to improve grazing. Extra Vitamin A should be given to horses that have large amounts of white in and around the eye as these horses can be prone to eye diseases if their diet is insufficient in this vitamin. An adequate supply of fresh clean water should be available at all times and shelter from any extreme changes in weather. Attention should be given to parasites in both stallion and mare, as this could be a reason for lowered fertility in animals. A de-worming program should be followed for each horse, including foals. Inoculations and vaccinations must be kept up to date. Testing for Dourine (CEM and EHV where necessary) is vital for all breeding stock. All breeding stock should be: a. b. c. d. e. f.

Tested and certified free of dourine; Free of parasites; Free of unsoundness/defects and diseases; In good condition but not over fat; Of the necessary breed conformation or other criteria; Vaccinated/Inoculated against AHS (African Horse Sickness) and Equine Influenza

If your horse is infertile, consider the above information. If none of this applies, have your horse checked by a Veterinarian to ascertain why a horse may be infertile.


Once the stallion has covered a mare, it is recommended that your Veterinarian check the mare to ascertain whether she is in-foal or not. This will save a lot of time and disappointment and is a relatively simple and inexpensive procedure, either by sonar scanning or a rectal examination. A mare can be lightly exercised or ridden at least until they are 5 months in-foal. Carrying a foal plus a rider is hard work so the mare should be rested and left to get on with its natural business. The mare will require extra feed and nutriments during the last three months. They should be well covered but not overly fat whilst in foal.

NECESSARY VACCINATIONS AND INOCULATIONS This section briefly deals with the vaccinations that are necessary on an annual or biannual basis. AHS (African Horse Sickness) African Horse Sickness reached epidemic proportions in the Cape Colony as early as 1719 when some 1 700 were lost to this disease. As there were no vaccinations at that time, Commando operations had to be carefully planned not to coincide with the outbreak of the sickness that could leave many men un-mounted. During the summer of 1854/5, it is claimed that around 70 000 horses dies of the disease due to favourable climatic conditions. During 1996, an outbreak of AHS occurred in the regions of Gauteng, kwaZulu-Natal, Northern Province, Mpumalanga, Northwest, Free State, Northern Cape and Eastern Cape. Some 300 horses died. In 1999, the Western Cape Province reported the first AHS case in that area for many years. It was quickly contained and the movement of horses into that area is now strictly monitored. A further outbreak in the Malmesbury area in 2000 brought about a ban on horse movement in certain regions of the Cape. Horses were allowed in the Cape Province from other regions only once the necessary approved vaccinations have been done and travel document has been issued. In early 2004, AHS broke out in Stellenbosch, Cape Town and several horses died as a result. At the beginning of the 20th century, much research was done on AHS and the first vaccinations became available, though not 100% successful. Onderstepoort Veterinarian Institute discovered further strains of the virus and developed the vaccine which now covers many strains of the virus and has bought it under control to a great degree. It appears that there is a cycle of approximately 20 years between outbreaks. AHS is a virus that is transmitted through the bite of a species of midge, Culicoides. The female midge is the carrier. Vaccinations are done at the beginning of spring, (August to September), depending on the region. It is necessary when transporting horses between regions to have a valid, current AHS certificate supplied by a Veterinarian with the passport and travel or movement document approved by the State Veterinarian.


Some precautions along with the vaccinations are suggested: 

Stable horses before sunset to after sunrise each day,

Switch off all lights at stable yard,

Apply insect repellent to the horse before sunset each day,

Apply insecticide to all possible breeding sites of the midge.

EQUINE INFLUENZA It is necessary for all horses to be inoculated against Equine Influenza as it is a highly infectious disease. After the initial dose, a further booster vaccination is necessary. The Equine Influenza vaccination must be at intervals not exceeding six months. Care must be taken when transporting or moving horses, particularly to shows, other stable yards or Stud farms. The symptoms of Influenza are: fever, nasal discharge, hacking cough, shivering, lack of appetite and inflamed throat. Coughing may last several weeks. For horses attending shows, evidence of current vaccinations must be entered into their Passport. DOURINE Dourine is a form of Equine syphilis and very contagious. It is transmitted during covering and can kill up to 70% of infected animals. The State Veterinarian will impose severe and drastic measures if infected animals are used for breeding purposes, in that euthanasia may be the only option. Stallions will be gelded if tested positive for Dourine. CHRONIC EQUINE HERPES SYNDROME (CEHS) This virus causes abortion, eruptions under the skin and mucous membrane and snotty noses. Any horses showing these symptoms should be checked by a Veterinarian and not used for breeding until tests show negative. TETANUS Tetanus (lockjaw) is a disease caused by bacteria living in the soil and body tissues where there is no oxygen. All horses should have the anti tetanus serum after open wound injury. Foals are vulnerable during the first 6 weeks of life as bacteria can enter through the umbilicus. Vaccination provides lasting immunisation but annual boosters are necessary.


CEM (CONTAGIOUS EQUINE METRITIS)

CEM is an acute, highly contagious venereal disease of equines and zebras caused by a gram negative bacterium, Taylorella equigenitalis. It is characterised by a mucopurulent vaginal discharge and early return to oestrus in most affected mares. Infected stallions and chronically infected mares may not show clinical signs. CEM will show in the mare’s inability to conceive, embryonic loss, and there will be heavy financial costs related to repeat breeding and treatment. In order to determine the extent of the infection and to protect the equine industry in South Africa, every stallion, irrespective of the breed, should be tested at least twice at an interval of no less than 7 (seven) days and have negative results for both CEM tests prior to breeding or semen collection. All stallions should be screened for CEM annually from 1 July to 31 September, prior to the breeding season.

PSSM (Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy) This disorder is inherited in Quarter Horses and breeding individuals with PSSM have produced affected offspring. Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of the normal form of sugar stored in muscle (glycogen) as well as an abnormal form of sugar (polysaccharide) in muscle tissue PSSM is a muscle disease in horses such as Quarter Horses, American Paint Horses and Appaloosas. Horses with PSSM have signs typically associated with tying-up. These signs are most commonly muscle stiffness, sweating, and reluctance to move. During an episode, horses seem lazy, have a shifting lameness, tense up their abdomen and develop tremors in their flank area. When the horse stops moving it often stretches out as if to urinate. The horse is painful, stiff, sweats profusely and has firm hard muscles, particularly over their hindquarters. Some horses will try pawing and rolling immediately after exercise. The urine in such horses is often coffee colored, due to muscle proteins being released into the bloodstream and passed into the urine. This is a serious situation as it can damage the horse's kidneys if they become dehydrated. Very young foals with PSSM occasionally show signs of severe muscle pain and weakness. This usually occurs if they have a concurrent infection such as pneumonia. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) is a completely separate muscle disorder in Quarter Horses from PSSM. The two diseases have different clinical signs, different causes and different treatments


APPALOOSA HORSE BREED STANDARD REGISTRATION PROCEDURE

PHOTOGRAPHS FOR REGISTRATION AND INSPECTION

APPENDIX GRADING IRIP DETAILS


THE APPALOOSA HORSE BREED STANDARD DESCRIPTION OF THE BREED TYPE

 OVERALL - a medium weight, medium size, versatile riding horse  PACES - powerful, elevated, free, straight movement with no exaggerated knee, toe or hock action  TEMPERAMENT - gentle, co-operative, alert and attentive  CONSTITUTION - a tough, hardy horse with stamina  HEIGHT - over 14 hands high at 4 years old with no upper height limit  Mane and tail may be brittle and sparse  No pony or draught horse characteristics CONFORMATION A sturdy, balanced and well proportioned horse with correct conformation.        

The head is straight and lean the throat latch is clean the neck set fairly high onto sloping shoulder with prominent wither a short straight back, deep body and strong hindquarters a sloping, not level croup the limbs are strong, joints, ligaments and tendons well-defined the fetlocks free of excessive hair the hooves are tough and well shaped

COLOUR  any recognised Appaloosa coat colour or any solid colour bred Appaloosa  no albino, grey, piebald or skewbald (i.e. patches of black or white rather than spots)  Solid coloured horses with Appaloosa parentage are only eligible for Certified Pedigree Option (CPO) registration  Mottling and/or parti-coloured skin on bare skin of muzzle, genitalia and around the eyes may be present  Eyes dark or blue (wall eye) normally with white sclera present  Hooves black, white or striped


THE REGISTRATION PROCEDURE To become a registered member (Owner or Breeder) of the Appaloosa Horse Breeders Society of South Africa (AHBSSA) an APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP Form must be completed and returned to the Secretary. To become a Registered Breeder, application must be made to the South African Stud Book and Livestock Improvement Association by the Registrations Manager/Secretary of the AHBSSA. The AHBSSA has full Registration and International recognition with the S.A. Stud Book and Livestock Improvement Association. A Membership Number will be issued to you for both of the above Associations. When registering an Appaloosa or one of the approved out-crosses for breeding purposes, the REGISTRATION APPLICATION forms must be completed and the applicant should be a fully paid up member with the AHBSSA. In the event of out-crossing to another horse breed, the following registered horse breeds have been approved by the AHBSSA. These horses must be registered with their own breed society. Appaloosa Horse/Sport horse:

Appaloosa pony:

American Quarter Horse Arabian Horse Thoroughbred Horse Warmblood Horse

Welsh Pony (Section A, B, C) Connemara Pony Dartmoor Pony New Forest Pony

Horses and part-breeds that are ineligible for registration with the AHBSSA are: Draft horse and draft horse crosses Percherons, Clydesdales, Shires, Etc., Skewbalds, Piebalds, Pintos, Paints, etc. Grey horses

The REGISTRATION APPLICATION forms must both be completed, with diagrams and markings correctly filled in and 4 clear photographs of the horse, 20 or more hairs with roots for DNA, a completed and signed INSPECTION Form and, in the case of out-crossing, a certified copy of that horses Registration Certificate must accompany this form. When registering an Appaloosa foal that is under 3 months of age, a BIRTH NOTIFICATION/REGISTRATION APPLICATION Form must be completed with diagrams and markings correctly filled in. An official COVERING CERTIFICATE, 4 clear photographs of the foal plus at least 20 hairs with roots for DNA, must accompany this form. A copy of the Birth Notification/Registration Application will be sent to the S.A. Stud Book and Livestock Improvement Association.


All INSPECTION REPORT Forms must be completed and signed by the relevant inspector for AHBSSA or a qualified Veterinarian Surgeon and sent to the Society. The NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES Form is to be completed, including all diagrams and markings, for the following changes: Transfer of Ownership; Gelding/Spaying of horse Stillborn Foal Death of Horse Theft of Horse Colour Change Other In the event of Transfer of Ownership, the Seller is responsible for submitting the form and Certificate of Pedigree and Transfer fees to the AHBSSA. There are 4 Appaloosa horse sections in the Registry of the AHBSSA, these being divided by height and where necessary, out-cross horse breed used: (MA) MINIATURE APPALOOSAS – 9hh and below; (AP) APPALOOSA PONIES – 14,2hh and below; (AH) APPALOOSA HORSES – 14,2hh and upward, and (AHS) APPALOOSA SPORT HORSES - 15,2hh and upward. To be eligible for proper registration with the AHBSSA, a horse must display one of the Appaloosa characteristics Horses that display recognisable Appaloosa coat patterns or mottled/parti coloured skin with one other characteristic, will receive normal registration with the AHBSSA. Horses that do not display any Appaloosa patterns or characteristics may be registered for breeding purposes in the (B) BASIC Section, at the discretion of the Registrations Manager.

Official Covering Certificates A Covering Certificate for a registered Appaloosa stallion can only be issued completed and signed by a Registered Appaloosa Breeder. At the time of covering, the mare owner is given a copy of the Covering Certificate, which must be submitted with the resultant foals Birth Notification/Registration Application. The stallion owner will send a copy of the Certificate to the AHBSSA Registration Manager before the 31 st July of the current breeding season. This ensures that the correct breeding has taken place.


PHOTOGRAPHS FOR REGISTRATION/INSPECTION Four clear colour photographs are required for each horse. The four consist of: FRONT : the horse must face the camera, feet and ears clearly shown within the frame. The horses’ head should be forward but slightly turned to the side, showing all facial markings and visible white sclera; BACK : taken from behind the horse, with quarters and feet within the frame. The horse must stand with its’ legs straight. If markings need to be shown under the dock or inner leg area, (i.e. Parti-coloured skin), have a helper hold the tail to the side; BOTH SIDES : a photograph of both sides of the horse. Ears, feet, head and tail to be within frame. Horse should stand with a front and hind leg slightly forward to show markings on inside of other legs. Head must be upright and not grazing or eating from a bucket. Extra photographs may need to be included if the horse has any other feature that needs inclusion on the Registration/Birth Notification Application. This could be for blue eyes, bottom lip markings, barely discernible white hair in the coat or a brand mark. Each photograph must be labelled with the name of the horse and the owners name or Stud Prefix. The Owner, a Veterinarian or Senior AHBSSA Inspector must sign one of the photographs stating the photograph is a true likeness of the particular horse SOME TIPS: When taking photographs of horses, try to keep background outlines and shadows to a minimum - a simple background such as a stable wall, (not the same colour as the horse), is ideal. Stand the horse on a concrete or brick surface so that the lower legs and feet are not covered by grass. The sun should be behind the photographer. Shadows cast over the horse will obscure markings and coat patterns. Early morning or late afternoon is the ideal time for taking photographs. The entire horse must be in the frame. If the horse needs to be held, have a calm helper to make the horse stand as still as possible. When the horse faces the camera, have a helper shake a bucket of food or crinkle some paper so that the horse looks interested, with ears pricked forward giving an alert appearance.


APPENDIX GRADING

The Appendix Grading system has replaced the previous grading system.  Appendix A (F1 and F2) : The progeny of any Appendix Grade registered Appaloosa horse crossed with a horse of another breed, (which must be registered with its own Breed Registry): Stud Book Proper Appendix B Appendix A

X Other Breed X Other Breed X Other Breed

Progeny - Appendix A

 Appendix B (F3) : The progeny of any registered Appaloosa crossed with an Appaloosa registered in Appendix A:

Stud Book Proper Appendix B Appendix A

X Appendix A X Appendix A X Appendix A

Progeny - Appendix B

 Stud Book Proper (F4):

The progeny of any Stud Book Proper registered Appaloosa crossed with an appaloosa registered in Appendix B or Stud Book Proper

Stud Book Proper X Appendix B Stud Book Proper X Stud Book Proper

Progeny - Stud Book Proper (SP)

 Basic Section (I.D.): Any acceptable registered horse from another horse breed used in the breeding program.


International Registration Incentive Program (IRIP) Appaloosa Horse Club (ApHC) Accepts Appaloosa Horse Breeders’ Society of South Africa (AHBSSA) Into the International Registration Incentive Program (IRIP) In March, 2007, the ApHC accepted the Main Registry of AHBSSA into the IRIP program. IRIP is designed to allow the owners of horses registered by select International Affiliates of ApHC that did not conform to ApHC bloodline requirements (currently Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, and South Africa) the opportunity to obtain International Registration Incentive Program Certificates for those animals. The IRIP horses will join Jockey Club registered Thoroughbreds, purebred Arabians, and American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) registered Quarter Horses as ApHC Approved Outcross Breeds. When bred to an ApHC registered horse with Regular Registration Papers (i.e., colour or characteristics meeting ApHC standards), the offspring of an IRIP horse will be eligible for full ApHC registration. The owner of a horse registered in Appendix A, Appendix B, or Studbook Proper of the AHBSSA Main Registry does not have to be a member of ApHC to obtain an IRIP certificate for the horse. There is a flat fee of USA $50.00 for the IRIP process. In addition, there are currently no DNA requirements and solid colour horses will be granted IRIP certificates if they meet ApHC requirements. NOTE: IRIP horses may not compete in ApHC Approved shows or events because they are considered an Outcross Breed. The owner of a horse registered in Appendix A, Appendix B, or Studbook Proper that already meets ApHC bloodline requirements (i.e. ApHC x ApHC or ApHC x Thoroughbred, pure Arab, or AQHA) must Re-Register that animal instead of applying for IRIP. The advantage to Re-Registration is that the horse receives full ApHC privileges. Fees for Re-Registration are currently USA $65.00 for ApHC members and USA $135 for non-members. It is actually slightly cheaper for an owner of a horse or horses eligible for Re-registration to join ApHC for a year (USA $55.00) which entitles that person to the Appaloosa Journal On Line and member rates for all aspects of working with ApHC. Owners of geldings or spayed mares may obtain ApHC Hardship Registration for their horses even if they are not currently AHBSSA registered if the animal meets ApHC registration requirements and are then eligible to compete in ApHC approved shows or events. These three ways to obtain ApHC recognition for horses with Appaloosa colour or that meet ApHC bloodline requirements open up a new dimension for Appaloosa breeders or individuals who would like to add some colour to their Western and Reining horses. There is a growing market for Reining horses with colour in the European Union. At this time, horses from South Africa can be exported to the European Union as the African Horse Sickness (AHS) ban has been lifted. If EU riders and breeders can locate ApHC registered Appaloosas that have outstanding conformation, colour, and the talent for Reining and Western Pleasure in South Africa, the favourable exchange rate between the Rand and Euro will give South African horses the edge in a growing International market. (For additional information on IRIP, Re-Registration, or Hardship Registration, go to http://www.appaloosa.com/ or contact registration@appaloosa.com or contact Danie Louw, President of AHBSSA, at 051 713 0463, 082 853 4664 or perdeberg@vodamail.co.za)


SHOWING THE APPALOOSA

DRESS CODES FOR THE SHOW

Kiowa SAHARA – Multiple Champion Mare Rider C Nightingale


SHOWING THE APPALOOSA

(See also TIPS ON SHOWING pg 100 onwards)

Is your Appaloosa ready for a Horse Show? This is the time to assess carefully and honestly, whether or not your Appaloosa is of show quality type as well as a fine example of the Appaloosa horse breed with excellent conformation, movement and behaviour. The principal idea behind a Show is to improve on the type or breed of a particular horse. Appaloosa owners and breeders can benefit from these Shows, which are an incentive to produce the Best of the Breed according to the Breed Standards. The value of the horse increases once it becomes a Winner of the classes it enters and in turn, the progeny from this horse will benefit. A Judge will detect conformation faults and any unsoundness immediately even if the horse has an outstanding coat colour or a wonderful temperament. The horse can be prepared for Shows at any early age by way of:    

Being taught to box easily; Being confident with other horses and people; Standing still for inspection; Having good manners when being handled And most importantly -

Being in the best condition possible for Shows.

Smaller Shows are an excellent starting place for your horse and yourself so as to understand the routine, the Judge’s expectations and also for gaining more confidence. Your horse must be in peak show condition. This can only be achieved with months of preparation beforehand. Decide carefully and critically which class your horse will be best suited for, as once this has been established, one can work towards a goal. Usually ‘Novice Class’ Judges are more lenient with the lack of experience in both horse and handler. In ‘Open Classes’ however, a polished performance is expected. Determine what will be expected from horse and rider/handler well in advance for each particular class insofar as Walk, Trot, etc. A routine should be practised several times a week with the horse so that on the day of the Show, the whole performance will be one of smoothness and confidence. If possible, take your horse to a Show as a spectator only – you may both learn a lot from this.


What to do in advance of the Show

Remember to collect and complete your Entry Forms for the Show and send them, with the fee or Proof of Payment, to the necessary Show Organiser before Close of Entry date. Ascertain the facilities at the Show Grounds such as, stabling, exercise area, water points, etc., as you may need to arrive the night before the Show or require these on the day of the Show. Check accommodation for yourself and your grooms. Take extra bedding for the stable if this is not supplied, feed and grass for the horse, buckets, blankets, tack (including extras for emergencies), grooming equipment and a first aid box. (See quick check list further in Chapter). If you are attending a two or three day Show, ensure that the stable is paid for and booked in advance for the duration of the show. Grooms rooms can sometimes be provided. Arrive early at the Show grounds so that there is plenty of time to prepare properly and also that the horse is comfortable with the new surroundings. If you are trucking your own horse, ensure that the trailer is road-worthy, the brakes and lights are working, the ramp is secure, tyres are pumped to correct pressure (including the spare tyre) and that there is a jack and wheel spanner in the box. If someone else is collecting the horse, ensure that they will arrive in good time in case of last minute loading problems. It is worth the effort to teach a horse to load well in advance of the Show day, if at all possible. The horse must be ready for the journey by way of tail bandage, travelling boots or leg bandages and a poll guard. A light blanket will keep some of the dust of the coat, particularly for those travelling on sand / gravel roads. Tack must be cleaned and oiled. Every buckle should be polished. Ideally, in Ridden Classes, the numnah and girth should be as near as possible the same colour of the coat of the horse. Coloured girths can often distract the Judges eye. Preparing the horse for the Show Weeks before the Show, the horse should be groomed regularly. This improves the condition of the coat as well as toning muscles. It also makes last minute work a lot easier. Several months before the Show, the horse should start being exercised to improve muscle tone and food should be increased according to the horse’s fitness level and general overall appearance. Be careful not to over-feed immediately before the Show as the horse may end up being fizzy, over-excited and difficult to handle. In the weeks preceding the Show, the horse should be put through the paces that will be expected in whichever classes have been entered. This ensures that both you and the horse are comfortable with what is expected in the Show Ring/Arena. A horse should be neither fat nor thin but well covered and healthy. The Judge does not like an overly fat or a thin horse. Shampoo the horse a week before the show, loosening grit and removing marks on the coat. Shampoo again the day before the show, if possible. Today one can buy shampoo


that does not strip the coat and leave the hair dull. There are shampoos available for almost every coat colours and these enhance the coat and leave it shining and smooth. Take a little shampoo to use at the Show; there may be marks that need to be removed at the last minute. Rug the horse overnight or before the class if need be, to keep the coat clean. White socks and stockings can be brightened with a final rinse of laundry ‘blue’ or a mild dilution of Gentian Violet mixed in the water. One can use coat shine on the coat before the class, especially on the legs if they are dark. Baby oil can also be used on the coat, around the eyes (not too much here), muzzle, dock and inner ear areas. Hooves Hooves should be cleaned and sanded lightly, dried and then oiled, blackened or in the case of light coloured or striped hooves, sprayed with clear lacquer spray (this to be done a few minutes before the class and left to dry for a few minutes. If done too early, the lacquer either picks up dust or rubs off). Get the Farrier to trim or shoe the horse at least a week before the Show as this will give one time to correct any minor problems that could occur. Check there are no loose shoes or nails on the morning of the Show. At most Shows, there usually will be a Farrier on duty. Manes and Tails If the horse is shown in the Native Breed class, it can have a loose mane and tail. Wash mane and tail and use hair conditioner or fabric softener as a final rinse. Tidy up and make neat by pulling hair that is sticking out, otherwise hairspray or hair gel applied to the area will work to keep stray hairs in place. Bang or swish the end of the tail or leave it natural. For sparse tails, shampoo with ‘bay rum’ (available at most Chemists) as this gives the hair extra volume. Plaiting the tail improves the look of the hindquarters and gives a tidy appearance of the tail. Hair extensions for the tail can be used if done professionally and neatly. If the mane is to be plaited it is best left for the morning of the Show. It usually takes about an hour to plait the mane and forelock. If done the night before, use old stockings (cut into small pieces), cling wrap or a neck and head cover, to protect the plaits from being rubbed out during the night. Generally is it accepted that there is an uneven number of mane plaits, with the forelock making an even number – 13 – 15 plaits most often but dependant on the length or shortness of the horse’s neck (13 for longer necks and 15 for shorter necks). Carefully comb out the mane when it is ready for plaiting, pull hair if the mane is too thick. It is best to start to pull the mane a little each day for a week or two before the show so that it is not too painful for the horse. Once the hair is the right length and thickness, divide mane hair with elastics before plaiting. Apply hair spray or gel to each length before plaiting. One can use elastics for each plait or sew the plaits in with thread.


If you are not sure how to do this, either ask how to do plaiting or watch someone else whilst they are plaiting. Plaiting is done to show the neck of the horse clearly to the Judge. Assess the neck of your horse carefully. A lot of small plaits can give the appearance of a longer neck and fewer plaits make a longer neck look shorter. QUICK CHECK LIST                     

Passport (for the horse) Vaccination/Inoculation Certificate Registration and Height Certificate (if necessary) Tack – saddle, bridle, halter, extra lead rein, etc. Sweat sheet or blanket Grooming kit and cloths for cleaning Buckets Showing Clothes – also for the handler Hoof oil/blackener/clear lacquer/sand paper Haynet with length of orange (baling) string First Aid kit (including scissors) Insect repellent – Tabard stick is great Coat shine/baby oil/Vaseline Horse food and hay Safety pins/string (for number) Show schedule A friend with a camera (there is no guarantee of a Photographer on duty at any Show) A watch or clock Extra money Gazebo/fold-up chairs Hat

AT THE SHOW GROUND o o o o o o o o o o o o

Arrive well in advance of your class time. Unload your horse and have your groom/assistant stand quietly with him. Check in with the Show Secretary and collect your Competitor number for the class. Pin (or tie) the number onto the back of your jacket. Make sure of which arena is hosting your class, where it is situated and what time the class is. Check whether you need a hard-hat for the IN HAND classes. Ascertain whether there is a Farrier and Veterinarian on duty (if necessary) for the duration of the Show. Check that both you and your horse are ready for the Show Ring. Walk the horse quietly around so he gets used to everything. On entering the Ring/Arena, listen carefully to the Stewards, Runners, Secretary or Judge when they explain what they expect from each Competitor. Between classes, loosen or remove tack from your horse and offer him water. If the next class is running late, about an hour, your horse may need his feed.


GENERAL SHOW RULES 1. Entries are restricted to Members of the relevant Breed Society and must be in good standing with them; 2. Appaloosa, Appaloosa Pony and Appaloosa Sport Horse classes are restricted to horses registered and/or birth notified with the AHBSSA. Exhibitors must be members, in good standing with the AHBSSA; 3. To be eligible for entry to compete, all Appaloosa horses must be birth notified and/or registered with the S A Stud Book; 4. The Convenor reserves the right to combine, divide or cancel classes for judging, should it be necessary; 5. The age of all horses and riders, where applicable, to be calculated from their date of birth to the closing date of entries for the particular show; 6. No horse under three (3) years of age on the closing date of entry is eligible for entry in the ridden classes; 7. In the breed classes, stallions under 4 years are to be shown in a showing halter and slip-chain, or snaffle bridle ONLY. A full double bridle may be used for Stallions over 4 years of age.

DRESS CODES FOR THE SHOW * * * * * *

* *

The general appearance of the Handler must be one of neatness, elegance and professionalism. If the weather dictates, a waistcoat and shirt is acceptable, shirt-tails are to be tucked in and only long sleeved shirts to be worn. Denims, tracksuits and safari suits are not acceptable. Only Showing canes are allowed, not whips or crops. All grooms and assistants should be turned out correctly and should understand what is expected of them Hard hats are essential for all Ridden Classes, except Western Riding. A number of Show Rules includes that IN HAND class handlers also wear hard hats – check this beforehand with the Show organizers. When in any of the Arenas, all competitors are requested to be correctly dressed according to the updated SANEF/BREED SOCIETY rules. T-shirts are strictly NOT ALLOWED.


FOR LEAD REIN CLASSES – CHILDREN AND JUNIORS : Plain dark or Tweed jacket Black, Navy or Brown Hardhat Beige, Fawn or Cream jodhpurs Black or brown Jodhpur boots White, cream or pastel shirt (discreet checks or stripes allowed) Conservative tie - pinned or stock and pin American roll collar type of shirt is permissible with pin String or leather gloves in a conservative colour Long hair tied back with hair net IN HAND CLASSES – MEN Brown or Tweed Jacket Beige Jodhpurs or breeches Long Boots Tweed cap/similar brown hat Brown or Tweed tie Cream shirt Brown gloves Showing cane

or

Black Jacket Beige jodhpurs or breeches Long boots Black hat/Hunting cap Black tie White shirt Black gloves Showing cane

Alternatives: Light trousers White shirt Dark tie Light Jacket or waistcoat Light coloured hat Light shoes (flat style)

or

Dark Trousers White shirt Dark tie Dark jacket/waistcoat Dark coloured hat Dark shoes (flat style)

Military or Police Uniform is permissible. White jodhpurs are not correct for Showing classes and only acceptable for Dressage or Jumping classes. IN HAND CLASSES – WOMEN Beige, Cream or Lemon White, Cream or Lemon shirt

or

Brown or Black long boots Tweed Jacket Brown or black riding hat Or matching neat small hat Gloves Showing Cane

Jodhpurs or breeches White, cream or lemon Showing Shirt Black Jacket Black riding hat Black gloves

Alternative: Matching Jacket and skirt Matching small hat Shoes suitable for running

or

Waistcoat and skirt Matching small hat Shoes suitable for running

Long hair should be tied up and covered with hair net. Shirtsleeves must not be rolled-up. If trousers are worn instead of a skirt, the trousers must be of a good fit with the overall appearance of neatness and professionalism.


WESTERN RIDING CLASSES Suitable Western Shirt Waistcoat Bolo tie Denims or Jeans

or

Western skirt for Ladies, Medium or long length

Western Boots/flat Leather shoes Stetson or other Western hat AMERICAN INDIAN/COSTUME CLASS This class will be judged on the most authentic American Indian attire.

THE HORSE Horses in the IN HAND and RIDDEN classes may be turned out in either English or Western standards. The rider’s attire must correspond to the turnout of the horse. Mane and tails may be plaited or shaved mane/ plaited or free tail, or natural mane and tail. Whiskers, inner ears and feathers must be neatened. Clear hoof polish/lacquer only. Horses shown In Hand should wear leather Showing Halter or a leather snaffle bridle. (See General Rules). Ridden Class horses must wear a simple snaffle bridle or double bridle. A General Purpose saddle is considered best. Western Class horses to be ridden in snaffles, bosals or curb bits with Western Saddle. Mane can be banded with tail free, or shaved mane with tail free or natural, or both mane and tail free. Clear hoof polish only. Whiskers, feathers and ears are to be neatened only. Horses in Lead-rein Classes may be ridden in a snaffle bit with lead-rein fastened onto Cavesson noseband. Horse in the American Indian/Costume Class can be ridden with a bosal and blanket or snaffle bridle and saddle depending on the horse.


FOUNDATION STOCK

IMPORTED HORSES


FOUNDATION STOCK

DOLL’S TOBY (F-3158) - U.S.A.

Blue roan with extended Spotted blanket DOB: 11.05.1960 Sire:

Toby 11 (F-113) Black roan With spotted blanket

Dam: Rileys Purple Doll (F-3156) Bay roaned out few spot

This stallion was bred by Floyd Hickman, an Appaloosa breeder of note and imported to South Africa from Florida, U.S.A in 1976. Doll’s Toby’s sire, Toby 11, traces his lineage straight back through Toby 1 to Old Blue (1906) of Blue Neck Stud, sire of Knobby (1918) a blue roan blanket. His dam, Rileys Purple Doll, who produced many champion foals, was sired by Jedriss, (AHCR #3664) a Kellog Arabian. This mare traces back to Old Blue through the George Webb Leopard. Doll’s Toby carried a loud spotted blanket gene as well as leopard pattern heritage from his dam. Doll’s Toby produced several colourful foals in the U.S.A. and was 15 years old when he arrived in S.A. Whilst at stud here, he sired foals both registered and un-registered out of Thoroughbred and American Saddler mares before his untimely death due to tick bite fever less than 18 months after his arrival. Doll’s Toby’s legacy lived on through his only surviving, registered colt foal, Toby’s Apache, out of the Thoroughbred dam Baragold. Toby’s Apache in turn, became the sire of many colourful Appaloosas in South Africa.

Toby’s Apache (AHC 001 – 15.08.1976) Dark Bay/Black spotted blanket (photo courtesy Mrs C. Amm)


AFRICA’S QUADROON - U.S.A. Bay with spotted blanket DOB : 22.04.1974 Sire: Quadroon (T148, 818) Black with spotted Blanket Dam: Slickers Tododaho (T167, 821) Brown Roan

Africa’s Quadroon was bred by Chuck Hall of Colorado, U.S.A. and as a young colt, was imported into South Africa. His Sire, Quadroon, traces back to American greats such as Ding Bob, Peter McCue and Old Fred. Slickers Tododaho, the dam of Africa’s Quadroon, traces back to Red Dog (P-55) (sire of the famous Joker B), Plaudette, Bright Eyes Brother, Peavy’s Tad and then again to Old Fred. The Appaloosa x Quarter horse bloodlines had a strong tendency towards spotted blankets on sorrel and dun base coats. A number of these horses were halter, race and performance champions. Thoroughbreds such as Song Hit and Dress Parade were some of the lines this colt also carried in his blood. Africa’s Quadroon won the title of Grand Champion colt under 3 years, at the Rustenburg Show. He stood at stud in the Orange Free State and later in Botswana and foals such as Temple Island Moonglow, Hemaroed Dullin, Alpha Quadroon’s Dallas and Dansawil Pasquanel. White stockings and Large facial markings are common in this line.

Dansawil Pasquanel (AHC 040 – 23.01.1984)

Blue roan with spotted blanket (photo courtesy Mrs S. Dummler)


SOUTHERN BEAU - U.S.A. Dark bay/Black with lace Blanket over quarters DOB: 13.05.1973 Sire: Beau Chance (AQH P-53259) Sorrel Dam: Aspen Antelope Maiden (9062) Dun spotted blanket

Southern Beau was bred by Chuck Hall in Colorado, U.S.A. and was imported into South Africa along with Doll’s Toby and Africa’s Quadroon. His sire, Beau Chance, had in his parentage many Ribbon of Merit (ROM) Quarter horses such as Slip Along Weiscamp, Nick Shoemaker, tracing back to Old Fred (1894) and the Thoroughbreds Madder Music and Brush Mount. On his dam’s side, the Cargille’s Appaloosa line was blended with the Thoroughbred lines of Night Message, Ribot and Baldric 11. This bloodline has strong palomino, dun and sorrel genes and tends towards lace blankets and extended blankets. Southern Beau ran with mares in Nqutu, kwaZulu -Natal in the late seventies and early eighties. He later stood at stud in the Free State where he sired many colourful foals, such as Alpha Beaus Dakota, Noarie Seun, Maluti Beaus Teardrop, Maluti Beaus Crystal Squaw and Beaus Former Master. He died in 1996.

Alpha Beaus Dakota (AHC 143 – 30.10.1990) Dark Bay/Black with

blank blanket (photo courtesy Mrs L. Craig)


PETER EHRLICH - U.S.A. (aka: ‘Snow Eagle’)

Chestnut snowcap Roaned out to few spot

DOB: 13.05.1974

Sire: Sequined Prince (265226) Bay leopard Dam: Artesian Belle (193226) Dark roan (photo courtesy - Spot On Appaloosa Stud)

Peter Ehrlich (aka: ‘Snow Eagle’) was bred by Palmer Jay Wagner and was later imported from the U.S.A. to South Africa in the 1970’s where initially he ran with a small herd of other Appaloosas in the area of Northern Natal. As fortune would have it, Mr D. Grobler of Spot On Stud bought the young stallion before he succumbed to tick bite fever or leopard attack. Peter Ehrlich’s sire, Sequined Prince, has an ancestry of strong colour extending back to Toby 11, Moroccan Leopard, Robins Cochise and Blue Bear. His dam’s line is no less colourful by way of Apache # 730, Randalls Silver and the Nip Lynch Leopard. The Arabian bloodlines of Oman and Jedriss feature in Artesian Belles bloodline as well. As a foal, Peter Ehrlich was a chestnut snowcap coat pattern but later roaned out to a few spot leopard. This bloodline is very colourful with leopard, near leopard and extended blankets, with or without a roan factor, being predominant. During his time at Stud he sired many colourful foals some of which include: Alpha Paleface, Spotted Warrior, Spot On Tumbleweed, Spot On Black Eagle and Nightingales Indian Alphabet.

Alpha Paleface Dark or Liver Chesnut lace blanket


FAIRLAYNE – S.A.

Chestnut Roan few spot DOB: Unknown (1960’s) Sire: Unknown Dam: Unknown

Photograph of Fairlayne with colt foal – Middlepunt Prins (Photo courtesy Mr. H. Oosthuizen)

The fewspot mare, Fairlayne with her leopard coloured colt foal, was discovered near Excelsior in the Free State and after negotiation with the owner of the mare and foal, Mr H. Oosthuizen went home with one of the foundation Appaloosa horses of his stud. It can only be presumed that Fairlayne’s bloodlines trace back to some of the first Appaloosa horses that arrived in this country during the Boer war and the Rebellion. It is known that some of this stock was sent to the district Ventersburg, where in time, a breeding herd had developed. Over the following years, several horses from this herd were sold on to farmers in the Oodendalsrus, Heilbron, Kroonstad areas and other regions of the Free State. It appeared that regardless of the stallion used, Fairlayne would prove her strong heritage by throwing foals with Appaloosa colour, characteristics and traits. To name few of Fairlayne’s progeny: Smoke Signals (aka: Middlepunt Spookie), Middlepunt Vonk, Spot On Gypsy and Alpha Loosha (aka: Middlepunt Bettie).

Middlepunt Vonk (AHC 339 – (1970’s)

Middlepunt Spookie

Blue roan spotted blanket

aka. - Smoke Signals – in harness


CHIPPERFIELDS PASHA - U.K.

Black/Bay leopard

DOB: + 1962

Sire: Unknown Dam: Unknown Photo retouching by C Grub

Pasha came into South Africa from the United Kingdom to be utilised as a Circus horse. His purchase and transport was organised by Mrs Jane Boswell of Boswell Wilkes Circus, through an overseas dealer. The paperwork regarding this transaction and travel documents no longer exist, therefore it is difficult to know with certainty what his bloodline is, though it appears to have be a strong leopard pattern line. It is possible that Pasha came from Denmark to the U.K. and that he may have Knabstrup origins but he might also hail from early English lines such as Mighty Caesar, Duke or Highway Rocket (Appaloosa X Arab), who also originated from Denmark. Pasha went on loan for use as the Stud Stallion to Alpha Appaloosa Stud where he sired several registered and unregistered foals, amongst which were: Alpha Indian Summer, Alpha Davy Crockett and Alpha Cherokee.

Alpha Indian Summer (AHC 002 – 7.08.1973) Dark Bay leopard (photo courtesy : Alpha Appaloosa Stud)


KOLBOOI – S.A. (aka: Mr Fire-eyes)

Chestnut roaned few spot

DOB: + 1968

Sire: Unknown Dam: Unknown (photo courtesy MR. H. Oosthuizen)

The stallion Kolbooi (aka: Mr Fire-eyes) was bought by Mr J. Cawood of Marquart from a Mr Hennie Oosthuizen of Ventersburg, an Appaloosa horse breeder whose herd of some 70 horses originated from the some of the horses that General Manie Maritz and General Erwin Conroy rode during the Boer war and the Rebellion. Mr Cawood described Mr FireEyes as an ‘asval blou met kolle’ (blue roan with spots) colour pattern. He found the horse to be spirited but once broken to saddle, an easy and pleasurable ride. He rode the stallion when hunting Blesbok in South West Africa and for easy transportation, taught this intelligent horse to jump on and off his bakkie (pick-up). Later Mr Cawood sold the horse on to Mr H. Oosthuizen of Verkeerdevlei where the stallion stood at stud for some years. Kolbooi produced progeny that had good size and bone out of Boerperd, American Saddler, Quarter Horse and Appaloosa mares with most of the foals carrying loud colour. To name a few: Spot On Jesse Red Heart, Middlepunt Rendezvous, Alpha El Paso, Alpha Kalamazoo, Middlepunt Rossyntjie and Spot On Squaw.

Middlepunt Rendezvous (AHC 80 – 12.12.1982)

Blue roan extended spotted blanket (Owner and Handler Mr Hennie Oosthuizen – Middlepunt Stud) Photo retouching by C Grub


KEUTANS MINI (T307,774) - U.S.A.

Chesnut few spot

DOB: 24.04.1979

Sire: Bold One (t201, 466) Dam: Tumalo Rose (153,755) (photo courtesy Mr D. Grobler - Aged mare)

Keutans Mini was brought into South Africa along with Peter Ehrlich from the U.S.A. following the same route as the stallion and was also bought by Mr D. Grobler of Spot On Stud. ‘Mini’ boasted the Appaloosa bloodlines of Nancy Hanks, Pride of California and Chocolate Sunday on both sides along with the Quarter Horse lines of Bold Hi and Blackman Burdick. Further back on the Sires side are the Thoroughbred lines of Diesel and Questionnaire. Keutans Mini produced good sized foals with a strong tendency to roaned-out fewspot leopard patterns. Foals include: Spot On Tumbleweed, Spot On Snowflake and Spot On Snow Hawk.

Spot On Snow Hawk (AHC 439 – 15.12.1993) Chocolate/Bay snowcap Roaned out to Few Spot (photo courtesy : Mr D. Grobler)


CHIPPERFIELDS SPOT – U.K.

Black Leopard DOB: + 1962

Sire: Unknown Dam: Unknown

Spot was one of four imported spotted Chipperfield Circus stallions that came into South Africa in 1967 and as with the other stallions, Spot’s history and lineage cannot be traced. It is possible that this stallion originated from one of the early British spotted horse lines such as Highway Rocket, Mighty Caesar, or his son Duke. All of these horses trace back to an Appaloosa X Arab from Denmark. When the Circus sold Spot, he first went to a riding establishment in Blue Hills, north of Johannesburg before being purchased by Alpha Stud in Ladybrand. Whilst Spot was stud stallion, he passed on Appaloosa characteristics, traits and colour to almost all of his progeny out of American Saddler, Thoroughbred and other mixed breed mares. Sire of: Alpha Indiana, Middlepunt Gypsy, Alpha Tomahawk, Alpha Mini Haha, Alpha Panache and Alpha Vicky.

Alpha Indiana (AHC 046 – 6.11.1975) Bay near leopard with colt foal ‘Chaparral’


ROBINS EZ BREEZE (437118) - U.S.A. Dark Bay/Brown roan, spots over quarters/roaned few spot leopard DOB: 25.04.1985 Sire: A Breezy Dude (AQHA – 1520639) Dam: Rustlers Robin (T304449) (Photo courtesy Mrs H de Havilland)

The few spot mare, Robins EZ Breeze was born at Ten Acre Farm in North Carolina, U.S.A. Mr and Mrs J. de Havilland imported the mare with the gelding, Air Orion, to the Cape Province in South Africa in 1990. Robins EZ Breeze hails from the Appaloosa lines of Rustler’s Risk and Little Robin and the Quarter Horse bloodlines of The Silver Dude and Breezy Squaw. This mare produced one colt foal by Apollo Creed (USA). Whilst she stood on the fynbos farm in the area of De Dam, Bredasdorp, in the South Western Cape she was not used for breeding purposes. In 2003, Robins EZ Breeze arrived at an Appaloosa Stud in Gauteng for use as a brood mare.

Apollos Moonbeam Grullo - later roaned to Fewspot


IMPORTED HORSES WAPS KALAIDOQUILT (USA) Dark bay/Black leopard Mare DOB: 13.3.1998 SIRE: Wap Spotted DAM: Little Baby (Thoroughbred) (with foal at foot)

(photo courtesy Mrs L. Pitt)

WAPS PYJAMAS (USA) Dark bay near leopard Stallion DOB: 31.5.1999 SIRE : Wap Spotted DAM: Joker C Saberette (photo courtesy Mrs L. Pitt)

DREA EAGLES DANDY (USA) Dark Bay/Blank near leopard Stallion DOB: 5.8.1998 SIRE: Wakons Navajo Eagle (548672) DAM: Wakons Lady Ander (499005) (photo courtesy HQ Magazine)

KING O’ DREAMS (USA) dark bay spotted blanket Stallion DOB : 1995 SIRE : Dreamfinder DAM : Inspiring (imported semen only)


LASST AMERICAN (USA) (in utero) dark bay few spot leopard Stallion DOB : 10.01.2005 SIRE : Mighty White Brother DAM : Lasst Inheritance

LASST INHERITANCE (USA) bay spotted blanket Mare DOB : 1992 SIRE : Dandy Hills Dan DAM : Fleeting Owl (photo coutesy D-A Buchan)

MILLENNIUM MARSHALL Q chesnut spotted blanket Stallion DOB : 2000 SIRE : The Marshall DAM: MS Sundial

SHEZA A WAP TT SPOT (Netherlands) chesnut leopard Mare DOB : 2003 SIRE : TT Mighty Junior DAM : Waps Ballet Slippers (photo courtesy Jenzo Stud)


SCOOTNSTAR (USA) bay roan spotted blanket Mare DOB : 14.04.2000 SIRE : Splashed Down DAM : Towers Scootnstar (photo coutesy D-A Buchan)

MAMMA MIA (USA) snowcap blanket Mare DOB : 2005 SIRE : Waps Pilatus HH DAM : Wap n Jazz (Photo courtesy M O’Kelly)

PEYRES EXECUTIVE ROCK (France) few spot Stallion DOB : 2005 SIRE : JW King of Rock DAM : Miss Ulrichs Doll (Photo courtesy Painted Stud)

HI DEFINITION dark bay spotted blanket Stallion DOB : 2005 SIRE : Andrews Sonny DAM : Dream Goer (Photo courtesy Perdeberg Stud)


WAP SPOTTED dark bay / black spotted blanket roaned leopard Stallion DOB : 1987 SIRE : Wap Spot 11 DAM : Shalako Summer (Imported semen only) (Photo courtesy Tim McCoy)

STORM RUNNER (in utero) chesnut spotted blanket Stallion DOB : 2004 SIRE : Argentarius DAM : Tri Kay (Photo courtesy D Buchan)

NHF CHERISH A STAR (in utero) dark bay spotted lace blanket Mare DOB : 2005 SIRE : Mc Cherishabull DAM : NewhorizonsSootnstar

ARRAYED IN SILVER (USA) Chesnut spotted blanket Mare DOB : 2009 SIRE : Imaginate DAM: Arrayed in Gold (Photo courtesy Two Moons Stud)


STARS ARRAY (USA) Chesnut lace blanket Mare DOB : 2009 SIRE : Imaginate DAM : Goin Array (Photo courtesy Two Moons Stud)

TEACHERS COMMAND (USA) Chesnut lace blanket Mare DOB : 2009 SIRE : Master In Command DAM : Teachers Star (Photo courtesy Two Moons Stud)

FINANCIAL FREEDOM (USA) Bay lace blanket Stallion DOB : 2008 SIRE : Always Dignified DAM : Albe Fun (Photo courtesy Two Moons Stud)

HES A COOL STAR (USA) Chesnut blanket Stallion DOB : 2009 SIRE : Imaginate DAM : Kelos Skippin Heart (Photo courtesy Two Moons Stud)


SHES AT IT AGAIN (USA) Chesnut lace blanket Mare DOB : 2007 SIRE : Always Dignified DAM : Clu Me In Penny (Photo courtesy Two Moons Stud)

COOL CHILLY PEPPER (USA) Mare DOB : 2000 SIRE : Mr Cool Hand Luke DAM : Pert Top (Photo courtesy Two Moons Stud)

DOTTY FREDERICO (IMP) Dark Bay leopard Mare DOB : 2009 Sire: Don Frederico Dam: Lambrigg Mystique

TOTEM FANTASTIC WAP (Belg) Leopard spot Stallion DOB : 2006 Sire: Totem Wa-Ala Blue Dam: Waps Ballet Slippers


TOTEM HONEYMOON (BELG) Bay leopard MARE DOB: 26/02/2008 Sire: Totem Wa-Ala Blue (Belg) Dam: Waps Ballet Slippers (USA)


THE APPALOOSA SPORT HORSE THE APPALOOSA PONY THE APPALOOSA MINIATURE PONY OTHER TYPES AND BREEDS OF SPOTTED HORSES


THE SOUTH AFRICAN APPALOOSA SPORT HORSE

For an Appaloosa Horse to be eligible for Registration in the Sport Horse section of the AHBSSA registry, it must meet a current height requirement of 15,2hh and upwards. (The standard Sport Horse height requirement in other Horse breeds is 16hh and upwards). As this is a Sport Horse, the conformation of the horse is of paramount importance. The horse should also show the necessary Appaloosa patterns and characteristics. The registered out cross horse breeds that are acceptable for the Appaloosa Sport Horse are:

ď ś Warmblood ď ś Thoroughbred

KONDOS HELLENIC PRIDE Supreme Champion Male Res. South African Appaloosa Nationals 2009. Top 3 Appaloosa 2009


THE APPALOOSA PONY The Appaloosa Pony should show all the visible characteristics of the Appaloosa Horse, i.e. coat pattern, white sclera, mottled and part-coloured skin and striped hooves. The height requirement for the Appaloosa Pony is 14,2hh and below. Acceptable out-crosses to other registered horses breeds are :      

Welsh Pony (Sections A, B and C) Connemara Pony Boerperd Nooitgedacht Arabian Horse Thoroughbred

To be eligible for Registration, the Appaloosa pony must have good conformation, soundness and have lovely open paces.

Les Chevaux LADY GODIVA Bred by Mrs L. Burger Fewspot coat pattern

THE MINIATURE APPALOOSA The Miniature Appaloosa reaches the height of 9hh and displays the usual coat pattern and characteristics of the Appaloosa. The Miniature must have all the correct proportions and refinement of the horse (scaled-down). The conformation must be excellent and the movement and action of this small horse should be free and flowing.

JTR Spotted Horses WHIRLWIND (U.S.A.) on left. Leopard Miniature Stallion Owned by C & M van der Merwe Of MMC Stud


OTHER TYPES AND BREEDS OF SPOTTED HORSES

Along with the Appaloosa horse there are other spotted horse breeds, some with Warm blood origins like the Appaloosa. The ones mentioned here are the most commonly known and although there are other breeds of horse with some form of coat pattern, they are generally not known as spotted horses.

The Knabstrup in Denmark, generally more heavy-set than the Appaloosa, is considered a Warm blood horse and its main use is for light draught and riding. This breed has a similar variety of coat patterns as the Appaloosa Horse but mostly these patterns are on a roan base coat. The average height for a Knabstrup is 15,3hh.

The Falabella pony from Argentina originated from Shetland pony and small Thoroughbred horse breeding and although all coat colours are found in this diminutive breed of horse, its spotted coat patterns are most popular. The average height for this pony is 7hh.

Pony of the Americas, considered a Western-type of utility pony with six coat colour patterns. The breed was founded by crossing a Shetland stallion with an Appaloosa mare and this pony’s usual height is around 13hh.

The Colorado Ranger or Ranger bred originates from Spanish Barb and Arab blood with infusions of Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse. The horse stands around 15,2hh and its most common coat pattern is the spotted blanket.


BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES

USEFUL NAMES AND ADDRESSES


BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Genetics and Horse Breeding : W.E. Jones Hair Colour in the Horse : R. Geurts A History of Horse Breeding : D. Machin Goodall The Appaloosa : Ann Hyland Know the Appaloosa : Lee Arlandson Appaloosa in Art and History : Francis Haynes 123/Farnam Horse Library Puffin Pocket Horses Appaloosa, the Color and the Horse : P. Sponenberg Horses and Ponies : Ward Lock Horses of the World : D Machin Goodall To Horse and Away : Jose Burman Dictionary of the American West : Wordsworth Reference Genetics – Taking a Closer Look : W. E. Jones Genetics – The Appaloosa Blanket : W. E. Jones The Legend of the Painted Horse : H. Combs Showing and Ringcraft explained : Anne Alcock Showing. Part 1 and 2. Your Horse 1997 Appaloosa Breed Description : Su Fairman The Horses Health from A to Z : Peter D. Rossdale The Farmers Weekly – August 1976/January 1981 October 1981/February 1988 Landbou Weekblad – May1980/May 1981/March 1988 October 1994 Appaloosa Museum – Idaho (USA) Appaloosa News – July 1996 Ladybrand Courant & Border Herald Todays Horse – March 1996 Die Perd in Suid Afrika – Dr Van Der Merwe The British Spotted Horse Society – Mrs B. George (UK) The American Arabian Horse Society (USA) The Thoroughbred Horse Stud Book (SA) The Historical Boerperd Society (SA) The American Quarter Horse Society (USA) The American Saddler Horse Society (SA) Mr Palmer J Wagner (USA) PSSM - http://www.cvm.umn.edu/umec/lab CEM - CEMSA

Whilst the author has taken every care and consideration to ensure that the information in this Handbook is current and correct, that the photographs supplied are of the best quality and form available when requested, the author will not be held responsible for any errors or exclusions that may occur in this Handbook.

R. NIGHTINGALE

2011.09.15

REVISED


USEFUL NAMES AND ADDRESSES

APPALOOSA HORSE BREEDERS SOCIETY OF SOUTH AFRICA P O Box 2789 HONEYDEW 2040

SOUTH AFRICAN STUD BOOK AND LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY P O Box 270 BLOEMFONTEIN 9300

Tel: 072 510 6529 (Secretary : Maggie Riley) Maggieriley01@gmail.com GAUTENG HORSE SOCIETY PO Box 70460 BRYANSTON 2021

Tel: 051 410 0900 info@studbook.co.za WESTERN PROVINCE HORSE SOCIETY 11 MORNING SIDE PINELANDS 7405

Tel: 011 702-1657/8/9 www.thsinfo.co.za ONDERSTERPOORT VETERINARIAN PRETORIA

Tel: 021 531 7971 info@wphs.co.za EASTERN CAPE HORSE SOCIETY PO Box 15184 , Emerald Hill, 6011

Equine Department : 012 529 8000 Biological Institute : 012 522 1500 KZN HORSE SOCIETY P.O Box 630 HILLCREST

Tel: 041 379 5328 swiftfamily@telkomsa.net MPUMALANGA HORSE SOCIETY P. O. BOX 2360 SECUNDA 2302

Tel: 031 768 1220 www.kznhs.co.za FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE HORSE SOCIETY P o Box 6936 FLAMWOOD 2572

Tel : 082 553 7426 marjorie.greyling@webmail.co.za SOUTH AFRICAN REINING HORSE ASSOCIATION Contact : Deborah Ann Buchan

Tel: 018 468 1353 fsnc@fsnc.org.za

Tel: 082 456 0176 deborahann@newhorizonsfarm.co.za


TIPS ON SHOWING THE APPALOOSA HORSE

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TIPS ON SHOWING THE APPALOOSA HORSE A General Guide To

SHOWING IN-HAND AND RIDDEN CLASSES Compiled By Ros Nightingale

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conformation THE INTENTION OF SHOWING A HORSE IS TO SHOW THE BEST QUALITIES, CONFORMATION, MOVEMENT AND APPEARANCE OF THAT HORSE AND TO IMPROVE ON THE TYPE OR BREED OF A PARTICULAR HORSE; APPALOOSA OWNERS AND BREEDERS CAN BENEFIT FROM THESE SHOWS WHICH ARE AN INCENTIVE TO PRODUCE BEST OF THE BREED ACCORDING TO

BREED STANDARDS. CONFORMATION MUST BE OF THE HIGHEST STANDARD WHEREBY ALL PARTS OF THE HORSE FIT TOGETHER VERY WELL WITH CORRECT MOVEMENT. A JUDGE WILL DETECT CONFORMATION FAULTS AND ANY UNSOUNDNESS IMMEDIATELY, EVEN IF A HORSE HAS AN OUTSTANDING COAT PATTERN/COLOUR OR A WONDERFUL TEMPERAMENT.

ALTHOUGH THERE IS A STANDARD FOR APPALOOSA CONFORMATION, THERE ARE A FEW POINTS TO BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION :

OTHER HORSE BREED CONFORMATION THAT MAY HAVE BEEN BRED INTO THE BREED (WHAT WAS USED IN EARLY BREEDING PROGRAMS COULD GENETICALLY AFFECT THE CONFORMATION OF YOUR HORSE (OFF-SET KNEES, COW-HOCKS, SHORT NECKS, SHORT PASTERNS, ETC.);

THE BREED CONFORMATION PREFERENCES OF THE JUDGE AT THE SHOW ON THAT PARTICULAR DAY – EG: AN ARABIAN SHOW JUDGE MIGHT PREFER CHARACTERISTICS SIMILAR TO ARABIAN HORSES

SEE DIAGRAMS ON FOLLOWING PAGE FOR A GENERAL APPROACH TO CONFORMATION FAULTS IN HORSE FORE AND HIND LEGS.

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CORRECT AND INCORRECT STRUCTURE OF LEGS

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COMPARISONS OF GENETIC TYPES INTRODUCED INTO THE APPALOOSA BREED

Appaloosa Arab Type

Appaloosa Quarter-horse Type

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These comparisons are merely used as examples to show the differences in body type and shape that occur when Appaloosa horses are outcrossed to other horse breeds. The Quarter Horse (‘sprinter’ over short distances) has large quarters but also a sloping croup (for faster takeoff), like the Appaloosa., slightly shorter front legs and shorter pasterns. The Arab (endurance, speed and stamina) is finer and is used to improve on almost every other horse breed where these qualities are needed. The Thoroughbred was introduced for height, conformation and, depending on bloodlines, improving on particular disciplines – i.e.: jumping, dressage, etc. The ‘Warmblood’, depending on its particular bloodlines, will introduce bone, a slightly larger head, etc.

Warmblood x Appaloosa Type

Appaloosa x Thoroughbred Type

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Appaloosa types and pure-brEd •

• •

• • •

As you can see from the pictures on the preceding pages, Appaloosa horses can have variations of body shape , size, length, etc. due to the out-cross breeding or breeds used in previous generations. Some may have thicker necks (see plaiting the mane for simple solutions to help show off a shorter and thicker neck) Some horses may have daintier heads, dished faces, small ears or larger, heavier heads, etc. Tail set on the quarters may be higher or more sloping Throat-latch may be thicker or finer (as with Arab crossing); Chests may be broader and square or may be narrower.

All AHBSSA Shows have classes for Appaloosa purebred horses, Sport horses and ponies . Due to the number of entries of a particular Class, classes could be combined. However, there will be no combining of Appaloosa horse, pony and Sport Horse classes at any shows run under the AHBSSA control

A GOOD EXAMPLE OF A HORSE THAT HAS BEEN TAUGHT TO ‘STAND –UP’ AT SHOWS – CLEARLY SHOWING THE INSIDE OF THE NEAR-SIDE LEGS TO THE JUDGE

REGARDLESS OF SIZE AND SHAPE, CONFORMATION MUST BE AS NEAR PERFECT AS POSSIBLE FOR ANY DISCIPLINES, PARTICULARLY SHOWING.

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POINT SYSTEM AT SHOWS Please remember to keep a record of your scores, Show dates, Classes, etc. so that you can submit them to the AHBSSA when requested or after the Nationals.

For Classes with only 3 competitors :

For Classes with 13 - 20 competitors :

• 1st place = 3 points • 2nd place = 2 points • 3rd place = 1 point

•1st place = 6 points •2nd place = 5 points •3rd place = 4 points •4th place = 3 points •5th place = 2 points •6th place = 1 point

For Classes with 4 - 7 competitors :

For Classes with over 20 competitors :

• 1st Place = 4 points • 2nd place = 3 points • 3rd place = 2 points • 4th place = 1 point

•1st place = 7 points •2nd place = 6 points •3rd place = 5 points •4th place = 4 points •5th place = 3 points •6th place = 2 points •7th place = 1 point

For Classes with 8 – 12 competitors : •1st place = 5 points •2nd place = 4 points •3rd place = 3 points •4th place = 2 points •5th place = 1 point

For each Appaloosa Show a horse is entered into, there will be 1 point allocated for attendance

MEDALLIONS – POINTS PER MEDALLION : BRONZE : 20 POINTS

SILVER : 100 POINTS

GOLD : 300 POINTS

(No points will be awarded if less than three in a class or for Novelty Classes – i.e. Most Colourful, Development Class, Child Handler, Costume Class)

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TROPHIES, RIBBONS AND ROSETTES At most Shows, Rosettes and Ribbons are handed to the first 3, 4 or 5 placings in a Class. This is usually dependant on the number of entrants in the Class or will be the Judges decision. Sometimes when there are only 3 or less horses in a Class, maybe only one of the horses will be issued with a rosette – this depends on whether the Judge feels that all horses are good enough for a place or Rosette Depending on the Judges decision, a horse might not be issued a Rosette in a small class due to poor conformation, a horse that does not look true to the Breed being judged, poor behavior, poor turn-out, etc. Ribbons are sometimes used in place of a Rosette – these can be placed around the horses neck. Usually most Rosettes, when handed to the Winners and placings of a Class, will be placed on the horses bridle or halter but can also be handed to the rider in the case of slightly head-shy or nervous horses. Always smile and thank the Judge when accepting a Rosette. Rosettes and Ribbons remain the Winner and Placed possession. Generally Rosettes will be presented as such : 1-8 9 – 12 13 – 16 17 plus

Entries in a Class – 5 Rosettes; Entries in a Class – 6 Rosettes Entries in a Class – 7 Rosettes Entries in a Class – 8 Rosettes.

‘Highly Recommended’ Rosettes may be awarded at the Judges discretion!

Trophies : Trophies are awarded at the appaloosa Championships for the year’s results. Some trophies are won for a particular Class and remain the winners possession. Other trophies are called ‘FLOATING TROPHIES’ – this means that the trophy remains in the Winners possession only for the year between each of the same Show as which the trophy was won and returned to the Society before the advent of the following years Show. FLOATING TROPHIES BELONG TO THE AHBSSA. WINNERS OF THE WILL BE NOTIFIED WHEN THESE MUST BE RETURNED ENGRAVING AND REPAIRS, POLISHING ETC.

VICTOR LUDORUM : THE HORSE THAT GAINS THE MOST POINTS AT THE APPALOOSA CHAMPIONSHIPS . AT THE NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS, THIS AWARD IS KNOWN AS THE PRESIDENTS AWARD.

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DRESS CODES (A) FOR LEAD REIN CLASSES – CHILDREN AND JUNIORS :

DRESS CODES FOR THE SHOW

• • • •

• •

• •

THE GENERAL APPEARANCE OF THE HANDLER MUST BE ONE OF NEATNESS, ELEGANCE AND PROFESSIONALISM. IF THE WEATHER DICTATES, A WAISTCOAT AND SHIRT IS ACCEPTABLE, SHIRT-TAILS ARE TO BE TUCKED IN AND ONLY LONG SLEEVED SHIRTS TO BE WORN. DENIMS, TRACKSUITS AND SAFARI SUITS ARE NOT ACCEPTABLE. ONLY SHOWING CANES ARE ALLOWED, NOT WHIPS OR CROPS. ALL GROOMS AND ASSISTANTS SHOULD BE TURNED OUT CORRECTLY AND SHOULD UNDERSTAND WHAT IS EXPECTED OF THEM HARD HATS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR ALL RIDDEN CLASSES, EXCEPT WESTERN RIDING. A NUMBER OF SHOW RULES INCLUDES THAT IN HAND CLASS HANDLERS ALSO WEAR HARD HATS – CHECK THIS BEFOREHAND WITH SHOW ORGANIZERS. WHEN IN ANY OF THE ARENAS, ALL COMPETITORS ARE REQUESTED TO BE CORRECTLY DRESSED ACCORDING TO THE UPDATED SANEF/BREED SOCIETY RULES. T-SHIRTS ARE STRICTLY NOT ALLOWED.

• • • • • • • • •

PLAIN DARK OR TWEED JACKET BLACK, NAVY OR BROWN HARDHAT BEIGE, FAWN OR CREAM JODHPURS BLACK OR BROWN JODHPUR BOOTS WHITE, CREAM OR PASTEL SHIRT (DISCREET CHECKS OR STRIPES ALLOWED) CONSERVATIVE TIE - PINNED OR STOCK AND PIN AMERICAN ROLL COLLAR TYPE OF SHIRT IS PERMISSIBLE WITH PIN STRING OR LEATHER GLOVES IN A CONSERVATIVE COLOUR LONG HAIR TIED BACK WITH HAIR NET

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Dress codes (b) HANDLER • • • • • • • •

TROUSERS ARE BETTER THAN JODHPURS OR BREECHES. BLACK OR DARK IF YOUR HORSE HAS LIGHT LEGS, AND BEIGE OR LIGHT IF YOUR HORSE HAS DARK LEGS. THIS MEANS THE JUDGE CAN SEE THE HORSE'S LEGS MOVE WITHOUT GETTING THEM MIXED UP WITH YOURS. SHIRT AND TIE - AS RIDDEN CLASS. WAISTCOAT OR TWEED JACKET. HAT: CAN BE A FEDORA TYPE, OR RIDING HAT. A VELVET HAT WITHOUT STRAPS LOOKS NEAT AND TIDY, BUT OF COURSE OFFERS LESS PROTECTION THAN A NORMAL RIDING HAT, WHICH MUST BE DONE UP IF WORN. YOU SHOULD NEVER BE PENALIZED FOR PUTTING SAFETY FIRST AND WEARING A PROPER HAT. HAIR AS FOR A RIDDEN CLASS - NEAT AND TIDY. HAIRNET ACCEPTABLE IF YOU ARE WEARING A WESTERN HAT, OR TIED BACK OUT OF THE WAY. JODHPUR BOOTS OR DISCREET TRAINERS OF A SIMILAR COLOUR TO THE TROUSERS. YOU NEED TO BE ABLE TO RUN IN THEM! GLOVES AS FOR RIDDEN CLASSES. SHOW CANE AS FOR RIDDEN CLASSES.

LAY OUT YOUR OUTFIT AND PUT IT INTO A BAG THE NIGHT BEFORE THE SHOW WEAR NORMAL WORKING CLOTHES TO THE SHOW AND RATHER CHANGE SHORTLY BEFORE YOUR CLASS. REMEMBER TO PREPARE FOR WHAT EVENTS YOU ARE ENTERING AND MAKE EXTRA TIME FOR CHANGING. ITS NO FUN TO WALK INTO A WESTERN PLEASURE CLASS DRESSED FOR JUMPING. SET OUT ALL YOUR THINGS AND CLEAN THEM BEFORE THE SHOW.. DEEP CLEAN! POLISH BOOTS AND WASH CLOTHES. WIPE HELMETS AND IRON COATS.

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DRESS codes (c) IN HAND CLASS

For the horse • • •

DOUBLE BRIDLE OR PELHAM IN OPEN CLASSES, SNAFFLE IN NOVICE CLASSES. BROWN TACK IS PREFERRED. COLOURED BROWBANDS FOR RIDING HORSE, RIDING PONY, INTERMEDIATE SHOW RIDING TYPE AND HACK, PLAIN TACK FOR HUNTER PONY. NUMNAHS SHOULD IDEALLY NOT BE WORN, BUT FINE IF DISCREET AND MATCHING THE SADDLE, IF THEY ARE USED. A STRAIGHT CUT SADDLE WILL SHOW OFF THE HORSE'S SHOULDERS AND MOVEMENT, SO IS BETTER THAN A GENERAL PURPOSE SADDLE . USE A LEATHER GIRTH, OR A WHITE GIRTH IS ACCEPTABLE IF THE HORSE IS GREY. QUARTER-MARKERS ARE CORRECT FOR ALL THESE CLASSES EXCEPT FOR HUNTER PONY.

SHOW HALTER/BRIDLE WITH NO BIT FOR YOUNG-STOCK, SLIP CHAIN OR SNAFFLE BIT ON COLTS OVER 2 YEARS; DOUBLE BRIDLE WITH DOUBLE REINS ATTACHED FOR HORSES OVER 3 YEARS (IF ALREADY BEING RIDDEN IN ONE) PLAITED MANE, PLAITED TAIL (IF ENOUGH HAIR) PULLED TAIL (EVEN FOR FOALS - ALTHOUGH FOAL TAILS ARE TRIMMED AT THE SIDES INSTEAD OF PULLED) AND TRIMMED HEELS.

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DRESS CODES (D) RECOMMENDED DRESS IN – HAND SHOWING - ADULTS COATS HATS SHOES

Tweed

Fedora/ Hard Hat/ Bowler: Black, Navy or Brown

Trousers/ Chinos

Black or Brown

Beige, Cream or Fawn. Never White

SHIRTS Collared White, Cream or Pastel. Plain, Checked or Striped. (No American roll collar type of shirt or stock is permissible).

TIES

GLOVES

Conservative.

Plain Conservative colour if worn. String or Leather.

Conservative.

As above.

RECOMMENDED DRESS – RIDDEN SHOW CLASSES - ADULTS

Black or Navy

Fedora/ Hard Hat/ Bowler: Black or Navy

Jodhpurs Beige or Cream. Never White

Long Boots

Collared White, Cream or Pastel. (No American roll collar type of shirt or stock is permissible)

Showing canes only allowed

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DRESS codes (E) WESTERN RIDING CLASSES • • • •

SUITABLE WESTERN SHIRT WAISTCOAT BOLO TIE DENIMS OR JEANS (NOT FADED OUT)

• • •

WESTERN BOOTS/FLAT LEATHER SHOES STETSON OR OTHER WESTERN HAT

AMERICAN INDIAN/COSTUME CLASS

THIS CLASS WILL BE JUDGED ON THE MOST AUTHENTIC AMERICAN INDIAN ATTIRE.

THE HORSE

HORSES IN THE IN HAND AND RIDDEN CLASSES MAY BE TURNED OUT IN EITHER ENGLISH OR WESTERN STANDARDS. THE RIDER’S ATTIRE MUST CORRESPOND TO THE TURNOUT OF THE HORSE. MANE AND TAILS MAY BE PLAITED OR SHAVED MANE/ PLAITED OR FREE TAIL, OR NATURAL MANE AND TAIL. WHISKERS, INNER EARS AND FEATHERS MUST BE NEATENED. CLEAR HOOF POLISH/LACQUER ONLY.

HORSES SHOWN IN HAND SHOULD WEAR LEATHER SHOWING HALTER OR A LEATHER SNAFFLE BRIDLE. (SEE GENERAL RULES). RIDDEN CLASS HORSES MUST WEAR A SIMPLE SNAFFLE BRIDLE OR DOUBLE BRIDLE. A GENERAL PURPOSE SADDLE IS CONSIDERED BEST.

• • • • •

OR

WESTERN SKIRT FOR LADIES, MEDIUM OR LONG LENGTH

WESTERN CLASS HORSES TO BE RIDDEN IN SNAFFLES, BOSALS WITH WESTERN SADDLE. MANE CAN BE BANDED WITH TAIL FREE, OR SHAVED MANE WITH TAIL FREE OR NATURAL, OR BOTH MANE AND TAIL FREE. CLEAR HOOF POLISH ONLY. WHISKERS, FEATHERS AND EARS ARE TO BE NEATENED ONLY. HORSES IN LEAD-REIN CLASSES MAY BE RIDDEN IN A SNAFFLE BIT WITH LEAD-REIN FASTENED ONTO CAVESSON NOSEBAND. HORSE IN THE AMERICAN INDIAN/COSTUME CLASS CAN BE RIDDEN WITH A BOSAL AND BLANKET OR SNAFFLE BRIDLE AND SADDLE DEPENDING ON THE HORSE. 13

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READY FOR THE SHOW ? • • • •

• • • • •

• •

Several months before the big day, start feeding your horse rations (if not on this already)and good grass so that it is of acceptable weight and size for the Show – Judges generally prefer it that horses are fat rather than thin – but not so fat that it harms the horse Blanket your horse every night if it is during cold winter months to encourage a finer and thinner coat – this will also ensure that the coat lays down and is not fluffy. Start brushing the coat regularly to get rid of any winter coat, this will also improve the condition of the coat and bring out a natural shine and helps to tone the muscles; Only untangle your horses mane and tail with your fingers for now – the Appaloosa has a looser hair follicle than other horses and there fore any tugging and ever enthusiastic brushing will result in lots of hair loss. If your horse has a sparse mane and tail, try using coconut butter combined with Bay Rum (both available at the Pharmacy) and rub this in regularly for extra growth and hair strength If your horse has ticks under the tail, between the legs or in the tail, it will rub the tail hairs out due to irritation – so make sure there are no ticks on your horse – they will also rub their manes when they have ticks to such an extent that there will be no hair left. Let your horse get used to being boxed. Attend some Shows beforehand to see what is expected of both you and your horse and start teaching your horse how to lead correctly, stand-up correctly and trot next to you. Be aware that a horses behavior may not be the same at the Show as at home – try not to get angry with your horse – they also get excited and nervous. Get you Farrier to trim the hooves regularly – making sure that they are balanced and correct and in perfect shape. Try not to do the last trim immediately before a show as they could be a bit foot sore due to short trimming. Make sure your show entries have been sent in and paid for as most shows will not accept Entries on the day of the show. Passports must be complete and up-to-date. Get the Show Schedule as soon as you can so that you know when your classes are. A timetable is usually available some days before the Show. School one level higher than you show. That way you can compete with confidence, even when nerves and distractions might get in the way. Don’t school your horse in gadgets and then expect him to perform in the show-ring without them

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FOR THE SHOW ………. • • • • • • •

Read the Conditions of Entry on the Show Schedule. This covers all the Rules for the Show; TRAVELLING – if your horse has never been boxed or trucked before, make sure you do some work on this – boxing a scared horse can takes hours and make you miss your class Double check that your box is roadworthy or if hiring, make sure they arrive well in advance You have spent hours getting your horse ready for the Show, don’t forget to bandage those legs and the tail before your box the horse – they sometimes rub all of the hair off the top of the tail when they are standing in a box AND YOU ARRIVE AT A Show and discover a bald tail top! Use a poll guard as well to protect the horses head from the top of the box and a light blanket for travelling (especially if you use sand roads). Spreading some old grass or shavings on the horse box floor on top of the mat can make your horse feel more comfortable about boxing plus it’s a bit easier to clean out afterwards Check your horses tail and hind legs when you arrive at the Show for last minutes washing

YOUR HORSE MUST BE IN PEAK SHOW CONDITION. THIS IS ACHIEVED WITH MONTHS OF PREPARATION BEFOREHAND. DECIDE CAREFULLY AND CRITICALLY WHICH CLASSES YOUR HORSE WOULD BE MOST SUITABLE FOR AND WORK TOWARDS THIS AS A GOAL. USUALLY ‘NOVICE CLASS’ JUDGES ARE MORE LENIENT DUE TO LACK OF EXPERIENCE IN BOTH HORSE AND HANDLER. HOWEVER, IN ‘OPEN CLASSES’ A POLISHER PERFORMANCE IS EXPECTED. FIND OUT WHAT WILL BE EXPECTED FROM THE HORSE AND HANDLER/RIDER FOR EACH CLASS AND THIS ROUTINE SHOULD BE PRACTISED SEVERAL TIMES A WEEK WITH THE H RSE. SMALLER SHOWS ARE AN EXCELLENT STARTING PLACE FOR BOTH YOU AND YOUR HORSE.

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WEEK BEFORE THE SHOW • • •

WASH AND SHAMPOO YOUR HORSE ABOUT A WEEK BEFORE THE SHOW – YOU CAN DO IT THE DAY BEFORE THE SHOW AND THEN BLANKET THE HORSE. If YOU LEAVE IT TOO LATE AND SHAMPOO AT THE LAST MOMENT, YOU MIGHT END UP WITH A FLUFFY COAT WITH NO SHINE. PLAITS SHOULD BE TAKEN OUT FOR NATIVE COSTUME CLASSES – TRY AND ARRANGE THAT THE NATIVE COSTUME CLASS IS NOT ON THE SAME DAY OR BEFORE YOUR IN-HAND AND RIDDEN CLASSES MAKE SURE THE FEET ARE CORRECTLY TRIMMED / SHOD BY THE FARRIER – TRY NOT TO DO THIS THE DAY OR SEVERAL DAYS BEFORE THE SHOW AS IF THERE IS A PROBLEM, IT CANNOT BE SORTED OUT IN TIME;

THE DAY BEFORE THE SHOW • • • •

YOUR HORSE SHOULD NOW BE ALMOST READY FOR THE BIG SHOW DAY. YOU CAN NOW CLIP THE EARS, TRIM THE FACIAL HAIRS ( BE CAREFUL WITH USING SHARP SCISSORS – TRY AND BUY SOME BABY NAIL SCISSORS, THEY HAVE BLUNT EDGES SO YOU CANT PRICK THE HORSE BY MISTAKE). TRIM THE HAIR AROUND THE CORONET BANDS. TRIM THE TAIL - GET SOMEONE TO PUT THEIR ARM UNDER THE TAIL AT THE TOP TO HOLD THE TAIL AT ABOUT THE POSITION THE HORSE NORMALLY HOLD ITS TAIL WHILST WALKING, ETC. AND THEN TRIM OFF STRAIGHT ACROSS - ABOUT 3 – 4 INCHES BELOW THE HOCK. A ‘BANG’’ TAIL IS CUT STRAIGHT ACROSS AND A ‘SWISH’ TAIL IS WHEN THE TAIL HAIRS ARE TRIMMED INTO A POINT.

CHECK YOUR GROOMING BOX FOR THE FOLLOWING ITEMS : • • • • • • • •

BRUSHES, SHAMPOO TOWEL, ELASTIC BANDS THE CORRECT COLOUR SCISSORS COAT SHINE HAIRSPRAY/GEL FOR STRAY HAIRS SPARE HALTER

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TO TAKE TO THE SHOW QUICK CHECK LIST • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

MAP AND DIRECTIONS TO THE SHOW COPY OF CLASS ENTRIES AND / OR PROGRAM PASSPORT (FOR THE HORSE) VACCINATION/INOCULATION CERTIFICATE REGISTRATION AND HEIGHT CERTIFICATE (IF NECESSARY) TACK – SADDLE, BRIDLE, HALTER, EXTRA LEAD REIN, ETC. SWEAT SHEET OR BLANKET GROOMING KIT AND CLOTHS FOR CLEANING BUCKETS SHOWING CLOTHES – ALSO FOR THE HANDLER HOOF OIL/BLACKENER/CLEAR LACQUER/SAND PAPER HAYNET WITH LENGTH OF ORANGE (BALING) STRING FIRST AID KIT (INCLUDING SCISSORS) INSECT REPELLENT – TABARD STICK IS GREAT COAT SHINE/BABY OIL/VASELINE HORSE FOOD AND HAY SAFETY PINS/STRING (FOR NUMBER) SHOW SCHEDULE A FRIEND WITH A CAMERA (THERE IS NO GUARANTEE OF A PHOTOGRAPHER ON DUTY AT ANY SHOW) A WATCH OR CLOCK EXTRA MONEY GAZEBO/FOLD-UP CHAIRS HAT GROOMS CLOTHES (NEAT TIDY ETC.) GROOMS FOOD FIND CLOSEST TAP FOR WATER ELECTRIC TAPE AND THIN POLES FOR TEMPORARY FENCING NEXT TO HORSE-BOX

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FOR THE SHOW ………….. •

Plaiting Mane and Tail : Usually best done on the morning of the Show. This normally takes about an hour to plait the mane and forelock. If done the night before, you can use old stockings, clingwrap or a neck cover to protect the plaits – give yourself extra time to re-do some of these in the morning in case. It is accepted that there are un-even number of plaits for the mane. The forelock makes up the even number. Between 13 – 15 plaits depending on the length of the horses neck (13 for longer necks and 15 for shorter necks) Carefully comb out the mane when ready, ( you can pull the hair but start this some weeks beforehand as it can be painful for the horse). Once hair is the correct length and thickness, divide mane hair with elastics. Apply hair gel or hairspray to each bunch. Use either elastics for the plaiting or thread – plait and fold the plait under and secure with more thread. Watch someone plaiting to get the idea. Plaiting of the mane is necessary so that the judge can see the neck properly. Plait only the top section of the tail if the hairs are long enough. Fold the end of the plait up and under the plait when finished and secure with thread.

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AT THE SHOW …….. AT THE SHOW GROUND

ARRIVE WELL IN ADVANCE OF YOUR CLASS TIME. NEVER HOLD A CLASS UP - YOU COULD BE DISQUALIFIED. IF YOU ARE MAKING A QUICK TACK CHANGE, OR HAVE CLASSES RUNNING SIMULTANEOUSLY, HAVE SOMEONE INFORM THE SHOW STEWARD IMMEDIATELY.

UNLOAD YOUR HORSE AND HAVE YOUR GROOM/ASSISTANT STAND QUIETLY WITH HIM.

CHECK IN WITH THE SHOW SECRETARY AND COLLECT YOUR COMPETITOR NUMBER FOR THE CLASS.

PIN (OR TIE) THE NUMBER ONTO THE BACK OF YOUR JACKET.

MAKE SURE OF WHICH ARENA IS HOSTING YOUR CLASS, WHERE IT IS SITUATED AND WHAT TIME THE CLASS IS.

CHECK WHETHER YOU NEED A HARD-HAT FOR ANY OF THE IN HAND CLASSES.

ASCERTAIN WHETHER THERE IS A FARRIER AND VETERINARIAN ON DUTY (IF NECESSARY) FOR THE DURATION OF THE SHOW.

CHECK THAT BOTH YOU AND YOUR HORSE ARE READY FOR THE SHOW RING.

WALK THE HORSE QUIETLY AROUND SO HE GETS USED TO EVERYTHING.

ON ENTERING THE RING/ARENA, LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE STEWARDS, RUNNERS, SECRETARY OR JUDGE WHEN THEY EXPLAIN WHAT THEY EXPECT FROM EACH COMPETITOR.

BETWEEN CLASSES, LOOSEN OR REMOVE TACK FROM YOUR HORSE AND OFFER HIM WATER.

IF THE NEXT CLASS IS RUNNING LATE, ABOUT AN HOUR, YOUR HORSE MAY NEED HIS FEED.

BEFORE EACH CLASS, VISUALIZE HOW YOU WANT YOUR RIDE TO BE—PROFESSIONALS FIND THIS TECHNIQUE HELPFUL

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ON THE DAY OF THE SHOW • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

COLLECT YOUR NUMBER AND PIN IT ON YOUR JACKET CHECK YOUR HORSE AND ALL TACK TO MAKE SURE EVERYTHING IS NEAT, CLEAN AND POLISHED CLEAN NOSTRILS WITH DAMP TOWEL/CLOTH TIDY UP STRAY HAIRS, CLOSE ALL BUCKLES, MAKE SURE HALTERS ARE CLEAN REMOVE AND DIRTY MARKS WITH A LITTLE SHAMPOO AND WATER AND DRY WITH A TOWEL ARRIVE AT THE RING AT LEAST 10 MINUTES EARLY – CHECK TO MAKE SURE YOU GO INTO THE RING AFTER SOMEONE WITH A QUIET HORSE – NOT BEHIND A HORSE WHO IS MISBEHAVING IF POSSIBLE WALK INTO THE RING ON THE LEFT REIN (NEARSIDE – BETWEEN THE HORSE AND THE SIDE OF THE RING) KEEP OUT OF KICKING RANGE FROM THE HORSE IN FRONT OF YOU PLACE A RED RIBBON IN YOUR HORSES TAIL IF HE KICKS OUT, AS A WARNING WALK ON BRISKLY BUT DO NOT JOG SPEAK QUIETLY AND GENTLY TO YOUR HORSE – DO NOT GET ANNOYED WITH YOUR HORSE EVEN IF HE MISBEHAVES GET A FRIEND TO TAKE A VIDEO OF THE CLASS – THIS REALLY HELPS AS YOU CAN THEN SEE WHERE YOU MADE ANY MISTAKE AND ALSO GIVES YOU A GOOD IDEA OF THE OVERALL LOOK WHEN RIDING A STALLION IN OTHER CLASSES THAN STALLION CLASSES, PLACE A YELLOW RIBBON IN HIS TAIL TO WARN OTHER RIDERS THAT THERE IS A STALLION IN THE CLASS – THIS ALSO ACTS AS A WARNING FOR PEOPLE INSIDE OR OUTSIDE OF THE RING

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Time for the class BEFORE THE LAST CLASS FINISHES AND WHEN YOU ARRIVE AT THE RING ENTRANCE, TELL THE PERSON (RING STEWARD/MARSHALL) STANDING WITH THE CLIPBOARD THAT YOU HAVE ARRIVED AND GIVE THEM YOU NUMBER VERBALLY. STAY OUT OF THE WAY OF THE OTHER HORSES LEAVING THE RING – DO NOT BLOCK THE ENTRANCE/EXIT AREA. WHILST YOU ARE WAITING TO ENTER FOR YOUR CLASS, YOU CAN WALK AROUND AND WARM UP YOUR HORSE. WHEN THE SHOW CONVEYNOR CALLS ON THE MEGAPHONE AND ANNOUNCES YOUR CLASS, DON'T GET STRESSED. ITS JUST A CLASS. YOU SHOW OR RIDE, THE JUDGE SCORE AND IF YOU DIDN'T WIN OR GET PLACED, THERE ARE PLENTY OF OTHER CHANCES YOU WILL HAVE. TIP : IF YOU ARE DISAPPOINTED AT YOUR SCORE. DON'T GET MAD AT THE JUDGE. TIP YOUR HELMET/HAT AND WALK OUT WHEN DISMISSED. IF YOU ARE REALLY MAD AND NEED TO LET IT OUT, DO IT IN THE BATHROOM OR IN THE EMPTY HORSE TRAILER. IF YOU REALLY BELIEVE THE JUDGE SCORED YOU INCORRECTLY, ASK THE SHOW SECRETARY TO TALK TO THE JUDGE AT LUNCH BREAK. IT IS UNLIKELY BUT YOU COULD TRY AND GET THE REASON YOU SCORED WHAT YOU DID. SOME JUDGES EVEN GO UP TO YOU AND TELL YOU WHAT YOU DID WRONG DURING THE CLASS BEFORE ROSETTES ARE AWARDED. THIS TELLS YOU WHAT YOU DID WRONG AND WHAT TO KEEP DOING.

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SHOW CLASSES • •

• • • •

IN HAND CLASSES FOALS AT FOOT – ALTHOUGH ONLY THE FOAL IS JUDGED IN THESE CLASSES, REMEMBER THAT THE EYE OF THE JUDGE WILL ALSO BE DRAWN TO THE DAM OF THE FOAL IF SHE IS NOT IN GOOD CONDITION OR TURNED OUT WELL; SPEND A LOT OF TIME TEACHING YOUR OLDER FOAL TO WALK OUT AND TROT ALONGSIDE YOU WITHOUT MISBEHAVING TOO MUCH; IF YOUR FOAL IS PLACED EITHER FIRST OR SECOND, YOU WILL HAVE TO ATTEND THE CHAMPIONSHIP CLASS TOO; THE AGE OF YOUR HORSE WILL BE THE AGE IT IS ON THE CLOSING DATE OF THE ENTRIES FOR THAT PARTICULAR SHOW – SOME SHOWS MAY DIFFER – PLEASE CHECK THIS WITH SHOW CONVEYNOR; CHILD HANDLER CLASSES – IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE CHILD KNOWS HOW TO HANDLE THE HORSE, MAKE IT STAND-UP FOR THE JUDGE AND ALSO TO SMILE AT THE JUDGE AND LOOK LIKE SOMEONE SHOWING A HORSE. TRADITIONAL COSTUME CLASSES – THESE ARE FUN CLASSES AND EVERYONE ENJOYS SEEING THE HORSE AND THE HANDLER DRESSED UP – REMEMBER TO PUT SOME PAINT ON THE HORSE – YOU CAN USE INEXPENSIVE POSTER PAINTS FOR THIS. DEVELOPMENT CLASSES – A FANTASTIC WAY TO GET YOUR GROOM TO BE MORE INVOLVED AND PROUD OF ALL THE WORK THEY PUT INTO THE HORSE;

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SHOW CLASSES ……. (2) • • • • •

COLTS OVER TWO YEARS OLD MUST BE SHOWN WITH A SUITABLE HALTER AND SLIP CHAIN A DOUBLE BRIDLE OR SNAFFLE BIT MAY BE USED FOR HORSES OVER 3 YEARS OLD. STALLIONS MAY NOT BE HANDLED BY ANYONE YOUNGER THAN 16 YEARS OLD APPALOOSA CLASSES ARE FOR REGISTERED APPENDIX OR STUD BOOK PROPER (SP) HORSES, 14HH OR OVER (CONSTITUION 11.4) APPALOOSA CLASSES ARE RESTRICTED TO THOSE PONIES OR HORSES THAT HAVE BEEN REGISTERED AS APPALOOSA HORSES OR PONIES

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IN THE RING – some TIPS Entering the ring •

When you go into the ring, try to position yourself well. Don't go in behind the horse who's won every class it's entered all season, as you'll highlight any weaknesses yours has in comparison. Also try to go in behind one of a different colour, so you stand out a bit.

The first walk around In-Hand •

Get a good walk going, and keep an eye on where the judge is watching. Normally, she will pick a side of the ring and watch that, seeing each horse come down it. So hold back a bit beforehand and really stride out along that side, so you're not crowded and can show off your horse's walk to its best advantage. Also try not to encourage the horse verbally or click, as they can sometimes put their ears back to listen to you or hesitate if they think you want something. When you do your first trot, don't be tempted to go hell for leather. You often end up in front of the horse and a rushed trot doesn't show off the movement well. Practice at home, get someone to watch you and also to trot the horse up - see what speed looks best. Be aware of what the steward is doing, wake the horse up before you are asked to go, and aim for a nice smooth transition. A couple of strides of walk is fine, but trot as soon as you can. Yet another thing to practice at home is matching your stride to the horse's front legs, so the judge isn't watching a blur of legs, which detracts from the movement of the horse. This is easier than it looks, and really does make a difference

The individual show •

When you stand up for the judge, make sure your horse is standing nicely. Another thing to practice at home, so he will stand square and still. When you do your trotting up, really aim straight for the judge. Obviously take into account that an elderly judge may not be able to move very fast, so don't run her down! Make sure you can stop at the end smoothly and without pulling. Do keep trotting right the way round to the back - go past your place in the lineup if you think the judge is still looking at you. If she liked the horse more on closer inspection than on first look, she will be looking carefully to confirm her thoughts. Keep trotting until she has moved on to look at the next competitor.

Waiting in line •

When you're waiting in the lineup, do keep your horse alert and standing-up well. Each time the judge watches a horse walk away in front of the lineup, you're in the edge of her vision. So no slouching, fiddling, yawning (however early you had to get up!), letting the horse fall asleep.

The final walk-around •

Just like in the ridden classes, don't give up until you're out of the ring. Get the best walk going that you can when you go back out for the final walk round, and keep an eye on the steward for being pulled in.

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• •

• •

• •

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IN THE CLASS

IN HAND : YOU WILL START OFF BY GOING INTO THE RING AND WALKING ROUND ON THE RIGHT REIN. YOU ARE ON THE HORSE'S LEFT HAND SIDE, ON THE OUTSIDE SO THE JUDGE CAN SEE THE HORSE. YOU NEED TO BE WALKING AT THE HORSE'S SHOULDER, NOT AT THE HEAD. (IT'S WORTH INVESTING TIME INTO TEACHING THE HORSE TO WALK FORWARD LIKE THIS SO YOU DON'T HAVE TO DRAG OR PULL THE HORSE ALONG). WHEN YOU'VE WALKED AROUND AND THE JUDGE HAS HAD TIME TO START ASSESSING THE CLASS, THE STEWARD WILL PICK A HORSE AND ASK THEM TO STAND IN A CORNER OR TO THE SIDE OF THE ARENA. THE REST OF THE CLASS STANDS BEHIND THEM. ONE BY ONE, THEY WILL TROT ROUND TO THE REAR OF THE LINE. PRACTICE THIS AS WELL, MAKING SURE THAT YOUR HORSE GOES OFF SMOOTHLY AND ALSO STOPS EASILY. THE JUDGE OR STEWARD WILL TELL YOU WHAT THEY WANT YOU TO DO FOR THE INDIVIDUAL SHOW – SOME JUDGESW DO THIS DIFFERENTLY FROM OTHERS. STAND THE HORSE UP FOR THE JUDGE. THE STEWARD WILL TELL YOU WHERE TO STAND AND WHERE TO FACE - BUT KEEP AN EYE ON EARLIER COMPETITORS AS WELL. WHEN THE JUDGE HAS HAD A GOOD LOOK AT THE HORSE, SHE WILL TELL YOU TO GO ON. YOU WALK AWAY, TURN ROUND, MAKING SURE YOU STAY ON THE OUTSIDE - SO TURN TO THE RIGHT - AND TROT BACK. ONE BY ONE, YOU STAND YOUR HORSE UP FOR THE JUDGES, THEN TROT AROUND A TRIANGLE, THAT IS NORMALLY MARKED IN THE RING. (See page 28 for diagram) THE JUDGES STAND AT ONE END OF THE TRIANGLE SO THAT THEY CAN SEE THE HORSE TROT TOWARDS THEM, AWAY AND SIDE ON. TROT STRAIGHT TOWARDS THE JUDGE, THEN GO PAST HER AND ROUND THE BACK OF THE LINEUP AND BACK TO YOUR PLACE. WHEN EVERYONE HAS DONE THEIR INDIVIDUAL BIT, THE JUDGE WILL OFTEN GO DOWN THE LINEUP AGAIN FOR A LAST LOOK. IF SHE'S CHANGED HER MIND ABOUT PLACINGS, SHE MAY WANT TO COMPARE THE HORSES AGAIN, SO WILL HAVE A GOOD LOOK. WHEN THE JUDGE IS HAPPY, THE STEWARD WILL ASK YOU ALL TO WALK ON ROUND AGAIN - ON THE RIGHT REIN AS BEFORE. KEEP AN EYE ON THE STEWARD FOR BEING PULLED IN WHEN YOU'VE BEEN PULLED IN AND THE ROSETTES ARE HANDED OUT, THE FIRST PLACES WILL DO A LAP OF HONOUR. TROT ON ROUND THE RING ONCE, ON THE RIGHT REIN AS BEFORE LEAVING THE RING.

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RIDDEN SHOWS RIDDEN SHOWING •

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Nearly all ridden classes follow the same pattern no matter what they are. First, you all ride round together. Enter at walk on the right rein, so going clockwise. You will walk round for a while as the judge gets the first look at the class. This is the time to make your good impression - have the horse striding out and covering ground. After you've walked round and the judge has had an initial look, the steward will tell you all to trot on. When you've trotted for a while, the steward will ask someone to go into canter and you all follow on. When you're in canter, the steward will signal for someone to change the rein across the diagonal. Come back to trot to change the rein and go back into canter on the other rein. In an open class, horses will normally lengthen the strides across the diagonal and show off a bigger trot. If you can, do it. If the horse is likely to break into canter or rush, then don't. Go back into canter on the other rein. You won't normally canter for long on the second rein. The steward will signal for you to come back to a walk. This is when you get pulled in - normally in a provisional order, although in a small class you may be asked to come in in any order; When you’ line up, it's time for the individual show. Sometimes the judge will ride afterwards. On occasion and in classes like 'best trained', you and the judge will both ride. Sometimes there's only one judge, but there is sometimes a specific 'ride judge'. Keep the ridden part short and sweet - particularly in a big class. You need to walk, trot and canter on both reins. In open classes, it is normal to gallop as well, but it's fine to stay in a normal canter in a novice class. Keep your circles smooth and your turns even. After the that, you go back to your place in the lineup and wait for the others to finish. Sometimes, you have an in-hand section as well as the ridden. The bigger the show, the more likely you are to have to run out in-hand as well as do a ridden show. After you've done your show, the steward will tell you to 'strip' or take the saddle off and get ready to run up in-hand. Often in a big class, only the horses that the judge likes will strip and the others will be sent out after doing their show or having the judge ride. After every horse has done an individual show and the in-hand (if it's included), all riders remount and walk round on the right rein. The judge will have a last look and then pull you in again in the final order. Sometimes all the class is pulled in, sometimes just the top 6, 8 or 10 competitors. If the judge is not pulling in the whole class, the steward will tell everyone else to leave the arena, in which case you file out. When the rosettes have been given out, the top placings do a lap of honour at a canter. The exception to this format is Best Turned Out. Normally, you will only walk round and sometimes trot (not often) and instead of an individual show, you get pulled out one by one from the lineup to be inspected by the judge In a Working Hunter class, you will have to do a course of rustic fences first. Normally, only the clear rounds will go back in for a ridden section, but this depends on the number of clears and the amount of people in the class altogether. Aim to jump the course at a steady, even pace - faster than you'd want to do a show-jumping round, but not flat out. Some classes have marks for jumping style as well as just leaving the fences up.

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Going around with the others • • •

In trot, make sure you're on the right diagonal so your horse doesn't look stiff through corners, and don't cut anyone off. If you're getting crowded, circle away to another part of the ring. Keep an eye on when the judge is looking in your direction and make sure you're smiling, shoulders back and head up - it does make a difference. Keep an eye out for the steward's instructions - it doesn't look very good if they are signalling to you to canter and you're in a world of your own! Don't think you need to trot or canter immediately - you can wait for a corner to canter and that's fine. When you're asked to come in for the first time, make sure you keep an eye on the steward. You don't want to miss your placing

The individual ‘show’ • •

When you do your ‘show’, keep thinking and be prepared to change it. If your horse strikes off early into canter, adapt it, stay in the canter and do a longer trot at the end to compensate. Remember the judge doesn't know what you had in mind, so keep your cool if it goes a bit wrong. In the lineup, keep paying attention. Don't let your horse rest a hind leg, try to keep him standing up well and not falling asleep. Wake him up while the previous competitor is doing their show, so you don't have to drag him out of the lineup while the judge is looking. Practice this at home, as it's common for a horse to be reluctant to come out of the line.

The in-hand section •

When the steward asks you to run the horse up in-hand, take the saddle off and put it behind the lineup (somewhere where it won't get trodden on). When you've done the in-hand, put the saddle back on (your groom can help here) to get straight back on. This is most important if you're near the bottom of the line, so you aren't holding the class up as you get back on.

The final walk-around •

When you all go and walk around again, don't give up and just sit there - really ride, get the best walk you possibly can - even if you are at the bottom of the lineup. Judges do sometimes have a real change of mind - the top placed horses may have misbehaved in their individual shows, the judge may have seen things he or she didn't like in the in-hand section, or your horse may have given them a super ride. Don't give up until you're out of the ring! Just as with the first pulling-in, keep a close eye on the steward and come in smartly and quickly when you are called. Nod to acknowledge you've been pulled in, then get into your place in the lineup.

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RIDDEN CLASSES • •

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SHOW HUNTER CLASSES :

LEAD REIN CLASSES : THE CHILD WILL BE EXPECTED TO CONTROL THE PONY – THE HANDLER WILL BE THERE FOR THE SAFETY AND CONFIDENCE OF THE BEGINNER RIDER. RIDERS WILL BE REQUIRED TO DO A SIMPLE TEST OF THEIR OWN CHOICE ON THE LEAD REIN. CHILD RIDERS : WILL BE REQUIRED TO WALK, TROT, CHANGE OF REIN AND RIDERS MAY CANTER IN THEIR INDIVIDUAL TESTS. RIDERS WILL BE REQUIRED TO DO A SIMPLE TEST OF THEIR OWN CHOICE. JUNIOR RIDERS : WILL BE REQUIRED TO WALK, TROT, CHANGE REAIN, CANTER WITH A SIMPLE CHANGE OF LEG. RIDERS MAY EXTEND THE TROT AND CANTER IN THEIR INDIVIDUAL TEST. RIDERS WILL BE REQUIRED TO DO A SIMPLE TEST OF THEIR OWN CHOICE. NOVICE : WILL BE REQUIRED TO WALK, TROT – WITH A CHANGE OF REIN, CANTER WITH A SIMPLE CHANGE OF LEG RIDERS WILL BE REQUIRED TO DO A SIMPLE TEST OF THEIR OWN CHOICE. OPEN : WILL BE REQUIRED TO WALK, TROT WITH A CHANGE OF REIN, EXTEND THE TROT, CANTER WITH A CHANGE OF LEG THROUGH THE WALK, EXTEND THE CANTER, REIN BACK AND HALT SQUARE. RIDERS WILL BE REQUIRED TO DO A SIMPLE TEST OF THEIR OWN CHOICE.

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The horse will be judged on : Conformation, Soundness, Type, Ability to gallop, Manners and Ride WILL BE EXPECTED TO WALK, TROT, CANTER, GALLOP (SINGLY OR IN COMPANY) AND CHANGE REIN THROUGH THE TROT AND POSSIBLY EXTEND THE TROT; EXHIBITORS MAY BE REQUIRED TO DISMOUNT AFTER THE CLASS,. REMOVE THE SADDLE AND PRESENT THE HORSE FOR CONFORMATION JUDGING. WORKING SHOW HUNTER :

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WILL BE REQUIRED TO WALK, TROT, CANTER, CHANGE REIN THROUGH THE TROT AND TO JUMP TWO RUSTIC TYPE JUMPS. FENCES SHOULD BE JUMPED WITH NO CHANGE IN RHYTHM JUMPS 60CM AND UNDER FOR NOVICE HORSES AND JUNIOR RIDERS; JUMPS OVER 60CM FOR OPEN HORSES AND PONIES. WORKING HUNTER : SAME AS ABOVE BUT WITH JUMPS : A COURSE OF NOT LESS THAN SIX AND NOT MORE THAN TEN JUMPS , ONE COMBINATION JUMPS INCLUDED TO BE JUMPED AT A STRONG CANTER. PLEASURE HORSE : The horse will be judged on : Manners, Performance, Quality of gaits, Conformation, Suitability to rider, Presence WILL BE REQUIRED TO WALK, TROT AND CANTER BOTH DIRECTIONS OF THE RING. OPEN HORSES WILL BE REQUIRED TO EXTEND AT THE TROT AND CANTER. EXTREME ACTION AND SPEED WILL BE PENALISED.

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RIDDEN CLASSES CONT…. • • •

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RIDER CLASSES : THE RIDER WILL BE JUDGED FOR ABILITY, CORRECTNESS OF SEAT, APPLICATION OF AIDS AND CONTROL OF THE HORSE. RIDERS MAY BE REQUIRED TO DISMOUNT AND/OR MOUNT OR RIDE AN IDIVDUAL TEST (WINNERS ARE NOT ELIGIBLE FOR RIDDEN CHAMPIONSHIPS) UTILITY horse : Lead rein riders ; Will be required to perform simple tests to demonstrate obedience, manners, comfort and versatility. You will be require to walk, trot, halt and back up. Child riders : Will be required to perform simple tests to demonstrate obedience, manners, comfort and versatility. You will be require to walk, trot, halt and back up. Junior Riders : Will be required to perform simple tests to demonstrate obedience, manners, comfort and versatility. You will be require to walk, trot, canter, halt and back up. Novice Horses : Will be required to perform simple tests to demonstrate obedience, manners, comfort and versatility. You will be require to walk, trot, canter, halt and back up. Open Horses : Will be required to perform simple tests to demonstrate obedience, manners, comfort and versatility. You will be require to walk, trot, canter, extend the canter, halt and back up.

JUMPING CLASSES :

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SANEF RULES APPLY TO ALL JUMPING CLASSES HEIGHTS OF JUMPS : 60CM AND BELOW FOR JUNIORS 60CM AND ABOVE BUT BELOW 90CM FOR ADULTS WINNERS ARE NOT ELIGIBLE FOR RIDDEN CHAMPIONSHIPS BEST TURNED OUT : YOU WILL B E JUDGED ON THYE CORRECTNESS OF TACK AND OVERALL TURNOUT AS LAID OUT IN THE RULES FOR RIDDEN CLASSES. RIDER TO ENTER THE RING AT A WALK AND LINED UP AT JUDGES DISCRETION. WINNERS ARE NOT ELIGIBLE FOR RIDDEN CHAMPIONSHIPS FUTURITY CLASSES : The horse will be judged on : Manners, Performance, Quality of gaits, Conformation, Suitability to rider, Presence YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO WALK, TROT AND CANTER BOTH DIRECTIONS OF THE RING OPEN HORSES TO EXTEND TROT AND CANTER EXTREME ACTION AND SPEED TO BE PENALISED.

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SPECIAL RIDDEN CLASSES

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NATIVE COSTUME CLASS : WILL BE JUDGED ON AUTHENTICITY OF COSTUME, EQUIPMENT, ATTIRE OF RIDER, MARKINGS AND COLOURFUL QUALITIES OF HORSE – OVERALL PICTURE AND PRESENTATION COSTUMES MAY DEPICT VARIOUS STAGES OF APPALOOSA HISTORY ALTHOUGH AUTHENTIC INDIAN COSTUME WILL TAKE PREFERENCE ONLY ONE RIDER PER ENTRY NO TRAVIOS IN COSTUME CLASS FOR SAFETY REASONS YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO WALK, ON THE RAIL BOTH DIRECTIONS OF THE RING. EXHIBITORS MAY BE ASKED QUESTIONS REGARDING THIEIR COSTUMES HORSES ARE SHOWN IN AUTHENTIC COSTUME WITH A BRIDLE, RAWHIDE BRAIDED OR ROPE HACKAMORE- NO HACKAMORE BITS ALLOWED, MOUTH ROPE OR OTHER SUITABLE BRIDLE AND BIT FOR FULL CONTROL OVER HORSE

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DRIVING CLASSES : Horses will be judged for Manners, Quality of gaits and Performance HORSE TO ENTER RING AT A TROT YOU WILL EXPECTED TO DO A NORMAL TROT, WALK, NORMAL TROT AND EXTENDED TROT. EXTREME SPEED WILL BE PENALISED EXTREME HIGH ACTION WILL BE PENALISED IN BUCKBOARD PLEASURE DRIVING ONE OR TWO HORSES TO BE SHOWN IN HARNESS IN BUCKBOARD PLEASURE DRIVING ONLY ONE HORSE IN PLEASURE DRIVING HORSES MUST STAND QUIETLY AT LINE UP HANDLERS ALLOWED IN TO ASSIST AT LINE UP BUCKBOARD DRIVING CLASS SHOULD DEPICT THE EARLY AMERICAN OR FRONTEIR AGE WHICH THE APPALOOSA WAS PART OF. ENTRY LIMITED TO NOT MORE THAN 4 PEOPLE ON THE VEHICLE. CLASS WILL BE JUDGED ON AUTHENTICITY OF EQUIPMENT, ATTIRE OR RIDERS, MARKINGS AND COLOURFUL QUALITIES OF HORSES. FOUR WHEELED VEHICLES ARE MANDATORY FOR THIS CLASS WHETHER SINGLE OR DOUBLE HARNESS.

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RIDDEN CLASSES - western

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WESTERN CLASSES : The horse will be judged on : Manners, Performance, Quality of gaits, Conformation, Suitability to rider, Presence YOU WILL BE EXPECTED TO WALK, JOG AND LOPE BOTH DIRECTIONS OF THE RING. OPEN HORSES WILL BE EXPECTED TO EXTEND THE LIOPE HORSE WILL BE REQUIRED TO BACK UP I N THE LINEUP PLEASURE HORSE SECTION TO BE DIVIDED INTO TWO SECTIONS : Novice Western Open Western TRAIL HORSE : Novice western YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO PERFORM A NUMBER OF SIMPLE TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE OBEDIENCE, MANNERS, COMFORT AND VERSATILITY. YOU WILL B E REQUIRED TO WALK, JOG, LOPE, HALT AND BACK UP DURING THE TEST Open horses : YOU WILL BE EXPECTED TO DO A NUMBER OF ADVANCED TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE OBEDIENCE, MANNERS, COMFORT AND VERSATILITY. YOU WILL B E REQUIRED TO WALK, JOG, LOPE, HALT AND BACK UP DURING THE TEST TRAIL HORSE SECTION TO BE DIVIDED INTO TWO SECTIONS : Novice Western Open Western

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REINING HORSE CLASSES To rein a horse is not only to guide him but also to control his every movement. The best reined horse should be wilfully guided or controlled with little or no apparent resistance and dictated to completely by the rider. Any movement on his own by the horse must be considered a lack of or temporary loss of control and therefore faulted according to severity of deviation.

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Credit will be given for smoothness, finesse, attitude, quickness and authority in performing the various manoeuvres while using controlled speed.

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Any ties for first place will be worked off using the same pattern. If there is again a tie for first place, the judge will review each test and place the horses according to his personal opinion.

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Riders shall ride the course as indicated, any deviation from the course will result in penalization.

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 Start at lope.  Ride circle to left – slow on correct lead.  Change leads (as set to for junior and novice riders in point 8.13).  Ride circle to right with speed on correct lead.  Ride large circle to right, do not close this circle but extend the lope to the far end of the arena.  180 degree left turn on the hindquarters.  Extend the lope to the far end of the arena.  180 degree right turn on the hindquarters.  Extend the lope halfway down the arena to a halt on the hindquarters.  Settle horse and back a few strides.  Ride to the judge for inspection.

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At the end of the day... •

... YOU AND YOUR HORSE SHOULD BE TIRED, HAPPY, AND SMARTER THAN YOU WERE IN THE MORNING.

HERE ARE SOME TIPS TO KEEP YOUR HORSE IN TOP FORM AND TO MAKE SURE YOU KEEP HAVING GREAT HORSE SHOW EXPERIENCES. •

NO MATTER HOW TIRED YOU ARE, YOUR HORSE DESERVES YOUR ATTENTION! MAKE SURE HE'S PROPERLY CLEANED, UNBRAIDED, FED, WATERED AND PUT AWAY FOR THE NIGHT. EVEN IF YOU DIDN'T BRING HOME THE ROSETTE, YOUR HORSE DESERVES AN EXTRA CARROT.

THANK THE PEOPLE WHO HELPED YOU. THIS INCLUDES YOUR TRAINER, PARENTS, GROOMS, HELPERS AND FRIENDS. PERHAPS GIVE YOUR HANDLER AND GROOMS A GIFT TO SHOW YOUR APPRECIATION FOR THEIR INPUT.

MAKE A SPECIAL PLACE TO DISPLAY YOUR RIBBONS. NO, WINNING ISN'T EVERYTHING, BUT RIBBONS ARE PRETTY AND SHOULD BE CELEBRATED. DON'T LEAVE THEM ANYWHERE THEY'LL GET FOLDED, SQUASHED, OR BLEACHED BY THE SUN.

REVIEW FOOTAGE OR PICTURES OF YOUR SHOW WITH YOUR TRAINER, AND PLAN HOW YOUR RIDE CAN BE EVEN MORE FANTASTIC AT THE NEXT SHOW!

Diagram of showing triangle

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Appaloosa  

The South African Appaloosa Horse

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