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ISLAND FOYER Compress urbanism / the filter to capture scapeland

Luqian Lin E-mail: linluqian0306@hotmail.com


SYNOPSIS The Island Foyer is a proposal for the site of the Manhattan Port Authority Bus Terminal at Midtown between 40th and 42nd Street. It is the largest terminal in the world receiving global and local travelers, visitors and immigrants in a twenty four hour cycle. The thesis takes as its point of departure the nature of immigration and settlement that defines the city and the eras of arrival, transition, settlement and resettlement that continue to define the island metropolis. The Island Foyer describes another landscape of arrival for the city, one that acknowledges the nature of travel and work, immigration and tourism and the demands of a community of commuters. It seeks to offer another gate to the city, a prototype of a public space that negotiates the condition of estrangement and acts as a gateway to a city of possibilities. It considers how new immigrants perceive the island territory by investigating how minorities have settled and lived in Manhattan in the past. Island Foyer proposes an intense field of programmatic conditions whose linear, screen-like forms filter light and movement across a range of datum levels. Slowly, these screens introduce the intensity and scale of the urban landscape towards Broadway and Times Square. These light architectural forms carry programmes that respond to the needs and economic realities of the interstate bus passenger and the low paid city worker – hostel accommodation, creche facilities, advice centres, language schools and storage for personal belongings – in the context of an extraordinary new urban landscape condition.


CHAPTER ONE The image of island territories Scapeland Overall architectural ambition

CHAPTER TWO The traces of Manhattan Scapeland Trap from villages

CHAPTER THREE The puzzle of Scapeland Field /Gates/Garden/Wall/Locks


CHAPTER FOUR The Island scapeland ‘construction’ Clamp and compress

CHAPTER FIVE: Double of Scapeland Seep


GLOSSARY OF TERMS SCAPELAND: In mental levels, the scapeland is what could remind people about a familiar context which recall they back to the mental landscape, build the ‘comfortable’ palace in mind. In physical, the scapeland is the architecture landscape which including the architecture language, context and situation of the programs.

ISLAND TERRITORIES: a clearly identifiable moment within the overall grain of a city, site or proposal where an experiential shift occurs – a moment when a specific theme or concern becomes exaggerated beyond all others.

LANDSCAPE: In his essay Scapeland (1989) Jean-François Lyotard suggests that: ‘there would appear to be a landscape whenever the mind is transported from one sensible matter to another, but retains the sensorial organization appropriate to the first, or at least a memory of it. The earth seen from the moon for a terrestrial, the countryside for the townsman; the city for a farmer. ESTRANGEMENT (dépaysment) would appear to be a precondition for landscape.’

FIELD: at its most earthy, Field is used to describe the cultivated skin of the planet. It is fertile, yet its productivity is best achieved through a process of constant working – tilling, furrowing, rotating, aerating and compacting. This is a process that yields what is intended – the crop or harvest - but can also disinter the unexpected - an archaeology of finds or a forgotten corpse. It is a crafted form of representation that seeks to reveal the urban, spatial, programmatic, material and tectonic potential of territories. It draws heavily on research bringing it directly into contact with the multifarious spatial, historical and cultural layers of the territory.


WALL: In traditional architectural language the wall means ‘a physical object that blocks the way’. However, in the ‘double of scapeland’ rather than ‘block the way’ the wall become a part of program. Wall response the architecture language with scapeland, as the filter of scapeland, trap and slowly introduce the intensity and scale of the urban landscape towards Broadway and Times Square. Additionally, the wall become furniture, space and represent the materiality of architecture.

LOCKS: a micro-urbanism that engages tightly within the grain of the identified territory and performs and negotiates a material, spatial shift between one experiential condition and another. This could equally operate at the scale of the city or at the scale of a small architectural detail. The Lock is embedded, it is set, it is housed, it is engaged with something other than itself. The Lock is inextricably linked to context but it does not merely emulate or mimic – it negotiates. Duplicate

GARDEN: A garden is a landscape in the form of a room. Conventionally, this is an exterior room but in an architectural context it could be deep within a buildings interior. It is a core sample of a far greater set of landscape concerns, a metonymic fragment of a Scapeland.

GATE: Gates are moments of extraordinary architectural intensity that go beyond the pragmatic concerns of function and programme. They are thresholds that allow a transition from the spatial and sensorial orders of the outside, public domain toward a new arrangement of spatial and environmental conditioning. They don’t just allow access to something new, they prepare us for something new. The traditional gatehouse of a country estate or school often presents itself to us as an elaborate, complexly detailed, architecture whose fenestrations, and reliefs far outweigh the humble programme of gardener or janitor’s dwelling. Their primary role is to introduce us to something much larger, something that is presently concealed from view. The Gate transforms us, it prepares us, it allows us to move from one condition to another without jarring. A gate, therefore, often slows us down and prolongs the moment of ingress.


DEVICE : Unlike ‘machine’, the word ‘device’ suggests a more intimate scale. To be ‘left to your own devices’ means that you are given a freedom to do your own thing. It is intimate and it is personal. To create a device in this context is therefore a form of introduction, a declaration of self. A Device is crafted and ingenious, it has impact, it has wit, it ‘effects’ and ‘affects’, it is personal – it is your emblem. It is potently strange

PLANE TABLE : The Plane Table lacks the precision of its counterpart, the theodolite which undertakes the survey in the numerical form of measurements and coordinates. It is this empirical abstraction that sets the two surveying processes apart. A survey developed through the use of a Plane Table develops the first draft of a map in the field. It evolves through a direct engagement with a process of drawing. Whilst being more accurate, a survey undertaken with the use of a theodolite delays the process of graphic engagement until the recordings have been returned to the drawing office. A map developed upon the surface of a Plane Table, on the other hand, emerges live during the moment of observation. It bypasses many of the requirements of empirical measurement and, instead, relies more directly, more bodily, on looking as a performative, intentional act where something is produced, created, through the act of observation itself.

PROJECTED ROOM: a ‘room’ identified for its key engagement within the overall thesis programmatic. This does not necessarily mean that it is the largest space or the grandest space rather, it is a space where the form, materiality and environmental conditioning is most exacting. So, for example, such a space might not be the full archive of a library but instead, the room where the special collection manuscripts can be read and preserved. Here the ergonomics of the programme, the conditioning of the environment, the acoustics, the lighting the methods of protection against fire are at their most exacting, the most precise and indeed, the most different to the conditions outside the building.


ANIMATE SPACE: a continuous and carefully choreographed pan through a mise en scène where each surface, each detail is meticulously formed and considered. So, our close examination of our architecture will not be the simple slicing of a static object. Instead, it will draw out the animate, experiential movement through space.

GNOMON: A gnomon is the angular spike or fin that casts a shadow onto the calibrations of a sundial. It is simple yet it is often exquisitely crafted from resilient stable cast or worked materials. Although simple, it does an extraordinary thing, it transposes “the perceived regularity of the heavenly motions onto the human world” – it scales unimaginable forces and distances onto the surface of the ground, wall or plinth, surfaces that we can walk upon or touch. As a consequence, it is often used as a metonymic device – something small that embodies something extraordinary. It is this aspect of the gnomon that we place emphasis on here - not its common form or materiality but its ability to embody and act out things that are far greater, more complex and mysterious than itself. The way it can cast the intangible world onto the surfaces of the space we physically occupy.


CHAPTER ONE: The image of island territories Scapeland Overall architectural ambition

Island Foyer, describes a proposal for a specific point of arrival upon the island metropolis of Manhattan, a gateway to a city of possibilities. The foyer is conceived as a scapeland, a moment of estrangement where one set of sensorial organization meets another – the extended landscape sprawl of New Jersey, and the social, cultural and economic landscape that this implies and the dense, verticality of the capitalist metropolis. Island Foyer forms a public space and arrangement of programmes that seeks to negotiate this point of meeting through a new, complex public space. This outlines my overall architectural ambition the building relationship in a big scale with the whole island territory, setting the proposal in a big image of city. It concerned with the full architecture, landscape, and field in the compact site- Port Authority Bus Terminal. Then scale down the proposal into a city gateway.


Husdon river


Times square

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The Port Authority Bus Terminal is the central hub for bus travel to and from New York City. Located from 40th to 42nd Streets, between Eighth and Ninth Avenues, the terminal is both the largest bus station in the nation and the busiest in the world. The PABT serves as a terminus and departure point for commuter routes as well as for long-distance intercity bus service and is a major transit hub for New Jersey.

Port Authority Bus Terminal View from 8th Ave to New Jersey


Originally built as an art-deco influenced structure with the parking lot on the roof, the building was relatively well received. Taking up roughly the size of a city block, the warm brick colors were very much of the Works Progress era. Clean with an almost moral simplicity. It was completed in 1950, as advertised, for the price tag of $24 million. Port Authority Bus Terminal View from New Jersey (9th Ave) to 8th Ave


Port Authority Bus Terminal


In 1960 brought the PABT’s first large-scale addition: a three floor parking garage. Formed mostly of steel and not reflecting the original design intent, it was a grim por tent of things to come. By 1966 the building was already overcrowded and garnering a terrible reputation. The renovations were haphazard, quickly done and lead to lingering user confusion. With millions of day-to-day transitory passengers, the terminal was also becoming an epicenter of crime. In the 1970s and ‘80s the area was “considered dangerous by police, tourists, and commuters due to high crime, prostitution, vagrant behavior, and inadequate upkeep and law enforcement in the building and nearby Times Square, especially after dark.” In 1970, the NY Times declared that two types of people could be found inside, “Some are waiting for buses. Others are waiting for death.” Port Authority Bus Terminal


Grand Central Station

Unlike the darken and mess Port authority bus terminal, the Grand central train station has a bright, elegant environment which provide passenger with convenient and suitable experience.


The old Pennsylvania Station was a historic railroad station in New York City, which has elegant glass dome in the waiting room. The old pennsylvania station 1930s-1940s


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W 42 Perspective drawing View from 8th Ave to New Jersey


Port Authority Bus Terminal View from New Jersey (9th Ave) to 8th Ave


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A storage for personal belongings B Advice center C Creche facilities D Language school E Learning and archive F Hostel accommodation G Performance and stage H Community living space I Exercise space J Street corner CafĂŠ K Terminal building


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PLAN 1 - Lower level A storage for personal belongings A1 Leaving luggage reception A2 Luggage allocation A3 Luggage storage A4 Stuff toilet and service unit

8th Ave

B Advice center Including basic service to passenger B1 reception B2 Café B3 Garden gate C Creche facilities For “leaving children” in the way to work, and take care your children until you pick up them after work C1 Entrance to creche facilities C2 Activity space C3 Classroom C4 Children locker room and toilet C5 Staff lounge Times Building C6 Staff office C7 Multipurpose courtyard with C8 Trampoline park C9 Pantry C10 Slide park D Language school D1 Meeting room D2 Lobby D3 Classroom D4 Terrace D5 Café

E Learning and archive E1 Entrance foyer E2 Meeting room E3 Group learning E4 Personal learning E5 Reading E6 Library and archive store E7 Roof terrace F Hostel accommodation F1 Hostel foyer F2 Capsule rooms F3 Living room F4 Male toilet F5 Female toilet F6 Laundry H Community living space H1 Entrance H2 Kitchen wall-microwave/oven/ simple cooking stuff H3 Dinning space H4 Cafeteria I Exercise space I1 Entrance I2 Locker wall I3 Gym J Street corner Café K Terminal building K1 Bus entrance/ Exit K2 Bus terminal circulation core K3 Bus loading K4 Waiting area K5 Custom toilet


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A storage for personal belongings A1 Leaving luggage reception A2 Luggage allocation A3 Luggage storage B Advice center C Creche facilities C1 Entrance to creche facilities C2 Activity space C4 Children locker room and toilet C11 Bedroom C12 Locker wall D Language school Times Building and archive E Learning E7 Roof terrace E8 Café E9 Locker wall E10 Dressing room E11 Prop room E12 VIP dressing room E13 Waiting area

F Hostel accommodation G Performance and stage G1 Box office G2 Cloak room G3 Theater H Community living space I Exercise space J Street corner Café K Terminal building K1 Bus entrance/ Exit K2 Bus terminal circulation core K3 Bus loading K4 Waiting area K5 Custom toilet


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CHAPTER TWO The traces of Manhattan Scapeland Trap from villages

Through the stimulus of a Character (Seneca Village) a wider research has been set out regarding the communities and the life of the marginalized people of Manhattan – the African-Americans, the immigrants, the slum-dwellers, and the misfits – as well as the way in which the city responded to them, in many cases using their destruction as the only means of making way for grander narratives. Such is the case of Seneca Village, San Juan Hill, Little Africa and the Five Points Slum, which are today parts of Central Park, Lincoln Centre, Greenwich Village and Chinatown, keeping almost nothing of their memory. After the research about the African- Americans community or we can say villages, I had trapped the elements from the village as a memory scapeland of how the other half live in manhattan. These elements become a part of the Island Foyer, which remained people how the city looks like in another half, besides the dense and depressing skyscrapers forest.


Field drawing


Seneca village - Central Park Located between 82nd and 87th Streets, just east of Central Park West, Seneca Village was first settled in the 1820’s, just on the eve of emancipation in New York State. There some African Americans bought land to build their homes and institutions. Some think that one of their incentives was to acquire $250 worth of property, the amount of property that was needed for an African-American man to vote. Seneca Village was, in fact, the only community of African-American property-owner for the 19th century city. By the mid-1850’s, the Village was a thriving community with population of over 250 people. Approximately two thirds were of African descent, while the remainder were of European descent, mostly Irish. The village was also the site of several institutions, including three churches, five cemeteries and a school. When the City government claimed the land under the right of eminent domain, evicted the residents, and razed their homes to create Central Park, Seneca Village disappeared for over a century


Standing at a height of 141.8 feet, Summit Rock is the highest natural elevation in the Park, while Vista Point remains the only higher elevation in the area. Located at Central Park West and 83rd Street, Summit Rock was the site of Seneca Village in the 19th century.

The only thing still remained us about Seneca village in central park is the summit rock.


While we do not know of any photographs of Seneca Village, there are photographs from the 1850s that show dwellings in the area and depict the landscape before it was transformed into Central Park, some of which gives us a sense of what Seneca Village might have looked like.


San Juan Hill during Lincoln Center construction

San Juan Hill - Lincoln Center San Juan Hill was a community in what is now the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the Upper West Side in Manhattan, New York City. Its residents were mostly African American, African Caribbean, and Puerto Rican, and comprised one of the largest black communities in New York before World War I. San Juan Hill was bound by 59th Street to the south, West End Avenue to the west, 65th Street to the north, and Amsterdam Avenue (part of Tenth Avenue) to the east.. The site is now occupied by Lincoln Center.

Lincoln Center construction

African Americans moved into the area around the late 19th century from Greenwich Village, where an earlier black community existed. Before the construction of Lincoln Center and the subsequent destruction of San Juan Hill, jazz and art thrived in this area as its popularity began to grow. The neighborhood had a jazz club called "Jungle Cafe" nicknamed the jungle by the members of the neighborhood. The area's musical history continues today at Jazz at Lincoln Center. Historian Marcy S. Sacks writes that San Juan Hill had lots of tenement basement clubs that ranged from dives to higher-level clubs. And that there were also poolrooms, saloons, dance halls, and bordellos.


Little Africa - Greenwich Village

Minetta Lane, Minetta Street

Sullivan-Thompson Historic District - 57 Sullivan Street

From the 1880s to the late 1910s, the area around Minetta Lane, Minetta Street, and Minetta Place was referred to as “Little Africa”, as it was the center of a growing African-American community. In the mid17th century, “partially-freed” slaves were allowed to farm a small patch of land at the southern end of Manhattan. They found homes around a brook that flowed into the Hudson River. The Algonquin Indians called it “Mannette” or “Spirit Water”. Over time, it became known as “Minetta”. Today, the area is lined with humble brick houses dating from the 1820s to the 1840s. Black-owned businesses throughout the South Village served the community from the late 1800s through the early 20th century.”

The blocks that comprise the Sullivan-Thompson Historic District were inhabited by a mix of black and white residents by the end of the 1850s… While Thompson Street between Canal and West Fourth Streets was considered the center of Little Africa, the two sides of Sullivan Street between Broome and Spring Streets had 21 buildings with African-American tenants in 1870… With blacks and whites living in closely packed quarters, saloons became important communal gathering places. On Thompson Street, most were “black-andtan” saloons catering to a multi-racial, rather than segregated, clientele. By 1874-1875, the basement of 57 Sullivan Street had been altered and was housing the Knickerbocker, a black-and-tan saloon with an African-American proprietor and bartender. Denunciations of black-and-tan saloons by novelist Stephen Crane and social reformer Jacob Riis—who condemned the “moral turpitude” of Thompson Street—were based in the pervasively negative views of “race mixing” at the time. Because of these societal attitudes, the integrated residential areas of Little Africa were a rare place where interracial families could settle


Five Points - Chinatown Five Points was a 19th-century neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The neighborhood was generally defined as being bound by Centre Street to the west, the Bowery to the east, Canal Street to the north, and Park Row to the south. Through the twentieth century, the former Five Points area was gradually redeveloped, with streets changed or closed. The area is now occupied by the Civic Center to the west and south, which includes major federal, state, and city facilities, and the African Burial Ground National Monument. To the east and north, former Five Points area is located within Chinatown. Five Points streets intersection painted by George Catlin in 1827. Anthony Street veers off to the left, Orange Street is to the right, and Cross Street runs left to right in the foreground. The dilapidated tenement buildings to the left of Anthony Street were torn down in 1832 as far back as Little Water Street, and the vacant, triangular lot that was left became known as "Paradise Square"

The Five Points gained international notoriety as a densely populated, disease-ridden, crime-infested slum that existed for over 70 years.

Collect pond The Collect Pond (or Fresh Water Pond) before being excavated and filled in was a body of springfed fresh water, as deep as 60 feet (18 metres) and occupying about 48 acres (19 ha). The pond was the main source of drinking water and freshwater fish for the early Town of New York in the 18th century. Beginning in the early 18th century, various commercial enterprises were built along the pond's shores in order to use the water. The contaminated wastewater from these businesses flowed back into the pond, creating a severe pollution problem and environmental health hazard.

The Collect Pond before being filled in 1811 and Five Points streets superimposed on the topographical


How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York (1890)

How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York (1890) is an early publication of photojournalism by Jacob Riis, documenting squalid living conditions in New York City slums in the 1880s. The photographs served as a basis for future "muckraking" journalism by exposing the slums to New York City's upper and middle classes. They inspired many reforms of working-class housing, both immediately after publication as well as making a lasting impact in today's society. In the 1880s many people in upper- and middle-class society were unaware of the dangerous conditions in the slums among poor immigrants. After the Civil War, the country transformed into an industrial superpower and became largely urban. Also, a wave of unskilled southern European, eastern European, Asian, and Jewish immigrants came to settle in the "promised land" of the United States. This migration was vastly different from the previous booms due to the influx of non-western European and non-Protestant individuals, therefore making the split between the "new" and "old" immigrants much larger In the 1880s, over 5.2 million immigrants came to the United States, with many of these people staying in New York City. This increased New York City's population 25%, therefore making the tenement problem much more extreme.


Tenement House


Memory scapeland starts from the unit of tenement house, James(Rear Windows Movie) looks out of the windows. He saw how the other half lives in the tenement house. There are a number of layers of wall and ground which presented the history of tenement house, and it is a evidence of many people’s life traces there.


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Trap from villages


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Little Africa Greenwich Village

Residential building type

The Washington Square

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“o” Type

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“I” type

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Five Points Chinatown

Tenement House

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Lincoln Center Theater Stage

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San Juan Hill Lincoln Center

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The Apthorp Apartment

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The Metropolitan Opera House

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Section Plane Table Model Through the research of villages, we trapped some architectural elements from each village, for example, Lincoln center theater stage, tenement house stander unit wall as a section piece of Plane table. After playing the model, I found the section itself as a scpeland can remain you the histor y in the site. Manhattan as an island city was formed from immigration, from a process of estrangement and within its generic form memories of discrete villages prevail. Each village representing an immigrant community and their specific culture and ritual memory. The Island Foyer is likewise composed of discrete village-like elements, the pieces of the puzzle.


Trapped wall strategy

Bus Terminal Building with bus elevator

The section plane table model provides the proposal of architectural typology possibility of Island Foyer. The early-stage strategy is using the trapped elements (Pink wall in the drawing) from villages, as heavy support and basic elements of each functional lock. In terms of these walls, developing the light elements space which can satisfy the programs of the Foyer. Besides, trapped walls could be as furniture themselves, which can remain people not only by visual sense but also when you are touching furniture wall, the texture, temperature and material would remain you the memory scapelands

storage for personal belongings


creche facilities

CafĂŠ and advice centres


language schools and gardens

art and culture center


library and collect stories center

hostel accommodation


hostel accommodation library and collect stories center

art and culture center

language schools and gardens Cafe and advice centres creche facilities storage for personal belongings

bus ternimal building with bus elevator

After developing the proposal individually, I focus on the site s p e c i f i e d , w h i c h i s t h e Po r t Authority Bus Terminal. Because the Port Authority Bus Terminal serves as a terminus and departure point for commuter routes as well as for long-distance intercity bus service and is a major transit hub for New Jersey. Besides, airport buses stop at PABT as well, which means the bus terminal would be the first stop when people arrive city. It is a city gateway.


CHAPTER THREE: The puzzle of Scapeland Field /Gates/Garden/Wall/Locks

Following chapter two, I kept developing the fundamental lock’s elements of Island Foyer in programs, layout, and materials. This chapter is concerned with the full architecture, landscape, and field in the compact site- Port Authority Bus Terminal. Scale down the proposal into a city gateway. A detailed breakdown of the Manhattan Foyer into the field, gate, garden, wall, and locks, which I have defined the terms at the beginning of this portfolio. It sets out the programs, layout, plans, which is focused on architectural typology.


CONCRETE WALL ELEMENTS

TIMBER LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS


E. LEARNING AND ARCHIVE F. HOSTEL ACCOMMODATION

C. CRECHE FACILITIES

G. PERFORMANCE AND STAGE

B. ADVICE CENTER

D. LANGUAGE SCHOOL

A. STORAGE FOR PERSONAL BELONGINGS


Lower Level Higher Level Roof Level

Open to sky public space on the ground level

Public space on timber landscape level

Interior public space


Roof pieces

Plans


Concrete heavy support wall which is trapped elements from villages, as heavy support and basic elements of each functional lock.


Playing with shadow Shadows present architectural scapeland in different moments which is another memory scapeland about time. These elements become develop into landscape in ‘Island Foyer’.


Through cutting and folding, physicalize shadows from graphics into paper card models, combine the trapped wall elements and shadow models, the building language becomes vivid and explaining the scapeland story


Light timber landscape flows between heavy concrete wall elements


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After analyzing overall scapeland, we focus on the individual puzzle - lock


A storage for personal belongings


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K5 C2

D

A4

C4

C11

C Creche facilities For “leaving children� in the way to work, K3 and take care your K4 children until you pick up them after work C1 Entrance to creche facilities C2 Activity space C3 Classroom C4 Children locker room and toilet A1 C5 Staff lounge K5

A2

A3

C6 Staff office C7 Multipurpose courtyard with C8 Trampoline park C9 Pantry C10 Slide park C11 Bedroom C12 Locker wall

B


D Language school


E6

F5

W 41st St

C6

C

C9

C8

C10

C1

D1 D4

C3

A

C4

C10

B1 B3

A1 A2

A3

A4

D Language school D1 Meeting room D2 Lobby D3 Classroom D4 Terrace D5 CafĂŠ

B2

B

D

D2

D3


E Learning and archive


3

I೅ I2 Iೄ I1 H1

H1

Lower level H2

H1

H2

H

H4

H3 H1 F1

F5

F6

E1

F

F2

E3

E2

J

F1

E

F3

F6

F4

E5

I

E7

F

E4

E1

E6

Higher level

F5

H

W 41st St

E

C6

C5

F C

C7

E8

C9

C8

E9 C1

C2

C3

C3

F

E10 C10

E12

D1

DE7

D4

E11 C4

C10 G2

E13

G1

B1 B3 G3

E Learning and archive

C A

A2

F2

E1 Entrance foyer E2 Meeting room A1 C12 E3 Group learning E4 Personal learning E5 Reading E6 Library and archive store A3 E7 Roof terrace

G

B2

B

G3

E8 Café E9 Locker wall E10 Dressing room E11 Prop room E12 VIP dressing room E13 Waiting area A4

D

D2


H1

H2

F6

F3

W 41st St

C5

K1

C1

C7

F Hostel accommodation

C2

C3

K1


J Water

Water

I

I3

Iŕł… I2 Iŕł„ I1 H4

H1

H1

H2

H

H3 H1 F1

F5

E1

F

F2

E3

E2

F1 F3

E

F

E4

E1

F6

F4

E5

E7

F2

E6

F5

W 41st St

F Hostel accommodation F1 Hostel foyer F2 Capsule rooms F3 Living room F4 Male toilet C8 F5 Female toilet F6 Laundry

C6

C

C9

C10

C1

D1 D4

C3

C4

C10

B1 B3

B2

D

D2

D3


G Performance and stage


I

H

E

F

E8

E9

E10 E12

E7

E11

G2

E13

G1

G3

G

G3

C12

C

C1

D C2

C11

K3

C4 G Performance and stage

G1 Box office G2 Cloak room G3 Theater

B

K4

A1 K5

A2

A3


CHAPTER FOUR: The Island scapeland ‘construction’ Clamp and compress

The city gateway as a clamp to compress the city into a compact site, like a puzzle, the image of island territory be built in the limited site. This chapter concerns how to build the scapeland from locks, gate, field, wall, garden, landscape... into a compressed architectural scapeland, thinking about the material and structure.


Hand cut card model Taking the village section model idea transfer into a more architectural projected idea, become thinking the program and the circulations, using shadow as the concept the landscape which is flowing between the section wall elements


3d print model after clamping and compressing


T I M E S BUILDING

3d print island foyer model with city context Give the project the spacial experience on the site


Wall elements and spacial perception model This model as a tool which could help me develop the space in detail. It provides various possible of play the space between the wall, or the space on the wall (I have upload the video about how to play this tool model with this folio, please check it)


Space between wall elements, in the wall elements. Begin to build garden, field, gateway in a compressed site


Leaving luggage and Ca


afe in different weather


Island Foyer with city reflection in the water


Creche facilities + Playground


The Bus goes through under the performance space on W 41st Street


Leaving luggage and Cafe


Projected room

'Manhattan Foyer' reception

Roof detail

The projected room is the reception of ‘Manhattan Foyer ’, which connects terminal areas (bus elevators / gate / waiting room/ leaving luggage) and city (8th Ave ). The reception area has bus information board, help desk, Café and guide of ‘Manhattan Foyer ’. The technical logic of projected room is protecting passagers from noise and bad weather, meanwhile, providing good ventilation and lighting.

Kalwall roof panel with timber frame fixed with threaded rod, hex nut and washer 500x500mm Glu-laminated column 20mm threaded rod with 20mm hex nut and washer Prefabricated concrete wall with T-shaped steel knife plate 500x200mm Glu-laminated beam 20mm lag blots with washer Projected room celling detail Painted finished stainless steel roof sheet Damp proof membrane to be continuous around envelope Thermal insulation board Roof grade oriented strand board Steel I beam Painted plasterboard ceiling Floor detail Engineer timber floor Stainless steel grille to trench heating Screed with integral underground heating Thermal insulation Metal profile to stop screed Damp proof membrane to be continuous around Prefabricated concrete slab Landscape Platform detail 65mm thick cross-laminated timber decking to platform surface Steel cross bracing 45 degree steel cross bracing in long span area Timber slats


Roof detail

1.500x500mm Glu-laminated column 2.20mm threaded rod with 20mm hex nut and washer 3.Prefabricated concrete wall 4.T-shaped steel knife plate 5.500x200mm Glu-laminated beam 6.20mm lag blots with washer 7.Long threaded rod with hex nut and washer 8.T-shaped steel knife plate and hext nut and washer to fix glulaminated beam with prefabricated concrete wall

1

2 3 4 5

6 8 7


1 7 8 2

9 10

3

4

11 12

5 13

6

1.20mm threaded rod with 20mm hex nut and washer 2.20mm lag bolts with washer 3.T-shaped steel knife plate 4.20mm threaded rod with 20mm hex nut and washer 5. 500x200mm Glu-laminated beam 6. 500x500mm glu-laminated column 7.500x200mm glu-laminated beam 8. 20mm threaded rod with 20mm hex nut and washer 9. 20mm lag bolts with washer 10. Continuous Douglas fir blocking 11. 20mm threaded rod with 20mm hex nut and washer 12.500x200mm glu-laminated beam 13. T- shaped steel knife plate 14. 500x500mm glu-laminated column

14


1

2

3

4 5

7

6

8

1.500x200mm Glu-laminated beam 2. Hex nut and washer 3.500x200mmg Glu-laminated beam 4.20mm threaded rod and steel plate assembly 5.20mm lag bolts with washer 6.500x200 mm Glu-laminated beam 7. Routed Glu-laminated beam to accept threaded rod and steel plate assembly 8.500x200mm Glu-laminated beam


1

2

5

4

6 9

7

8

10

1. Continuous Douglas fir blocking 2. Douglas fir blocking 3.500x200mm Glu-laminated beam 4.Douglas fir spacer with slot for knife plate 5.Continuous Douglas fir blocking 6.Douglas fir blocking 7.T-shaped steel knife plate 8.500x200mm Glu-laminated beam 9. 20mm threaded rod with 20mm hex nut and washer 10.500x500mm Glu-laminated column with routed knife plate slot

3


Floor Detail 1. Double-glazed unit 2. Metal and aluminium mullion 3. Metal and aluminium transom to match mullion and stainless steel coverplate 4. Stainless Steel grille to trench heating 5. Engineered timber floor 6. Screed With integral underfloor heating 7. Thermal Insulation 8. Metal profile to stop screed 9. Damp proof membrane 10. Reinforce Concrete 11. Steel I beam

5

1 2

4 3

6

7 4 8 9

10 11


1

Timber Landscape detail 1. Timber handrail 2. Torsion stiffening steel plate for fastening cross beam 3.Drainage through running the length of the platform 4. Diameter drainage pipe 5. Joint plate for fastening cross beam 6.Timber Slats 7.45 degree steel cross bracing 8.Steel cross bracing 9. Cross-laminated timber decking to platform surface

9 3

2

8

4

5 7

6


Material The tenement house is the start point of this project, I trap the elements from five immigrant villages, which is base on the research from last year. I am exploring how the new generation of New Yorker arrive Manhattan. Therefore, I keep the tenement house section as the heavy support wall for a part of ‘Manhattan Foyer’, which can remind people about what happen here in history. The material choose is also based on these research. Stone and brick became the city’s building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hue. Taking projected room as an example for material analyse


Heavy Structure Prefabricated concrete wall- for support the slab and roof

Light structure Prefabricated concrete slab -for the flexible plan, which need good circulation connect with other function zone

Light structure Glass and thin pane-for natural lighting and good view


CHAPTER FIVE: Double of Scapeland Seep The final chapter brings the theory about 'double of Scapeland'. Connecting the thesis and the architectural prototype negotiates the prototype under the condition of estrangement and acts as a gateway to a city of possibilities. Situate the thesis knowingly in the architectural and geopolitical landscape on the present day and to speculate upon possible imagined futures for the architecture in 50/100/200 years’ time. The ‘scapeland’ could be double, treble, or more, which means the building prototype might become other functions locks, seep and settle down in anywhere of the island territory. The 'Island Foyer' as city scapeland memory collection museum, which records past, present, and future.


Here I put forward an image, what the city would be looks like in the future. With the city development and technology improvement, maybe the bus terminal would disappear someday. However, the 'Island Foyer' still as the memory and architectural scapeland stand in the site, the building itself becomes a museum of Manhattan, the scapeland as a double existing, growing up with time. Island Foyer transfer into a city archive which records the history of the city, copy and double the scpeland from the original site. Therefore, the lock not only plays a functional program in the building, but also a tool for exploring the city. Here I provide a possibility of future lock- the city collection lock, which is used to collect the tenement house image and layers of wallpaper to record how the other half lives in Manhattan nowadays. This lock is the beginning of city corner scapeland, thinking about how lock can record and affect people's memory scapeland. The stories happened in the tenement houses display the history of immigrant and recorded how the other half lives in New York. Tenement houses could tell people stories in their way. There are 20 layers wallpapers and 40 layers paint in 97 Orchard Street which record and display stories happen there. This lock is designed for the city collector to collect the wall layers and ground layers in the tenement house. In addition, the lock could distort virtual (Jacob’s photos) and reality context through projecting. After collecting done the lock will back to 'Island Foyer' which is Manhattan archive


Dark and narrow tenement house courtyard


Activate Tenement House Courtyard The tenement house yard like the obstruction of city’s vascular. The function of city collector lock likes angioplasty and vascular stenting.


These drawings present the detail and work-flow of the city collector lock. The camera is a schematic of hyper-spectral imaging camera which usually used for detecting and repairing the fresco. This camera could help city collector detect the layers of wallpaper and painting. Different colours and texture of wallpaper record the timely fashion, and they present different stories that overlap with the time going. There are so many families lived in the tenement building. They come from different countries, they have different jobs and education levels. This is not only the layer of stuff, but also the layer of time, stories and humanistic. The collection boxes are using for storing the wall sample and ‘distort drawings’. The collection boxes will store up in the lock and fly around the city with lock.


Lock flying in the city for collecting and build the archive

Washington square

Tenement House point


City Collector lock work in tenement house courtyard section


City collector lock as a collector itself and provide a micro-architecture space for city collector He can fly around New York City , detect and collect .This lock as a beginning, I explore it for collecting the story happen in the tenement house through collecting the sample of wall layers and distortion


Bibliography Eric W. Sanderson: ‘Mannahatta, a natural history of New York City’ Abrams, New York, 2009 James, Corner 'The Agency of Mapping' In ‘Mappings’ edited by Denis Cosgrove, London : Reaction Books, 1999 Jean François Lyotard: ‘Scapeland' In 'The Lyotard Reader’ edited by Andrew Benjamin : Wiley-­‐Blackwell, 1989 Michael Cadwell : ‘Strange Details’ MIT Press, 2007 Marguerite Holloway : ‘The Measure of Manhattan’ W. W. Norton, New York/ London, 2014 McLeod, Virginia. Detail In Contemporary Timber Architecture. Laurence King, 2010. Paul E. Cohen and Robert T. Augustyn : ‘Manhattan in Maps, 1527 – 2014’ Dover Publications, Mineola, New York, 2014 RIIS, Jacob August, and Sam Bass WARNER. How The Other Half Lives ... Edited By Sam Bass Warner. Belknap Press Of Harvard University Press, 1970.


Luqian Lin E-mail: linluqian0306@hotmail.com

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