Page 1


1

kmõ¬Ca nig

shB&nì²Nëècin kMrgGtÄbT

GtÄbTedémCaPasaVrSgeday can’ tara cuHk~¬g¨Bwt¶ib&¨t shKmn_ExµrenAkaNada elx 2-3-7 nig 8. E¨bsMrYleday Eb”n narvé nig Giut fug gYn.

Binit´eLIgv^j Ek nig bågðb’eday can’ dara 1976 - 1983

eVHBumõenAmu”gerGal’ kaNada emsa 1983

d÷kl’Tuktamcºab’ – bNöal&yCati «n ekbik elx D8300817


2 tSgBIeyIgVnTTYlGar´FámBI²Nëamk rhUtdl’putsm&ysilacarik (stvt§r_TI14) Pasa

ExµrCaPasaTI2 (ùùù). äPasaEdlG~kecHd·ge¨bI (ùùù) KWPasasMåsûwt (ùùù). eyIgxMtubEtgEfTSTUk sMåsûwteFÃs¨bEhs minVnerobcMpÍ^tpÍg’kMBg’Exµrpg.

luHmkdl’stvt§r_TI 20 (ùùù) cMeNHfµé KMnitfµé (ùùù) VncUlmkkan’¨beTseyIgEdr EtcUl

edayGa¨s&yPasaVrSg Cayanpæ¬kykmk. (ùùù) PasaVrSg eKk*kan’Ete¨bI¨Vs’k~¬g¨beTsExµr e¨cIneLIg (ùùù). k~¬gevlaCamYyenH PasaExµrmane¨bIkarkan’EtticeTA (ùùù). äcMnYnG~kecHPasaVrSg

lµme¨bIkarVnEmnBitenaH ebITukCabegûét[e¨cIneLIgy”agNak*eday kalebIykeTAe¨bobnwgcMnYn

¨bCaCnExµrTSgmUlehIy k*minxusBIcMnYn¨Kab’GgûrmYyk¶ab’ Edle¨bobeTAnwgcMnYnGgûrmYyetAenaH

eT. ebInwgÓbmamYyy”ageTot KWdUcCaeKe¨sacTwkdak’Cé[lUtlas’EtedémeQI 3-4 edém k~¬gÓT´an mYyd*FMTUlay, äeQId«TeTotk~¬gÓT´anenaH k*enAetOdEdl dUck~¬gstvt§r_TI 19 EfmTSgk~¬gÓT´an

enaH manesµAbnÂaduHvarJseBjeTotpg.

kalNaPasaeyIgmane¨bIkare¨cIneLIg k*nwg¨tèveronsU¨tPasaeyIge¨cIneLIgEdr. kalebI

erone¨cIneLIg k*nwgmanmnus§ecHPasaeyIgkan’Ete¨cInK~aeLIg kan’Et¨Cale¨CAeTA. G~kEdlEsÃg

rkcMeNHVnmkBIPasae¨kA manPasaVrSgCaedém kalebIecHPasaExµr¨Cale¨CAehIy k*nwgGacnS

ykv^CØaEdlxÂçnEsÃgVnmkenaH

mkeroberogsresrCaPasaExµr

TSgLay [VnecHd·gedaysarpg.

Eckcayp§aydl’bgbíènrYmCati

eGov ekIs, enAq~S 1947

(k~¬g “PasaExµr, karlºgBinit´edayrkehtupl| eVHBumõp§ayenAq~S 1967 edaybNöal&y mit¶esrI, P~MeBj, kmõ¬Ca)


3

matikaerOg TMB&r PaKTImYy

edémkMeNItExµr ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

5

BI karb"HelIkd÷bUgnwgbsÍwm¨beTs eTA GaNaniKm ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

12

BI GaNaniKm eTA shPaB²Nëècin ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

19

BI shPaB²Nëècin eTA shB&nì²Nëècin ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

29

PaKTIBIr PaKTIbI

PaKTIbYn

PaKTI¨VM

shB&nì²Nëècin edémºéGÃI? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

71

karTak'Tg Exµr-cin ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

126

TMB&rPØab'1

TMB&rPØab'2

v^PaKcuge¨kay ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

133

EpnTI ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

142

lMdab'eBl«nkarB¨gékTwkdéyYn ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

156

TMB&rPØab'3 TMB&rPØab'4


4

esck¶Iep¶ém edImkMeNItrbs'esovePAenH KWGtÄbTmYycMnYnEdlVn¨tèveVHp§ayk~¬gcenÂaHExv^cÏika 1976

nigExtula 1977. PaKTI5 eQµaH \shB&nì²NëècinedémºIGÃI?| ¨Kan'EtCakarsik§a nig karv^PaKelI

¨Bwti¶karN_TSgLayEdlVnekIteLIgk~¬g¨beTskmõ¬Cak~¬gry:eBlenaH EdleKd·g¾CasaFarN: BI Ggðkarp§ayBátman nigtamskÅIPaBrbs'G~kePosxÂçn.

karBit karN_BitEmnETnelI«pæneyaVy GacecjEtBImat' ÉBIsÂabV"kûarbs'samICneT

KWGtIt:BYkd·knSrd½kmõ¬Ca¨bCaFiety´. G~keroberogd÷kl'TukesæIrEtTSg¨sugnUvGtÄbTedém ehIyEk

EtkEnÂgxÂHEdl¨Bwti¶karN_e¨kaymkVnbMPWÂy"agcºas'.

elI«pæBg§savta G~kGannwgGaceXIjfa sm&ymhanKr sm&yBYkvrµ&nd*bvr BuMsUvVnr"ay

r"ab'e¨cIneT. pæ¬yeTAv^j eKnwgeXIjehtukarN_xÂHEdleFIÃ[PÆak' [eGon ehIy[riHKit. ry:evla

xÂHeTot KWsm&ysgðmraås¶niym nigsm&ysaFarNrd½ k*BuMVn¨tèvbriyayCavKðBiess É[Vn

ekºaHkºayEvgq©aycb'sBèKb'enaHk*eTEdr ehIy¨tèvmaneKsresrcarTukCaesovePA sMrab'saFar-

NCnExµreyIg. dUceQµaHxÂçnVnbgúaj¨sab' esovePAenH kMrgGtÄbTenH lºgsik§arkmUlehtu

xÂH@ EdlVneFÃI[¨sukExµreyIgFÂak'xÂçnmkk~¬gsÄanPaBsBëf© KWsÄanPaBCa¨beTse¨kamkarGaNa

B´aVlrbs'ev¿tNam k~¬grgÃg'²Nëècin. cab’ep¶émBIenaHeTA \shB&nì²Nëècin| enH VnCamaneQµaH

Cak'cºas'dUec~H e¨JHmankMeNItrYcm¶geTAehIy enAk~¬gsm&yGaNaniKmVrSg. dUec~H KWCakarFmµta EdlesovePAenHmanbIPaK EdlGFibºayGMBIyuKGaNaniKm.

v^ruTì.

elI«pæGk§rsa¨s¶ G~kGannwgcab'kMhusCae¨cIn xagvak´s&Bæ xagevy´akrN_ nigxagGkÅra

enHmkBIrbr«nG~keroberogpg

EdlKµanTMnak'TMngGÃIesaHnwgGkÅrasa¨s¶

nigmkBIkarxÃHxat

pæal'rbs'PasaeyIgpg. CaBiess eK¨tèvGany"agyWtnUvkarsU¨tXÂa (sIutas´¬g) rbs'G~kniBnì

breTs. eyIgeC¯elIkareyaKyl'rbs'G~kGan. Cabegéúy

¨kumG~keroberog

bu"En¶¨Kan'EtCUnTid^½PaBmYy«nkmõ¬Ca

²tGHGageFÃIesovePA¨bvt¶isa¨s¶

k~¬gkal:eTs:TUeTA«n²Nëècin

ɨbvt¶isa¨s¶neyaVyeT

Tid^½PaBEdlxÂçnyl'faman¨b-

eyaCn_ dl'kar¨tiHriHBicarNa rkmeF´aVysMralvasna¨beTseyIg nig¨bCaCneyIg.

mu"ger"Gal Exemsa 1983 .


5

PaKTI1

edémkMeNIt«nExµr

kayminsMxan’Cag¨BlwgeT


6 eBlEdlVrSgmkdl’kmõ¬Cak~¬gq~S

1863

¨sukExµrbgúajTid½PaBmYyEdleFIÃ[exÂacp§ar.

kmõ¬CasBëf©, ¨beTsmYyEdlesIærEtGs’mnus§rlIg, ehobnwgeTACaext¶mYyrbs’G~kC^txagTisä

liceTAehIy KW¨beTs«f (sm&yenaHesom), k~¬geBlEdlG~kC^txagTisäekIt KW¨beTsevotNam

(sm&yenaHGNöam) VnykeFÃICarbs’xÂçntSgEtBId÷Nac’stvt§r_TI 18 nUvext¶ExµrTSgGs’xagTis

GeK~uy_ KW kmõ¬Cae¨kam. sågðamkML¬g

(condominium)

500

rbs’esom

q~S,

nigyYn

d÷bUgTl’nwgkar¨tçt¨tarbs’esom

rYcmkTl’nwgkar¨tçt¨tarYm

(kar¨tçt¨tarYmEdlVneFIÃ[ExµrEbkVk’K~ay”agxÂSg),

VneFÃI[

bN¶aCnExµr¨TuDe¨Tam rhUtdl’Vt’cMNgTSgGs’CamYy¨bvti¶saås¶xÂçn ehIyb¨gçjcMnYn¨bCaCn Exµr[enAsl’Et 800 000 nak’. kareFÃI[TId½anGgðrmanCév^teLIgv^j(1) edayG~k¨VCÆVrSg«n salaVrSgenAcugbUBáa¨beTs(2)

VneFIÃ[mnus§CatieXIjeLIgv^jnUvGcÏriyvtĬ

EdlCasMNl’

nigCaPs¶¬tag«nGariyFmámYy k~¬gcMeNamBBYkPWÂsÃagCageKTSgGs’«nBiPBelakÐ GariyFmáExµr .

karsik§asilacarik, karrukrkdl’¨bPBcin, Gar”ab’, B&rTuyehð nigVrSg ebIk[eroberog

eLIgv^jVnnUv¨bvti¶«n¨bCaCatiExµr, ¨bvt¶imYyEdleFÃI[PÂwkpg, eJreBjeTAedayTukÅ P&ypg, eFÃI[ exÂaccit¶pg. k~¬geBlenaH kicÍkarCYsCul¨VsaTGgðr¨tèveFÃImunGÃITSgGs’. edayehtuenH karBinit´

rk buBèbvti¶saås¶(R) «n¨beTsTSgbI«n²Nëècin BuMsUvVn¨tçveFÃIe¨cIneLIy ebIfaeKBuMsUvykcit¶ Tukdak’elIk*esæIrEtVn. Tal’Etdl’d÷Nac’q~S 1931 eTIbeKcab’eXIjTI¨sav¨CavbuBèbvti¶saås¶

Cag 60 enAk~¬g²NëècinVrSg. karsik§axagmnus§saås¶ (anthropologie) bgúaj[eXIjfa kmõ¬Ca k~¬gyuKfµ CaG¨g·grbs’Catisasn_mYycMnYn EdlG~ktBUC(3) enAmanrhUtsBëf©k~¬gekaH¨sIlgûa, enAma”eLsIu, hÃIlIBIn, ²NëèeNsIu(4) nig enAGUås¶alI.

PaKGeK~y_«nTÃIbGasIu CaTIrs’enA«nsasn_FMBIr KWsasn_mu”gehðalxagtºèg nig sasn_

²NëèeNsIuEyn(5). CatiyYn

CalTìpl«nkarbgûat’sasn_TSgBIr. äCati«f nigCatiPUma k*dUec~aH

Edr. bu”En¶cMeJHCatiExµrv^j, eTaHbIsavtaxÂçneJreBjeTAedaycMVMgrSgCl’minecHcb’ minecHehIy

CamYyG~kC^txag

—cMVMgEdleFIÃ[mankarbgûat’K~acuHeLIgCae¨cIndg—

elOg minelceLIg[Cak’Es¶g dUckrNI¨bCaCatiäeTot enAGasuIGeK~y_

k*lkÅN:«nsasn_Esºk

(6)

Ð Esºk¨kem”ACag, EP~k

-----------------------------------------------------------------(R)

buBèbvti¶saås¶

(préhistoire)

edaysik§asMNl’qíwg

KWkarsik§a¨bvti¶mnus§elak

nigsMNl’ÓbkrN_ep§g@

muneBlmanäksarsresr.

EdleKVnKas’kayeXIj.

eKGactamdanVn

eKEbgEckbuBèbvti¶saås¶CabI

yuK EdlmandUcteTAÐ 1- yuKfµcas’ (paléolithique) Ð PaKe¨cIn«nCév^tTI 4 «nFrNI (quaternaire) mkdl’q~S 8000 munKùsù. Cév^tTI 4 «nFrNI KWsm&yEdlFatuGakascab’¨tCak’xÂSg ehIyTwkkkrwgTSgGs’ (cab’ep¶émBI 2 eTA 3 lanq~Smun). mnus§ elakekIteLIgk~¬gCév^tTI 4 «nFrNIenaH. k~¬gyuKfµcas’, mnus§kan’EtecHeFÃIÓbkrN_ep§g@ (vaybMEbkfµ ehIy cSg[¨sçc), e¨bIqíwgnwgP¬k, mansilº:xÂH (KMnUrk~¬grUgP~MLasûè, VrSg) . 2- yuKfµkN¶al (mésolithique) BIq~S 8000 mun Kùsù dl’ 3000 mun Kùsù . hYsBIkarrkciJÍwmCév^t edaybrVj’ eKeXIjelcecjnUvesd½kicÍCad÷NSdSduH. karecHe¨bI¨Vs’Edk k*cab’ep¶émeLIgehIy. 3- yuKfµfµé (néolithique) BI 3000 mun Kùsù dl’ 1500 mun Kùsù . mnus§ecHkat’sMelogfµ, eFÃIfU nig bMBg’ ep§g@ BIGid½, ecHtºaj. ksikmµkan’EtcMerIn, rIäxagelahFatu mnus§ecHe¨bImas, sõan’ nigsMriTì.


7 epí¿ge¨C eKBuMsUvmaneXIjeT, sk’rYjGgðadé ÉmYy¨kjaj’Etm¶g. mYycMENkeTot lkÅN:mnus§

sa¨s¶«nCatiExµr enAEtCaTITMnas’«n¨TwsI¶TSgBYg. G~kmnus§sa¨s¶xÂH PØab’ExµreTAnwgBYk \eN¨KItU|

(négrito, mnus§exµAtUcenA m”aeLsIu)(7), G~kxÂHeTot PØab’eTAC÷BUk ²NëèeNsuIEyn.

qíwgkºal EdleKKas’ecjBI¨sTab’dé cas’CageK enAreN¶A¨sav¨Cav enAsMeragEsn k~¬g

¨beTskmõ¬Ca enAlíagP~M pUbß^jy”a nig elOgkwg k~¬gev¿tNamxageCég, enAlíagP~M mijkS k~¬g

ev¿tNamxagtºèg, nigenAGN¶ègEr” fShag k~¬g¨beTslav sutìEtenAk~¬gcMBUk \eN¨KItU- emLaeN

sIuyag| Edl¨bEhlK~anwgqíwgkºal«nmnus§exµAenA GUås¶alI nig«nBYk V”BU enAemLaeNsuI. eK GacrkcemÂIyxÂHVn ebIeKdak’kmõ¬Cak~¬gkal:eTs:TUeTA«nGasIuGeK~y_. dUec~HEmn, k~¬gPUmiPaKenH d÷

Nak’FM@ «nkarv^vt¶n_«nsN¶anstÃbMe×kUnEdleC¯nelOnCageK (primates) Vn¨tèveKbgúajy”ag

cºas’ edaysarkarrkeXIjqíwg«n \GUmInIyag| (hominien), sN¶anstÃsÃaesæIrmnus§)(8). sMNl’BI yuKfµcas’

Vn¨tèveKrkeXIjenAekaHCÃa

eKrkeXIjk~¬gPUmiPaK

nigenAelITÃIb.

sMNl’TSgenH

EdlenAcenÂaH¨beTscinxageCég

nigGasuIkN¶al.

dUcK~anwgsMNl’Edl

TI¨sav¨CavenAekaHCÃa

Vn¨tèveKsik§ay”aghµt’ct’CagTIäeTotTSgGs’(9). enAq~S 1891 qíwgkºalmYyPaK «nmnus§-sÃa (pithécanthrope) Vn¨tèveKKas’eXIjenAkN¶alekaHCÃa.

mnus§-sÃa enH CastÃeCOnelOnNas’

ehIy k~¬gsN¶anstÃbMe×kUneCOnelOn (primates). e¨kaymkeTot enAkN¶alekaHCÃadEdl, eKrk eXIjqíwg«n |GUmInÆag| EdlVnrs’enAk~¬gyuKfµcas’. qíwgxÂH«nC÷BUkmnus§fµéCagenH (12000 q~S mun

Kùsù) Vn¨tèveKrkeXIjenA va”d´ak’ elIeq~rxagtºèg«nekaHCÃa. k~¬gq~S 1942 enAGUås¶alIeKrk

eXIjqíwgkºalmYy

Edl¨bEhlK~anwgkºalenA

va”d´ak’

Edr.

enA¨beTslav

G~kv^T´asa¨s¶

xagFrNI h§ù åhÃm”aeh§ß rkeXIjk~¬gGN¶ègEr” fShag, fSbu”g nig fSV”Ly nUv qíwg \GUmInÆag| Edl

¨bEhlK~anwgqíwg \mnus§cin| (sinanthrope) EdleKkayeXIjenAeb”kSg ehIynigqíwgEdleKKas’

eXIjenA mu”CeCaEKtU k~¬gekaHCÃa ehIyEdlsl’mkBIyuKfµcas’. buBÃkarI«nmnus§elakTSgenH,

EdlVnrs’enAk~¬gCév^tTI4 «nFrNI, minTan’ecHeFÃI¨bdab’¨bdare¨bIenAeLIyeT.

enAk~¬gyuKfµkN¶al eKeXIjkarmkdl’CaelIkTImYy «nbN¶aCnEdlenAk~¬gC÷BUk \GUås¶aLè

GIud–eveDaGIud| (australoïde-veddoïde)(10)

EdllkÅN:kaymanCaGaTi_ KW Ð Esºk¨kem”A nigsk’rYj

Ggðadé. d÷Nagy”agbrisuTì (²tkat’) «nbN¶aCnsm&yedémTSgenH manenAeLIyrhUtsBëf©k~¬g

GUås¶alI, m”aeLsIu (kånæajP~M), ekaHsßUm”a¨ta nigekaH¨sIlgûa (kånæaj). bN¶aCnyuKfµkN¶alenH

rs’enAedaye¨tccrrhUt ehIycab’eFÃI[EtVn@ BIqíwg BIfµ nigBIeQI nUvÓbkrN_e¨bI¨Vs’. bN¶a

CnEdlmkdl’CaelIkTI2

k~¬gyuKfµkN¶al

enAk~¬gC÷BUk

\eN¨KItU|Ð

mnus§xÂçnTab

(k~¬g¨kum

bN¶aCnEdlmkdl’

CaelIkTI

\Bicem”| pygmée), Esºk¨kem”A, sk’¨kjaj’, eramxÂçnBMusUvman ÉKµanEtm¶g. bNa¶CnTSgenH enA many”agbrisuTìenAeLIy

k~¬gm”aeLsIu,

GUås¶alI

nighÃIlIBIn.

begúIyk~¬gyuKdEdl enAk~¬gC÷BUk \emLaeNsUGIud| (mélanésoïde, dUcmnus§enAem”LaeNsIu) (sm&y

xage¨kayenH eKe¨cInEt[eQµaHfa \sm&yhÃabß^j| edayehtufa eKVnrkeXIjenA hÃabß^j,

evotNamxageCég, nUvqwígkºalEdldUcrbs’mnus§enAem”LaeNsIu). d÷Nagy”agbrisuTì«nbN¶aCn elIke¨kayenH

VnVt’Gs’BIGasIuPaKGeK~y_eTAehIy,

bu”En¶enAsl’e¨cInenAeLIy

k~¬gekaH


8 em”LaeNsIu nigenAGUås¶alI. BYkenHbriePaKmnus§, enAEte¨bIÓbkrN_eFÃIBIfµ bu”En¶ecHeFÃIfUGMBIGid½

ehIye¨bI¨Vs’TUkedémºIensaT.

Tal’Etmkdl’yuKfµfµé eTIbmnus§sasn_ ²NëèeNsIuEyn cuHBITisxageCég ehIy cUlmk

rs’enAbn¶bnæab’K~arhUteBj GasIuPaKGeK~y_. ÓbkrN_ \qÂat| CagmunVn¨tèveKeXIjmaneLIg.

bN¶aCnTSgenH sg’pæH, eFÃITUk ehIynScUlmk²NëècinnUvkardS¨sèv. eC¯favtĬep§g@ man¨Blwg enAxagk~¬g, BYkenHeKarBGark§ G~kta rUbbd^makrCae¨cIn ehIyeKarBbUCadl’dUnta buBÃkarI. bu”En¶eKBuM

d·gfa mankartTl’K~arvagBYksasn_ ²NëèeNsuIEyn nigBYkbN¶aCnedém ––dUec~H Kµankarlay bgûat’K~a––

ÉmYypæ¬yeTAv^j

mankarbgûat’layK~arvagshKmn_TSgBIr(11).

yuKsMriTì

(âge de

Bronzes) maneLIgrvagq~S 300 mun Kùsù . kEnÂgTImYyEdlmanÓs§ahkmµeFÃIsMriTì Vn¨tèveK

rkeXIjenAdugsWg, ¨beTsevotNam. sm&yenaH Casm&ygg·ts¬g«n¨bvti¶sa¨s¶Exµr ––eyIgfa Ç«nbuBèbvti¶sa¨s¶ExµrÈ eTAcuH–– Edl²tmannrNad·gerOgehtuGÃIeLIy ehIyEdleyIgsgôwmfa

nwgVn¨tèvbMPWÂk~¬g«f©NamYy.

CnCaticinnigCnCati²Nëa

eTIbnwgcUlmkdl’edayCak’lak’k~¬g²Nëècin

enAedém¨Kis¶sk

raC. BYk²Nëa, edaynSmknUvGriyFámxÂçn (sasna, Gk§r, karyl’eXIjneyaVy .l.), Vn

bJÍèl¨bCaCatiExµreTAk~¬g¨bvti¶sa¨s¶. ExµreyIgcUlmkelIqak¨bvti¶sa¨s¶ Ca¨bCaCncMNuHGaNa

c¨k hÃßè-Nn (nKrP~M k~¬gPasacin) EdlCaGaNac¨kTImYyenAGasIuGeK~y_ ehIyEdles¶celIk d÷bUg, tameKsµan, suTìEtCaCnCati²Nëa. KWrvag Kùsù 545 EdlnKrcin-La, eQµaHcin«nnKr BYkkmõ¬Ca(12),

p¶ac’xÂçnecjBIGaNac¨khÃßè-Nn

ehIycºSgdeN¶ImrhUtdl’¨sèbVnGaNac¨k

TSgmUl (cin-La enHlatsnìwgtamdgTenÂemKgð cab’BI¨kecHenATisxagtºèg eTAdl’ V”k’es (lav)

enATisxageCég ehIyvateTATisxaglic elIPaKe¨cIn«ndgTenÂesmU”n k~¬g¨beTs«fsBëf©(R). etI

cMVMgenHCakardeN¶ImraC´K~arvages¶c«nGaNac¨k dUcEdlG~k¨bvti¶sa¨s¶VnGHGag, ÉmYyCakar bHeVr«nCatisasn_mYyEdleKC^HCan’

Tl’nwgG~k¨tçt¨taxÂçn?

cMNucenH¨tèvEteKrkbMPÂW[cºas’.

bu”En¶ eyIgGackt’sMKal’karr”ayr”ab’rbs’cinm~ak’eQµaH kSg-«t, smaC^k«nKN:ebskkmµcinmYy

EdlVnsÄitenAk~¬g hÃèß-Nn (Kùsù 245 – Kùsù 250), EdlVnEcgdUcteTA GMBICévPaBenA

k~¬g¨beTs (kuM¨cLM kSg-«t CamYy ecv ta kÃan’ EdlVnmkdl’k~¬gsm&yGgðr enA Kùsù 1296)Ð

ÇraCFanImanv^mand*FMeqItqayenAB&TìC÷uv^j. ¨BHraCanignamuWnsBÃmuxmån¶I rs’enAk~¬gPaBfû¬÷efûégrugerOg

ehIyeFÃId÷eNIrep§g@edaye¨bId÷rICayan. bu”En¶raås¶¨bCaenAxÂçnTeT, rUbGa¨kk’, exµA ehIysk’¨kjaj’. ¨bCaraås¶rs’enAk~¬gpæHeFÃIBIòs§I sg’elIbegðalssrùùù.È

Caeyabl’bJÍb’, ¨bEhlCamankar¨bevsn_«nbN¶aCnenAkmõ¬Cak~¬gyuKfµ eqõaHeTAkan’ekaH

em”LaeNsuI,

KasµanI

nigGUås¶alI(13).

¨Tws¶ICae¨cInKaM¨Tfa

kar¨bevsn_enHGaceFÃIeTAVn

k~¬g

sm&y¨tCak’d*yUrlg’GEgÃg«nCév^tTI4 «nFrNI, sm&yEdlekaHTSgGs’ dUcCaCab’nwgTIÃbEdr eday

sarkarrIgTwksmu¨T (¨skcuHBI 200 eTA 300 Em”¨t)(14) mYycMENkeTot CnCatiExµrsBëf©Gac

CalTìpl«nkarlaybgûat’rvagsasn_BIrÐ mYysasn_C÷nan’edImenAk~¬g¨suk (eN¨KItU–– emLaeN sIuyag), mYyeTot sasn_ ²NëèeNsIuEyn(15) .

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (R) emIlEpnTI TMB&r 147 nig 157


9

GFibºay (1)-

(2)-

(3)

(4) (5) (6)

G~kv^T´asaås¶FmµCatiVrSgeQµaH mUGU Vn¨bTHeXIj¨VsaTGgðrenAq~S 1859. Ggðrvt¶,

ksageday¨BHVTsUriyavrµ&nTI2 (1113-1150), Vn¨tèvExµreyIgeVHbg’ecal tSgBIq~S 1432 (es¶cBjay”at).

salaVrSgenAcugbUJá¨beTs (Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient) Vn¨tèvbegûéteday b”Ul DèEmr k~¬gq~S

1898

enAhaNUy.

kUnsMGb’«nGaNaniKmkmµVrSg,

BIkarbricÍaK«nVrSg cMeJHvDónPaBvbºFám«n²Nëècin.

kmõ¬CaVnTTYlticNas’

G~ktBUC«n \ExµryuKfµ| TSgGs’enH rs’enACaGaNikCn ehIynwgputtMNenAk~¬gGnaKt.

em”LaeNsIu (Mélanésie, ekaHmnus§exµA): ekaHmYy¨kumenAmhasmu¨TV”sIuhÃikxagtºèg ehIy

EdlmanCaGaTi_: nUEvl hIðeN, saLèm”ug (kÃadal’kaNal’) nUEvl kaeLdUnI .l.

KuNnam \²NëèeNsIuEyn| enH Vn¨tève¨bIedayG~kmnus§saås¶ edaymkBIlkÅN:dUcK~a

CamYyBYk day”ak’ enAekaH bßeNGU nigBYk Vt’tak’ nig Gaet´H enA sßUma”¨ta.

Jk´ \GasuIPaKGeK~y_| enH manedémkMeNItCaGg’eKÂs (GanTMB&r 39). ¨beTs«nGasuI

GeK~y_man : PUma «f lav kmõ¬Ca evotNamTSg2 shB&nìm”aeLsuI swgúburI ²NëèeNsIu nig

hIÃlIBIn. GasuIPaKGeK~y_EdleFÃI[PitP&y, [¨sLaj’, [GaNit. KWCaEpndé«nPaBep§g

K~apg «näkPaBpg. ep§gK~aedayCati edayrbbneyaVy edayPasa nigedaysasna.

(7)

äkPaBedaymkGMBIsasn_EsºkelOgrbs’xÂçn cMNIGaharrbs’xÂçn TIlMenArbs’xÂçn.

eKeXIjlkÅN: \eN¨KItU| enH enArs’e¨cInÉtick~¬g¨bCaksikreyIg. bN¶aCnenAtam¨kug

enAk~¬gC÷BUkmYyep§geTot EdldUcCakat’eTAv^j PaKe¨cInKWC÷BUkExµrkat’cin. dUec~HEmn Cn

CaticinVncakecjBI¨sukkMeNItxÂçn mkrs’enAk~¬g¨beTsd«TenATisxagtºèg edaymkGMBI

sågðamd*e¨cIn karman¨bCaCne¨cInhYs¨bmaN nigkarrehmrham. ecjBIC÷BUkkat’enH KW vNö:G~k¨kug«nsgðmExµr. ¨bCaksikrExµrrs’enAk~¬gGt¶esd½kicÍ (autarcie) mYyd*eBjelj

ehIy, ebIe¨bobpæ·meTAsgðmG~k¨kugnigG~kman, sgðmksikr KWCasgðmmYyd«T. cMeJHkar

EbkCaBIrenH etIeK¨tèvdak’kMhuselIkar¨BegIyken¶Iy«nrd½aPiVlTSgLay ÉelI \kar¨bkan’BáNsmº¬r| «nBYkG~k¨kug? karN_mYyEdlBitKW cab’tSgBIGaNac¨kExµrcuHeGanfymk

¨bCaCnExµrsuTì edértYbMeBjqakeT k~¬gnadksalneyaVynigsgðm.

fÃétºitEtbN¶aCnExµr (7lannak’enAq~S1970) manlkÅN:mUlEtmYyEdr(R) k~¬gPaB

TUeTA, ¨beTsExµrCaTIrs’enA«n¨kumGaNikCnk~¬g¨suk (ExµrelI 50 000 nak’) nig«nGaNik CnGen¶a¨bevsn_bI¨kum: cin (450 000 nak’), yYn (220 000 nak’, 200 000 nak' Vn¨tLb’eTAevotNamvij e¨kayExmIna 1970), cam (80 000 nak’).

(8)

(R – mindUc¨bCaCnlav É ¨bCaCnswgúburI Caedém.)

k~¬gvak´s&Bæmnus§saås¶,

\GUmInÆag|

(hominiens)

Ca¨kummnus§nigbuBÃkarIxÂçn

k~¬gsN¶an

stÃbMe×kUneC¯nelOnCageK. stÃEdlCabuBÃkarIcM«nmnus§ e¨cInEteK[eQµaHfa \GUm”Usa


10 B´ag| (homosapiens, mnus§sBëf©). GUmInÆagTI1 VnekIteLIg kalBI 3 lanq~Smun. cMENk (9)

äFrNI manCév^t 4 500 lanq~SmkehIy.

TI¨sav¨CavenAekaHCÃa Vn¨tèveKsik§ae¨CA¨CHNas’ BIe¨JHkarrkeXIjmnus§-sÃa EdlCa

stÃekItmun \GuUm”UsaB´ag|. cMENkäkar¨sav¨Cavxagmnus§saås¶ nigxagburaNv^T´aenA

²Nëècin Vn¨tèveKbJÎb’sine¨JHsågðam.

(10)

Jk´ \GUås¶aLèGIud-eveDaGIud| Vn¨tève¨bI edaymkBIBYkexµAk~¬g¨sukenAGUås¶alI manlkÅN:

(11)

tam¨Tws¶IxÂH CatiExµrGac[eKsMKal’Casasn_ ²NëèeNsIuEyn Edl¨tèv¨KbdN¶b’edayBYk

kaydUcBYkevD: enAekaH¨sIlgûa.

mn-Exµr . BYk mn-Exµr VncakecjBIP~M hIum”aLay”axagtºèg eqõaHmkTisäekIt ehIyTuk ecaltampÂèvnUv¨kumCae¨cIn EdlG~ktBUCenAmanrhUtsBëf©; BYkxHsIu enA¨sukGs§S (cenÂaH

bwgðlaeTs nig PUma), BYkV”Lèg nigBYkva” enA¨beTsPUmaxageCég, BYklÔa nigBYkva” enA

¨beTscinxagnirtI nigenA¨beTs«fxageCég, BYkmnenA¨beTsPUmaxagtºèg nigenA¨beTs

«fkN¶al, nigBYkxaenA¨beTslav. m´a”geTot PasaExµrVn¨tèvrab’bJÍèlk~¬gGMbUrPasa

mn-Exµr rYcmkehIy.

¨Tws¶I mn-Exµr xagelIenH Vn¨tèvC÷Tas’edaymnus§sa¨s¶TMenIb ehacNas’k*xagmtiCév-

sa¨s¶Edr. becÍkeTsmYyeQµaH v^CØarkC÷BUkQam (hémotypologie) sik§akt¶aQamTSg Lay

EdlxusK~atamFatuEdlp§MxÂçneLIg BICnm~ak’eTACnm~ak’eTot BI¨bCaCnmYyeTA¨bCaCn mYy BIsasn_mYyeTAsasn_mYy (emIlk~¬gTs§navt¶I \v^T´asa¨s¶ nigCév^t (Science et Vie) | elx 685 Extula 74).

karsik§aVnbgúajfa kmõ¬CaenAk~¬g«pæmnus§sa¨s¶mYyy”agBiess. dUec~HEmn esæIr

EtmanEtExµreT

Edlmany”age¨cInhUrehornUvlk¶i_Qam

(hémoglobine)

m´”agEdlE¨b¨bçl

(mutante) ehIyEdlenAk~¬gC÷BUk |GW|. edaysarkarsik§aelIkt¶aQam «nbN¶aCnenAGasuI


11 PaKGeK~y_ G~k¨sav¨CavVnKUseLIgv^jnUv¨BMEdn (mYyPaK) «nGaNac¨kExµrBIedém. eKBuM ¨tèvq©l’eLIy BIkarN_EdlkMritlk¶i_Qam \GW| enAkmõ¬Cae¨kamman 3% k~¬geBlEdlenA (12)

kmõ¬Ca KW 28%. e¨JHfabN¶aCn enAkmõ¬Cae¨kamKW ùùù yYnxagtºèg.

\BYkkmõ¬Ca| É BYkkUn²sIkmõ¬ : es¶c¨beTscinLa tSgxÂçnCaG~ktvg§²sI kmõ¬-¨BHnagemra.

eQµaHvg§es¶cenHVnkÂayeTACaeQµaH¨bCaCn

rYcmkeTACaeQµaH¨beTs.

rIä¨JhµN_

ekaNëJï nig¨BHnagesama, es¶cTImYy«nhÃßèNn, VncUlk~¬gerOge¨BgCa¨BHefagnagnaK

(13)

(14)

«nnKreKakFÂk.

kar¨bevsn_«n \ExµryuKfµ| :

k~¬glkÅN:v^T´asa¨s¶FrNI smu¨TmYy.

kmõ¬CaCaEdndéeTIbnigduHfµI.

bwgTenÂsabkalBIedémCaQUg

bwgmYyEdlman¨tIe¨cInCagbwgäeTotTSgGs’k~¬gBiPBelak,

TenÂsabVn

ciJÍwmbN¶aCnExµrTSgmUl ehIyEfmTSgd·k¨tIecjeTAe¨kAeTotpg. vtĬCaTIcg’Vn«nG~kC^t xag, eKenAEtBMud·gfabwgTenÂsabenAEtciJÍwmbN¶aCnExµrdUckalmun ÉmYyeTACay”agdUcem¶c

(15)

eLIy.

G~ktBUCy”agbrisuTì«nsasn_²NëèeNsuIEyn enAkmõ¬Ca lav nigyYn enAmanrhUtsBëf©

ehIyrs’enACa¨kumGaNikCn.

kånæajTSgenHxMrk§aCév^txÂçnteTAeTot

enAtamPUmiPaKEdl

\caj’| CageKTSgGs’«nTÃIb. enAkmõ¬CamanBUCesæ¿g KYy P~g. enAlav BYkxa. enA

ev¿tNam BYky”ar”ay r”aed. kånæajTSgGs’enH rs’enAk~¬gtMbn’ \¨BMEdnbI| (tMbn’TYlxõs’)

ehIymancMnYn 50 000 nak’ k~¬gkmõ¬Ca nig 700 000 nak’ k~¬gev¿t-Nam (tamTs§navt¶I

\PUmisa¨s¶Cati| «nCév^tsgðm

(National

Geographic)

Exmkra

1965).

fÃétºitEteKdak’ecalk~¬g«pæTI2

GaNikCnTSgenHVn¨tèveKe¨bI¨Vs’k~¬gsågðamTSgLay«n²Nëècin

:

d÷bUg

edayBYkVrSg e¨kaymkBYkGaemrikSg (kn¶wb«btg), edayyYnxageCég nigedayExµreyIg (rNsir§rYmtyuTì«nCatisasn_eKC^HCan’, |hìßlr”U|). vasna«nsasn_²NëèeNsuIEynTSg

enH mind·gCay”agNaEdrk~¬gGnaKt.

#####################


12

PaKTI 2 BI

karb”HelIkdMbUg nwgbsiÍm¨beTs eTA

GaNaniKm

kUneGIyekri_¶emV cUrrk§aEtekri_¶lí .


13 rhUtmkdl’d÷Nac’stvt§r_TI12,

sðal’¨beTscin

kard·gsðal’«nbsÍwm¨beTselITIÃbGasIu

tamkarniTanr”ayr”ab’«nG~kedéreTs

enA¨twmEtkar

EdlVneTAdl’TIenaHedaykat’tamGasuI

kN¶al. bnæab’BIkarB¨gékGMNacy”agmhima«nBYkmu”gehðal enAstvt§r_TI13 mk —karB¨gékEdl man eh§g h§ß^H xan’ nigbnæab’mk ecArbs’xÂçn, XUbßé«Lxan’ CaG~kd·knS(1) ehIyEdlVnsab

e¨BaHmhn¶rayJseBjTÃIb cenÂaHGWr”ub-GasuI rhUtdl’déval¨beTshug¨KI— ¨beTscinVneTACa TITak’TajmYycMeJHbsÍwm¨beTs.

d÷eNIrEsÃgrkBinit´Cae¨cInVn¨tèveFÃIeLIg dUcd÷eNIrBIrdgd*rnæW«n m”arkU b”ULè enA¨sukcinCa

edém(2). rvagd÷Nac’stvt§r_TI13, bnæab’BIkarrkeXIjpÂèvsmu¨TmYymkbUJá¨beTs, BYkB&rTuyehð

sem¸aFyuKEmnETn«nd÷eNIrEsÃgrkBinit´. va”sûè d· hûama” mkdl’ kalIKut (kal’kt¶a) enAq~S

1498. Gal’bUßEKk ykVnkMBg'Ep ehða (²Nëa) enAq~S 1510 rYcehIykMBg'Ep m”aLak’ka

(²NëèeNsIu) enAq~S 1511, ehIymkdl’ kg’tug enAq~S 1517. PUQYym~ak’rbs’ Gal’bUßEKk,

Gg’tUnIj”è d· hÃarIy”a cUlmkk~¬gqksmu¨T TYr”an (evotNamxagtºèg) ehIykt’sMKal’TIPUmi «hÃhÃè Edle¨kaymkVneTACakMBg'EpEtmYy«n²Nëècin(3)

EdlebIkcMhreTAbreTs.

karniTanr”ayr”ab’

«nG~kEsÃgrkelIkd÷bUgTSgenH Tak’TajBYkQµçj nigG~kp§aysasna¨Kis¶[mkGasuI.

enAq~S 1555 G~kbYs \dYmInIkSg| CatiB&rTuyehð eQµaH hûasº”a d· ¨Kuyh§_ mkdl’

raCvSg«nes¶cGgðcan’TI1 . kalenaHkmõ¬CakMBugEteGanfyeBjTMhwg edayhinehacnwgkarcUl

vay«nBYkesom(4). tamdaneCég«n hûasº”a dW ¨Kuyh§_, G~kbYs \dUmInIkSg| nig \¨hÃg’ suIs¶Sg| B&rTuyehð äeTotmkdl’kmõ¬Ca(5). CnCatiB&rTuyehðsmYyk¶ab’ k*VncUlrYmCamYyes¶cExµr k~¬gkar

tyuTìTl’nwgBYkesom(6), karCYytyuTìEdlnwgcb’enAq~S 1623 e¨JHfa ¨kumB&rTuyehðTSgLay enAGasIu k*cuHsabsUn´xÂçnägEdr. BI Kùsù 1623 dl’ 1682 KWdl’evnBYk hUlÂg’ed m¶g Edl

xitxMdak’hagC÷nYjmYyenA¨sukExµr bu”En¶minVnsMerceLIy. k~¬gcenÂaHeBlenaH, BYkG~kbYs \ey sÃßét|, bnæab’BIbraC&y«nBYk \dUmInIkSg| k~¬gkarp§aysasnaenAkmõ¬Ca Vnsg’TIp§aysasnamYy

enAkMBg'Ep «hÃhÃè k~¬gq~S 1615 ehIysMercsg’mYyeTotk~¬gq~S 1625 enA¨suktugkwg(7). k~¬g eKaledAenH BYk \eysßéÃt| tSgG~kbYsVrSgm~ak’, GaeLcsg’¨d_ d· r”Ud, CaemKN:ebskkmµ. d· r”Ud xitxMbMVk’PaBp¶ac’mux«nkicͨtçt¨ta

(pÂèvsgô)

katUlikenAbUJá¨beTs

EdlkalenaHenAk~¬g«dBYk

B&rTuyehð. eBl¨tLb’mk¨sukVrSgv^j, Kat’ruj¨canmhasn~iVtsgôVrSg[eFÃIkicÍbgÅ^tbgÅ÷¨kug

r”Um edémºIEtgtSgemKN (eGEv”t) VrSgenA²Nëècin(8). enAq~S 1663, edayman kulEbßr nig es¶c lÃITI14 KS¨Tpg GgðkarmYyeQµaH \ Société des Missions Etrangères | (smaKm¨kumecjp§ay

sasnaenAbreTs) Vn¨tèvbegûéteLIg ehIyEdlmanPar:erIsrkG~kp§aysasnaCatiVrSgedémºI ²Nëècin.

enAstvt§r_TI18 QµçjVrSgelIkd÷bUgmkdl’²Nëècin. karbu”nb”gTImYyrbs’BYkenH edémºI

rs’enAk~¬gGNöam

nigk~¬gtugkwg²tmaneCaKC&yeT

edayehtufa

karTat’ecal,

karminTTYlBI

sMNak’CnCatiyYn VnmaneLIgy”ageBjTMhwg. mkdl’q~S 1773 k*manbgbíènbInak’ Edlmanedém

kMeNItenA «tsWg nSyYnbHeVrTl’nwges¶cxageCégniges¶cxagtºèg. BYkenHdeN¶ImykblÂ&gûVn,

ehIyes¶cGNöameQµaH ehà ev¯g EdlePosxÂçneTAkmõ¬Cae¨kam Vn¨tèveKsmÂab’enAq~S 1777. kµçy


14 es¶ceQµaH egÿg Gan’, G~kbn¶raC´, EknT&BedémºIcºSgbgbíèn \«tsWg|. eq¿t{kasBIkartyuTì

xagk~¬genH, emKNenAkmõ¬Cae¨kam, BIj”èdWebEGn, rujmÍas’ egÿg Gan’ EdlxÂçnVneFÃICamit¶y”agsi~Tì

[suMC÷nYyVrSg. bnæab’BIVncºSgqµk’ 5 q~Seday²teCaKC&ymk egÿg Gan’ ¨Bmtameyabl’

emKN(9). dWebEGn, edaymankUncºg egÿg Gan’ Gayu 5 q~S mkCamYypg, k*cuHsMeBAmkdl’ LèrIy”g’ (¨sukVrSg) enAq~S 1787. enAeBlenaH VrSgkMBugEteVHbg’ecalGaNaniKmrbs’xÂçnenA

Gaemrik, kaNada EdlBuMsUvCaTIeBjcit¶«nes¶clÃITI16. mu”gm”UrSg, rd½mån¶IkarbreTs, EdleXIjfa

{kasedémºIsgbMeBjkarbg’xatenA¨beTs²Nëamkdl’ehIy, k*cuHsnìisJïasmõnìPaBTI1 CamYy

GNöam enA ev«s k~¬g«f© 28 v^cÏika 1787(10). C÷nYyswkmYyVnp¶l’[ egÿg Gan’. tbeTAv^j

mÍas’yYnenH¨tèv[ekaH¨tLac (BULèkugDr) nigkMBg’Ep TYr”an eTA¨beTsVrSg Edl¨tèvmankmµsiTì

p¶ac’muxxagC÷nYjeTot. b”uEn¶eBlemKNkatUlik¨tLb’mkdl’kmõ¬Cae¨kamv^j, egÿg Gan’ ykVn

«¨BnKrrYceTAehIy ¨BmTSgEdndéTisxagtºègTSgGs’. enAq~S 1802, egÿg Gan’ vayQ~H \«tsWg| e¨kaybgís’enAhaNUy ehIy¨bkasxÂçnCaGFiraCe¨kameQµaHfa y”aL¬g(11).

cMeNaTep§g@ «nkarbd^vt¶n_ (1789) VneFÃI[VrSgxÃl’xÃay. karTak’TgCamYy¨beTs

yYn k*Vn¨tèveKBuMsUvykcit¶Tukdak’elImYyry:eTA. CnCatiVrSgmYy¨kum, PaKe¨cInCaG~kp§ay

sasna, Vnrs’enAedaysn¶iPaBedaysarkarKSJr«ny”aL¬g. G~ktraC´«nes¶cenH, mijm”ag rYc mk TIDwk cab’¨bTUs¶ra"ynwgVrSgeLIgv^j. karB´aVTeFÃITukÅbukem~jelIBYkG~kp§aysasna k*ekIt eLIgm¶geTot. ykelsfadak’TNëkmµelIGFiraCyYn TIDwk GMBIkarsmÂab’rgðalG~kp§aysasna

¨Kis¶, Nab”UeLGugTI 3 bJØa[elIkT&BVrSgmYykgmkvayyYn(12). «f© 31 sIha 1858, sMeBAmYykgEdld·knSebsk:eyaFBlVrSg-eGsº”aj¬”l

3000

nak’

e¨kambJØa«nÓt¶mnavé

rIehða dWh§WnUyI, eVHyufûaenAqksmu¨T TYr”an. BI TYr”an emT&BVrSgKitKUrvayraCFanI ehÃ. bu”En¶sMeBA

Vj’kSePÂIgFMrbs’xÂçn BuMGaccUltamsæwgehÃVneLIy. e¨kayBIkgsMeBAVrSgVnenAnwgfûl’y”ag

yUr, dWh§InUyIsMercb¶èrTIedA Ð ÉmYytugkwg ÉmYykmõ¬Cae¨kam. x´l’rdUvrganSsMeBAmkkmõ¬Cae¨kam

qab’Cag. kgsMeBAk*cuHmkxagtºèg ehIyeLIgtamsæwg«¨BnKr, ¨kugEdlVn¨tèvvaysMrukenA«f© 17

kum¸: 1859. VrSgVnes~IsuMb¶èrkugsußlK~aCamYyyYn bu”En‘ cMeJHmuxcMnYns¶çces¶Ig«nT&BVrSg, TI Dwk Tat’ecalsMeNIenH. y”agNamij kgTahanVrSgnigeGsº”aj¬”l Edlp¶¬÷K~ak~¬gbnæaymYy Tb’Tl’

VnnwgkarvaybeJÍjTSgb”unµanrbs’T&ByYn. enAExkum¸: 1860 navacMVMgVrSg 70 e¨KOg cuHBI ¨sukcinmk,

ehIymin¨twmEtvaybMEbkVnnUvkareLamB&TìeT

EfmTSgkan’kab’ext¶bIenAxageCég«¨B

nKreTot. «f© 5 kkûda 1862 TI Dwk, edayrvl’nwgkarbHeVrenAtugkwg, cuHsnìisJïamYyCamYy

Ót¶mnavé eVNöa EdlenAk~¬genaH GFiraCyYnGnuJïatesrIPaBkan’sasnakatUlik ehIy[ext¶bI (eboghÃa, y”aDij nigv^jLWg) nigekaH¨tLaceTAVrSg(13).

yk kUsSgsuIn (kmõ¬Cae¨kam, Ganelxeyag2 cMeJHedémkMeNIt«neQµaHenH) VnminTan’

Gs’Jk’kN¶alpg VrSgecalEP~kmkkmõ¬Ca EdlVnGs’démYyduMeTAehIy. ExkJïa 1862 Ót¶m

navé eVNöa mkeFÃITs§nkicÍdl’¨BHVTnerat¶menAÓdugð EdlkalenaHCaraCFanI, Ts§nkicÍEdlCa

karsæabsæg’emIl E¨kgGacTajkmõ¬Cadak’e¨kamkarKSJrVrSgVn. dUec~aHEmnk~¬gsm&yenaH VrSg

rkpÂèvmYycUlmkk~¬g¨beTscinxagtºègedémºIeFÃIC÷nYj. ebI¨tçt¨takmõ¬CaVn, VrSgmin¨Kan’Et¨tçt¨ta


15 VnnUvTenÂemKgðeT EdlGacCapÂèvmYycUleTAdl’¨beTscinxagtºèg(14) KWEfmTSgPUmiPaKbgûaTukxag

muxmYyeTotsMrab’eBlNamankaryayIBI¨sukesom EdlVn¨tèvBYkGg’eKÂsKS¨TrYceTAehIy.

«f© 10 sIha 1863 Ót¶mnavé dãLa¨kg’ED´r, \KUEvn&r| (ecAhÃay) TI1 «nkUsSgsuIn Edl

emKNkatUlik, mIs, mkCamYypg Vnmkdl’¨kugÓdugð ehIy \[| ¨BHVTnerat¶m cuHhtÄelxa elIsniìsJïaTTYlkarKSJr (¨bètiktUr”a) BIVrSg(15), sniìsJïaEdlnwgTTYlhtÄelxa«n Nab”UeL

GugTI3 enAeBlxage¨kay. karN_enH Vn¨tèveFÃIeLIgedaysm©at’ ehIyk~¬geBlEdlBjaraCa ––

namWunesomEdl¨kugeTB (Vgkk) cat’[XÂSemIles¶cExµr–– minenA. «f© 4 v^cÏika 1864 sas§W

lULèV, rd½mån¶I¨ksYgnavacr dak’esck¶IraykarN_mYyeTANab”UeLGugTI3, EdlenAk~¬genaH rd½mån¶I

bgúajkarcSVc’¨tèvrk§aTuk²Nëècin. enAq~S 1867 d·La¨kg’ED´r ykext¶bIeTotenA kUsSgsIun Ð v^jL¬g, suk¨tag (XÂSg) nigcUduk (mat’¨Cèk). KWk~¬geBlEdlxÂçneFÃIGn¶raKmn_suM[GFiraCyYnedaH

ElgG~krt’BnìGavuFVrSgm~ak’eQµaH h§g’ DuyBÃI EdlBYkVrSgcUlk~¬gkarcºSgyktugkwg. karvay

d÷bUgVn¨tèvd·knSeday åhÃg’sIus hûarenÆ enA«f©TI 20 v^cÏika 1873. ¨beTscink*KMramfanwgeFÃI Gn¶raKmn_tampÂèvswk. naykrd½mån¶I h§¬ßl EhÃßrI [sPaeVHeq~atebIk²NTan edémºIbJØènebsk: eyaFamYykg, EdlnwgvaypæçnK~aelIGNöampg elItugkwgpg.

karvay¨beTsGNöameFÃIeTAeday²tcMeNaTeLIy edayes¶c TI-Dwk VnsÂab’k~¬gExkkûda

1883. rd½aPiVlyYnminTb’Tl’eT ehIycuHk~¬g«f© 25 sIha nUvsnìisJïaTTYlkarKSJr(¨bètiktUr”a) VrSg

elI¨beTsGNöam.

bu”En¶karvay¨beTstugkwg

VnnS[cineFÃIGn¶raKmn_.

Tal’EtVrSg

(Ót¶mnavé KY eb) vaybMP&n¶ (ɨBman) elIekaHhÃ&rm”Us nigekaH eb”sûaD&r (Pescadoros) eTIbcin

bJÎb’kar¨bTUs¶r”ay ehIycuHsnìisJïaenA etonT§in (9 mifuna 1885) TTYlsðal’karKSJr«n

¨beTsVrSgelIGNöam nigelItugkwg.


16

GFibºay (1)

(2)

enA Kùsù 1282 XUbßé«L bJØènT&BmYykg[mkkan’kab’¨beTscMV” nig¨beTskmõ¬Ca (C&y

vr&µnTI8 [sYysaGakreTABYkmu”gehðalenAq~S 1285). b”uEn¶T&BenHVn¨tèvyYnvaykMcat’ min

[qÂgtamdgP~MGNöamVneLIy.

rvag Kù sù 1280 m”arkU b”ULè Qb’sMctenAtugkwg ehIye¨bIJk´ \ekACéhðè| (caugigu) edémºI

cgí¬lval¨tIekaN

EdlTen¨khmhUrkat’cUlk~¬gsmu¨T.

BYkedérsMeBACaticam-CÃa

e¨bI

kÂayCa \KutCé| rYcmkBYkCb”unfaCa \kUQI|. e¨kaymk VrSge¨bICa \kUsSg| edaybEnÄm

\sIun| enAxagcugedémºIbJØak’fa kUsSgenAxagcin (minEmnkMBg’EpkUsSgenA²Nëa). VrSg ¨cLMmYyCan’eTot (3)

(4) (5)

Kgð .

edaycgí¬lval¨tIekaNe¨kambgís’eTAv^j

KWval¨tIekaNrbs’TenÂem

Jk´ \²Nëècin| Vn¨tèvbegûéteLIgCaelIkd÷bUg edayG~kPUmisaås¶Cati daNWma”k eQµaH m”altW-¨bg (Malte-Brun) enAq~S 1852. Jk´enHykmUld½anelIehtuEdldgP~MGNöamx&Në

¨beTslavnigkmõ¬Ca EdlmanvbºFámrebob²Nëa BI¨beTsyYnEdlmanvbºFámrebobcin.

esomvayykVnGgðrkalBIq~S 1351 (es¶clMBg’, ¨kumjatita¨tsk’Epím).

karN_EdlKYrkt’sMKal’ KWbraC&yeBjTI «n \¨Kis¶sasnUbnIykmµ| elIkmõ¬Ca. edayman sTìay”age¨CAelIBuTìsasna ExµreyIgTat’ecalkarbJØènxÂçn«n¨Kis¶sasna minEmntamkar B´aVTeFÃIVbeT bu”En¶tamkarmin¨BmTTYlC÷enOfµé. k~¬geBlEdlenA¨beTsevotNam e¨kay eBlGs’karB´aVTmk

(6)

8% «nbN¶aCn.

BYkG~kp§aysasna¨Kis¶VnTTYlbris&Ty”age¨cIn

rhUtdl’k~¬g

ry:eBlbYnstvt§r_ BIKùsù 1474 (kar¨bECg¨tIPaKI ramaFibtI-FemµaraCa-sUrieyaT&y)

eTAKùsù 1859 Cary:eBlexµAKe¨Kc«n¨bvt¶isaås¶Exµr. KWCasm&y«nkardeN¶ImraC´K~a

rvag¨kumjaties¶c, «nkareFÃIXadneyaVy, «nkarsmÂab’rgðal, k~¬geBlEdlTwkdékmõ¬Ca

ecHEtrebHreVceTA e¨kamkarruj¨can«nesomnigyYn. BYkG~kcg’VnesÃtq&¨t xÂHehAesom

mkCYy xÂHehAyYnmkBYt«d k~¬gsågðamPatrXadedémºéGMNac (GanTMB&r32 Edr, elxeyag

3, ¨beyaKTI 2).

k~¬graC´«nGgðnn’TI2 (1775-1779) kmõ¬CadkxÂçnBIkar¨tçt¨tarbs’esom edémºIcUl

e¨kamkarKSJrrbs’yYn. bu”En¶¨beTsyYn edaycuHex§aye¨JHkarbHeVr«nBYk«tsWg k*bnìèr

«dv^je¨kaybn¶icmk ehtuEdlebIk[esom¨tLb’mkv^j. k~¬graC´«nGgðcan’TI2 (1806-

1834) kmõ¬CaeTACarNbyYn (e¨kamy”a-L¬g). mij-m”ag, traC´BI y”a-L¬g, Cen¿s

k§¨tIyanIGgðmIu (kUn¨sIGgðcan’) nignamuWnvSgTSgGs’mk«¨BnKr ehIydUreQµaH kmõ¬Ca Ca

\Twkdé mI-LS|. mÍas’DYg, bgbíènbegéûtm~ak’rbs’Ggðcan’TI2, ¨tLb’mkBI¨beTsesomv^j EdlxÂçnVnrt’eTA¨Ck

esomnigyYnk*pæ¬HeLIg

ehIybMbHbMeVrExµreLIgCamYyC÷nYyrbs’esom.

sågðammYyrvag

ehIyVncb’edaykar¨Bme¨BogK~adak’mÍas’DYge¨kamesÃtq&¨t

e¨kamkar¨tçt¨tarYm yYn-esom.

nig


17 ¨BHVTGgðDYg,

edayeC¯Cak’fa

¨beTskmõ¬CamuxCanwg¨tèvyYnnigesomEhkEckK~a

edayykTenÂemKgðCa¨BMEdnrYm, k*sMercGMBavnavdl’GFiraCNab”UeLGugTI3 tamry: \mug

sIuj&r|

mIs

emKNkatUlik.

bu”En¶,

edaymkBIkarbiTmat’minC^t«nrd½mån¶ITTYlbMeBj

ebskkmµenA¨beTscinnig¨beTsesom EdlNab”UeLGugTI3 cat’[cuHsnìisJïasmõnìPaB CamYy¨BHVTGgðDYg,

namWunesomEdlmanPar:XÂSemIles¶cExµr

k*Vnd·gerOgGs’

ehIy

beJÍjkMhwgrbs’xÂçn edayvaykºal¨BHecAGgðDYgnwgEsºkeCég. Vk’muxxÂSgNas’ bu”En¶BuM

hßaneFÃIGÃIeK, GgðDYgk*suxcit¶Qb’ehArkVrSg. bYnq~Se¨kaymk ¨BHVTGgðDYgxMrkTak’Tg

m¶geTotCamYyVrSgEdlmkkUsSgsIuneTAehIy. b”uEn¶es¶csuKtenAd÷Nac’q~S 1859. kUn

¨buseQµaH Ggðvd¶é eLIgesayraC´bn¶ e¨kameQµaHfa nerat¶m, eQµaHEdlesom[k~¬geBl

GPiesk. e¨kaymk ¨BHVTnerat¶mcuHsnìisJïa \¨bè”tiktUr”a| CamYy¨beTsVrSg, kar

(7)

GaNaB´aVlEdlrMedaHkmõ¬CaecjputBI \karemIlxus¨tèv| esom rhUtmkdl’sBëf©enH.

tugkwg e¨kaymkevotNamxageCég CaG¨g·g«nCatisasn_yYn. BIstvt§r_TI10 eTATI17

yYncab’eFÃIkarB¨gékTwkdécuHmkxagtºèg. enAd÷Nac’stvt§r_TI17 ¨beTscMV”, raCaNac¨k

«nBYkcam (GanTMB&r116 Edr, elxeyag8), Vn¨tèvyYnelbGs’TSgmUl ehIy[eQµaHfµé

fa GNöam. bnæab’BIkarykVnenH yYnVnmkenACab’nwgExµr. bu”En¶karrIkGMNac nigrIkTwk déenH

VnbMEbkäkPaByYn.

xageCég)

nig¨kumegÿg

dl’sBëf©.

kar¨bkYt¨bECgK~aekItmaneLIgrvag¨kum¨Tij

(es¶c¨taj’xagtºèg)

(es¶c¨taj’

karVk’EbkEdlenAEtCaTIkt’sMKal’

rhUt

enAq~S 1623 es¶cC&yeCd½aEdlVnerobkarCamYymÍas’¨sIyYnm~ak’ edémºITb’Tl’nwg

karruj¨canrbs’esom suMC÷nYyBIes¶cyYn«nTisxagtºèg ehon-ev¯g. Caf~èr es¶cExµr¨tèv

ebIk[CnCatiyYnmkebIkhagC÷nYjenAext¶«¨BnKr. karkekrdékmõ¬Cae¨kam k*cab’ep¶émeLIg

ehIyebHdUg«nnKr hßèÃ-Nn k*ricrilGs’enAq~S 1775 k~¬gd÷Nac’raC´es¶cÓT&yTI2 (elIk

ElgEt¨sukXÂSg e¨kaymkext¶suk¨tag EdlyYncUlkan’kab’k~¬gq~S 1840).

(8)

\eGEv”k| VrSgelIkd÷bUgenA²Nëècin minEmnCaeGEv”keBjsmtÄPaBrbs’¨kugva”TIkg’eT b”uEn¶

(9)

dMbUgeLIg egÿg-Gan’ lMeGogeTAkan’C÷nYyesommun. tambJØarbs’es¶cesom ebsk:eyaF

(10)

Vn¨tèveKehA[manEteQµaHb”ueNöaH (in partibus).

BlExµrmYykg Vn¨tèvbJØèneTA¨kugehà enAq~S 1800 edImºICYycºSgtTl’nwgBYk«t-sWg. edayminsUvluHlg'Edr mu”gm”uruSg [mktamsarsMgat’mYy nUvlTìPaBeBjelj

(carte

blanch) dl’ kugvué embJØakarkgTahanVrSgenA²Nëa EdltSgTIk~¬g¨kugb”ugDI esrI edémºI

sMercbJØèn ÉminbJØènT&BmYykgeTA²Nëècin. kugvéumin¨Bm. emKNkatUlik d· ebEGn k*erobcMxÂçnägnUvkarelIkTahanenH CamYy¨Vk’kas«n¨KçsarxÂçn nig«nBYkGaNaniKm enA

(11)

b”ugDIesrI.

y”a-L¬g TTYlcuHcUl¨beTscin ehIyVn¨tèvGPieskenAhaNUy k~¬gq~S 1804. GFiraC cin Ka Kwg dak’eQµaH[¨beTsyYnfa \ev¿t-Nam| Edl¨bmUlp¶¬÷tugkwg (Vk’KI) GNöam (¨TugKI) nig kUsSgsIun (NamKI).


18 (12)

enH¨Kan’EtCaelseT. tamBit edayÓs§ahkmµxÂçnsðal’vDónPaBy”agxÂSg BYkGWru”beVHxÂçn

k~¬gkardeN¶ImK~aykp§arenAGasIu nigk~¬gkarrkFnFanedémfµé. VrSgnigGg’eKÂs ykcit¶Tuk

dak’CaBiesselI¨beTscin.

BYkGg’eKÂsVnebIkyuK«nGaNaniKmkmµelIGasIu

CamYy

\sågðamGaePon| enAq~S 1841 (edémGaePonduHenA¨beTs²Nëa EBrs_ÉGIur”g’ nigenATYrKI. BYkGWru”bVnnScUlmkdSk~¬g¨beTscin).

VrSgnigGg’eKÂsdeN¶ImK~aykkmµsiTìp¶ac’muxxag

C÷nYj. edaycaj’BYkGg’eKÂsesIærEt¨Kb’TIkEnÂg VrSgelatmksågðb’elI²Nëècin. m´”ag

eTot ¨sbK~anwgkarelIkTahanmkkUsSgsIun TahanmYykgVn¨tèvbJØèneTAeb”kSg edémºI (13)

vay \CaTNëkmµ| nigbJÎb’karsMLab'rgðalBYkkan’sasna¨Kis¶.

k~¬gsm&yenaH kmõ¬Cae¨kamVn¨tèves¶cExµreVHbg’ecaleTAehIy bN¶aCnExµrerobcMedayxÂçn äg nUvkarbHeVrTSgLayTl’nwgyYn. bnæab’BIkarPØab’kUsSgsuIneTAevot-Nam Edl¨b-

eTsVrSgVnsMercenA«f©TI 21 ÓsPa 1949 CnCatiExµreyIgenAkmõ¬Cae¨kam VnkÂayeTA

Ca \Blrd½evotNam edémkMeNItExµr| (evot hû¬k emon, k~¬gPasayYn). teTAenH KWTI

¨bC÷uCnExµreyIgxÂH EdleKenAcSeQµaHenAeLIy :

(14)

KN:ebskkmµVrSgmYy d·knSeday DUda d·Laeåhû eLIgtamTenÂemKgð edémºIEsÃgrkBinit´

(15)

edaylak’min[ ¨BHVTnerat¶m d·g VrSgnigesomeFÃIsniìsJïamYyeTotenAV”rIs k~¬gq~S

enAExmifuna 1866.

1867.

k~¬genaH

esomElgTamTarsYysaGakrBIExµr

b”uEn¶VnCaf~èrv^jnUvext¶Vt’d÷bg

esomrab sIusUpun TenÂreBA nigmÂ諨B. bnæab’BIkartva”rbs’hÂçg nerat¶m, d·La ¨kg’ED´r ccar

VnBIesomv^jEtma¨tabEnÄmmYy : ExµrGaceFÃIensaTk~¬gbwgTenÂsab dUcesomVn. ####################


19

PaKTI 3 BI

GaNaniKm eTA

shPaB²Nëècin

xÂçnTab[xMetag «dxÂI[xMeQag eTIbeyIglUtlas’ .


20 BIq~S 1863 Edl¨BHVTnerat¶m(1) cuHsnìisJïaTTYlkarKSJrBIVrSg dl’q~S 1885 Edl

cinTTYlsðal’tamsnìisJïa eton-T§in dl’karKSJrVrSgelIGNöamnigtugkwg, ¨BHraCaNac¨k

¨kugkmõ¬Ca (eQµaHCapÂèvkarrhUtdl’rCØkal¨BHmhak§¨tIyanI sIusuvti¶-kusm:) VnregðéedaykarbH

eVrCae¨cIn. k~¬gBIrq~Sd÷bUg (1865- 1867) nerat¶m¨tèv¨bQmmuxTl’nwgkarbHeVrBIr Ð mYyd·k

nSeday Gacar´sÃa mYyeToteday eJkMeVr(2). karbHTI1 Vn¨tèvbågûaby”agrh&s. Gacar´sÃa Vn¨tèveKsMLab’enAq~S 1866. bu”En¶edémºITb’Tl’nwgeJkMeVr Edl¨bkasfaxÂçnCakUnrbs’ Ggðcan’ TI2,

nerat¶m¨tèvehAkgTahanGaNaniKm(3)

bN¶aCnedaycab’ep¶émBIext¶¨kecH.

mkCYy.

edaymanExµrelICYypg

Etk~¬gry:BIrq~Sb”ueNöaH

eJkMeVr

bMbH

clnaeJkMeVrVnmkdl’¨kugÓdugð.

enAq~S 1867 eJkMeVrVn¨tèveKnScUlGnæak’mYy ehIyeKkat’kenAext¶kMBg’FM. karbHeVrmYyeTot

EdleFÃIeLIgesIærEteBjrCØkal«n nerat¶m Vn¨tèvd·knSedaybíènes¶cbegûét KWmÍas’ sIuvtÄa(4).

e¨kayBIkarsÂab’«neJkMeVr VrSgKiteFÃIkarEkTMrg’dl’rcnasmõnìrd½VlExµr EdlVn¨tèveK

v^nicÏ&yfa¨bEhlK~anwgrebob«¨B(5). enAq~S 1884 ¨beTsVrSgehA¨beTskmõ¬Ca[cUlk~¬g <p§ar

rYm> m´”agedaybMVt’karykBnìKyrvagkmõ¬Ca kUsSgsuIn nigGNöam. bnæab’BIkarmin¨Bm«n¨BHVT

nerat¶m <KUEvn&r eh§eNr”al’> (ecAhÃayTYeTA) «nkUsSgsIun eQµaH saál fumsun, CamYykaryl’ ¨Bm«nnaykrd½mån¶IVrSg h§¬ßl EhÃßrI, eLIgeKakenAÓdugð CamYyTahaneCégTwkVrSg 4-5 nak’, cUl mky”agKMhukk~¬g¨BHbrmraCvSg ehIy ––cMBuHTugPØg’nwgbMBg’k–– KMram¨BHnerat¶mfanwgbMbrbg’(6). edayy”agenH

VrSgVnEhkTajBI«des¶cExµrnUvsnìisJïamYy

EdleFÃI[kmõ¬CakÂayeTACaGaNa

niKm <tampÂèvehtu> «n¨beTsVrSg. k~¬gsnìisJïaenH nerat¶m yl’¨BmTTYlykTSgGs’nUvkar EkTMrg’rd½Vl hirJïvtĬ nigJNiCØkmµ EdlVrSgyl’eXIjfaman¨beyaCn_dl’kmõ¬Ca. CaBiess

snìisJïaenHtMrg’eTAkarlubbMVt’TasPaB(7).

k~¬gq~S 1885, q~S«nsnìisJïa eton-T§in, Vncb’sm&ymYy«n¨bvti¶GaNaniKm EdleK[

eQµaHfa ÇBYkÓt¶mnavéÈ. dUcenHEmn sm&yenaHKWCary:eBl«nkarcUlkan’kab’¨sukExµr nig¨suk

yYn tamskmµkicÍeyaFasuTìsaF Edld·knSedayemT&BeCégTwk. ecjBIkarvayykeKägeFÃIGaNa niKmenH (TSgenAGa¨hÃik TSgenAGasIu), nayTahanBIrnak’, el´atI nig hûa el´nI, Vn¨tèveK

sMKal’CaemT&By”agcMNan. enAq~S 1886 VrSgdak’GMNacsIuv^lC÷nYsGMNacTahan edayEtg

tSg b”Ul Ebßr Ca Çer”sIudg’ eh§eNr”al’È (rebobCaG~kemIlxus¨tèvTYeTA) enAGNöamnigenAtugkwg

C÷nYselakÓt¶mesnIy dãKYsuI (kUsSgsuIn man KUEvn&r sIuv^lehIy). e¨kay ÇkareFÃI[man

sn¶iPaBÈ «nBYkÓt¶mnavé, sm&y«nkarEsÃgrk ehIyTajykkM«rBIFnFanEr” nigFnFanksikmµ«n ¨beTse¨kamGMNac

niKmÈ

k*cab’epé¶meLIg.

(denrées coloniales).

FnFanEdleKVnehAk~¬gsm&yenaHfa

edémºIGMeBIenH

VrSgVndak’rcnasmõnìEdl¨tèvkar

Çrbs’rbrGaNa

ehIy¨bmUlp¶¬÷GM

NacTSgGs’. GaCÆaFryYnCYykMNkicÍkarTSgenH edayd·gxÂçnfanwgGacC÷nYsVrSgk~¬g«f©NamYy.

¨kwt´mYycuH«f© 11 v^cÏika 1887 begûIt ÇshPaB²NëècinÈ (Union Indochinoise) eday

bMVt’ecalnUv¨BMEdnrvag¨sukExµrnig¨sukyYn (sm&yenaH tugkwg, GNöamnigkUsSgsIun). ¨beTs TSgBIrVn¨tèveKbJÍèlK~aCard½EtmYyfµéÐ ²NëècinVrSg (kalenaH¨beTslav minTan’VrSgykVn

enAeLIyeT). enAelIrd½enH man ÇKUEvn&r ehߧeNr”al’È m~ak’ Edlkan’GMNacTSgGs’ ehIyEdl


21 enAe¨kamrd½mån¶I¨ksYgGaNaniKmä¨sukVrSg. mån¶IenHcat’karrd½²Nëècin CamYyemk~¬g¨sukbYnnak’

(CatiVrSgCakarFmµta) Ð ÇKUEvn&r«nkUsSgsuIn, niger”sIudg’ sßUeb”rIy&rÈ (G~kemIlxus¨tèvCan’xõs’) enAtugkwg, enAGNöam nigenAkmõ¬Ca(8).

karcUlkan'kab'«nVrSgVnCYy —esæIrEtminTan'— kmõ¬Ca[BIkarVt'bg'. bu"En¶enATisxag

eCég, ¨beTslavkMBugEtsðal'vasna Edl¨beTskmõ¬CaeTIbnwgeKcecjrYcenAq~S 1863 Ð karkekr

elbTwkdéBIsMNak'esomnwgyYn.

tSgEtBIedémstvt§r_TI19,

¨beTsesomVnykraCaNac¨k

ev¿gcnæn_ k~¬geBlEdlyYnkan'kab' ÇnKrÈ esogxÃag nig ÇnKrÈ xSmYn. enA q~S 1864 BYk ÇhUÈ,

¨kumecarcincuHBIyunNn, cUlmklukluytugkwg niglavxageCég. karlukluyenH eFÃI[manGn¶raKmn_«neyaFa¨beTsesomEdl,

edayeq¿t{kasB¨gék²TìiBlrbs'xÂçnpg,

bJØènT&BmYykgmk

¨suk sIum-sugecA-«f (Lay-ecA, ev¿tNamxageCég) (1883-1885). BYkVrSg, EdlVnmk tSgTIenA¨sukExµrnig¨sukyYnehIy, sg§&yfa¨beTsGg'eKÂscUl«dCamYyesom(9) edémºIemIlxus ¨tèvelITen¨khm

EdlCapÂèvecjcUlsMrab'CYjCamYy¨beTscinxagtºèg(10).

rd½karGaNaniKm

VrSgEdlcg'ykTenÂemKgðeFÃICa¨BM¨bTl'FmµCati«n²Nëècinrbs'xÂçn k*sMerccUl¨bLèkk~¬gerOglav

Edr

e¨kamelsfaCYyyYn

[dak'GFibetyPaBxÂçnelI¨beTslavxageCégv^j.

VrSgruj¨can

GFiraC dug xaj' [¨Vb'erOgenHeTAesom, ehIyk~¬geBl¨sbK~a es~IeTAesomsuMdak'TIkugsußlrg

mYyenAhÂçg¨BHbg.

¨kugeTB

(Vgkk)

yl'¨Bm.

GUhð¬s

V"vé,

P~ak'garCan'Tabm~ak'«n¨ksYg

«¨bsNIyenAkMBt Vn¨tèvEtgtSgk~¬gmuxtMENgenH. eday²tcSesck¶IGnuJïat[bMeBjmuxgar

(exequatur) BIesom, V"véecjd÷eNIrmk¨beTslav CamYyVrSg¨bmaN 40 nak' nigExµr 2-3 nak'

EdlCaG~kbkE¨bPasa.

eBlmkdl'hÂçg¨BHbg

enAExkum¸:

1887,

¨kugenHVn¨tèvkgTahan

esomkan'kab'eTAehIy. es¶clav GußnxS, edayman Çs~gkarÈ esomenA ÇGmÈ pg, Elgman GMNacGÃIehIy.

ExÓsPa kgTahanesomeVHbg'hÂçg¨BHbgv^j. «f© 10 mina, BYkÇhUÈ bI-bYnry nak' cUl

lukluyraCFanIlav edaybÂn'nigsmÂab'rgðalbN¶aCn. es¶c GußnxS, edayeFÃIGÃIBuMekItehIyepÆéxÂçn

[kmµpl,

rg'cSesck¶IsÂab'elIraCblÂ&gû(R),

esck¶IsÂab'Edl¨bEhlCaCYb¨bTHEmn

ebIKµanExµr

EdlCaG~kbkE¨bPasarbs' V"vé ¨bGUs¨bTajykeTAcuHTUkCamYyeT. k~¬geBleKcxÂçnCamYyK~a,

¨BHecAniyayeTAkugsußlrg V"vé suMkarKSJr (¨bUtiktUr"a) BIVrSg. TMnas'TImYyrvagVrSgnigesom

k*cab'ep¶émeLIg. kgTahanesom¨tçt¨taTenÂemKgð, kan'kab'¨kugGtÄeBA (lavxagtºèg) ehIycUlmk

k~¬gext¶sæwgE¨tg. V"vé (EdlVn¨tèveKEtgtSgCakugsußl¨beTsVrSg¨bcS¨beTsesom) dak'kM hit[BIrdg

(Ultimatum)

dl'es¶cesom.

k~¬geBlCamYyK~a

kgsMeBAVrSgmYyeLIgtamTenÂ

Em"NamrhUtdl'¨kugeTB. karbeJÍjGanuPaBnavamYyenAmuxraCFanIesom u ehIybnæab'mk karB&Tì xæb'eq~rsmu¨T VneFÃI[esomcuHcaj' ehIycuHhtÄelxaelIsnìisJïaVrSg-esom «n«f© 3 tula

1893, «f©«nkarcUlmkk~¬gshPaB²Nëècin «n¨beTslav. tamsnìisJïaenH, lkÅx&NëdUcteTA Vn¨tèvbgÅ÷[esomTTYl Ð

----------------------------------------------------------------------(R)

e¨kaymk, k~¬gq~S 1953 eBlEdlkgev¿tmijB&TìCab'¨kughÂçg¨BHbg ¨BHecAsIusava"gvg§ k*¨kajenAk~¬graCvSgEdr.


22 -

-

¨beTsesom¨tèvQb'cg'VnTwkdéenAe¨tIyxageqÃg«nTenÂemKgð (Twkdélav) ehIyTTYl

sðal'Ca ÇPUmiPaK²tkgT&BÈ EdndémYybnæHTTwg¨bEvg 25 Kmù enAe¨tIy xags¶S«nTenÂ

emKgð (Edndéesom).

¨beTsVrSgkan'kab'cnæburI

(can'tabußn)

Ca

Çkarkk'bJÍSÈ

esomdkxÂçnecjGs'BIe¨tIyxageqÃg«nTenÂemKgð.

¨beTsesommin¨tèvmankgT&BenAVt'd÷bgnigesomrab

rhUtdl'eBlkgTahan

(ext‘eTACaGB´a¨kwt)

sMeBA ep§g@ elIbwgTenÂsab (GanTMB&r 18, elxeyag 15)

nigTUk

bu"En‘karv^vaTTSgenH Tal'Et 14 q~Se¨kaymkVncb'CamYysnìisJïa nigkicÍsn´aVrSg

esommYycMnYn Ð -

kicÍsn´a«nq~S 1902 Ð VrSglb'bMVt'PUmiPaK²tkgT&BTTwg 25 Kùmù enAe¨tIyxags¶S

«nTenÂemKgð. tbmkv^j, esom[mkkmõ¬Cav^jnUvext‘mÂ諨B nig TenÂreBA (mÂ諨B + Ten reBA = kMBg'FMnig¨BHv^har). rIä¨beTslavVnTTYlext‘ Vs§ak'.

-

kicÍsn´a«nq~S 1904 Ð kMBg'¨tat ehIynigTwkdéenATisxagtºèg, ¨BmTSgekaHTSgLay

-

snìisJïa«nq~S 1907 Ð b¶èrCamYydan«s, ¨tatnigekaHTSgLayEdlenAxagtºège¨Cay

EdlenAC^teq~r cab'BIELmsuwgeTA Vn¨tèv[mk²Nëècin EdlTTYl¨sukdan«seTot. ELmsuwg,

¨beTsesom

(EdlnwgpÂas'eQµaHCa¨beTs«fenAq~S

kmõ¬Cav^jnUvext‘esomrab, Vt'd÷bg nigsiIusupun(12).

1939)(11)

[mk

enA«f© 24 emsa 1904, ¨BHVTnerat‘mcUlTIvgðt'. edaybMJnelI¨b«BNIcMNas'Jn'q~S

¨kum¨bwk§araCsmºti‘, ¨bCu÷ue¨kamGFibtIPaB«n Çer"sIudg' sUßeb"rIeyIr&È VrSg, cgí¬lbíènes¶c, mÍas'

sIusuvtiÄ [esayraC´bn¶(13)


23

GFibºay (1)

(2)

¨BHVTnerat¶m TTYlmû¬denA«f©TI 3 mifuna 1864 CamYyvt¶man«ntMNagVrSg DUda dW Laeåhû

nigtMNagesom BjaraCa. nerat¶m VnbegûétTg'CatiExµr (munTg'saFarNrd½) nigePÂgCati,

nKrraC, EdlTMnukbTVn¨tèvEtgedayvresnIy¨tI-eBT´VrSg m~ak'.

eKBiVknwgfaEdr etIkarbHeVrTSgenH bu"nb"gedjVrSg ÉmYyrMlMes¶c. tamVrSgGaNa

niKmniym

karbHenHKWTl'nwges¶c,

CakarN_Fmµta.

k~¬gemeronenAsalabfmsik§aeTot

esat k*¨Kèbe¨gon¨Kan'Et[kt' \bHGacar´sÃa|, \bHeJkMeV| eday²tman (Éhßan) Evk (3)

(4)

EjkeTAq©ayeLIy.

k~¬gsm&yenaH KWBYk \Ta«r"y&r| yYn (tirailieurs annamites) e¨kambJØanayTahanVrSgm~ak'.

¨BHVTGgðDYg mankUn¨busbInak' : nerat¶m, sIuvtÄa nig sIusuvtiÄ. eBles¶csuKtenAq~S 1859 kUncºg, nerat¶m, ¨tèveLIgesayraC´bn‘. bu"En¶ k~¬geBlrg'cSBiFIGPiesk suIvtÄa cg' esayraC´Edr. edayP&ynwgkareLIg¨bCa¨biyPaB«nsIuvtÄa, nerat¶mrt'eTA¨sukesom eday

ykmû¬dnig¨BHxan'raC´eTACamYy. bnæab'BIGn¶raKmn_EnemKNkatUlik mIs, tamry:TIkug

sußlVrSgenA¨kugeTB (Vgkk), nerat¶mVn¨tèvbJØènmkmatu¨beTsv^jenAq~S 1862. kar

¨bkYtrbs'suIvtÄa VnkÂayeTACasågðamqµk' Tl'nwgkarkan'kab'«nVrSg cab'tSgBIq~S 1885

eTA.

enAq~S

1887

suIvtÄa

\rMedaH|

Vnt÷bn'mYy

ehIybegûétCaraCaNac¨k

(PUmiPaK

kMBg'sÃay). edayVrm¸nwgkarEbkVk'«nkmõ¬CaenH ehIyedayxÂacE¨kgesomeFÃIGn‘raKmn_

CYysuIvtÄa VrSge¨CéserIsykkarccar ehIyKit \BlIkmµ| nerat¶m edémºIsuIvtÄav^j. eQµaH bU"l kulLa Vn¨tèvcat'[bMeBjebskkmµenH. bu"En‘suIvtÄaVnsuKteTA k~¬geBlEdlkar

(5)

ccarehobnwg¨tèvbJÎb'Edr.

BYkVrSgGaNaniKmniymelIkd÷bUg VnbeJÍj, cMeJH¨bCaCneyIg, nUvkaremIlgayy"ag

xÂSg—rhUtdl'dl'GariyFám. eyIgGacv^nicÏ&yelIkarsresrxÂH«nBYkenH :

Gù bUnYr k~¬gesovePAxÂçneQµaH \²Nëècin| ecjenAq~S 1900 : \¨bCaCnenAkmõ¬Ca

¨bEhlCaxÂSgtampÂèvkay Cag¨bCaCnenAGNöamEmn bu"En‘xÃHfamBl xÃHskmµPaB. kar

erobcMelI«pæsgðmenArak'kMEPl ehIy¨sedognwgrebob«¨B. KµankarbN¶¬HbN¶alKMnit¨VCÆa

eLIy (k~¬geBlEdlenAGNöam yYn¨ky"agNak*eday ehIy¨KçsarxÂçntUctacy"agNak* eday k*enAEtmankarGb'rMswgEt¨Kb'K~a. PUmiyYnTSgGs' mansalabe¨gon²tyk«f ebImin cg'fa eKtMrUv[kUnekµgeTAeron¨Kb'K~a), KµansamKðIFámtampÂèvcit‘eLIy ehIyedayehtuenH

²tmanmenaseJÍtnaCatibn‘icbn‘çc

²tyl'famatuPUmiCaGÃIeLIy.

CnExµrGn'CagCnyYn

y"agq©ayk~¬g¨Kb'Ep~kTSgGs'. bu"En‘ebIExµrKµanKuNsmºti‘yYn ExµrmanKuNv^bti‘yYn rhUt

dl'eTA¨Vk'cMNUlEmnETn«nes¶cExµr

VnmkEtBIkaryktugelIbnElºgsuIsgEdlcin

kan' ehIyEdleFÃI[¨beTshinehac.ùùùù JNiCØkmµTSgmUlenAk~¬g«dbreTs : yYn cin cam-CÃa.|


24 niyayBIkarv^vt‘n_«nExµreyIg, esovePA \TMlab' nig TMenom«nExµr| ecjenAq~S 1938,

eday hðI b"Uer" nig eGvuãlIn m"aesº"r"U : \ExµrTSgLayEdlfalUtlas' e¨cInEtminsUv¨VCÆa minsUvecHd·gGÃIeT

ehIy²tykcit‘Tukdak'elIGÃITSgGs'.

tamJk´niyayrbs'sis§ekµg

m~ak'«nv^T´al&ysuIsuvtiÄ mYyBYkCa ǨkbIGt'XÂanÈ EdlsIu¨beTsäg mYyBYkeTotCa ÇBEB

l©Iel©IÈ EdlecHEtE¨skEtBIsEtJs ²td·gxus¨tèv.

BYkTI1 ebIxÂçnmanbgbíèn ÉG~kKSJrFM@ Vnmuxgar ÇxÂaj'È CaG~kraCkar ehIyTaj

ykk«¨m[Gs'BI«d, yWtsõwk ¨VCÆaTal bu"En‘sµanEtxÂçn«vqÂat. BYkenHemIlgay CYnkal

CnCatiGWr"ub k~¬gnam«n¨b«BNIGafákMVMgGÃIm´a"g EdleyIgeTAmindl'eLIy ehIyEdlenA

e¨kayenaH eKlak'VMgkarl©g'exÂArbs'eK CYnkal bgbíènrYmCatiäg EdlK~a¨kI¨kehIymin

lUtlas'. karsMxan'cMeJHGs'elakTSgenH KWminVc'eFÃIGÃI manzann‘rsk‘imYy (bNöTUt

k~¬grd½kar swgEtCagarGPiCnmYyehIy) vayòk ÇBUCGgðrvt‘È enAmuxBYkGWru"b eFÃI¨tab'tam

BYkCnCatiGWru"b

edémºI[G~kenAe¨kambgðab'xÂçnekat

ehIynigsæabGEgílsnÂwk¨Vk'enA¨Kb'

eBlNaebIk{kas[. ¨tg'kEnÂgenH BYkenHeFÃItam¨b«BNImYyy"agcas'mkehIy ehIyxƬM

yl'fa kicÍkar«nCédUnCétaBYkenHk~¬gsm&yGgðr enA¨twm¨tg'Par:y"agF©n'«nG~kTarluy.

¨kumTI2 BYk ÇBEBÈ EdlmancMnYnFMCageK mane¨cInEtG~krge¨KaH. BitehIy BYk

enHcg'VneCaKC&ydUcBYkTI1 Edr bu"En‘K~ad·gxÂçnfaGs'kmÂSgeBk edémºIeTAdl'enaHrYc. tam

sMdéBYkenH karxitxM«nCédUnCétaxÂçnEdlCaCag (ksagGgðr) nigCaG~kcºSg VneFÃI[xÂçnehv

rhwtr«h. xÂçnminGaceTACaevCØbNëitekIteT saås‘acar´k*minekIt Kilanubd½akk*minekIt G~k C÷nYjk*minekIt

bNöTUt.|

nieyaC^tk*minekIt

kmµkrk*minVn

GÃIk*minVnEdr

e¨kABInahµWn

ÉmYy

bU"l DUEmr ÇKUEvn&r eh§enr"al'È «n²Nëècin BIq~S 1897 eTA 1902 VneTArhUtdl'

kareCretµH. cUreyIgv^nicÏ&ysMdéva k~¬gesovePAeQµaH DzNëècinVrSgÈ ecjenAq~S 1905 : \etIsasn_ (Exµr) enHmanenAsl'eT? sasn_enHVneXIjkarcuHGab'{n«nxÂçneT? CnanuCn

kmõ¬CasBëf© etIesomCakUnrbs'xÂçnÉGÃI? minEmneT. BYkG~kQ~H minenA¨twmEtyk¨TB´

smºti‘eT eKVnkMeTcsasn_enHlb'ecjBIbJØImnus§rs'. Ps¶¬tag KWenAk~¬gCnanuCnkmõ¬Ca

KµanenAsl'¨b«BNIGÃImYy Gnus§avrIy_GÃIbn‘ic «nPasaExµr. eyIgVneXIjBYkenHQremIl

CaTs§nikCn¨Begéyken‘Iy nig²tyl'GÃI enAmuxGcÏriyPaB«nsÄabt´kmµburaN ²td·gyl'

GÃITSgGs'

GMBIGk§rcarikelIfµ

«nsMNl'¨VsaTd*eq~ImTSgenH

cMeJHmuxmnus§EdlVnrs'enAk~¬gTIenHmunxÂçn

KWCabreTsdUceyIgEdr

k~¬gCév^tmYyEdlxõs'Cag.

Kµan¨bCaCnNa

mYyeLIy ehIyswgEtKµanbuKðlNam~ak'pg EdlGacGYtxÂçnfamanBUCGMbUrCaExµr. krNI CatiExµrenAGasIu KWdUcCakrNICati¨kiknigr"UmuSgenAGWr"ubEdr.|

\esck¶IsÂab'Vnp¶ac'Cév^tmnus§TSgLayEdr k~¬geBlCamYyK~a EdlxÂçnVnp¶ac'Cév^t

¨bCaCatiTSgBYg. k*bu"En‘manPUmi2 k*q©aydac'¨syalk~¬gkmõ¬Ca kb'Vt'k~¬g«¨Be¨sagFMcUl

mincuH EdlmanbN¶aCnk¬~gsasn_mYyxusBIsasn_kmõ¬Ca ehIyEdlniyayPasa¨VsaT buraNElgBIeraHGs'eTAehIy

ryIkryakGs'ehIy

bu"En‘EdleKGacsðal'VnPÂam.

etI


25 mnus§mYy¨kumtUcenH manExµrd*Ót¶mCabuBÃkarIÉ? ¨KçsarmYy BIr bI k*mind·g ¨bEhlCaVn

putxÂçnBIkarbMp^ÂcbMpÂaj EdlVn¨tèveFÃIeLIg kalBI 5 É 6 stvt§r_mun ehIyenArs'ranman

Cév^t bnæab'BIVnePosxÂçneTAenATItMbn'«¨BP~M ehIybn‘BUCerogrhUtmk k~¬gPaBetaky"ak nig

k~¬gPaBGab'{n«nkarP&yxÂacCanicÍnirn¶r_. etImnus§rehmrhamTSgenH CakUnG~kcMVMgd*hM Ca

kUn«nsilºkrd*Ót¶m «nraCaNac¨kEdlrlayVt'enaHÉ? karN_enHGacBitEdr. bu"En‘ebI

dUec~aHEmn mind·gCaÒBukxÂçn EdlemIleXIjkUnBIelIzansYKá¨BHBuTìenaH QWcit¶cukcab'k~¬gxÂçn

y"agNaeT! cºas'CaKat'cg'[karsMLab'rgðal (EdlVnykCév^tKat'enaH) kuMTukkUnKat'[ enAsl'm~ak' CaCagTuk[sl'elIdénUvGnus§avrIy_rbs'Kat'rebobenH [sl'd÷bUnµanrebob

enH dl'¨bCaCnTSgLayNaEdleVHbg'xÂçnecal.| plEdlecjBIkaremIlgayenH

KWGaNaniKmVrSg

ÉmUlFnniymVrSgv^j¨tèv

Cag Vnv^nicÏ&yfa kmõ¬CaCakEnÂgmYy ÇminsUv[cMeNjÈ ehIyk*¨bmUlp¶¬÷karxitxMrbs'xÂçn

edémºIC÷erOnvDónPaBesd½kicÍnigvbºFám eTAelIevotNamEtmYy. ¨beTsenHk*VnTTYlv^CØa sÄannigmnæIr¨sav¨CavCae¨cIn rhUteTAdl'saklv^T´al&yeTot (1904). k~¬geBlEdlenA

kmõ¬Ca eKVnrab'eXIj, enAq~S 1939, sis§cMnYn 4 nak'(!) k¬~gmF´msik§aPaKTI2, 4 nak'

elIcMnYnbN¶aCn 3 lan! VrSgVneTArhUtdl'min¨Bme¨bInieyaC^tExµr ehIynScUlnUvCn

CatiyYn edémºIe¨bIk~¬grd½karxÂçnenA¨sukExµr. PaKe¨cIn«nCnGen‘a¨bevsn_yYnenH Vnrs'enA

bn‘BUCrhUtk~¬g¨beTseyIg. manCnedémkMeNItyYnCae¨cInnak' Edlkan'kab'muxkarsMxan'@

k~¬grd½karExµr rhUtdl'ExmIna 1970 (eBlEdl ln'-nl' nig sirimt: sMerceFÃIkareVs

sMGatmYy. ebskkmµVn¨tèv¨bKl'[ ln'-Nun bíènrbs' ln'-nl' ehIykicÍkarenHk*

kÂayeTACakarkab'sMLab'. e¨kaymk k~¬geBlEdlTahanyYnxageCég eFÃI[kmõ¬CakÂayeTA

CaregékePÂIg kgTahanyYnxagtºègVnykkarsgswkCaebskkmµrbs'xÂçnÐ k~¬gry:eBlEt

2-3 «f©bu"eNöaH PUmiPaK ÇcMBuHTa, sÃayerogÈ VnE¨beTACaePÂIgGvcIcMeJHbgbíèneyIgenA

(6) (7)

TIenaH.

enHminEmnCakarKMramecaleT.

GMNacGaNaniKme¨bI¨Vs'karbMbrbg'

CaGavuFcit‘saås¶

sMrab'bMVk'karbu"nb"gbHeVrTSgBYg dUcEdleyIgnwgeXIjk~¬geBlxagmux.

ÇxƬMeKÈ sm&yenaH (rhUtmkdl'eBlfµé@ enHeTot) Casmºti‘dac'«fÂrbs'mÍas'. KYr[exõIm

CagTasPaBGaemrikSg Edlykmnus§exµAeBjv&ymk[dSkbºas, TasPaBExµre¨bI¨Vs'

tSgBIkUnekµg EdlsgðmmanGariyFám¨tèvkarJr eday[eronsU¨t. KYr[hYscit‘eTAeTot

TasPaBExµr

(8)

EdlVrSgbu"nb"glb'bMVt'tSgBIk~¬graC´es¶cnerat¶m

VneLIgdl'kMrwtmha

GsÍar´ k~¬geBlEdl ÇG~kes~haCatiÈ mYyk¶ab'Vnyk¨bCaCnägeFÃICa ÇxƬMrd½È.

karbegûétenHmanEteQµaHeT e¨JHfaTal'Et 10 q~Se¨kaymk eTIbGgðkarep§g@ «nshPaB cab'edérEmnETnk~¬grd½kar«n b"Ul DUEmr. Çrd½FanIÈ Vn¨tèvtSgenAhaNUy. kUsSgsuIn Edl

eKsMKal'CaGaNaniKmeBjTI

(kULènI)

manlkÅn‘ik:Biess

ehIyenAe¨kamkar¨tçt¨ta«n

ÇKUEvn&rÈ m~ak'. kmõ¬Ca GNöam nig tugkwg enAe¨kamkarcat'Ecg«n Çer"suIdg' sUßeb"rIy&rÈ

(es¶cTSgLay manGMNacEdlmanEteQµaH) EdlPar:FMKWeFÃIbn‘icm¶g@ nUvkarEkTMrg'rcna


26 smõnìrd½Vl«n¨beTse¨kamGMNac. ¨kmcºab'ep§g@ Vn¨tèvcmÂgtamKMrUVrSg. karEbg

Eckrd½Vl : ext‘ ¨suk x&Në XuM Vn¨tève¨bI¨Vs'rhUtdl'sBëf© (e¨kaymk bMENg x&Në

(9)

Vn¨tèvlb'ecalv^j, Óù x&Në eJFicintug). enAstvt§r_TI17

lÃITI14

es¶c¨BHGaTit´VrSg

minTak'cit¶nwg²NëècineT

bu"En‘nwg¨beTs

esom. tSgBIq~S 1685 esomcuHsnìisJïaTI1 xagJNiCØkmµCamYyVrSg. 3 q~Se¨kaymk

CnCati¨kikm~ak'eQµaH kugs‘g'TIn hÃèlkun EdleFÃIkarCakmµkr (m"atWLè) elIsMeBAVrSgmYy

eLIgbuN´sk¶iCaTI¨bwk§arbs'es¶cesom.

edaymanG~kp§aysasnaCatiVrSgbInak'CYy

pg hÃèlkuneFÃIkarrkG~kXubXwt edémºIyk¨beTsesomcUle¨kamGMNacVrSg. bu"En‘e¨kay bn‘icmk (1688) kar Çbd^vt‘n_vSgÈ mYyrMlMes¶cesom smÂab'¨kikhÃèlkun ehIyedj VrSgecj. rd½¨bharenH VnbJÍb'²TìiBlrbs'VrSgelI¨beTsesom.

mYystvt§r_knÂHe¨kaymk enAq~S 1826 es¶cesomramaTI3 cuHsnìisJïaJNiCØkmµ

TI1 CamYy¨beTsGg'eKÂs. k~¬gq~SdEdl kgTahanGg'eKÂscab'ep¶émcUlkan'kab'¨beTs

m"aeLsuI nigPUma. «f© 15 mkra 1896 snìisJïaVrSg-Gg'eKÂsmYy (kicÍsn´a¨kugL¬g¨d_)

EbgEck¨beTsesomCabIPUmiPaK : xagekIt enAe¨kam²TiìBlVrSg xaglic (CamYye¨Cay

m"aeLsuI) eTACasmºti‘Gg'eKÂs cMENkPUmiPaKkN¶al KWvaltamdgTenÂEm"NamecA¨pay"a

eTACamNëlGB´a¨kwt (dUec~H ¨beTsesomminEmnminEdlVn¨tèvbreTs¨tçt¨taeT ¨Kan'Et mineBjelI¨beTsTSgmUlbu"eNöaH) kartE¨mt¨mèvK~asaeLIgv^j rvagGg'eKÂsnigVrSg elI

(10)

karEckTwkdéenH ecjCasnìisJïaq~S 1902 1904 nig 1907.

ecjBIÓdugðenAExmifuna 1866 ebskkmµ DUdadWLae¨hû EdleTAEsÃgrkBinit´TenÂemKgð Vn

[Ps¶¬tagfa pÂèvTwkEtmYyEdlnSBIsmu¨TeTAk~¬g¨beTscinxagtºèg KWTen¨khm. dUec~HEmn

cab'BI¨kug¨kecHeTA cracrN_tamTenÂemKgðElgGaceFÃIVn BIe¨JHmanTWke¨CaH nigTwkFÂak'Ca (11)

e¨cIn (CaBiess TwkFÂak'd*lív^salenAxUn elI¨BMEdnExµr-lav).

rd½mån‘ITImYy«f niym.

Pibulsågðam

dUreQµaH¨beTsesomCa¨beTs«f

sasn_«fmanenAk~¬g¨beTsesom

lav

e¨JHmanbMNgc¨kBti‘

(LavCasac'Qam«fEdr)

ev¿tNam

(kånæaj) nigcin (yunNn) cMENkävbºFám«fmanenAk~¬gùùù ¨sukExµr. eBlEdlCbu"nkMBug

lukluycin nigKMramVrSgenA²Nëècin k~¬gq~S 1939 enaH PibulmanKMnitbu"nb"g¨bmUl ÇdéÈ

«fTSgenaH. e¨kaymk saritfaNara"t' Vn¨tèvG~kBátmanbsÍwm¨beTsm~ak'sYrfa etIcg' pÂas'eQµaH¨beTs«fCa¨beTsesomv^jeT? cemÂIysarit : xƬMmind·gfaelakcg'niyayGMBI

(12)

GÃIeT.

VrSgVnyl'dl'karP&n‘¨cLMrbs'xÂçn

EdlVn[eTAesomnUvext‘Exµrd*smºèáN¨sèvTSg3

enH (70 000 Kmù¨kLa k~¬gkalenaH). k~¬gkicÍkarrk¨bmUlTwkdémkv^j nayTahan 2 nak'

xagPaKIVrSg-Exµr d·knSKNkmµkareVHbegðal¨BMEdn : VrSgm~ak' vresnIy¨tI EbßNa (Vn

sresresovePAmYyGMBIerOgenH esovePAEdlBiVkrkGanNas' e¨JHeKlak') nigExµrm~ak' GnuesnIyäk Gußm. ¨BM¨bTl'xaglic«nkmõ¬CasBëf© k*VnmanrUbrageLIgedayy"agenHäg

(1907).


27 q~S 1907 Gac[eKcat'TukCaq~SbegúIyeCaKC&y «nGaNaniKmkmµrbs'VrSgelI²Nëè

(13)

cin EdleyIgGacsrubdMNak'kar dUcenAtaragk~¬gTMB&rbnæab'.

ExkJïa1908 ¨BHVTsIusuvtiÄeTAGtItmharaCFanIGgðr edImºITTYlykext‘TSgbImkv^j Edl

VnenAe¨kamesom 40 q~S. edémºIrMlwk¨Bwt‘ikarN_enH TIzanGnus§avrIy_mYyVn¨tèvelIkeLIg

k~¬gTI¨kugP~MeBj raCFanIfµé. G~kpgEtgeXIj, Kg'elIcegûHP~MdUneBj ehIysmÂwgeTAv^man äkraC´, rUbsMNakBIsMrwTìnigtamTMhMFmµCati«nes¶csuIsuvti‘ enAcenÂaHpæSgsilaBIrEdlEcg

BIkarVnmkv^jnUvext¶bIenH. pæSgsilamYycMehog Vn¨tèvKas'ykmk[eKvay«fÂenAhug kug edayÓt‘mesnIym~ak'«nsaFarNrd½Exµr (1970-1975).


28

q~S

Twkdé

snìisJïa, samIuCn

1862-64

Jk'kN¶al kUsSgsIun xageCég

TIDwk- eVNöa

Jk'kN¶al kUsSgsuIn begúIy

TIDwk, dW La¨kg'Ed´r

1863

kmõ¬Ca

1867

(VrSg[ext‘Vt'd÷bg suIsupun esomrab

1867

1883-85 1893 1902

1907

45 q~S

TenÂreBA nig mÂ諨B eTA¨beTsesom)

nerat¶m, dW La¨kg'ED´r

VrSg-esom, (nerat¶m)

GNöam rYcmk tugkwg

rd½aPiVlyYn e¨kayTIDwk rYc

lav

GußnxS, VrSg-esom

mk etonTi§n (VrSg-cin)

ext‘TenÂreBA nig mÂ諨B

kmõ¬Ca begúIy

(Vt'dMbg suIsupun nig esomrab)

VrSgesom, (nerat¶m)

VrSg-esom, (sIusuvtÄi)

²Nëècin

tarag : d÷Nak'kar «n GaNaniKmkmµ

Æ © Æ © Æ © Æ © Æ © Æ © Æ ©


29

PaKTI 4 BI

shPaB²Nëècin eTA

shB&nì²Nëècin

¨bvti‘sa¨s¶Cap~èrkb'karP&n¶¨cLM«nmnus§.

(b"Ulva"eLrI, Ts§nv^TU)

dUec~HcUreyIgkuMexõImnwgKas'kayemIl.


30 ¨BHVTsuIsuvtiÄ (1904-1927) eLIgesayraC´d÷NalK~anwg¨Bwti‘karN_mYyy"agsMxan' KW

C&yC÷nH«nCbu"nk~¬gsågðamCbu"n-rus§I (1904-1905). ¨Bwti‘karN_sMxan'mYyeTot EdlekIteLIgk~¬g

rCØkalsuIsuvtiÄenHEdr KWkarbd^vt‘n_cin«nq~S 1911 (saFarNrd½«n sußn-y"at esn).

C&yC÷nH«nCb"unVneFÃI[Vt'nUvC÷enOfa CatiEsºksBUEkelIslubBuMecHcaj'eK. C&yC÷nHenH

VneFÃI[G~kecHd·gyYnman¨btikmµPÂam Ð G~kGk§rsaås¶eQµaH pan' bYycUv, edaymanmÍas' KYg ed

EdlCajati«nGFiraC y"a L¬g nigG~kGk§rsaås¶ 3-4 nak'eTotCUneTApg, VneTAdl'¨beTsCbu"n

ehIyk*cab'bMbHbMeVryYnBITIenaH. cab'tSgBIq~S 1912 EdlKNbk§ KY min tag (cinCatiniym) ekIteLIg, ¨beTscink*eTACaTIC÷rkmYy«nG~kCatiniymyYnEdr. k~¬geBlsågðamelakq~S 1914-

1918 BlTahan 130 000 nak' EdlCaCnCatirbs'¨beTsTSg3 «n²Nëècin Vn¨tèveKbJØèn

eTAGWrub (k~¬genaHmanExµreyIge¨cInkgvresnatUc EdleKdak'eTAsmrPUmimux, Ex§TI1(1). Tajecj

BIBiPBsk¶iPUmirbs'xÂçn dak'cUleTAk~¬gBiPBelakmYyeTot, G~kTSgenaHVnCYb¨bTHnwgKMnitfµé@eTotÐ

¨bCaFibety´, shCéB, sgðmniym, kumµ¬ynis‘, mUlFnniym nigkar¨bkan'BNásmº¬r. kar Çb"H

Bal'È nwgbsÍwm¨beTsenH VneFÃI[ekIteLIgnUvKNbk§neyaVyk~¬g¨sukyYn ehIyKNbk§TSg enH Cas~èl«nKMnit¨bqSgnwgkarkan'kab'¨tçt¨ta«n VrSg.

bu"En‘k~¬g¨beTskmõ¬Ca sÄankarN_KWm´a"geTAv^j. eBlEdlmkdl'¨sukExµr VrSgVneXIj

¨beTsmYyEdlhinehac, nigsMNl'«n¨bCaCatimYyEdl¨TuDe¨Tam e¨JHEtsågðam nigkarC^HCan'

BIbreTsCab'rab'stvt§r_.

sl'BIes¶cEdlmanGMNacdUc¨BHGaTieTB(2)

nigsl'BI¨bCaCnEdl

rs'enACu÷v^jPikŬsgônigGacar´, cenÂaHsgðmenA¨behagTeT ²tmanExµrbiTbMeBj Ð rbrensaT, rbr ciJÍwmstÃ, karrksuIeFÃICag enAk~¬gkN¶ab'«dyYn, cMENkkareFÃIC÷nYj enAk~¬grgÃg'¨kckcin. karxM

saklºgbJÍèlxÂçnk~¬gsgðmExµr BIsMNak'G~kGen¶a¨bevsn_TSgenaH(3) VneFÃI[manGaJh_BiJh_ cin-Exµr Cae¨cIn. BYkkUnkat'EdlekIteLIgCabn‘bnæab'mkenaH Vn¨tèvG~kniBnìVrSgeQµaH hÃIlIB

dWvéEl kt'sMKal'faCaCn ÇBUEk nigsÃahab'È. edayyl'eXIjdUec~HEdr eTIbrd½karGaNaniKm,

EdlBImunVnnScUlmk¨sukExµrnUvG~keFÃIkarCatiyYn, cab'erIsykkUnkat'cin-Exµr (ticÉe¨cIntMN)

mkeFÃICa¨kbx&Nërd½kar.

k~¬graC´¨BHVTsuIsuvtiÄnigmunIvg§

(1927-1941)(4)

e¨cIn(5) EdleFÃIeLIgedémºIbMVt'bn‘icm¶g@ nUvsÄab&ncas'«nrd½.

¨beTskmõ¬CaVnTTYlkarEkTMrg'Ca

-enAq~S 1910 edémºIC÷rujkarGb'rMeLIgv^j ¨BHecAsIusuvtiÄbJØa[be¨gonPasaExµr dl'ekµg

Gayu 8 q~SeLIgeTA k~¬g¨Kb'TIvt‘GaramTSgGs'. eyIgyl'Nas'nUvkayv^kar ¨BHsIusuvtiÄ Edl

bgúajnUvbMNg¨twm¨tèv«n¨bCaCatiTSgGs' Edlcg'ecHd·gnigcMrugcMerInk~¬gPasarbs'xÂçn. bu"En¶¨sb K~anwgkayv^karenH rd½karGaNaniKmk*VnCYyCae¨cInEdr dl'karrIkcMerIn«nsala EdleKVnehAfa

ÇsalaraCkarÈ EdleKbe¨gonPasaVrSg nigmuxv^CØae¨cIneTot Edl²tbe¨gonenAsala Çvt‘È. sala ÇraCkarÈ TSgenaH manenAEtk~¬graCFanI nigTI¨bCu÷CnFM@ ehIykUnsis§esæIrEtCakUnG~kman-

G~kFMTSgGs' KWfaecjmkBIvNö:FUr¨sçl. lTìpl«nkarmansalaBIry"agenH eyIgVneXIj¨Kb'

K~amkehIy Ð ¨beTseTACamansgðm2 EdlxusBIK~aTSg¨sug(6). sgðmmYyCasgðm«nG~k ÇlUt las'È EdlkarGb'rMnigcMeNHv^CØaxÂçnGnuJïat[b"HJl'nwgBiPBelakxage¨kA ehIyedéreTAmuxtamBi


31 PBe¨kAenaH. G~kTSgenHxMe¨bI¨Kb'meF´aVy edémºIeFÃICév^txÂçn[Tan'sm&y. sgðmmYyeTot Casgðm

ÇG~kl©g'exÂAÈ EdleCaKCSy"age¨CAnwgBuTìsasna ehIycUlcit‘rs'enAk~¬gBiPBelakmYyeJreBj

eTAedayC÷enOelIehtumhaGsÍar´ ehIyEdlkareKarBTMenomTMlab' VnkÂayeTACakarenAes©¿mmin kMerIk.

- k~¬gq~S 1912, ÇKUEvn&r eh§ßeNr"al'È Gal'Ebr sar"U begûét ÇsPa[eyabl'GayÈ

(Assemblée consultative indigéne) EdlmansmaC^ke¨CéstSg (1PaK8) nigsmaC^kCab'eq~at (G~kEdleK

[manGMNaceVHeq~aterIssPaenH mancMnYnticNas'). sPa[eyabl'enaH ¨Kan'EtCakarsak

lºgemIleT e¨JHmYyq~SeFÃIkarEt 10 «f©.

-enAq~S 1915 muxgarCaecAhÃayext‘Vn¨tèveKbegûét[maneLIgsMrab'Exµr. BImun ext‘¨tçt

edayVrSgEdlmangarCa Çer"suIdg'È.

-k~¬gq~S 1920 salaVlICan'xõs'VnekIteLIgenAP~MeBj(7).

-enAq~S 1922 TI¨bwk§acºab'VrSgm~ak'CYyENnSkicÍkarbegûétsalaÓ¨kid½ (enAP~MeBj) sMrab'

C÷nMuC÷rHbTÓ¨kid½k~¬g¨beTsTSgmUl.

-k~¬gq~S 1930 (raC´¨BHVTmunIvg§) BuTìsasnbNiët´ VnekIteLIgenAP~MeBj edémºIbgúat'¨Kè

be¨gonsalaVlI (Gacar´salaVlI).

-enAq~S 1937, ¨beTseyIgmansalacMnYn 952 (k~¬genaH 813 Casalavt‘), sala

Gnuvt‘n_Ós§ahkmµmYy, salasilº:ExµrmYy nigsalacºab'nigrd½VlmYy(8).

cMENkävDónPaBxagesd½kicÍv^j eKeXIjmankarrIkcMerIn«nksikmµ(9) Ð ¨sèv, edémekAsUß(10),

eJt, e¨mc .l. karekIneLIgenH KWTSgxagTMhM«pædS TSgxagcMnYnplitpltam«pædS. bu"En‘ eK¨tèv EtTTYlsðal'karmYyenH

Ð

ebIkarEkTMrg'«nsik§aFikareFÃI[mankarEckvNö:k~¬gsgðm,

vDónPaB

esd½kicÍeFÃI[cMerInEmnETn EtCnbreTsmYyk¶ab' CatiVrSg, cin nigyYn EdlepÆéluyxÂçnenAV"rIs,

hugkug, sigúburI nig«¨BnKr. saås¶)

KWenAk~¬gkal:eTs: (sgðmsaås¶) enaHehIy Edl¨beTskmõ¬CaQaneCégcUlmkk~¬g (¨bvti‘ BiPBelaksBëf©.

ebIsågðamelakelIkTI1

BuMVneFÃI[GaNac¨kGaNaniKmVrSgE¨b

¨bçleT sågðamelakelIkTI2 CasJïa«nkarcab'ep¶émrlM«nGaNac¨kenaH. eq¿t{kasEdlVrSg

cuHGn'ex§ay edaykarlukluyGalÂWm"g', ¨beTsTSgbI«n²Nëècinyl'eXIjfa eBlevlamkdl' ehIy edémºIrkäkraC´erogxÂçn.

teTAenH eyIg¨tèvEck¨Bwti‘karN_EdlekItmaneLIgCaBIrcMBUk KW Ð

k) erOge¨kA¨beTs, KW¨Bwti‘karN_TSgLayEdlVnekIteLIg edaymkBIneyaVybreTs, bu"En¶ Edlman²TìiBly"agpæal' mkelI¨beTskmõ¬Ca (ehIyEdlnwgEcgenATMB&r 36)

x) erOgk~¬g¨beTs, KWkarv^vt‘n_neyaVyk~¬g¨beTskmõ¬Ca EdlmanCaGaT− TMnak'TMngCamYyVrSg nwgkarsaklºgrbb¨bCaFibety´mYy tamry:KNbk§neyaVy (EcgenATMB&r 51) --------------------------


32

GFibºay (1)

edImºIrMlwk

nig

Cakiti‘ysdl'BlTahanExµrEdlVnsÂab'edémºI¨beTsVrSg

k~¬gsågðam

elak 1914-18 enaH TIzanmrNsJïamYy Vn¨tèvelIkeLIgk~¬g¨kugP~MeBj EkºrkILazan

Çs‘adLMEbßÈ ehIyEdlmhaCnehAfa ÇrUbBIrÈ (rUbsMNakVrSgm~ak' nigExµrm~ak'). G~kpg

(2)

Etgfa ExµrenaHKW taEm"n EdlCanayTahanbJØakgBlTSgenaH.

cMeJHCnFmµtak~¬g¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg Jk´ Çes¶cÈ nig ÇCatiÈ mann&ydUcK~a. kºt'es¶c KW kºt'CatiehIy. eKdUcCacSfa G~kneyaVy«nsgðmraås‘niym VnbMeV"gkaryl'eXIjenH [kan'EtxÂSgeLIg edémºIB¨g·gGMNacxÂçn. tamTMenomTMlab'EdlCaekr‘−mrtk«n¨BhµJïsa-

sna Exµr¨Kb'rUb elIkElgEtPikŬ ¨tèvlutCgðg'¨kabenAmuxes¶c. bu"En‘k~¬gsm&yenH karyl'

eXIjGMBIes¶c lMeGogeTAtamBuTìsasna. VneLIgesayraC´Caes¶c KWCargÃan'putelx

cMeJHmnus§elak EdlkalBICatimunVnksagEtGMeBIlí ehIykan'y"agxØab'xØçnnUvsIl«n

¨BHBuTì. es¶cswgEtdUcGaTieTB EdleKBuMGacv^nicÏ&ykat'eTas kayv^karnigGMeBIVneLIy.

e¨JHEtkaryl'eXIjenH ¨bCaCnExµrBImun Ca¨bCaCnEdlcSEtTTYlsux TTYlTukÅ TTYl

(3)

bJaØùùùùù.

G~k¨bvti‘saås‘

EdlmkBinit´erOgehtuenAGasIuPaKGeK~y_

Catisasn_«nmnus§k~¬gsgðm

ehIyEdlePÂcKiteTAdl'kt‘a

cºas'Caminyl'eday¨twm¨tèveLIy

faetI¨beTsEdlxÂçn

Binit´enHenAk~¬gkal:eTs:GÃI. ehtuEdleFÃI[manCnCaticincakecjBI¨sukxÂçn mkenA¨sukä eTot«nGasuIPaKGeK~y_ man2 FM@KW cMVMgrvagK~aägk~¬g¨suk nigkarN_EdlmanbN¶aCn e¨cInhYs. PaKe¨cIn«nG~kGen‘a¨bevsn_TSgenaH mkBIext‘3 «n¨beTscinxagtºèg KWkÃagsIu

kÃagTug nig hÃèßKan. bu"En¶cinTSgenaHniyayeTsPasaCae¨cIn EdleKEckCa 5 ¨kumFM KW eTsPasahukKan hak'ka «hNan' kn‘Sg nigetvCév. k~¬gq~S 1970 cinenA¨sukExµrmancMnYn

435 Jn'nak' KWfa 6,4 % «nbN¶aCn¨sukExµr EdlmancMnYn 6 701 000 nak' (tamesov

ePArbs' sUemIs hayDUs). 30 % «ncin¨sukExµr rs'enAäP~MeBj. EdlehAfacin¨sukExµr KWcinGen‘a¨bevsn_fµé

nigCnEdlekItBIÒBukm¶aycin

ehIyniyaynigkan'TMenomTMlab'cin.

enAq~S 1970 BYkPaKe¨cInKWBYketvCév cuHmkKWBYkkn‘Sg.

BiVknwgfaEdr etIcincab'cUlmkenA¨beTskmõ¬CatSgBIsm&yNa. bu"En‘eKd·gfa cin

cab'cUlmkk~¬gqakneyaVyExµr tSgBIstvt§r_TI 17. es¶cbrmraCaTI4 (1660-1672)

Vn¨tèves¶cyYnbgÅ÷[cuHsnìisJïamYy ¨BmTTYl[CnCatiyYn nigCnCaticin 3 000 nak' cUlmkenA¨sukExµr. CnePosxÂçncinenaH Cabk§BYkraCvg§mig EdlVn¨tèvraCvg§tan'rMlM.

KWk~¬gBBYkcinTSgenaHehIy

EdlGgðnn'Vne¨CéserIsTahansuIQ~çl

edémºIdeN¶ImblÂ&gûBI

bgbíènCédUnmYyxÂçn es¶cC&yeCd½aTI4 (GgðsUr). enAq~S 1689 CamYynwgTahancinsuIQ~çl

xÂçn nigT&ByYnEdlmkCYyGgðnn'deN¶ImVn¨kugP~MeBj. C&yeCd½aTI4 Edlrt'eTAenAkMBg'


33 hÂçg k*cuHsnìisJïamYyeTotCamYyyYn TTYlsðal'yYnCaecAhÃay. enAq~S 1710 KWcinm~ak'

eTot eQµaHm"ak'KW EdlExµr[TTYlbnæ¬kkarJrPUmiPaKJm (sBëf©haeTog) ¨kmYns (r"ac

s´a) nigekaH¨tl'. G~kBwgKWGgðEGm (kUn¨bsaes¶cC&yeCd½aTI4) EdleQÂaHK~anwgFemµaraCa

(kUnbegûétC&yeCd½aTI4) EdlmanesomCaG~kKS¨T. edayehtuenH PUmiPaKeq~rsmu¨TTSgenaH

VnenAe¨kamGMNacm"ak'KW nigepAsn¶anrbs'xÂçn rhUtdl'q~S 1867 (157q~S!) ehIycinenaH

eFÃIkar[yYn.

cin¨sukExµr

EtgEtVnTTYlGP&yäksiTìiBiess.

ehIykan'ykTMenomTMlab'¨beTs sgðmExµr

KWeTACaBlrd½ExµrEtm¶g.

enAe¨kamGMNaccinm~ak'EdlmangarCa

ÇecATaÈ

G~kEdlekItenA¨beTskmõ¬Ca

G~kEdlmin¨BmbJÍèlxÂçnk~¬g

ehIyEdlEtgtSgeLIgeday

es¶cExµr ehIycinTSgenaH raCkarminGacEknykeTAe¨bIVneT (e¨kamrbbGaNaniKm). kar

GaNaB´aVlVrSgVnebIkyuK«nGaJh_BiJh_cin-Exµr.

kt‘aFMCaedémehtu«nGaJh_Bi-

Jh_ (Gn‘rsasn_) enH man2 : karsÃahab'«nsasn_cin EdleFÃI[cinman nigkarxÃH¨sIcin. enAq~S 1921 G~kniBnì dav^d Es¶gEbßk [cMnYnkUnkat'cin-Exµr fa¨bEhl 68 000 nak'.

e¨kayBI ¨beTskmõ¬CaVnäkraC´ cMnYnGaJh_BiJh_¨buscin-¨sIExµr Vnfye¨cInNas'. bu"En‘

k~¬geKalbMNgnwgB¨gékGMNacesd½kicÍxÂçn

cin¨sukExµre¨bIcMNg¨KçsaredémºIbMBuk

rMlYyrd½karExµr edaykmÂaGaJh_BiJh_¨sIcin-¨busExµr. cMeJHG~ksegûtkarN_breTsCa e¨cIn karGen‘a¨bevsn_cin VnnSmk[sgðmExµrnUvcrn‘sÃahab' ehIyeTaHbI¨beTskmõ¬Camin

EmnCasmºti‘rbs'cinsuTì k*kmõ¬CaCasmºti‘dac'muxrbs'Exµrkat'cinEdr (hßU-yn', hußy-nim, exov-sMpn CaExµrkat'cin).

cMENkäExµrkat'yYnv^j mancMnYnticeTenA¨beTskmõ¬Ca mkBIehtuEdleKd·g¨Kb'K~a.

karGen‘a¨bevsn_yYn Edlmany"agxÂSgCaelIkd÷bUgmk¨beTskmõ¬Ca (k~¬g¨BMEdnsBëf©) KW

k~¬gsm&yGaNaniKmVrSg. yYn¨sukExµrPaKe¨cIn rs'enAtam¨BMEdnExµr-yYn. enHCasJïa fayYnTSgenaHenAEtVrm¸. k~¬gq~S 1952 kalsmaCCatiGnum&t karbJït‘ihamCnbreTsmin

[¨bkbrbrxÂH

bJïti‘TSgenaHtMrg'eTACaBiessdl'BYkyYn.

karminTukcit¶rbs'ExµrelIyYn

manenA¨Kb'kEnÂg ¨Kb'eBlevla. erOgxÂImYy KYrelIkykmkniyay : kal¨Bwt‘karN_ExmIna

1970pæ¬HeLIg Ót¶mesnIy ln'-nl', CamYyK~anwgkarsuM[yYnxagtºèg CYyTb'karvaysM

rukrbs'yYnxageCég, VnbMrugbJÎb'BItMENg nayTahanTSgGs'Edlman¨bBnìyYn. luH

dl'd·gfa nayTahanCaTITukcit‘Kat'Cae¨cInnak' enAk~¬gsÄanPaBenH Kat'k*¨tèvbJÎb'kar¨bug (4)

¨by&t~enHv^jeTA.

eBlC^tcb'rCØkal¨BHsuIsuvtiÄ VrSgcg'dak'raCvg§ nerat¶m elIblÂ&gûv^j. eKeBjcit¶nwg

kUn¨BHnerat¶mm~ak' EdlCaG~kniBnìy"agcMNan mÍas' nerat¶m-suFars. bu"En‘edayVntva"

enA¨kugV"rIs GMBIkarrMelaPxÂH«nGaCÆaFrGaNaniKm mÍas'suFars k*¨tèveKdkv^jeTA. C÷erIs

k*tMrg'eTAkUnm~ak'eTotrbs'es¶cnerat¶m ¨Tg'PaNuvg§ Etmindac'e¨sc. sMerceTA blÂ&gûVn

mkkUnes¶csuIsuvtiÄ mÍas'munIvg§ EdlVneFÃITahank~¬gkgT&BVrSgenAq~S 1908.


34 (5)

GMNacGaNaniKmVrSg min¨Kan'EtbgÅ÷[EkTMrg'eT EfmTSgxMeFÃI[karyl'eXIjGMBI \es¶c| EkE¨beTot. e¨kayq~S 1897 edémºIEbgEckrMElkGMNacEdlrhUtmkdl'eBlenaHenAEtk~¬g

«des¶cm~ak'

VrSgVnbgÅ÷es¶c[TTYlsÄab&nfµémYy

EdleKBuMEdlsðal'esaHk~¬g¨beTs

kmõ¬Ca : rd½aPiVl. ¨kwt´mYybJØak'muxkarrd½aPiVlenaH : ¨beTs¨tèvd·knSedayrd½aPiVl

EdlmanKN:rd½mån‘ImYy (kug§I esnabtI) manrd½mån‘I¨VMmYynak' (esnabtI, Exµr) KN:rd½ mån‘I¨tèvd·knSeday er"suIdg'sUßeb"rIy&rVrSg. GMNacGaNaniKmbgÅ÷es¶c[TuknaTICaGKðmha

esna (rd½mån‘ITI1) [mnus§EdlVneFÃICaG~kbkE¨bPasa k~¬grd½karxÂçn. ägarBYkesnabtI

manCaGaTi : ¨kLaeham (navacr) ymraC (yuti‘Fám) c¨kI (karJr¨beTs) vSg nigGKðmha esna.

GKðmhaesnamuneKbgís' KWelakGußm bnæab'mkelakbu"k TSg2nak'CakUnnamuWn. enA

q~S 1902 VrSgQb'tamTMlab'enH (EdlTuknaTIesnabtI[kUnnamuWn) edayEtgtSgelak

CYn (G~kbkE¨bPasa) CaesnabtI¨ksYgvSg. elak ÇvSgÈ CYn enAkEnÂgenaHCag 30 q~S rhUtdl'raC´¨BHVTmunIvg§.

sm&yfacarburs,

elakCYnenH

VneTACamnus§TMnukcit¶rbs'VrSg

ehIyVn[VrSgd·gBIkarbMrugkºt'TMlak'es¶csuIsuvtiÄ

––Pasa

BIsMNak'mÍas'

myUr"a (kUnnerat¶m). enAq~S 1917 (myUr"aVn¨tèveKbMbrbg'eTAesogxÃag, ¨beTslav). elak Eb"n-nut Vncab'ep¶émCév^tneyaVyd*Evgrbs'Kat' CaPUQYyesnabtI¨ksYgvSg enA q~S 1940.

(6) ehtuePTenH eKsegûteXIjCaTUeTA enAk~¬g¨beTsTSgLay«nelakTI3 (¨beTs¨k e¨kABI elakesrI

nigelakkumµ¬ynis‘).

Cév^trehmrham

enAkkwtK~anwgCév^teqItqay.

raCFanI

P~MeBj CatMNag Çkmõ¬CaTMenIbÈ. enAC^tbegûéyesaH BiPBksikr enAEtrs'enAtamrebob

buraN. enHehIyCacMNucex§ay«n¨beTs PaBpuy¨Cay«n¨beTs. e¨kaykicͨBme¨Bog

h§WENvq~S 1954 sågðamrvagev¿tNamTSg2 Vnp¶l'sn¶iPaBrvag 15 q~S[kmõ¬Ca. k~¬gkM-

L¬g 15 q~SenaH G~kd·knSExµr²tmansmtÄPaBeFÃI[BiPBksikr manGKðIsnInigTwk Çma"suInÈ

e¨bIeLIy : minKitp¶l'[¨beTsnUvsm¸ar:karJrxÂçn¨Kb'¨Kan' sMrab'eBlNamanGasn~ G~k d·knSTSgenaHEbrCaerIsyk ÇGB´a¨kwtÈ, ÇbJÍsIlaÈ eTAv^j. GB´a¨kwtExµrVneTACa

(7)

Gsar²tkar äsIl5 k*BuMVneFÃI[Exµrsux e¨JHExµr \sMu| Etm~ak'äg.

munq~S 1920 ¨BHsgôExµr¨tèveTAVgkk edémºIeron[e¨CAeTAeTotnUvPasaVlI. enA¨kugenaH

¨BHsgôEtgCYbnwgmÍas'yuKnìr EdlCakUnm~ak'eTotrbs'es¶cnerat¶m. yuKnìrVn¨tèves¶c

bJØèneTA¨sukVrSg edémºIb¶wgtva"dl'rd½aPiVlVrSg GMBIkarrMelaP«nGaCÆaFrGaNaniKm mk

dl'¨sukVrSgenAExsIha 1900 mÍas'yuKnìr¨bKl'[rd½aPiVlVrSg nUvkMNt'ehtuy"ag

EvgmYy

eBjeTAedaybN¶wgrbs'hÂçgnerat¶m.

edaymanG~ksarBátmanVrSgm~ak'eQµaH

h§g' ehs§ CYypg ¨Tg'yuKnìrxMlUk[dl'mtimhaCnVrSg rhUtdl'VncuHGtÄbTmYyk~¬g

äkTin \LW hßÃéhðar"U|. min¨twmEtTieTonGaCÆaFrGaNaniKm yuKnìrEhkbgúaj \karXubXwt rbs'VrSgBukrlYy| CamYyelakGußm (GKðmhaesna) nigelakCYn (bnæab'mkesnabtI

¨ksYgvSg) edémºICJØk'Qam¨beTs (exploiter le pays, sic) nigbMEbkbMVk'G~kraCkarExµrsÂèt


35 ¨tg'. (erOg GaLicsius Qun). rd½mån¶IVrSg¨ksUgGaNaniKm tbv^jy"agxÂSgedaybJØa [ er"suIdg'sUßeb"rIy&r bgÅ÷es¶cnerat¶m[dak'eTasdl'mÍas'yuKnìr : kalNamkdl'v^j

ehIy yuKnìr¨tèvsUmeTasCasaFarN: dl'esnabtI \Edl¨tèveKmYlbgûac'|. BuMenaHesat

mÍas'enHnwgGac¨tèveKbMbrbg' ehIyrwbGUsyk¨TB´smºti‘. ecjBI¨sukVrSgenAd÷Nac'q~S 1900 yuKnìr, edayE¨kg¨tèvTNëkmµxÂSg, k*suxcit‘rs'enAäVgkk rhUtdl'eBlsuKtenA

q~S 1934. ecjBI¨kugVgkk ¨BHsgôEtgEtnSeTAP~MeBjv^j nUvKMnitbHeVrEdlp¬÷BImÍas'

yuKnìr. (8)

edémºIxaXSg¨BHsgôBIKMnitd*mane¨KaHf~ak'enH

enAraCFanIExµreTA.

eKk*begûétsalaVlICan'xõs'mYy

sågðamelakelIkTI1 VnbnÄyy"age¨cInnUvcMnYnCnCatiVrSg Edlmkrs'enAk~¬g²Nëècin.

EbrmkrkG~kecHeFÃIkar k~¬gcMeNamCnCatiedémv^j rd½karVrSgbegûétsala \rd½Vl| edémºI bgúat'G~kraCkarExµr (muxgarCaTIcg'Vnsm&yenaH KW \féer"suIdg'| EdlsMrab'G~kNaVnCab'

\DIbÂèm|. dUec~HehIyVnCa enAq~S 1939 eKeXIjmansis§Et 4 nak' Edleronbn‘yk \V

sU|. KWk~¬gsalard½VlenaHehIy EdlduHdalvrCnneyaVyelIkTI1 «n¨beTskmõ¬Ca. PaKe¨cIn«nGtItG~kd·knSExµr ecjBIsalaenaH. e¨kayeBlVnäkraC´ salard½VlVn

b¶èrmuxkarBIrdg : elIkTI1 KW¨Kan'EtCakEnÂgp¶l'kmµsik§a bEnÄm[G~kraCkarcas' (Óù G~k ¨kbx&Nërd½Vl Edl¨bLgecjCab'elx1 nwgVn¨tèvEtgtSgCaGPiVlext‘) elIkbegúIy

smnwgeQµaHfµé \salaPUminærd½Vl| KWsMrab'nis§itEdlmansJïab&¨txagcºab'ehIyEdl

eKnwgbgúat'[eTAbMeBjmuxgark~¬g¨ksYgnana. eday¨cENnnwg \ekµg@| Edl \eLIgbuN´

sk¶i| elOneBk G~krd½karcas'@ TamTar[biTsalaenaH. salaCatird½Vl¨tèvbiTTÃarenA

d÷Nac'q~Ssik§a 1975 TÃarEdlVn¨tèvbiTqab'CagdUcbMrugTuk edaysarkarcUlmk«nExµr

(9)

(10)

¨khm.

manEtkUsSgsuIn ksikmµ.

(kmõ¬Cae¨kam)

enAkmõ¬CaeyIg

eT

EdlVnTTYlBIVrSge¨cInCageK

karekIneLIg«nplitplksikmµ

e¨kaycMVMgrSgCl'rab'stvt§r_.

nUvbecÍkeTsxag

mkBIsn‘iPaBEdlmaneLIgv^j

CaelIkTI1 edémekAsUßVn¨tèvykecjBI¨beTsm"aeLsuI mkdl'«¨BnKrenAq~S 1897 eday

{sfkarIVrSgm~ak'eQµaH r"aGßUl. cMeJHkmõ¬CanigevotNam ekAsUßVneTACaFnFanFM1 Edl nSmknUvrUbIybNöbreTs.

bu"En‘¨beTskmõ¬CaVnTTYlticNas'nUvplBIFnFanenH

e¨JH

VrSgmÍas'cMkarekAsUß VneFÃIdécMkarrbs'xÂçn[eTACa \¨sukVrSg| mYyk~¬g¨sukExµrehIy.

CnCatiExµreyIg cUlmincuHeTk~¬gsh¨KasenaH Edle¨bIEtCnCatiyYn TSgCaG~kbecÍkeTs TSgCakmµkr. sÄanPaBenHmanCagknÂHstvt§r_ enAe¨kamEP~ksuß÷¨KlM «nG~kd·knSExµr. ÆÄÆÄÆÄÆ ÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆ


36 BI shPaB²Nëècin eTA shB&nì²Nëècin

erOge¨kA¨beTs k~¬gkML¬g 10 q~S munkarpæ¬H«nsågðamelakelIkTI2, mhaGMNacfµémYyVnpuseLIgbn‘icm¶g@

BITÃIbGasuI. karlatsnìwg²TiìBl«nmhaGMNacfµéenaH mkelIGasIuPaKGeK~y_ e¨kayq~S 1940, Vn eFÃI[rlayGaNac¨k GaNaniKmVrSgnigGg'eKÂs. mhaGMNacfµéenaHKW¨beTsCbu"n.

sågðamrvagrus§InigCbu"n EdleqHeLIgk~¬gq~S 1904 Vncb'edayC&yC÷nH Cbu"n EdldeN¶Im

ykVn¨kug B&r-GarFYr enA«f© 2 mkra 1905. e¨kamkarsMruHsMrYl «n¨bFanaFibtIGaemrikSg etGUDr

rUsWEvl, snìisJïacuHenA Brs_mUf [eTACbu"n nUv¨beTskUer" nig ma"n'CUrIxagtºèg. «f© 19kJïa 1931 (26q~Se¨kaymk) Cbu"nVnykm"an'CUrITSgmUl, ehIyq~Se¨kaymk k*kan'kab'Vn¨suk ey

hUl eTot (ext‘cinBIedém, CaTÃarecjcUleTA¨suk mu"gehðal). k~¬geBlEdlcin kYmigtag (Cati

niym) nigcinkumµ¬ynis‘ kMBugcºSgK~aäg, Cbu"ncUllukluy¨beTscin enAq~S 1937 ehIyykVn

¨kugeb"kSgenAExkkûda, ¨kugkg'tug enAExtula 1938, nigekaH«hNan' k~¬gExkum¸: 1939. dUec~H enA

eBlEdlsågðamelakelIkTI2 pæ¬HeLIgenAq~S 1939 enaH, ²Nëècinrbs'VrSgenAcMe¨kamkarKMram

rbs'Cbu"n. enATIÃbGWru"bv^j, Exmifuna 1940 VneXIjsaFarNrd½TI3 rbs'VrSg remole¨kameCég

edérsgÃak'k©an«nBYkNah§I. «f© 16 mifuna esna¨bmux eb"tSg cuHhtÄelxasuMcuHcaj'.

eq¿teBlEdlGMNacVrSgenA²NëècinkMBugeLHeLaH, Cbu"ncat'v^FankarN_bJÎb'karrt'Bnì

GavuF Edlykmk[T&Brbs' CagkayCak tamkMBg'EpyYn, «h-pug (kMBg'EpcinTSgLay¨tèvCb"un

B&TìCab'). «f© 19 mifuna (1940) Cbu"ndak'kMNt' (ultimatum) [, CaelIkTI1, dl' ÇKUEvn&r ehߧeN

r"al'È «n ²Nëècin, Ót¶mesnIy ka¨Tè EdleTIbnwg¨tèvEtgtSgfµé@. ka¨Tè xMsuMC÷nYyBIGg'eKÂs nig GaemrikSg Et²tVneLIy(1). «f© 29 mifuna Ót¶mesnIyCb"un, nIsIuhar"a, mkdl'haNUy ehIy

TamTar[ bJÎb'cracrelIpÂèvreTHePÂIg EdlcUleTAext‘cin yunNn, nig[biT¨BM¨bTl' cin-yYn

TSgmUl (edaydak'KN:kmµkar¨tçtBinit´mYy). karTamTar Edl ka¨Tè yl'¨Bm[TSgGs'. «f©

20 kkûda VrSgEtgtSgÓt¶mnavé dãtU C÷nYsÓt¶mesnIy ka¨Tè. «f© 2 sIha Cbu"ndak'kMNt'm¶geTot

edayTamTar[T&BxÂçnecjcUltam¨suk tugkwg edayesrI ¨BmTSg[VrSgdak'valGakasyan Cae¨cInenA tugkwg [Cbu"ne¨bI. kicͨBme¨BogVrSg-Cbu"nmYy Vn¨tèveFÃIeLIg enA«f© 30 sIha tam

ry:rd½TUtVrSg dãsSgkintSg, EdlenAk~¬genaH VrSg¨BmeFÃItamkarTamTarrbs'Cbu"nTSgGs' k~¬g erOgeyaFa ehIyTTYlsðal'fa nwgGacmanlTìPaBb¶èresd½kicÍK~a. tbmkv^j Cbu"nyl'¨Bm \eKarB

GFibtIPaB«nVrSgelI²Nëècin nigbUrNPaBTwkdéxÂçn|. bu"En‘enA²Nëècin Ót¶mnavé dãKU EdlmineBj

cit‘nwgKMnit[karsMrYlTSgenaHeTACbu"n k*sMercfa¨tèverobcMT&BedémºITb'Tl'. enAyb'«f© 5 kJïa kg

vresnatUcCbu"nmYy qÂgkat'¨BMEdncin-yYn enA dugdag C^t¨kug Lag-sWg. «f© 19 kJïa nIsIuhar"a

dak'kMNt'[ dãKU m¶geTot CaelIkTI3 CamYyK~anwgkarsML¬t edaybeJÍjGanuPaBkgT&Bk~¬gQUg

smu¨T tugkwg, enA«f© 20 kJïa. rd½aPiVlenA vésuI (rd½aPiVlEdl¨BmenAe¨kamGMNacGalÂWm"g')


37 k*bJØa[ dãKU cuHhtÄelxaelIkicͨBme¨BogVrSg-Cbu"nmYyeTot, «f© 22 kJïa enAhaypug, Edl

¨Kan'EteFÃI[cºas'eLIgnUvkicͨBme¨Bogmun(2) T&BCbu"nGacqÂgkat'¨suk tugkwg Vn, TukeyaFa 6 Jn' nak' enAxageCégTen¨khm ehIyGace¨bI¨Vs'valGakasyan 3 enAtugkwg. karcab'ep¶émeLIgGMNac«nCbu"nelI²Nëècin

VnbJͬHkit´anuPaBVrSgxÂSgNas'

cMeJHmux

bN¶aCn«n¨beTsTSgbI. bu"En¶KW¨beTs«feT EdlVneq¿tykcMeNjmuneK BIkarFÂak'kit´anuPaB«n GaNaniKmniymVrSgenH.

TMnak'TMngBiessrvagesomnigCbu"n(3)

VneFÃI[Vrm¸dl'rd½aPiVl

VrSg EdlVncuHkicͨBme¨BogminQÂanJnK~amYy CamYyrd½aPiVl«fenA«f© 12 mifuna 1940. k~¬g

ExkJïa, eBlEdlVrSgkMBugv^vaTCamYyCb"unk~¬gerOg tugkwg, rd½aPiVl vésuI suM[rd½aPiVlVgkk

ÇeFÃI[kicͨBme¨BogminQÂanJnK~a man¨bsiTìPaBeLIg edayminVc'b¶èrhtÄelxaK~aÈ (e¨JHkicͨBm

e¨BogenHVneFÃIeLIgCamYyrd½aPiVlCb"un, minTan'caj'GalÂWm"g'. niyaytamJk´samJïfa Ð suM«f

kuMmkQÂanJn). Pibulsågðam, rd½månI‘TI1 «f, minyl'Tas' bu"En‘dl'«f©TI 13 kJïa VnTamTaryk

BIrd½aPiVl vésuI v^jnUvTwkdéEdlVn[eTA²Nëècn i VrSg tamsnìisJïaq~S 1907 nigTwkdémYyPaK

eTot EdlVrSgsn´atamsnìisJïaq~S 1904 nig 1907 fanwg[eTAesomeBlNaxÂçnQb'¨tçt¨ta ²Nëècin. ehIy «fenAEtrk§asiTìi¨tçt¨ta¨beTslav nig kmõ¬Ca! (emIlPaKTI3, TMB&r 22). karmin

¨Bm«nrd½aPiVl vésIu ruj[esome¨bIkmÂSg. enAd÷Nac'ExkJïa Pibul bJØaT&B[eFÃITukÅbukem~j tam

¨BMEdnlavnigExµr. VrSgtbtv^jedayTmÂak'¨Kab'EbkenAeBlyb' eTAelITI¨bCu÷CnesomxagPaKø san. cab'tSgBI«f© 19 v^cÏika kgeyaFBlcMruHVrSg-Exµr eFÃI¨btibti‘kareCégeKak karJr¨BMEdn, bu"En‘

¨tèvTTYlbraC&yCae¨cIndg(4). «f© 5 mkra 1941 kgeyaFaesomcab'ep¶émkan'kab'PUmiExµrCae¨cIn

EdlenAtam¨BMEdn. braC&yenAelI«pæeKak bJØa[ \KUEvn&r eh§ßeNr"al'| dãKU –– EdlCanayTahan

eCégTwk–– eFÃI¨btibti‘karmYytamsmu¨T. kgäkPaBnavaVrSgmYyEdlmannavalºat \Lamu"t-BIekû|

nigkV"l'tUc 4 eTot (LWDuymu"gDYkvél, LamIr"al'-sak'En, LWtaGYr nigLWma"n) e¨kambJØakar«n vrnavéäk

ebr"g'eh§ß

VneTAvaykgT&BeCégTwk«fmYyPaK

EdleVHyufûaenAekaHcg',

eBl¨Blwm

¨sag@ «f© 17 mkra. kV"l'VrSgVnbMpÂajnavae¨kaHrk§aeq~resom ÇfunburIÈ nignavasMrab'bMpÂaj

kV"l'Vj'¨Kab'EbkTwkCae¨cIneTot EdlbI¨tèvlicVt' (C^t 40% «nT&BeCégTwk«f¨tève¨bIkarElg ekIt).

«f© 21 mkra Cbu"nbgÅ÷«f nigVrSg[TTYlkarsMruHsMrYlrbs'xÂçn. G~ktMNagVrSg, Cb"un

nig«f ¨bCu÷K~ae¨kamGFibtIPaB«nÓt¶mesnIy sUßmit, «f© 31 mkra enA«¨BnKr, ehIycuHhtÄelxa¨Bm

Qb'Vj'K~aenAelInavalºatCb"un \NatUrI|. karccaredémºIsn‘iPaB cab'eFÃIeLIgenA«f© 7 kum¸: ä¨kug

tUk´è e¨kamGFibtIPaB G~ktMNagrd½aPiVlCbu"n, ma"t'sUßka. xagVrSgmanrd½TUtVrSgenAtUk´è, Gak Esn Gg'rI nigxagesommanmÍas' va"n«v"f´akn, TI¨bwk§a«nrd½mån‘I¨ksYgkarbreTs. karccarenHcb'

nigkareFÃIkicÍsn´asn‘iPaBVrSg-«f enA«f© 9 ÓsPa 1941 EdltamkicÍenaH VrSg[eTAesom nUv

ext‘suIsupun, Vt'd÷bg, PaKext‘sæwgE¨tg, kMBg'FM nigesomrab EdlenAxageCégEx§ \åhûad| elx

15 (kuM¨cLMEx§¨sbEdlCa \dãeåhð| ehIyxõs'Cag) elIkElgEtbrievNGgðr(5). karVt'bg'Ca elIkTI2 nUvext‘smºèNá¨sèvTSgenH eFÃI[dundabesd½kicÍExµr CaehtueFÃI[¨bCaCneyIgevTnay"ag

xÂSg k~¬gry:sågðamelakelIkTI2 TSgmUl.


38 e¨kaymkeTot,

enA¨sukVrSg,

Cbu"neFÃIkicͨBme¨BogmYyeTotCamYyVrSg

(ehAkicͨBm

e¨Bog darLg'-katU «n«f© 29 kkûda 1941) EdlGnuJïat¶[T&BCbu"n Çs~ak'enAÈ elITwkdé²Nëècin

TSgmUl. ¨Kan'EtsÂwkeQIä¨sukVrSgTMuehIy¨CuHPÂam, kgGakascrCbu"nk*cab'ep¶éme¨bIvalcuHyn‘

ehaHenAkmõ¬CanigenAkUsSgsIun, kicÍEdl[sJïa«nkarerobvay¨beTs«fnig¨beTsPUma. «f© 8 F~è

1941 KWmYy«f©bnæab'BIkarTmÂak'¨Kab'EbkelI ePIlEhßbbYr, kgeyaFaCbu"ncUleTA¨sukesomtam

¨sukExµr(6).

eTaHbICaCbu"nVneKarBGFibtIPaBVrSgelI²Nëècink*eday (rhUtdl'ExmIna 1945), vt‘man

«nkgT&BCbu"n Vn[snæ¬HmYydl'BYkG~kCatiniymenA²NëècinTSgGs' [hßanecjBIPaB esæIrBYn-

esæIrecjmuxrbs'xÂçn. bu"En¶s~èl«nclnaCatiniymExµr VnekIteLIgyUrmkehIy mun |Cbu"ncUl| eTA

eTot(7), ebIbJØak'[cºas'EmnETn KWk~¬gq~S 1939, eBlEdlGacar´VlIm~ak' eQµaH V"c-QWn

nigmån‘Im~ak'enAbNöal&yBuTìsasnbNëit´ eQµaH sWg gu"kfan' VnbegûétsarBátmanTI1 CaPasa

Exµr Ð kaEst (eBlenaHminTan'manJk´sarBátmanenAeLIyeT) ÇnKrvt‘È. namTSg2 enH, CamYy

nignammYyeTot – Ehm ecov, Vndk'Cab'k~¬gdYgcit‘nigk~¬gsti«nexmrCnCae¨cIn EdlsMKal'G~kTSg

3 faCaG~kes~haCatiedayskmµ. eKaledAdMbUg«nkaEstnKrvt‘ KW j¬Hjg'bN¶aCn[TamTarsÃ&y

PaB[Vnkan'Ete¨cIn BIGaNaniKmniymVrSg, KWfa[¨tLb'mkrbbmun EdlminsUvtwgEtg ehIy

EdlVnEcgk~¬gsnìisJïaq~S 1863 (munkar |PØg'nwgcMBuHTug| «nq~S 1884). k~¬gkartyuTìenH elak

sWg gu"kfan'(8) nwgeTABwgEpíkelI¨BHsgô, EdlminEmn¨Kan'EtCakmÂSg«n¨BHBuTìsasnaEdl¨bCa CnExµrVnrMlaycUlCaBumõmYy CamYy¨beTsnigCatisasn_xÂçneT(9), ¨BHsgôCakmÂSgneyaVy1

edaysarskmµPaBk~¬gkarGb'rM¨bCaraås¶.

CamYynwgPikŬ Ehm ecov, saås‘acar´VlI nigGacar´«neyaFPUmiTahan \eCIg¨khm| TSg

Gs'(10), elak sWg gu"kfan' begûétsmaKmmYyeQµaH smaKmBuTìimamikCn (mit‘«nBuTìsasna)

EdlebIk[Kat'Tak'Tgy"ag¨sçl CamYyÓVsknig¨BHsgô«nKN:TSg2, Fmµyuti‘ nigmhanikay.

«f© 15 kkûda 1942 elakGacar´ Ehm ecov ¨tèveKcab' e¨kamkarecaTfa Eck¨tak'¨bqSgnwgVrSg

ehIynig \Tak'TgnwgCb"un|. enAk~¬gsalC÷nuM«nKN:rd½mån‘I, cMeJHmuxelak Ta san, rd½mån‘I¨ksYg Fmµkar, VrSgeQµaH VrU" EdlCaGFikarkicÍkarneyaVy Vndksºg'cIBrecjBIelakGacar´ ecov

EdlrYcmk ¨tèveKykeTAXMuXSg. «f© 19 kkûda, PikŬ 1 500 GgðEdlmkBI¨Kb'tMbn'«n¨beTs, ¨bCu÷

K~akkkujenAmuxpæH \er"suIdg'sUßeb"rIy&r| eQµaH dãELm edayelIkbda \edaHElgGacar´ ecov!|. kar vaytb'K~aVnekItmaneLIg

rvagPikŬnigTahanVrSg

(tamesovePAVrSg)

EdleKehAmkbEnÄm

(e¨JHTahanExµrBuMhßan¨bmafPikŬ). VrSgVncg'[karbågûabVtukmµTI1 Edl¨bqSgnwgxÂçnenH eTACa

KMrU. eKk*²tVneXIjman¨btikmµeqÂIynwgkarbågûabPikŬenH ehIycab'tSgBI«f©enaHmk ¨beTsk*s©b'

s©at'v^j rhUtdl'q~S 1945. \G~knSGaT−| Vn¨tèveKcab'XMuXSg. elak sWg gu"k fan' EdleKrk

mux, ¨tèveTA¨CknwgTahanCbu"n EdlbJØènKat'mkdl'tUk´è tamry:sÄanTUtCb"unenAVgkk. tulakar

swkenA«¨BnKr, k~¬g«f© 19 F~è, kat'eTas¨bharCév^telak V"c QWn nig elakGacar´ Ehm ecov. bu"En‘enA«f© 15 mifuna 1943, eTasenaHVn¨tèvbnÄymk¨twmdak'Kuk1Cév^tv^j ehIyG~kTSg2 k*¨tèveK


39 ykeTAXuMXSgäekaH¨tLac(11) EdlenATIenaH, e¨kaymk elakGacar´ Ehm-ecov VnsuKt (ebI

tamv^n&ysgô PikŬ Ehm-ecov ²tVn¨tèveKp§wkeT). enHKWk~¬graC´¨BHVT nerat¶m sIhnu. kareqHqYl«nKMnitCatiniymTSgenH

Vn¨tèvkmÂaedaykareXasnaCbu"nGMBIkarbegûéteLIg,

k~¬gGnaKtkal, nUv ÇBiPBsmºèNásbºayCamYyK~aenAmhaGasuIbUJáÈ(12). Vrm¸nigkarN_enH, dãKU ¨bwgE¨bgeFÃI[maneLIgnUvKMnit ÇshB&nìniymÈ fµémYyGMBI²Nëècin(13). edémºIkicÍenH, v^FankarN_ xÂHVn¨tèvcat'eLIgedayGaCÆaFrVrSg Ð Binit´eLIgv^jnUvTMnak'TMngpÂèvmnus§ rvagVrSg nig CnCati

k~¬g¨suk, tMekIgkit´anuPaB«nes¶cenA²Nëècin(14), begûétclnayuvCnnigkILa(15), cMerInGk§rsaås¶ es~haCatifµémYyedémºIyuvCn, begûétsPashB&nì«n²NëècinmYyEdlmansmaC^k30nak' CaCnCati

²Nëècin Tl'nwg 23 xagVrSg.l. enA¨beTskmõ¬Ca, ÇersuIdg' sUßeb"rIy&rÈ ehðaeC enAEtbgÅ÷[man

karEkTMrg'd*twgEtg, CaehtuEdlxusnwgKMnit ÇshB&nìniymÈ «n dãKU. raCbJïti¶mYy cuH «f© 13

sIha 1943 bgðab'[e¨bIGk§rrU"mSug edémºIsresrCaPasaExµr (rebobdUcGk§ryYnsBëf©. ExµreyIg

Cae¨cInenAmanbJØICati ÉbJØIcuHGaJh_BiJh_EdlsresrrebobenaH). raCbJïti‘mYyeTot «f© 17 kkûda 1945 bgðab'[e¨bICapÂèvkarnUv¨bktiTin ÇVrSgÈ (ehðaeC bgÅ÷[Qb'e¨bI¨b¨ktiTintamcnæKti e¨JHcg'bMVt'buN´cUlq~SExµr).

eBlEdlÓt¶mnavé dãKU, BIQUgsmu¨Tesom eTAQUgsmu¨Ttugkwg, kMBug'kac'cgûètTb'nava

²NëècinkuM[XÂIgeXÂag – nava²NëècinEdlelIkTg'C&yVrSgenAeLIy- Ót¶mesnIy dãehðal, Edl

enACamYyGar"ab'Ekºrvalx§ac'sahar"a, kMBugedaH¨saycMeNaTep§geTot. 3-4 GaTit´e¨kaykar

ekItman ÇkgkmÂSgVrSgesrIÈ mk, dãehðal begûét ÇsPakarBarGaNac¨kÈ Ð cMeJH dãehðal, kar

rMedaH¨sukVrSg¨tèveFÃICamYyK~anwgkar¨buge¨bobksageLIgv^j nUvGaNac¨kGaNaniKmVrSg, Edl

GacrlayxÍat'xÍay e¨JHEtkarrlM«nsaFarNrd½TI3. ksagGaNac¨keLIgv^j KWeFÃI[¨sukVrSg

eTACamhaGMNacv^j. «f© 22 kum¸: 1941 sPakarJrGaNac¨k ecjesck¶I¨bkasTI1 faxÂçnnwg

minTTYlsðal'kareVHbg'ecal (TwkdéGaNaniKm) NamYyeLIy BIsMNak'rd½aPiVl vésuI, CaBi ess²Nëècin. dUec~H dãehðal enAEtsmÂwgmk²NëècinCanicÍ. Exmifuna 1943 enA¨kugGal'eh§ß,

\KN:kmµkarVrSgrMedaHCati| Vn¨tèv¨bkaseLIg. dãehðal minVnePÂceTnUvkarN_Edlsmõnìmit‘ Gg'eKÂs nigGaemrikSgrbs'Kat' -QYkQil nig rUsWEvl- VnEbreTAccarCamYy darLg' nig Ót¶mesnIy h§ßérU" v^j (tMNagrd½aPiVl v^suI) k~¬gkrNIEdl¨tèvdak'TM&BelI ÇTwkdéVrSgÈ (m"ada

hðasûa, Gal'eh§ß). karenHVnmaneLIge¨kayeBlEdlkgTahanVrSgesrITTYlbraC&y k~¬gkar eLIgeKakelI¨beTs suIrI. mYycMENkeTot dãehðal d·gcºas'fa åhÃg'KÂin rUsWEvl ²teBjcit¶Tal' EtesaH nwgGaNaniKmniymrbs'VrSg. ehtuenHehIyVnCa dãehðal minTukcit¶smõnìmit¶rbs'Kat'

ehIyyl'fa ¨tèvEtCnCatiVrSgtyuTìxÂçnäg edémºIrk§aGFibetyPaBelI²Nëècin.

enAExsIha 1943, sni~sIT«n¨kugekbik sMercebIkqak¨byuTìmYyeTot dak'e¨kambJØakar

Ót¶mnavéGg'eKÂs em"an bTæwn. mNëlcMVMgrbs' em"an bTæwn EdlTTYleQµaHfa ÇbJØakarGasIu

GeK~y_È (KWk~¬geBlenaHehIy EdlJk´fa "South East Asia" , GasuIPaKGeK~y_, Vn¨tève¨bICaelIk d÷bUg). ebskkmµrbs' em"an bTæwn KWeFÃI \v^Tìg§na| pÂèvswkenA¨Kb'kEnÂgEdlCbu"nkan'kab', ²Nëècin k*

Edr. KN:kmµkarenA Gal'eh§ß rbs' dãehðal k*xM¨bwgE¨bgeFÃI[eKbJÍèlkgäkPaBVrSgeTAk~¬g


40 bJØakarGasuIGeK~y_enaH. vresnIy¨tI dãLg'kÂat (e¨kaymkeLIgCaÓt¶mesnIy_¨tçtT&BeCégeKakenA

¨sukExµrmunVnäkraC´) EdlCaG~kTak'TgrvagkgTahanVrSgenA¨sukcin nigkgTahanGg'eKÂsenA ¨suk²Nëa Bn´l' em"an bTæwn GMBI¨beyaCn_«neyaFBlVrSg Edlsðal'cºas'nUvTwkdé²Nëècin.

em"an bTæwn EdltSgTIbJØakarenAk~¬gekaH¨sIlgûa, k*¨BmTTYl[VrSgcUlrYmCamYy. minyUrbu"nµan

nayTahanVrSgmYy¨kummkenA¨kugkal'kt‘a

ehIyerobcMeFÃIkarTak'Tgtamv^T´¬CamYy²Nëècin.

Lg'kÂat TTYlkaryl'¨BmBI dãehðal [begûét ǨkumskmµÈ mYy EdlnwgeTAerobcMbgû ÇBYkP~ak'

garsm©at'tsUßnwgCbu"nÈ enAä²Nëècin(16).

bu"En‘kicÍkarsm©at'enHminEmn¨sçleT, BIe¨JH²Nëècinrbs' dãKU minEdllak'faxÂçnmincUlcit‘

nwg \BYk| dãehðal eLIy. dãKU yl'fa¨tèvEtTuksÄankarN_enA²Nëècin[enAdEdl (Statu Quo), kuMeFÃI

kicÍGÃIEdlGaceFÃI[ Cbu"n man¨btikmµxÂSg, ¨btikmµEdlGacbJÍb'GFibetyPaBVrSgelI²Nëècin.

bu"En¶emT&BVrSgenAtugkwg, Ót¶mesnIy_ m&rdg', Vn¨tèveKx§wb¨Vb'GMBIskmµPaBsm©at'elITwkdéxÂçn.

qab'd·gfax´l'bk'mkBIxagNa, m&rdg' v^nicÏ&yfa eBlevlamkdl'ehIy Edl¨tèvcuHcUlnwgÓt¶m

esnIy_ dãehðal. m&rdg' k*cab'b¶èrsarsm©at'CamYy \kal'kt‘a| ehIysuMbJØaBI dãehðal. «f© 6 kkûda

1944,

KWmYyExKt'

e¨kaykareLIgeKakenA

n&rm"g'DI

rbs'kgT&Bsmõnìmit‘,

dãLg'kÂat

elatq&¨telItugkwg ehIyCYbCamYy m&rdg' nigPUQYy, Ót¶mesnIy_ EGem", ähaNUy. karenH dãKU

²td·geT. bnæab'BIVneXIjKMeragkarN_ep§g@ «n \kartsUß| Tl'nwgCbu"nmk, m&rdg' nig EGem" k*

suxcit‘ \cUl«d| CamYyTSg2 nak'. «f© 25 sIha, dãehðal, naykrd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~, edércUl

¨kugV"rIs — d÷eNIrcUlEdlVnCab'k~¬g¨bvti‘saås¶VrSg. «f© 12 kJïa, Ót¶mesnIy_ m&rdg', Edl

VncUl \ruWE¨tt| tSgEtBIExkkûda ehIyEdlÓt¶mesnIy_ EGem" C÷nYs, Vn¨tèvrd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGa sn~ dãehðal EtgtSgedaysm©at'CaGKð¨btiPU«nrd½aPiVlVrSgenA²Nëècin. naTIfµé ehIyminTan'

ecjmuxenH enAe¨kambgðab'pæal'rbs' ÇKN:kmµkarskmµedémºIkarrMedaH²NëècinÈ EdleKbegûéteLIg ¨sbK~aenA¨sukVrSg, ehIyEdlrd½mån‘I¨ksYgGaNaniKm rWueN ebÂ"Ev"n d·knS. dl'«f© 24 tula

eTIbrd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~ Vn¨tèvTTYlsðal'BI¨beTsGg'eKÂs, GaemrikSg, rus§I nigkaNada

(BYksmõnìmit‘). 4 «f©e¨kaymk EGem" [ dãKU d·gGMBIerOg m&rdg'. tUccit‘lµmEdr, dãKU min¨BmenA

e¨kambgðab' m&rdg', ehIyk*vayTUrelxsuMlaQb' eTArd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~. bu"En‘ bnæab'BIVnCYb

K~a 2dg CamYy dãLg'kÂat, dãKU k*suxcit‘ \elgCamYy| Ð edémºIkuM[Cbu"nsg§&y, dãKU enAEteFÃI |KUEv n&r eh§ßeNr"al'| dEdl bu"En‘GMNacEmnETn TSgxagsuIv^lTSgxagTahan ¨tèvkan'kab'eday m&rdg'.

tSgBIExtula mk (1944), Gakasyan«nT&BeCégGakasGg'eKÂsVnTmÂak'tamq&¨teyag

nUvmnus§nigGavuF elI¨suklav ¨sukyYn nig¨sukExµr(17). bu"En‘karN_EdlÓs§ah_eXIjyn‘ehaH

Gg'eKÂsk~¬gGakas²Nëècin EdlCarbs'VrSg, EfmnigkarerIsVnq&¨teyagnigsm¸ar: Edlvaeya

VnTaj[xusBITIedA, VnbMpuskarsg§&yrbs' \kSeb"«t|, ¨ksYgsm©at'Cbu"n. \kSeb"«t| enH Vn

TTYlkarE¨kgrGay"agxÂSg

BIsMNak'VrSg

(enA²Nëècin),

Gg'eKÂs

(enAPUmanigm"aeLsuI)

nig

GaemrikSg (enAhÃIlIÂBIn), edaysarrebobeFÃIkarrbs'xÂçn EdlG~kxÂHfa minsUvxusK~aBI ÇGinùkaùev"ù

edùÈ rus§I, ÉtamG~kxÂHeTotfa¨sed¿gnwg Çehûs‘abU"È GalWÂm"g'. minyUrbu"nµan, Cbu"nk*d·gGs'GMBI

ÇkaredérEx§elIÈ rbs'VrSgenH. «f© 20 kJïa BlTahanrbs'Ót¶mesnIy_ m"ak'GarFYr eLIgeKakenA


41 hÃIlIBIn ehIy«f© 25 kum¸: 1945 deN¶ImVn¨kugm"anIl. ²Nëècink*VnelcecjmkdUcCaTIedAmYy

«nkareLIgeKakelIke¨kayrbs'BYkGg'eKÂs-GaemrikSg. «f© 7 kum¸:, kgGakascrGaemrikSg ecjBI

mUld½anenA²Nëa ehIyTmÂak'¨Kab'EbkelITItSgCbu"nenA²Nëècin(18) nigenA¨beTs«f. Cbu"nk*sMerc faeTAmuneCégkarN_ ehIybgÅ÷ dãKU [ |TmÂak'ebo| rbs'xÂçn.

«f© 9 mina 1945, k~¬gv^man nerat¶m (TIs¶Ikar KUEvn&r eh§ßeNr"al') 䫨BnKr, rd½TUtCbu"n m"at'

sUßmU"tU dak'kMNt'[ dãKU edayTamTar[kgT&BTSgGs'enA²Nëècin mkenAe¨kambJØakarCbu"un. dãKU

minyl'¨Bm, Cbu"nk*vayPÂam. k~¬gkML¬gmYyyb'bu"eNöaH kgT&BVrSgTSgmUlenA²Nëècin Vnrlay

Vt', ehIyCamYykarN_enH ¨KwHsÄanGaNaniKmk*VnrlM. elIkElgEteyaFa 3-4 Jn'nak', e¨kam bJØakarÓt¶mesnIy_ GaeLHsg'¨DI nigsaVed, EdlVnecjrYceTAdl'¨sukcin. dãKU nigemTahan

TSgGs'Vn¨tèveKykeTAdak'Kuk. enA¨beTskmõ¬Ca, kgTahan \eCég¨khm| ¨bmaN 10 eyaFPUmi enaH Vn¨tèvCbu"nmkcab'eday²tTSgd·gxÂçnVnbn‘iceLIy. EsíkeLIg, tamesck¶IsuMrbs'Cbu"n ¨BH VTnerat¶m sIhnu enAP~MeBj, ¨BHVTsuIsava"gvg§ enAev¿gcnæn_, ¨bkasäkraC´ rbs'¨beTserogxÂçn

nigkarbMVt'ecalnUvGaNaniKm (¨btiktUr"a) VrSg. cMENkäGFiraC Vv-day enA¨kugev" k*VneFÃI dUec~aHEdr 1 «f©e¨kaymk, «f© 11 mina.

bN¶aCnTSgLayenA²Nëècin VnPÆak'¨Kb'K~anwgd÷NwgfaVnäkraC´enH. bu"En‘enA¨sukVrSg,

Ót¶mesnIy_ dãehðal yl'fa eBlevlamkdl'ehIy Edl¨tèvbgúaj[Cak'lak' nUvneyaVyelI

²Nëècin. Ef© 15 mIna, dãehðal niyayeTAkan'¨bCaCnVrSg edaybenæasneyaVyeVHbg'rbs'

(rd½aPiVl) vésuI, ehIyGHGagkarsgô·mnigcMNg'rbs'¨beTsVrSg Edlcg'eXIj²Nëècin \rMedaH|

«f© 24 mIna rd½mån‘I¨ksYgGaNaniKm s´akubbßé ¨bkasfa kalNa²Nëècin\rMedaH| ehIy eKnwg begûét ÇshB&nì²NëècinÈ EdlnwgenAk~¬g shPaBVrSg(19), ehIyEdlVrSgnwgkarJrpl¨b-

eyaCn_elI«pæGn‘rCatiC÷nYs. bu"En‘ rcnasmõnì«nshB&nìenaH minTan'VnerobcMenAeLIyeT manEt

Jk´sn´axÂH dUcteTAenH Ð ÇCnCatienAshB&nìnwgeTACaBlrd½²Nëècin nig Blrd½«nshPaB

VrSg. G~kenaHnwgGacbMeBjmuxgar (k~¬grd½) shB&nìenA²Nëècin nigenAk~¬gshPaB. shB&nìnwg

manrd½aPiVl (kN¶al) mYy d·knSeday KUEvn&r eh§ßeNr"al' m~ak'. ¨beTsTSg 5 EdlxusK~a edayGariyFám,

Catisasn_,

nwgrk§aTuknUvlkÅN:pæal'rbs'xÂçn

enAk~¬gshB&nìÈùùù

.l.

kar

sÄanPaBenA²NëècinkMBugv^vt‘n_eTAtamTismYyep§geTot.

kar

¨bkas«n«f© 25 sIhaenH VneTACamUld½an«nEx§neyaVyVrSgk~¬gq~Se¨kay@ eTot. eyIgVneXIjmkehIyfa

rlayVt'PÂam«nGMNacVrSg VnbMpuseLIgPÂamEdr nUvbJúaTwkdé, CaBiessbJúakmõ¬Cae¨kam, kU

sSgsuIn. eBlEdlVrSgeLIgeKakenA²NëècinCaelIkd÷bUg, yYnnigesomkMBugEhkEckK~a nUv¨suk Exµr nig¨suklav. karbgÅ^tbgÅ÷elIesom¨BmK~a, BIsMNak'VrSgnigGg'eKÂs, VneFÃI[esomdk«d

ecjmYyEPÂtsin BIkmõ¬Cak~¬g¨BMEdnsBëf© EdlehobnwgeTACaext‘esommYyeTAehIy. bu"En‘ kmõ¬Ca

e¨kam, EdlyYnVncUlmkenAENnNan'tan'tab'eTAehIy, VnkÂayeTACaGaNaniKmeBjTI (kULè nI) rbs'VrSg e¨kameQµaHfa ÇkUsSgsuInÈ, dUcEdlG~kedérsMeBACatiGWru"bVnFÂab'ehAmk. dl'CatiExµrnigCatiyYnVn

ÇäkraC´È,

bJúabJØak'¨BMEdnrvag¨beTsTSg2

k*¨tèvEtman

eLIg. «f© 17 emsa (1945) enA¨beTsevot-Nam (eQµaHCapÂèvkarsresrdUec~H, kalenaH)


42 rd½aPiVl ¨twg¨tugKim Vn¨tèvEtgtSgeLIg, ehIyk*cab'KitKUr Çb¨gçbb¨gçm¨beTsÈ PÂam KWPØab'

kUsSgsuIneTAevot-Nam. «f© 18 mifuna GFiraC Vv-day eFÃIesck¶IEfÂgkarN_ bJØak'bMNgxÂçnfa

nwgbegúIyäkPaB«nevot-Nam, eday¨bmUlmkdak'e¨kamkar¨Kb'¨Kg«nrd½aPiVl¨kugev", min¨twmEt

¨Tug-KW (GNöam) nig Vk'-KI (tugkwg) eT KWEfmTSgTwkdéäeTot«nGaNac¨k. ¨BHecA sIhnu yl'

cºas'faeKniyayBIkUsSgsIun, k*tbeTAv^jenA«f© 25 mifuna РǨbeTskmõ¬CaminGacenA¨BegIy ken‘IyeLIy cMeJHkarpÂas'b¶èrlkÅn‘ik:«nEdndémYy EdlxÂçnenAEtmansiTiìelIdrabÈ, ehIyk*suM[man

KN:kmµkarmYysMrab'bJØak'¨BMEdn«n¨beTsTSg2.

C^tdac'Exkkûda,

¨twg¨tugKim

VneFÃI[Cbu"n

yl'¨BmrMlaykarGPiVlkN¶alelI²Nëècin (rbs' KUEvn&r eh§ßeNr"al'), ehIydak' tugkwg

e¨kam{vaTrd½aPiVl¨kugev" edayEtgtSg¨btiPUGFiraCm~ak'enAhaNUy (garyYnfa \xS-«s|). bu"En‘ Cbu"nTukkUsSgsuIne¨kam{vaTxÂçnpæal' edayEtgtSgGPiVlCbu"nm~ak'eQµaH mINUda. ¨BHVTsIhnu

bJØènelak sWg gu"k fan', EdleBlenaHCard½mån‘IkarbreTs eTA«¨BnKr edémºIniyayCamYyCbu"n kuM [eK \[| kUsSgsuIneTAyYn (kicͨV¨s&yCamYyvresnIyäk hay"asuI «n¨ksYgneyaVyCbu"n).

mYyrMeBcenaH kartTl'K~arvagExµre¨kamnigyYn k*pæ¬HeLIgv^j, kartTl'K~aEdlVn¨tèvbJÎb'eday

dãLa¨kg'ED´r BIq~S 1883. Exµre¨kameyIgTSg¨kum@, ¨bdab'edaydavnigpðak', nSK~aedérCaCYr ehIy¨b

haryYnTSgGs'EdlxÂçn¨bTHtampÂèv. enAtamPUmixÂHk~¬gkUsSgsuIn, eKeXIjsaksBCae¨cIn GEN¶t

tambwg, sæwg,TenÂ(20).

k~¬gcenÂaHeBlenaH sågðamenAEteqHxÂSgk~¬gmhasmu¨T V"suIhÃik. «f© 1 emsa 1945 kar¨b

yuTìd*xÂSgsahavedémºIekaH GUKINava" Vncab'ep¶émeLIg. «f© 12 rUsWEvl sÂab', harI ¨Tèm"an' Gnu¨bFa

naFibtI eLIgC÷nYs. «f© 17 kkûda sn~isITenA bu"ts¶S edémºIEbgBiPBelakEckK~a cab'eFÃIeLIgeday

¨Tèm"an', s‘alIn nig QYkQil (EdlmkCamYy Gat'TÂI, bn‘iceTotrd½mån‘ITImYy). erOg²NëècinEdl

minVnniyayenAy"al'ta Vn¨tèvykmkniyayä b"uts‘S. ¨Tèm"an' bn‘Ex§neyaVy«nbuBÃkarIxÂçn (rU sWEvl) Edlmincg'[VrSg¨tLb'mk²Nëècinv^jeT(21). karN_enHVn¨tèvbJØak'eLIgedayesck¶I

sMercrbs'sn~isIT bu"ts¶S Ð kalNaCbu"ncaj'ehIy, ²Nëècinnwg¨tèvEbgEckCa 2 mNël eday

Ex§¨sbelx16 edémºITTYlkardak'GavuFcuHcaj'BICbu"n. kardkGavuFBIkgäkPaBCbu"nenA¨suklav

nigenA¨sukyYn xagelIEx§¨sb ¨BmTSgkar¨tçt¨tabeN¶aHGasn~«nmNëlenaH nwg¨tèv¨bKl'eTA[ cin (CagkayCak), cMENkenA¨sukExµr nigenAPaK¨sukyYn e¨kamEx§¨sb, kicÍkardUcK~anwg¨tèv

¨bKl'eTA[Gg'eKÂs. BI¨kugbu"ts‘S, ¨Tèm"an' KMramCbu"n[cuHcaj' ehIydak'«f© 3 sIha Ca«f©begúéy.

«f© 6 sIha (1945) yn‘ehaH eb-29 GaemrikSgmYy TmÂak'¨Kab'EbkbrmaNUelI hIurU"sIum"a. «f© 8 sIha Cbu"nepærkar¨tçt¨takUsSgsuIn eTA[ \xS-«s|, KWfa[¨sukkUsSgsuIn eTAevot-Nam(22). «f© 16 sIha Cbu"nsuMcuHcaj'.

RRRRRRRRRRRRRR

k~¬gsn~isITenAy"al'ta k*eKminehAeTA, enAbu"ts¶S k*eKminehAeTA, dãehðal TTYlkar ÇePÂc

PÂSgÈ rbs'smõnìmit‘Kat'enH dUcCa¨tèvkMeP¿g 2-3 «d. mYy«f©bnæab'BIkarTMlak'GavuF«n \GaNac¨k

«n¨BHGaTit´rH| mk dãehðal EfÂgsarmYyeTAkan'shPaBVrSgÐ saFarNrd½VrSg \¨Vf~adak'GFi

etyPaBxÂçnenA²NëècineLIgv^j|. kar¨Vf~a (voeu) Edlmann&yy"agmuttMrg'eTAb¬k Gg'eKÂs-Gaemri


43 kSg(23). eBlEdlkgkmÂSgGg'eKÂsnigcin Vncab'ep¶émkarerobcMxÂçneTAehIy (KMeragkarN_ \bu"t s¶S|), dãehðal eTIbEtEtgtSgemekIyrbs'Kat' Ð CaembJØakar«n \ebsk:eyaFBlVrSgenAcug

bUJá¨beTs|, Ót¶mesnIy_ LWEK EdlfÃé«dk~¬gcMVMgVneTACaerOge¨BgeTAehIy. CaGKðs~gkar«n

¨beTsVrSgenA²Nëècin (naTIdUc \KUEvn&r eh§ßeNra"l'\ EdlVn¨tèveVHecal) nig GKðembJØakar

kgkmÂSgeCégeKak, eCégTwk nigeCégGakas, dãehðaldak'emT&BsMNb'rbs'Kat'm~ak', Ót¶mnavépûay5

dah§g'el´I. LWEKÂ ¨tèveLIgeKakä²NëècintamdaneCégBYkGg'eKÂs. dah§g'el´I manebskkmµBIr

pæçnK~a Ð kar¨Kb¨KgshB&nì²Nëècin e¨kayeBlGs'sPaB¨Cçl¨cbl' nigkarduslag²Nëècin[ Gs' ÇkMEGlvésuIÈ.

fan'

enA²Nëècin ¨Bwti‘karN_puseLIgbn‘bnæab'K~ay"agelOn. «f© 14 sIha 1945 elak sWg gu"k

Vn¨tèvEtgtSgCard½mån‘ITI1

ehIyGMJvnavdl'¨beTs[¨buge¨bobtyuTìedémºIäkraC´.

enA

evot-Nam, BYkevotmij EdlVnCYyCbu"nedjVrSgkalBIExmIna, cUlkan'kab'¨Kb'¨kugTSgGs',

ehIyenA«f© 29 sIha hUCémij ¨bkaseLIgähaNUy nUv \saFarNrd½¨bCaFiety´ evot-Nam|,

bnæab'BIVnTTYlkardak'raC´«nes¶cVv-day. enAevogcnæn_ rd½mån‘ITI1 ecA ept sar"at (emclna

\Lav ²s§ra| ¨bkasenA«f© 1 kJïa, fakar¨bkasäkraC´rbs'es¶c suIsava"gvg§ enAEttMkl'Tuk dEdl. dUec~H eXIjfabMNg«nrd½aPiVl«n¨beTsTSgbI«n²Nëècin mansPaBcºas'las'Nas',

e¨kayeBlEdlCbu"nTTYlbraC&y Ð ²t[nwmVrSgcUlmkv^jeT. edémºIsMercbMNgenH, rd½aPiVl

TSgbIk*xM¨bwgE¨bgerog@xÂçn [BYksmõnìmit‘TTYlsðal'tampÂèvehtu (de facto). «f© 6 kJïa, kgTahan

Gg'eKÂs bJØaedayÓt¶mesnIy eåhûsuI cab'mkdl'CahUrEh䫨BnKr. «f© 7, TahanGg'eKÂsmYy

¨kummkdl'P~MeBj. enA¨sukyYnPaKxageCég, kgTahancin bJØaedayÓt¶mesnIy lUhan' mkdl'

haNUy enA«f© 9 kJïa. k~¬gry:eBlenaH sÄanPaB²NëècinTSgmUlmansPaB¨cLMbl' mind·gG~k

NaCaG~kNa. ebIsinCak~¬g¨sukExµr nig¨suklav eK²teXIjman¨btikmµ \síb'breTs| BIsMNak'

bN¶aCneT, enA¨sukyYn pæ¬yeTAv^j, karb"HTgð^cK~arvagyYnnwgCatiVrSg EdlVnmkrs'enAyUr ehIy eFÃI[mankarsMLab'rgðalenAähaNUy k*dUcCaenA䫨BnKr.

«f© 5 tula LWEK mkdl'«¨BnKrCamYyTahan 35 000 nak' (dah§g'el´Imkdl'«f© 31).

enATIenaH \karN_lí| mYyenAcaMKat'¨sab'. \karN_lí| enaH KWelak Xwm-Tit, «nrd½aPiVlExµr,

Edlykmk[ Ð ¨BHraCaNac¨k¨kugkmõ¬Ca«n¨BHVT nerat¶m sIhnu ykxÂçnmk[VrSg eday²t

manTamTarykGÃIeTAv^jeLIy (Gan erOgk~¬g¨beTs). enAq~S 1863 es¶c nerat¶m BwgVrSg[mk

Tajkmõ¬CaecjBI¨kjSesom. 82 q~Se¨kaymk, ecATYtBwgm¶geTot, bu"En‘elIkenH edémºICYyrbbraCa

niymkuM[Vt'bg'. «f© 16 tula LWEK eQogcUlP~MeBj 45 naTI, eBlevla¨Kb'¨Kan'edémºIcab' sWg gu"kfan' ykeTA. ¨beTskmõ¬CaVn¨tèvykVnmkv^j edayminVc'¨byuTì. eTAdl'«¨BnKrv^j,

LWEK cab'ep¶émkar \eFÃI[mansn‘iPaB| enAkUsSgsuIn. enAeBlenaH KNbk§neyaVy nig¨kumG~k

kan'sasnaep§g@

enAkUsSgsIun

mancMnYne¨cInmIredrdas

CaehtueFÃI[evotmijminTan'xÂSgenA

eLIy. edayVnTTYlC÷nYyBIGg'eKÂsmkpg, LWEKÂvaybMEbky"agFUrnUvkareLamB&Tìrbs'evotmij

Edlmanmnus§nigsm¸ar:ticCag. «f© 28 mkra 1946 kgTahanGg'eKÂsecjBI«¨BnKr, TukVrSg EtägenAkan'GMNac. «f© 5 kum¸: LWEK GacEfÂgenAmuxG~ksarBátmanfa ÇkareFÃI[mansn‘iPaBenAkU


44 sSgsuIn

nigenAGNöamxagtºèg

Vncb'sBèKb'ehIyÈ.

bu"En‘

cMeJHbursEdlVndeN¶Imyk

Vn¨kugKUåhÃa, V"rIs, ås‘asºçr nig EbßqûwHhûaDwn, sågðammYyEbbeTotVnbeJÍjxÂçneLIg Ð sågðam

qµk'. LWEK yl'eXIjfa sÄanPaBesd½kicÍ«n¨beTsVrSgenAeBlenaH BuMGac[xÂçnQmmuxtTl'nwg

sågðamfµéenaHeLIy.

sågðamEdlnwgeFÃI[VrSg¨tehb¨thby"agrh&s

ehIyrh&sxÂSgeTAeTot

e¨JHxÂçn¨tèveFÃI[esd½kicÍedéreLIgv^j edémºIeLIgeTAkan'GtIt: zan:xÂçnk~¬gGWru"b.

kUsSgsuInVnsn‘iPaBehIy, kmõ¬Cak*Vnmkv^jyUrehIy LWEKÂ edaH¨saybJúa lav nig

tugkwg. eBlenaH, manenABImuxKat' min¨Kan'EtGgðkarkN¶alrbs'evotmijeT, KWmanTSgkgT&Bcin

4 kgeTot (Catiniym, 180 000 nak') Edlkan'kab'TwkdétamkarsMercenAbu"ts‘S. kareTAyktug

kwgv^j minGaceFÃItamrebob \ek¶A| rbs' hûael´nI É el´aKI VneLIy. LWEKÂ e¨bIyuTìsaås¶mYy

eTot Ð karccar. karccar¨tèveFÃIelI«pæ2 Ð «pæTUtCamYycin, nig«pæneyaVyCamYy hUCémij (LWEKÂ

¨Vb'G~kccarVrSgfakuMjejItnwge¨bIJk´ \äkraC´| ! ). «f© 28 kum¸: 1946, äCug-Kwg, VrSgnig

cincuHsniìsJïamYy eFÃIkarb¶èrdUcteTA Ð T&BcinTSgGs'nwgecjBItugkwg nigBIlav, VrSg¨bKl'siTiì

xÂçneTAcinv^j EdlxÂçnFÂab'manenAesog«h, CanT§in, han'ekv nigkg'tug, VrSg[déQ~çl kÃagecvva"n' eTAcinv^j, kMBg'Ep «hpug ²tykBnìGakr elIplitplcin, CnCaticinenA²Nëècin nwgbg'Bnìdar

minelIsBIG~käeTot ehIynwgmanäksiTìdUcCnCatiVrSgk~¬gpÂèvcºab'nigpÂèvtulakar. «f© 6 mIna enA

haNUy, sSgtWnI(24) nig hUCémij cuHhtÄelxaelIkicÍsn´aep¶émesck¶IVrSg-yYn EdlEcgfa Ð \rd½aPiVlVrSgTTYlsðal'saFarNrd½evot-Nam Card½esrI| Edlmanrd½aPiVl, rd½sPa, kgT&B

nig hirJïvtĬxÂçn ehIyEdlenAk~¬gshB&nì²Nëècin nigshPaBVrSg. cMeJHkarb¨gçbb¨gçm ÇKIÈ

TSgbI, VrSgTTYltamkarsMercrbs'bN¶aCn (¨bCamti). BlTahanVrSg 15 000 nak' nwgGac

cUleTAtugkwgedémºIC÷nYsTahancin, bu"En‘ 5 q~Se¨kaymk¨tèvecj[Gs' .l.

bu"En‘ dah§g'el´I yl'eXIjpæ¬yTSg¨sugBI LWEK Рkaryk²Nëçècinmkdak'e¨kamGMNac

VrSgv^j ¨tèveFÃIEttamkmÂSg, ehIyrbb¨Kb'¨Kg KWrbbGaNaniKmC÷nan'mun. edayT&BVrSgman

kºal2, dah§g'el´I d·gyWthYseTAehIy GMBIkarcuHkicÍsn´aCamYyevotmijenaH, ehIyk*GacEt beJÍjJk´¨bvti‘saås¶nigGk§rsaås¶xÂHbu"eNöaH.

kar¨bECgrvagKMnitTSg2

VnkÂayy"agrh&s

eTACakar¨bECgrvagmnus§TSg2. bu"En‘e¨kaybn‘icmk LWEKÂVnsÂab'eTAk~¬ge¨KaHf~ak'yn‘ehaHmYy.

edImºIpÍaj' hUCémij EdltyuTìya"gsÃitsÃajrkPØab'kUsSgsuIneTAevot-Nam, dah§g'el´I elg

snÂwkebo ÇkUsSgsuInep§g- evotNamep§gÈ. snÂwkeboenH Vnruj¨beTsVrSg[beJÏHP~k'ePÂIg

mYy Edl¨bvti‘saås¶BiPBelakVndak'eQµaHfa sågðamTI1«n²Nëècin. RRRRRRRRRRRR

sågðamenH Tal'Etq~S 1954 eTIbVncb' ehIyVneFÃI[sÂab'nigrbYsCag 77 000 nak'

¨Kan'EtxagVrSgnigsmaKtrd½(25).

enAelIdémYyEdlF¬HFÂayeTAehIy

GaemrikSgmkC÷nYsVrSg.

²t¨Bmcb' sågðambn‘eTAmuxeTotnUvkarkMeTcnig¨bharrbs'xÂçn. saksBExµrrab'lan nigsMErk degúaye¨JHkarQWcab'd*mhima«n¨bCaCneyIg EdleyIg¾x§av@ k~¬geBlenH KWCaehtupl¨tg'@

«nsågðamenH.


45

GFibºay (1)

rUsWEvl manbMNgxÂSgnwgbMpÂajGaNaniKmniymVrSg. k~¬geBlEdlkicÍkarccar Gaemri

kSg-Cbu"n elIerOgcinkMBugEteFÃI (tSgBIedémq~S 1941), T&BCbu"ncUleTA¨beTsyYnPaKxag tºèg nig¨beTskmõ¬Ca (Exkkûda 1941). GaemrikSgsYrnSCbu"nGMBIerOgenHbeNI¶r es~IeTA

Cbu"nGMBIkareFÃI[²NëècineTACa \GB´a¨kwt| beN¶Ir. «f© 26 kkûda rUsWEvl bJØa[pí·b¨TB´

smºti‘Cbu"nTSgGs' Tukk~¬gshrd½. kicÍenHVn¨tèveFÃItam edayGg'eKÂsnig¨beTsTSgGs'

e¨kam{vaTxÂçn. bu"En‘kicÍkarccarenAEtbn‘eTAeTot. Cbu"nsuM[shrd½GaemrikbJÎb'kar¨bug e¨boberobcMkarJrekaHhÃIlIBIn, Qb'[C÷nYyeTAGg'eKÂsnighULg' (EdlykeTAB¨g·gkar

karJrTwkdéxÂçn k~¬gsmu¨TV"suIhÃik) ehIy, elIsGÃITSgGs', Qb'CYycin. sùrùGaù eqÂIyeTA v^jfa nwgKµankar¨Bme¨BogGÃITSgGs' ebICbu"nmin¨BmbJÎb'karB¨gékGMNacxÂçn.

«f©17tula rd½aPiVlmÍas' kUNUey epærtMENg[rd½aPiVlTahanrbs'Ót¶mesnIy_

tUeya. tUeya xMbgúajsuqnæ: edaybJØèneTAva"suIgetannUvrd½TUtEdlekµgCageK, sabUßrU KUrU

sUß. «f© 20 v^cÏika sabUßrU [eTArd½elxaFikar K&rEdl hußl nUvkar[«fÂcuge¨kayrbs'Cbu"n :

\ ebI sùrùGaù Qb'pí·bTuksmºti‘Cbu"n, ebIk[mankarlk'sSg[¨beTsCbu"nv^j ehIy,

elIsGÃITSgGs', Qb'CYycin, Cbu"nnwgdkxÂçnBIkmõ¬CanigBIev¿tNamxage¨kam ehIy¨tLb' mkTItSgxÂçnätugkwgv^j|. «f© 26 hußl eqÂIyfa ¨beTsxÂçncg'niyayBIcMeNaTTUeTAenAGasuI

ehIysuM[Cbu"ndkT&BecjBI¨sukcin. KWfadUcmnus§fÂg'CECkK~a! 11 «f©e¨kaymk, «f© 7 F~è, (2)

(3)

Cbu"nvayePIlEhßbbYr.

dãKU Vn¨tèveKbJØèneTAmuxtulakarCan'xõs' dUcEdl dãehðal Vne¨KagTukk~¬gv^FankarN_ \eVklag| rbs'Kat'. tulakarVnkat'[rYcxÂçn eday²tcºab'ecaT (non-lieu). cMENkä

ka¨Tè Vn¨tèveKedjecalPÂamenAeBlenaH ehIybnæab'mkVneTAcUlCamYy dãehðal eTA.

kalBIq~S 1933 k~¬gsn~isIT«n \smaKm¨bCaCati| (buBÃkarIrbs'Ggðkarsh¨bCaCatisBÃ

«f©) manEtKN:¨btiPU«feT EdleVHeq~atGnubºvaT elIkarp¶næa¨beTsCbu"nEdlVnQÂan

Jnma"n'CUrI. enAq~S 1938 ¨beTs«fcuHsnìisJïamYyCamYy¨beTsCbu"n GnuJïati[CnCati

(4)

Cbu"nk~¬g¨beTs«f mansiTiìdUcCnCati«f k~¬gpÂèvcºab'rd½bºevNI nigpÂèvcºab'JNiCØkmµ.

tamesovePAVrSgxÂH GnaKtesna¨bmux ln' nl' VncUlrYmk~¬gkicͨbtibti‘karTSgenaH k~¬g

kgvresnatUcelx1

\Ta«r"y&r|

(kgTahaneCég¨khm).

bu"En‘

tamsMdé²s§rCneyIgxÂH

elak ln' nl' ²tVneFÃITahaneCég¨khmeT ehIyGs'elakEdlVnbJØak~¬gkgTa«r"y&r enaH man : Óùsù sUkSxUy, Óùsù dYg sMGul, Óùsù qay Lay, elak Gß÷u kg, elak huwm ess nigelak swun EdlVn¨tLb'cUlmkCév^tsuIv^lv^j. kgTahanVrSgmYyEp~keTot

EdlG~kpgVnehAfa TahaneCégexµAenaH KWkgrk§a²Nëècin (Garde Indochinoise). VneFÃITahan


46 eCégexµA : dab QYn nig Óùsù xÂèt bußt. äKuNnam \¨khm| nig \exµA| enaH KWmkBIBNábnæH

(5)

(6)

kMNat' EdlruMkMPYneCégBlTahanTSgenaH.

Cafµém¶geTot esomkan'kab'ext‘TSgenH (kML¬g 5 q~S, GanTMB&r 65, elxeyag 13) ehIyVn xitxMp§BÃp§ayvbºFámxÂçn (CaBiess Pasa) edaybJØènmkCae¨cIn nUv¨Kèbe¨gonTSg¨bus TSg¨sI.

«f© 25 mkra 1942 rd½aPiVl«f«nPibulsågðam ¨bkassågðamTl'nwgGg'eKÂs nigGaemri

kSg (tamG~kxÂHfa Pibulcg'Tb'Tl'nwgCbu"nEdr bu"En‘suMC÷nYyBIGg'eKÂsminVn e¨JH¨sukenH

k*kMBugBiVkEdr). ¨BiDI P~Myg' Edl \¨bqSg| nwgneyaVy Pibul ¨tèveKykecjehIydak'

[eFÃICaraCanusiTì. bu"En‘raCTUt«fenAva"suIgetan, esnI¨VemaCØ, (raCTUtenAGg'eKÂsk*eFÃIdUec~H

Edr) min¨BmbJØènesck¶I¨bkassågðameTArd½aPiVl sùrùGaù ehIybegûét¨kummYyeQµaH

\«fesrI| edaymannis§it«fenAshrd½CYypg. KWCamYyBYk \«fesrI| enaHehIy Edlk~¬gq~S 1945 PibulTak'Tgy"agsMgat'tamry: ¨BiDI. edayVk'cit¶nwgkayv^karenH GaemrikSgVn

(7)

[¨beTs«frYcxÂçn (edayminsMKal'CabcÍami¨t) enAeBlEdlCbu"ncaj'.

tSgBIq~S 1935 elak sWg gu"kfan' nigelak bYr hßg (EdlCasac'jati¨BHmhak§¨tI kusm:) EtgC÷nMuK~aCamYybJïavn‘ekµg@ mYy¨kum Edlcg'[vg§ nerat¶m esayraC´CYsvg§ suIsuvtiÄ v^j (eKfavg§ nerat¶m ¨sLaj'CatiCagvg§ suIsvu ti¶). BYk \rkkºt'| enaH k*xMcuH-

eLIg mÍas'suFars nig sura¨mwt. eBles¶cmunIvg§suKt dãKU k*dUcCaVnsMercbMNgG~k

TSgenaHEdr edaydak'mÍas' nerat¶m sIhnu elIblÂ&gû. k~¬gesovePA \²NëècineXIjBIeb"kSg|

sem¶csIhnu r"ayr"ab' : \ mund÷bUg BYkfan'niymsbºayrIkrayNas'. eXIjfablÂ&gûVn

mkes¶cekµgmYyGgð«nvg§ nerat¶m ehIy es¶cEdlxÂçnnwgGacd·knSeTAkan'kartsUß. BYkenH nwgVt'jjwmy"agrh&s ehIyxƬMk*dUcK~aEdr. eBl ehðaeC (er"sIudg' sUßeb"rIy&rVrSg) mkdl'

eyIgk*Vnd·gfa GÃICarbbrbs' eb"tSgùùù. ral'«f©GaTit´enATIlankILa G~kemIlExµr¨tève¨cog bT \ esna¨bmux, eyIgmkdl'ehIy| muneBl¨bkYtVl'Tat'. k~¬gnaTICaes¶c eKk*BiVk[

(8)

xƬMe¨cogEdr bu"En‘xMƬ¨tèvEte¨kakeLIgQrpæ·meCég !|.

ekItenA¨BH¨tJMg (sBëf©¨tayij) kumar sWg gu"kfan' eFÃImF´msik§aenA«¨BnKr. rYcmk

cUleFÃI \eVy| enAelIkV"l'VrSgmYy edémºImk¨sukenH. enA¨sukVrSg sWg g"ukfan' Vn

eFÃIÓt¶msik§axÂH (tamG~kxÂHfa). mkdl'kUsSgsuInv^j Kat'rkkareFÃIBuMVnesaH k~¬grd½karGa

NaniKm. eBlenaHehIy EdleKVnehAKat'mkP~MeBj EdlenATIenaHmit‘VrSgxÂHnwgCYy

Kat'[VnkareFÃI. d÷bUg eFÃICasuPaenA¨ksYgyuti‘Fmá rYcmk pÂas'eTABuTìsasnbNëit´eFÃICa G~kkan'kab'bNöal&y. enATIenaH elak sWg gu"kfan' CYbsðal'elakGacar´ Ehm ecov

elak V"c QWn elak bußNö cnæmu"l .l. ebIsinCaKat'²tVnekItenAkmõ¬Cae¨kameT ebI

sinCaeQµaHKat'minEmn \eQµaHyYn| eT bursenH¨bEhlGacVneTACa \hUCémijExµr|.Jk´

ehAExµre¨kam (minehA \Exµr| EtmYym"at') EdleKe¨bIedémºIniyayBIG~kEdlekItenAnigrs' enAäkmõ¬Cae¨kam

bgúaj[eXIj

\karminTTYl|

mYyehIyBIsMNak'G~kehA.

Exµre¨kam

EdleKVneVHbg'ecal[rs'tamyfakmµxÂçnenAstvt§r_TI19, Exµre¨kam EdlyYnTSglan


47 nak'mk¨KbdN¶b'dUcrlkpæb'¨cSg rs'enAy"agcegí¿tk~¬gshKmn_xÂçn ehIyxMkarJrrk§aTuk

y"agsiÃtsÃaj nUvekr‘−mrtkxÂçn TSgvbºFmá TSgsasna.

kartyuTìy"agyUrCab'rab'tMNenH VnbJÍèlkarsÃahab'eTAk~¬gC÷nan'mnus§EdlekIt

bn‘bnæab'mk karsÃahab'EdlTTYlkar¨cENnBIsMNak'ExµrkN¶al. fÃétºitEtminbeJÍj[

eKd·gkar¨cENnenH, bUkcUlnwgKMnitkan'bk§BYk, VnbegûItesaknadkmµnwgkarCUrct'Cae¨cIn

k~¬gBg§savtaExµre¨kamenAkmõ¬Ca. ÓTahrN_Cak'Es¶gmYy KWXadkmµelIkgeyaFaExµrkmõ¬Ca

e¨kam k~¬gsågðam«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca (1970-1975) : eday¨cENnnwgkarGg'GacmuHmt'«nkg

eyaFaExµre¨kam

––EdlCaCnrYmQamxÂçnesaH––

TIGKðembJØakar«nkgkmÂSgCatiExµrVn

bJØèneTA[sÂab'TeT@ Exµrkmõ¬Cae¨kam¨bmaN 10 000 nak' «nkg«m"k_hÃßk (Mike Force) EdlecjBIevotNamxagtºèg mkCYy \bgbíèn| äkmõ¬Ca.

elak sWg gu"kfan' VnmanCév^tneyaVyy"agyUr BIk~¬graCaNac¨keTAk~¬gsaFar-

Nrd½ ehIyVntTl' cUl«d Éminrvérvl' CamYy¨bmuxrd½ 6 nak' : ¨BHVTsuIsuvtiÄ munIvg§,

¨BHVTnerat¶m sIhnu, ¨BHVTnerat¶m sura¨mwt, sem¶cnerat¶m sIhnu, elak ecg ehg,

nig esna¨bmux ln' nl'. Cév^tneyaVyd*Evg (1935-1972) nigEdlk¨mmancMeJHExµr

kmõ¬Cae¨kam (enAkmõ¬Ca) enH manxõs'manTabCae¨cIn ehIyVncb'enATI¨kugP~MeBjCamYyùùù (9)

¨Kab'EbkVÂsæikmYy !

G~kniBnìExµreyIgm~ak'Vnsresrfa ebIeKbMVt'BuTìsasnaenAkmõ¬Ca eKbMVt'¨BmK~anUv¨Blwg Exµr. k~¬gExemsa 1975 esck¶Isnµt'enH VnbgúajPaB¨twm¨tèvrbs'xÂçn. ²LèvenH etIeK GacGHGagfa \ebI¨BlwgExµrpuseLIgv^jenAkmõ¬Ca nwgpuseLIgCamYyK~anUvBuTìsasna| Vn

eT? qµS«nGariyFmáExµr ¨BHsgôVnEckCamYyes¶c nUvGMNac¨Kb'¨Kg¨beTs k~¬gkML¬gkal (10)

(11)

d*yUrrab'stvt§r_.

k~¬gT&BVrSg (nigT&B¨beTskan'sasna¨Kis¶ CaTUeTA) manG~kbYs eFÃICaGacar´sMrab'eyaF PUmiTSgGs' ÉEdleTACamYyTahank~¬geBlcºSg ehIyEdlVrSgehAfa \GUmU"nIej|. (Gan

elxeyag 4 GMBITahaneCég¨khm). VrSgVnykekaH¨tLac

(BULèkugD&r)

eFÃICaKuksMrab'dak'mnus§eTasÓ¨kid½FM@

nigmnus§

eTasneyaVy. elak V"c QWn (Edle¨kaymkVn¨tèveKedaHElgmkv^j) Etgbgúaj dl'eKäg nUvs~amkgEdkelI keCég Kat' kgEdkEdlsMrab'cgPØab'mnus§eTasCaGlÂCéØ.

enAP~MeBj elak V"c QWn VncUlrYme¨cIndg k~¬grd½aPiVl (Fmµkar eXasnakar .l.).

e¨kayExmIna 1970 rd½aPiVlsaFarNrd½VnsuMmkv^j nUvGd½^¨BHGacar´ Ehm ecov ehIy (12)

VneFÃIbuN´rMlwkv^JïaNkÅ&nì vér:burs«nkartsUßTl'nwgVrSgenH.

dUcBYkNah§IGalÂWm"g'enAGWru"bEdr Cb"uncg'eFÃI[¨beTsGasuITSgGs' eTACarNbxÂçn. bu"En‘ cMeJH¨beTs«nGasuIPaKGeK~y_ EdlenAe¨kamGaNaniKmBYkEsºks Cbu"nCaG~krMedaH Cag

CaG~klukluy.

niym)

karcg'EckK~acMrugcMerIn

tamPUmiPaKerogxÂçn«nBiPBelak

Vn¨tèveKykmksik§ae¨cInK~aenAGasuIPaKGeK~y_

(ehAPUmiPaK

e¨kaysågðamelakelIkTI2.

cab'tSgBIq~S 1943 erOg \BiPBsmºèNásbºayCamYyK~a| (Sphère de co-prospérité) Vn¨tèv


48 CnCati²Nëam~ak'eQµaH

V"ni~kar

ykmksik§am¶geTotk~¬gesovePA

\GanaKt«nGasIuPaK

GeK~y_|. V"n~ikar Vn[eyabl'fa KYr¨beTsTSgGs'enAGasuIPaKGeK~y_ cUlrYbrYmK~ak~¬g

smõnìPaB \esd½kicÍ| mYy e¨kamkard·knS«n¨beTs²Nëa (e¨kaybraC&y«nCbu"n). EtgtSg

Card½TUt²Nëa¨bcS¨beTscinenAq~S 1949 V"ni~kar eFÃIkMNt'ehtumYy EdlenAk~¬genaH Kat'

benÂIsPaBdundab«nsÄanPaBenA¨beTsk~¬gGasuIPaKGeK~y_ : \ebIKµanC÷nYyy"agrh&s ehIy

smtamkar¨tèvkar enAelI«pæesd½kicÍeT rcnasmõnìneyaVy«nGasIuPaKGeK~y_ ¨Kan'EtCa

rbgd*es¶IgmYy

Tl'nwgkarB¨gékxÂçn«nlTiìkumµ¬ynis‘|.

edayd·gfa²NëaminGacp¶l'C÷nYy

enaHVn V"ni~kar suM[rd½TUtGg'eKÂsnigGUås¶alI epÆékMNt'ehtuKat'eTArd½aPiVlTSgLay«n

xmµinEvl (¨beTse¨kamGMNacGg'eKÂsBIedém). äksarenH VneTACamUld½an«nkarBiPak§a

K~a EdlVn[kMeNItdl'Epnkar kULM¬bU enAq~S 1950 (kmõ¬CaeyIgVncUlk~¬gEpnkarenaHEdr

CamYy¨beTs 21 eTot). smõnìkicÍxageyaFanigxagesd½kicÍäeTot k*ecHEtekIteLIgCa bnæab'mkEdrenAGasuIGeK~y_

:

esGatU,

smaKm¨bCaCatienAGasuIPaKGaeK~y_

(ASEAN),

GUås¶alI-nUEvleh§Lg'-Gg'eKÂs (ANZUK), GUås¶alI-nUEvleh§Lg'-Gaemrik (ANZUS), ¨kum

¨bwk§aGasuInigV"suIhÃik(ASPAC) .l. \BiPBsmºèNásbºayCamYyK~aenAmhaGasuIPaKbUJá|

(Sphère de co-prospérité de la grande Asie orientale) Vn¨tèveKykmkniyaym¶geTot enAedémq~S 1978 enAeBlEdl¨beTsCbu"negébeLIgv^j eTACamhaGMNacmYyy"agFMenH.

(13)

KMniteFÃI[²NëècinVrSgmanlkÅN:CashB&nì VnmaneLIgCaelIkd÷bUgenAq~S 1930 e¨kam

(14)

es¶c nerat¶m sIhnu VneXIj-Vnsðal' ¨beTskmõ¬Ca edaysarÓt¶mnavé dãKU (tamsMdé

(15)

rd½aPiVl daLaeD´.

sem¶csIhnu pæal' k~¬g \²NëècineXIjBIeb"kSg|).

¨bEhlCasaås‘acar´VrSgm~ak'eQµaH h§ßk Lg' EdlCaedémehtu«nkarbegûétclnayuvCn

TSgenH. pÂas'BIhaNUymkP~MeBj h§ßk Lg', edémºIkMcat'karGp§¬k, k*begûétclnayuvCn

mYyeQµaH \hߧèevnIj"a| EdleFÃIskmµPaBxagkILanigtUr´tån‘I. edayeXIjeCaKC&y«nclna

enH dãKU k*man \KMnit¨bEm¨bmUlyuvCn«n¨beTsTSg3 dak'k~¬gclnamYyeQµaH \yuvCn²Nëè

cin| e¨kamkard·knS«nTahanVrSgeQµaH DuykUrÃa". e¨kABIkILanigtUr´tån‘I eKGb'rMbMpusKMnit

Catiniym«nyuvCnTSgenaH edémºIbeJÍ¿sBIkarTak'Taj«nCbu"n. CakarN_Fmµta dãKU k*VnsM

elogkSbitmuxBIredaymind·gxÂçn. e¨JHbnæab'BIkare¨bIkmÂSg«nCbu"n (cab'VrSg) enA«f© 9

mIna 1945 KWk~¬gcMeNamsmaC^k«nclnaenaHehIy Edlelak sWg gu"kfan' erIsykG~k

sµ&¨Kcit‘ eTArMlMrd½aPiVlcUlVrSg«nelak Gwug GuI. enA¨sukyYn emclnayuvCn (eQµaHfµé

fa fan' ejon Tag pug, yuvCnCYrmux), evCØbNëit pS gu"k fac', CasmaC^ksm©at'«nKNbk§

kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin ehIye¨kaymk VneTACard½mån‘I¨ksYgGnam&y «nrd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGa

sn~yYnxageCég! ²s§rCnExµreyIgxÂH enAcSenAeLIyGMBIkars~ak'Ga¨s&yenApan'Fak k~¬gCMrM s¨mab'bgúat'em \yuv&n|. enApan'Fak (evotNamxagtºèg) eKbgúat'[e¨cogbTd÷eNIr«n

clnaenaH EdlVneTACa, dUcCa«cdn´, bTePÂgCati«nsaFarNrd½¨bCaFiety´evotNam!


49 (16)

tSgBIExkJïa 1943 Ót¶mesnIy_ dãehðal bJØa[ Óù sù ebÂh§ erobcMT&BmYykgedémºIbJØèn

eTAcugbUJá¨beTs. dl'kgäkPaBTSgLayekItmanehIy rd½aPiVlVrSgsuM[eKbJØèlkg TSgenaH k~¬gbJØakarGasIuPaKGeK~y_rbs' em"an bTæwn. BYkGg'eKÂs-GaemrikSg min¨Bm

edaysMGagfa²NëècinenAk~¬gqak¨byuTì \qayNa| dUec~H enAe¨kamkar¨tçt¨tarbs' Cag

kayCak. «f© 22 ÓsPa 1945 rd½aPiVlVrSgbJØèn Óù sù h§ßèva"g (e¨kaymkesna

¨bmux), nayGKðesnaFikarT&BVrSg, eTAva"suIgetanedImºIsæg'emIlcit‘GaemrikSg E¨kgmankar

eLIgeKakelI²Nëècin.

h§ßèva"g

k*Vnd·gfa

karvaysMrukelIke¨kaynwg¨tèveFÃIelI¨beTs

Cbu"nEtm¶g. VrSgk*es~Irkarb¶èrK~ayk \GFibtIPaBVrSgelI²Nëècin| Tl'nwgkarbUCakgBl FMBIr e¨kambJØakar Óù sù LWEK eTA[GaemrikSge¨bIk~¬gkarvaysMruk. GaemrikSgmin¨Bm.

(17)

(18)

«f© 6 sIha ¨Kab'EbkbrmaNUk*pæ¬HeLIg.

15 «f© e¨kaykare¨bIkmÂSgBIsMNak'Cbu"nenA«f© 9 mIna (1945) mk em \tsUß| nigTahan

¨bmaN 50 nak' «n \kgkmÂSgVrSgesrI| (F.F.L.) EdlVnelatq&¨telI¨sukExµrenaH Vn ¨tèvCbu"ncab'VnTSgGs' ehIyykeTAdak'k~¬gKukFM e¨kayvt‘ÓNöaelam äP~MeBj.

enA«f©enaH (7 kum¸: 1945) TI¨kugP~MeBjVnsðal'karTMlak'¨Kab'EbkTI1 «n¨bvt‘isaås¶xÂçn.

yn‘ehaHGaemrikSgVneFÃI[EbkVk' ÉlicexæcxæInUv TUknigkV"l'suIv^l enAkMBg'Epctumux

(enAmuxvt‘ÓNöaelam) ehIyVneFÃI[sÂab'nigrbYsbN¶aCnCae¨cInrynak'. tamkarniyay «nmhaCn ¾faCbu"nVnes~IsgCmW©cit‘elIkarxUcxatBIe¨JHsågðam EdlxÂçnCaG~kedémehtu enHEdr bu"En‘¨BHecAsIhnufaminVc'[sg eday \d·gKuN| Cbu"n. karN_mYyEdlBit KW

karTMlak'¨Kab'Ebk \enAmat'TenÂ| enH VneFÃI[eKeC¯kan'EtxÂSg elIrUbbd^makrmYy (ehA¨BH

KMlg' Ées¶cKMlg') Edl²tVnxUcxatGÃIeLIy k~¬geBlEdlectIynigsMNg'xÂHeTotk~¬gvt‘

Vn¨tèvVk'EbkexæcxæI. eKBuMVnd·gBit¨VkdEdr GMBIvasna«nbd^makrenH e¨kayExemsa 30 (19)

q~Se¨kaymk.

\shPaBVrSg| enH (1941) KWcmÂgmkTSg¨tdr BI \xmµinEvl| Gg'eKÂs (1931). VrSg

eFÃIshPaBVrSgenH

edémºIxM{b¨kesabGaNac¨kxÂçnkuM[rlay

k~¬geBlEdlxÂçn¨tèvedaH

Elgbn‘icm¶g@ nUv¨beTsGaNaniKmEdlkMBugegébeLIg. lkÅn‘ik:«nshPaBVrSg VneTA

CaerOg \eQÂaHK~a| y"agtwgmat' k~¬grd½sPa (Etgrd½FmµnuJï) BIr, sPaq~S 1945 nig 1946.

BitNas'eTAehIy bJúaBlrd½Vn¨tèvelIkykmkniyay : etIBlrd½«nshPaB CaBlrd½

VrSgEdrÉGÃI? CakarN_Fmµta ²tmanerOgeXIjExµrm~ak' ÉGaåhÃß^km~ak' mkeFÃItMNagraås¶enA ¨sukVrSgeT!

eKk*rkVnesck¶IsMruHsMrYlmYy

(Compromis).

GtÄn&y«nshPaBVrSg

Vn¨tèv[k~¬gesck¶Iep¶ém «nrd½FmµnuJïVrSgq~S 1946: \shPaBVrSgman¨bCaCatinig¨bCa

CnTSgLay Edldak'mkCamYyK~a nUvFnFanrbs'xÂçn nigkar¨bwgE¨bgrbs'xÂçn edémºIcMerIn

GariyFmáxÂçn B¨gékPaBsuxsbºayrbs'xÂçn nigsn‘isuxrbs'xÂçn|. sPamYy«nshPaB

VrSg Vn¨tèvbegûéteLIg EdlenAk~¬genaH BYk¨btiPU \«n¨beTssmaC^k mansiTiìesµIK~anwg

¨btiPUVrSgEdr. bu"En‘ cºab'EdlVn¨tèvsMerc, tamFmµta, edaysPaGayk~¬g¨beTssma-


50 C^k ¨tèvykeTAdak'[sPa«nshPaBBinit´. reboberobcMd*sµ¬¨KsµajenH Vn¨tèv¨BHVT

(20)

sIhnuv^nicÏ&yfa pæ¬ynwgv^carNJïaN (absurde)

namWunyYneQµaH ega" Dineyom VncgKMnMuTuky"agg÷u. eBlEdlxÂçneLIgkan'GMNack~¬gq~S

1955 (10 q~Se¨kaymk) eyom cab'ebIkyuK«nkarB´aVTExµrkmõ¬Cae¨kam. k~¬geBlenaH raC

rd½aPiVlVnb¶wgeTAGgðkarsh¨bCaCati. KWk~¬geBlEdlExµreyIgbHsmÂab'yYnenAq~S1945 enaHehIy EdlyYnVncSeLIgv^jnUvJk´ \ma" tMu| (ravbgûg) dUcEdlExµreyIgcSminePÂcnUv

(21)

(22)

Jk´ \kMBb'EtGug|.

mrNPaB«n rUsWEvl VnbEgÃrpÂèv«nsavta¨beTsTSgbI«n²Nëècin. eKeC¯Cak'fa ebIsinCa

¨bFanaFitIGaemrikSg enArs'enAeLIyk~¬geBlenaH VrSgminGacdak'eCégelIdé²Nëècinv^jVn eLIy.

kt‘aEdlsMerccit‘BYkCbu"n (nigbnæab'mkBYkVrSg) [¨bKl'kUsSgsuIn[eTAyYn man2 :

Ts§n:¨Vkdniym nigkaremIlgay. ¨Vkdniym e¨JHExµrenAkUsSgsuInCaCnCatiPaKtic.

karemIlgay CanamEtmYyEdleKGace¨bI edémºIcgí¬lGakbºkiriya«nVrSgGaNaniKmniym

cMeJHmuxes¶cExµreyIgTSgLay

ehIytamenaH

cMeJH¨beTseyIgTSgmUl.

karN_Edl

es¶ceyIgrs'enAk~¬gcMeNam¨sIs~MTSghÃèg PIelognigGamat´TSgkg ehIyEdlkicÍC÷nuMerOg

ra"v¨beTs manEtkarKal'ehÃABIsMNak'namuWn \EdlmangarCaXun CahÂçg Ca¨BH CaÓkj"aùùù

bu"En‘EdlKµanecHGÃI e¨kABIlutCgðg'cuH¨kabfÃaybgð÷ ehIyedérTacUleTAEtbu"eNöaH, karN_enH

(23)

rUbPaBenH Caedémehtu«nkaremIlgay¨beTsCatieyIg BIsMNak'VrSgGaNaniKmniym.

Ót¶mesnIy_ dãehðal, bursEdlsem¶csIhnueKarBCagGÃITSgGs' bnæab'BI¨BHsmN:eKat¶m

(k~¬g \²NëècineXIjBIeb"kSg|), VneFÃIsunærkfamYyeTot 21 q~Se¨kaymk enATI¨kugP~MeBj

k~¬gq~S 1966. cMeJH¨tecokGaemrikSg EdlkMBugTb'Tl'nwgkumµ¬ynis‘ k~¬gevotNamxagtºèg

nigtam¨BMEdnExµreyIg sunærkfaenAP~MeBjenH [tMbUnµanpæ¬yTSg¨sug BItMbUnµanEdlelc

ecjBIkar \¨Vf~a| «n«f© 17-8-45. ehIyebI rUsWEvl ¾ ¨bEhlCaKat'E¨bxÂçnk~¬gp~èrKat'

(24)

ehIy (tamJk´niyaymYyrbs'VrSg).

bI«f©munsuMkarcuHcaj'«nCbu"n \kal'kt¶a| Vn[TMlak'tamq&¨teyagelI²Nëècin nUvP~ak'gar

sm©at'mYy¨kum CamYyK~anwg h§g' esDIl nig EB´remHEsµß EdleKbMrug[eFÃICa s~gkar«n

saFarNrd½¨bcStugkwg. e¨kABI sSgtWnI EdlVnmkdl'haNUyedayecjBI¨sukcin tam

kV"l'ehaHGaemrikSg, BYkelatq&¨tTSgGs' Vn¨tèvevotmijcab'Tuk. ²s§rCnVrSgTSg enH

(25)

Vnman²TìiBly"agxÂSg

eTAelIneyaVyVrSgelI²NëècinCaBiess

¨beTsGaNaniKmVrSgCaTUeTA.

nwgelIGtIt:

smaKtrd½ Érd½ \hußn| nwgVrSg (Etats associés) man¨beTsEdlenAk~¬gshPaBVrSg

(Ganelxeyag 19). kaleyIgminTan'VnäkraC´ G~kpgÓs§ah_eXIj, e¨kABITahanV

rSg, nUvTahan \Ga¨Bic| nigTahan \Gamar"uk| edérqÃat'EqÃgtampÂèvenAP~MeBj. k~¬gBBYk es

eNhûaeL nig m"arU"kSg TSgenaH manmYycMENkFMEdlVnsÂab' k~¬g \cMkarkit‘iys| ²Nëècin k~¬gcMVMgCamYyevotmijenH.Ú


51 BI shPaB²Nëècin eTA shB&nì²Nëècin

erOgk~¬g¨beTs rCØkal«n¨BHecAsIusuvtiÄ (1904-1927) nig munIvg§ (1927-1941) mansPaBs©b's©at',

ehIyk~¬gkML¬geBlenaH VrSgVnnSmknUvkarEkTMrg'Cae¨cIn. muneBlsuKt«n¨BHmunIvg§bn‘ic, ¨b

eTskmõ¬CaVnVt'bg'm¶geTot nUvext‘Vt'd÷bg, sIusupun nigPaKmYyy"agFM «next‘esomrab, kMBg'FM

nigsæwgE¨tg. eBleXIjfa Cév^t¨BHmunIvg§¨Cale¨CehIy, dãKU k*KiteTAdl'd÷N«nraC´. mÍas' munIer"t, kUncºg«n¨BHmunIvg§ ehIyEdl¨tèveLIgesayraC´ ttamTMenomTMlab', eFÃI[ dãKU Vrm¸

e¨JHmanKMnit \äkraC´niym|. enA¨sukVrSg, mÍas'munIer"t nigbíèn, munIBg§, VncUleFÃITahank~¬g

kg \eLs´¬g| TahanCatie¨kA. e¨kayeBldak'GavuFQb'Vj'K~a (VrSg-GalÂWm"g') enAq~S 1940, mÍas'munIer"t ¨tLb'mk¨sukExµrv^jCamYyKMnitfµé@. enAk~¬g²NëècinmYy EdlkarTak'TgCamYy¨beTs

VrSg \Cam¶ay| VnE¨b¨bçlElgdUcsBÃdg dãKU xMkarJrTuk[VnyUrbMput nUvGFibtIPaBVrSg

Edlkan'EtVnTTYlkarKMramkMEhge¨cIneLIg, tSgGMBICbu"nVneLIgmkelIqak²NëècinEdr (erOgtug

kwg, karVt'bg'ext‘Exµr). edémºI¨bugeCégkarN_Tuk eBlNamankarbHeVr, dãKU ¨tèvkardak'elIblÂ&gû TSgbI«n²Nëècin,

mnus§EdlxÂçn¨sNukek¶abbMbt'bMEbn.

¨BHmunIvg§suKtenA«f©TI

23

emsa

1941. mÍas'munIer"t Edl²tsmnwgesck¶I¨tèvkarrbs'eK, k*Vn¨tèv dãKU TajecjeTA. \KUEvn&r eh§ßeNr"al'\ «n²Nëècin e¨CésykmÍas'nerat¶m sIhnu v^j Edl²tVnd·gxÂçnmuneLIy. enAeBl

enaH Gayu 18 q~S, kµçy«nmÍas'munIer"t kMBugbJÍb'mF´msik§aenA \lIes| sas§WlU-LèV 䫨BnKr.

«f© 28 tula 1941, enAk~¬gBiFId*FMmYy, dãKU bMJk'mû¬d[mÍas'sIhnu ehIyGPieskeFÃICa¨BHecA¨kug

kmõ¬Ca. dUcCaCétanigCéTYtEdr, ¨BHecAsIhnunwgeXIjy"agrh&sfa es¶cExµr¨Kan'EtCaGay"gEdl

\er"sIudg' sUßeb"rIy&r| VrSgTajEx§bu"eNöaH(1). es¶csIhnu EdlkalenaHcUlcit‘narI nig tUr´tån‘ICag neyaVy¨beTs, k*bt'Ebnbnæn'xÂçny"agFUr tamkar¨tèvkarrbs'VrSg dUcEdl dãKU Vnb"g¨Vf~a, ehIysÄanPaBenHmanrhUtdl'q~S 1945.

kar \e¨bIkmÂSg| «nCbu"n enA«f©TI 9 mIna 1945 VneVskMcat'k~¬gry:eBlEtmYyyb', swg

EtmYystvt§r_«nGMNacVrSg. Cbu"nVnniyaynwgmhaesd½écinExµr tan' V", [¨BmTTYlPar:d·knS

rd½aPiVlTI1 «nyuKe¨kayGaNaniKm. tan' V" minTTYl, Cbu"nk*Tukrcnasmõnìrd½aPiVlcas' (GKð mhaesna Gwug GIu). naTICanaykrd½mån‘IEdlBImunenAelI«d \er"suIdg' sUßeb"rIy&r|, k*¨tLb'mkk~¬g«d

es¶cv^j EdlTTYlkarXÂSemIlBI \GKðTI¨bwk§a| Cbu"nm~ak'. 4 «f©e¨kaykarrMlayGMNacVrSg, elak mas Nal', rd½månI‘¨ksYgsik§aFikar, bJØak~¬g«f© 13 mIna [e¨bIeLIgv^j nUv¨b¨ktITincnæ

Kti, bMVt'karsresrCaPasaExµrEdle¨bIedayGk§r rU"muSg, ehIybgðab'[e¨bIPasaExµr k~¬gkicÍkarrd½

Vl. elak V"c QWn Vn¨tèvedaHElgBIekaH¨tLac enA«f© 21 mIna(2), ehIybegûéteLIgv^jnUv

sarBátman nKrvt¶. enAedémExÓsPa, elak sWg gu"kfan' ¨tLb'mkBI¨beTsCbu"nv^j, ehIyVn

¨tèvEtgtSgenA«f© 1 mifuna Card½mån‘I¨ksYgkarbreTs, tamesck¶IsuMrbs'Cbu"n. enAeBlenaHehIy


52 EdleKVneXIjmaneLIg nUvkare¨bH¨sSCaelIkd÷bUg«nsgðmExµr, edayehtumanlMnSneyaVy2

EdlyUrmkVnkÂayeTACalMnSmenaKmv^CØa, ehIyEdlkartTl'K~aVncb' Ca esaknadkmµ, enAEx

emsa 1975.

lMnSTI1¨bmUlp¶¬÷ BYkEdlcg'bMVt'rbbraCaniym, EdlxÂçneXIjfaCaÓbkrN_EdlGaNani

Km (ehIye¨kaymkGaNaniKmniymC÷nan'fµé) e¨bI¨Vs' edémºI¨kjSek¶ab¨beTsxÂçn. lMnSneya

VyenH(3) rMlaykartyuTìTl'nwges¶c cUlCamYykartyuTìTl'nwgGaNaniKmniym. lMnSTI2 KW

rbs'BYk¨Bènsgðm EdlykbuN´sk¶ixÂçneFÃICaedémTun ¨bmUl¨TB´smºti¶, buN´sk¶iEdles¶cEck

[ tamkarbuin¨bsb'rbs'xÂçnxaglut¨kab. BYk¨BènsgðmenH KW¨kumnahµWn(4). CakarFmµta BYkenH ¨Vf~a[rbbraCaniymmanGayuyWnyUrteTAeTot. edaym´a"g KUv^vaTTSgBIr¨kumemIlgaykarTUnµan

«n¨bvti‘saås¶, edaym´a"geTot mhaCnsõwk²tkMerIk rkxÂçn¨bmUlCakmÂSgneyaVyBuMVn, BYkTSg

BIr¨kumenH rt'rkbreTsral'dg edémºICYyxÂçn[Q~Hk~¬gkarv^vaTenH –– karv^vaTEdle¨kaymk ¨Kan'Et

CakJÍk'q¬Hsågðam¨tCak'«nmhaGMNacTSgLay. ElgnwkeXIjfa ¨beTsxÂçnenAk~¬gkal:eTs:PUmi saås‘neyaVymYyEdlCUrct', xagNak*dUcxagNa BuMEdl¨Bmrkesck¶IsMruHsMrYl (compromis) ÉrkCECkK~am¶gNaeLIy.

e¨JHEtkardeN¶ImGMNacTSgkMeralgg·tmuxenH,

¨bCaCnExµrVnsg

kMhus nwgkMBugEtsgkMhus edaybg'tM«lmYyd*rnìt'eFÃIGMBI — dUcJk´G~kniBnìVrSg EbßNa ha Em"l— QamnigTwkEP~k(5).

¨BHVTsIhnu, enAekµgehIyqab'tameK, TTYlC÷nYyk~¬gkicÍkarBIsMNak'BYk \TI¨bwk§a| Edl

CaG~kkarJredaymuWgma"t' nUvrbbraCaniym. eBlEdlelak sWg gu"kfan' eLIgmkelIqakneya

Vyv^j, ¨BHecAVnbegûétmuxkarmYyehAfa \TI¨bwk§a«nraCrd½aPiVl| ehIyEtgtSgenA«f© 7 mifuna

(1945) k~¬gnaTIenH, sem¶cmunIer"t EdlnwgmansemÂgBiPak§ak~¬gKN:rd½mån‘IeTot. edémºIkan'kab'

edays©at'@ nUvkarcayvayrbs'rd½aPiVl, es¶csIhnu dak'TI¨bwk§aBIrnak', elak Eb"n nut Card½ mån‘Irg¨ksYghirJïvtĬ nigelak pU e¨BOg CaGFikarhirJïvtĬ. k~¬gkalenaH, karxÃl'xÃayFM@ «n

rd½aPiVl

KWCYyCbu"nk~¬gsågðamrbs'xÂçn,

nwgedaH¨saybJúad*BiVk«nlkÅn‘ik:rbs'

kUsSgsuIn

(sUmGanerOge¨kA¨beTs). mhn‘ray«n hIurU"sIm"a nig NahûasaKI VneFÃI[cb'subin \mhaGasIu

PaKbUJá| e¨kamGFibtIPaB«n \GaNac¨k¨BHGaTit´rH|. enA«f© 19 sIha 1945, 4 «f©e¨kaykar pæ¬H¨Kab'EbkbrmaNUTI1, elak sWg gu"kfan' begûéterOgEkÂgbnÂMmYy ehIy[eKcab'rd½mån‘ITSgGs'

EdlKat'yl'facUlcit‘VrSg. G~kEdleTAcab'rd½mån‘ITSgenaH suTìEtsmaC^k«nclna \yuvCn²Nëè

cin| EdleKVndak'eQµaHfµéfa \yuv&nkmõ¬Crd½|. «f© 14 sIha, elak sWg gu"kfan' Vn¨tèvEtgtSg

Card½mån‘ITI1 ehIyenAEtkan'¨ksYgkarbreTs. elak Eb"n nut TTYl¨ksYghirJïvt¶¬, elak jw¬k CUL¬g ¨ksYgesd½kicÍCati, elak V"c QWn ¨ksYgp¶l'esº¿g nigPs‘¬Par, elak sußm ehog ¨ksYg

mha«pæ, elak Xwm Tit TTYl¨ksYgkarJr¨beTs ¨tçtK~anwg¨ksYgsuxaPiVl. enA«f© 8 kJïa,

kgTahanGg'eKÂsmYykgmkdl'P~MeBj edémºITTYlkardak'GavuFBITahanCbu"n ehIyedaHElgeQÂIy

sågðamCatiGWru"b tamkicͨBme¨BogenA bu"ts‘S . mkCamYykgäkPaBGg'eKÂsenaH, mannayTahan

VrSgm~ak', vresnIy¨tI hûal'lÃa" Edlman \ebskkmµBiess|. elak sWg gu"kfan' ¨Vb'y"ag


53 cºas'eTAnayTahanenaHfa raCrd½aPiVlExµrnwgeFÃIkarccarCamYyVrSg EtelImUld½anmYy, KWkar

TTYlsðal'äkraC´«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca.

edaycg'bgúaj, mYyEp~keTAVrSgnUvkarKS¨Trd½aPiVlKat'BIsMNak'¨bCaCn, mYyEp~keTot

eTABYksmõnìmit‘ faKat'²tCab'C÷Jk'GÃICamYyCbu"neT, sWg gu"kfan' bgðab'[eFÃIkarsYrqnæ:¨bCaraås‘1 (plébiscite) enA«f© 3 tula(6). Kat'²tVnd·geTfa enAe¨kayx~gKat' rd½mån‘IxÂHkMBugerobcMrMlMKat'.

enA«f© 23 kJïa, es¶csIhnu EdlKS¨TtampÂèvkarnUvneyaVy«nraCrd½aPiVl, VnbJØènelak Xwm

Tit —y"agsm©at'— eTACYbGaCÆaFrVrSg䫨BnKr. «f© 5 tula Ót¶mesnIy LWEK mkdl'«¨BnKr. «f© 16, edaymanvresnIyäk Gußyvar nigTahan²Nëa 3-4 nak' «nT&BGg'eKÂsCUnmkpg, LWEKÂ

mkdl'P~MeBj ehIy[cab'elak sWg gu"kfan' (Edl¨Bm[eKcab'²tmantTl') e¨kamkarecaTfa

\eFÃIskmµPaB¨bqSgnwgBYksmõnõmit‘|. XuMXSg䫨BnKr, sWg gu"kfan' Vn¨tèveKv^nicÏ&yPÂam ehIy

TTYleTaseFÃIkarCaTm©n'k~¬gevla 20 q~S, ehIy²tcºab'sMct (k~¬g¨sukExµr) k~¬gevla 20 q~S. Ca

mYyBrsBæsaFukar «nsk¶i5 VrSg Gußyvar Edl LWEKÂ [emIlxus¨tèvelIvasna¨beTskmõ¬Ca, raC

rd½aPiVlfµémYyVn¨tèvEtgtSgeLIg e¨kamkard·knS«nsem¶cmunIer"t. mÍas'munIBg§ (e¨kaymkraC

TUtenAV"rIs), elak Xwm Tit, jwk CUL¬g, sßum ehog nig va" kamwul enAk~¬genaHEdr. mkdl'«¨BnKr

Vn 3-4 «f©, Ót¶mnavé dah§g'el´I (GKðs~gkar) CYbsem¶cmunIer"t 䫨BnKr, ehIyKUsEx§neya-

VyVrSg[eFÃItam Ð Gnuvt‘n_esck¶IEfÂgkarN_«n«f© 25 mIna 1945 GMBIshB&nì²Nëècin, dak'eLIg

v^jy"agqab'rh&s nUvkarGaNaB´aVl (¨btiktUr"a) VrSg elI¨beTskmõ¬Ca («f© 4 F~è 1945, es¶c

sIhnu ¨Bm[Gnuvt‘n_CabeN¶aHGasn~ nUvsnìisJïanigkicÍsn´a q~S 1863 nig 1884), EtgtSg KN:kmµkareFÃIkicÍsik§aVrSg-ExµrmYy edémºIccareFÃIsnìisJïafµérvag¨beTskmõ¬Ca nig¨beTsVrSg.

bu"En‘bnæab'BIkarcab' sWg gu"kfan' ykeTA, ExµrCae¨cInnak'yl'eXIjfa es¶cVnyk¨beTs

eTA[VrSg. G~kTSgenaHv^nicÏ&yfa kmÂSgCameF´aVyEtmYyedémºIykäkraC´, ehIyk*nSK~acUl«¨B,

xÂHeTA¨BMEdnExµr-esom, xÂHeTA¨BMEdnExµr-yYn. BYkcUl«¨BenHbegûétclnamYyeQµaH\Exµr²s§r:|(7). enATisxageCég Exµr²s§r:TTYlC÷nYyBIrd½aPiVl«f rbs' ¨BiDI P~Myg' (EdlxÂacBYkVrSgeFÃIGn‘ra-

Kmn_mYy k~¬geBlxagmux edémºIykEx¨tExµreTAv^j (Ex¨tEdlesomVnBIsnìisJïa ¨kugtUk´èq~S

1941).

eQµaHBIrelcecjBIclnaenATisxageCégenH

Ð

dab

QYn

nig

ekA

tk'.

cMENkenATisxagtºèg, k~¬gext‘kMBt, elak V"c QWn TTYlC÷nYyBIyYn tamry: sWg «f egÿg(8), bíènrbs'elak sWg gukfan'.

«f© 7 mkra 1946, sem¶cmunIer"t cuHkicͨBme¨BogsMerc \rebobrs'enA| mYy (Modus Vivendi)

CamYyÓt¶mesnIy GaeLH sg'¨DI, s~gkar«nsaFarNrd½ (garfµérbs'er"suIdg' sUßeb"rIy&r). k~¬g

esckI¶rbs' \mUDus véevnDI| enaH (rUbmn‘enHVrSgcUlcit‘Nas', bu"En‘BYkGg'eKÂsfaBiVkrs'enAtam)

¨beTskmõ¬Ca Ca \rd½sÃy&t| enAk~¬gshB&nì²Nëècin (EdlrUbragminTan'cºas'las'enAeLIyeT)

EdlxÂçnägenAk~¬gshPaBVrSgeTot. k~¬gkicÍkar«pæk~¬gsuTì, ¨beTskmõ¬CamanesrIPaBeBjTI. edémºI

[¨beTscab'edéreLIgv^j, VrSgp¶l'C÷nYyelI«pærd½Vl nigbecÍkeTs edaybJØènmknUv \TI¨bwk§a| EdlnwgGb'rMbuKðlikExµr. kgT&BExµr mYynwg¨tèvbegûIteLIg. karbgúat'be¨gonkgT&BenH nwg¨tèvTTYl

bnæ¬kedayKN:ebskkmµeyaFaVrSgmYy(9) e¨kambgðab'TI¨bwk§aVrSgm~ak' Gmrd½mån‘I¨ksYgkarJr


54 ¨beTs. bu"En‘¨ksYgrtnaKar, Ky, sn‘isux, Gen‘a¨bevsn_, TUrKmnaKmn_, Gysµ&yyan .l. enA elI«drd½aPiVlshB&nì

ehIynwg¨tèvelIkeTAGKðs~gkard½an

䫨BnKr.

niyaymYyma"t',

kar

GaNaB´aVl ¨tLb'mkelI¨beTskmõ¬Cav^j, e¨JH \m"UDus v^evnDI| ²tnSGÃIfµémkeLIy, e¨kABIJk´

BIrm"at'. bu"En‘C÷hanEvgmYy k*VneVHeTAmuxEdr Ð KN:kmµkareFÃIkicÍsik§a Vn¨tèveK[bnæ¬keFÃI

KMeragrd½FmµnuJïmYy, e¨KOgEdl¨tèvmanxanBuMVn edémºIbnÄyrebob¨Kb'¨Kgp¶ac'karelIkmun [man

¨bCaFiety´xÂH@. sem¶c \¨kum¨BH| munIer"t ¨bqSgy"agxÂSgnwgKMeragkarenH, edaysMGagfa¨bCa raås¶²tmankarGb'rMneyaVyTal'EtesaH, ehIycg'[¨tLb'mkrbbp¶ac'karv^j — karyl'eXIj Edl¨BHecA¨sbtamEdr.

R

R

R

eyabl'rbs' munIer"t Vn¨tèv¨bqSgedayBYkbJïvn‘ekµg@ ¨bmaN«m¸nak' EdleTIbnwg¨t-

Lb'mkBI¨sukVrSgfµé@ ehIyEdlsuM[begûétsPaep§g@ e¨CéserIsedaykareVHeq~at ¨BmTSgeFÃI

[rbbneyaVyk~¬g¨beTsmanlMnS dUcrbbenAbsÍwm¨beTs KWmanrd½sPa¨tçt¨tard½aPiVl. Ca

mYynwgkit´anuPaB \mkBI¨sukVrSg| rbs'xÂçn, ecHy"agsæat'nUvvak´s&Bæ¨bCaFiety´bsÍwm¨beTs,

BYkenH¨bmUlp¶¬÷Vny"agrh&snUvbJïvn‘k~¬g¨beTs (sm&yenaHsis§v^T´al&ysuIsuvtiÄ), G~kraCkar

TSgGs', ehIyCaBiessbk§BYkelak sWg gu"kfan'. k~¬gcMeNamBYkbJïvn‘mYyk¶ab'enaH eQµaHBIr

Vnelcecjmk Ð Qan v"m nig suIsuvtiÄ yuti‘vg§. bnæab'BIVnd·gGMBIkicÍsn´a VrSg-yYn Edl cuHenAhaNUyk~¬g«f© 6 mInamk (sSgtWnI-hUCémij, GanerOge¨kA¨beTs), mtienAP~MeBjkan'EtTi-

etones¶ceLIg

EdleKbenæasfaVncaj'eVkVrSg.

¨beTskmõ¬CaEdlVnelIkxÂçneTA[VrSg,

²tTTYlmkv^jnUvkM«r dUcEdl hUCémij TajykVnedaye¨bIGavuF. TwkdéExµrEdlVrSg[eTAesom tamsnìisJïa¨kugtUk´è q~S 1941 (ext‘ 5) k*enAEte¨kamGMNacesom, k~¬geBlEdlBYkGg'eKÂs,

tSgBI«f© 1 mkra 1946, VnykBIesomeTA[PUma nig m"aeLsuIv^j nUvTwkdéEdlesomVnkan'kab'.

karminsbºaycit‘manCaTUeTA. sem¶c munIer"t nig¨BHecA sIhnu k*yl'eXIjfa¨tèvEteFÃId÷eNIrmYy

eTA¨sukVrSg edémºIbgúajcMeNaTTSgGs'eTArd½aPiVlVrSg(10).

rd½aPiVl munIer"t ¨tèveKkan'EtBuMcUlcit‘eLIg e¨JHrebobykGMNac k~¬gkar¨Kb'¨Kgrbs'

xÂçn, nigBIe¨JH —tamG~kniBnì hÃIlIB dãvéEl—

karminh~wgnrrbs'xÂçn. VrSgk*cab'KitKUrpÂas'rd½a

PiVlenaH. kareBjcit‘VneTAelIG~k¨sLaj'VrSgm~ak', mÍas' nerat¶m nrinæetC EdlCamam~ak'«n

¨BHecA. mÍas' nrinæetC, edaymanG~kraCkarenAtamext‘KS¨Tpg, kMBug¨bwgE¨bgy"agskmµ tMelIg

KNbk§neyaVymYyeQµaH \KNbk§esrIPaB|. KNbk§enH es~IrbbraCaFibety´mYy Edl eKarBrd½FmµnuJï,

ehIyEdlv^vt‘n_bn‘icm¶g@

eTAkan'¨bCaFibety´,

edayeFÃIkarEkTMrg'e¨cIneLIg@

e¨kamkarÓbtÄm¸ nig \d·knS| rbs'VrSg. eBjcit‘y"agxÂSgnwgEx§neyaVyenH VrSgk*CYytamGac eFÃIVn. eBlecjd÷eNIreTA¨sukVrSg, «f© 13 emsa, ¨BHecA[d·gGMBI Ð karbMVt'ecalk~¬geBl

xagmux nUvraCaFibety´p¶ac'kar. KMeragrd½FmµnuJïmYy nwg¨tèvykeTA[rd½sPabeN¶aHGasn~mYyBi-

nit´. G~keVHeq~atenA¨Kb'XMu«n¨BHraCaNac¨k nwge¨CéserIstamkareVHeq~atedaymincM (suffrage

indirect) nUvG~kd÷Nagk~¬grd½sPabeN¶aHGasn~enaH. raCbJïti‘mYycuH«f© 15 emsa 1946 ebIk[man


55 esrIPaBeFÃIsmaKm,

nigesrIPaBeFÃIkar¨bCu÷u

nigkareXasnak~¬gry:eBlerobcMeVHeq~at.

minyUr

eLIy, KNbk§neyaVy 3 VnekIteLIg Ð KNbk§esrIPaB «nmÍas' nrinæetC, KNbk§eC¯n elOn (bkE¨b) «nmÍas' nerat¶m mu"gtaNa EdlCaBUm~ak'eTot«n¨BHecA(11) nig KNbk§¨bCaFibety´ «nmÍas' sIusuvti‘ yuti‘vg§. KNbk§eC¯nelOn cg'[manrbbraCaFibety´EdleKarBrd½Fmµ-

nuJï dUcKNbk§esrIPaBEdr. cMENkäKNbk§¨bCaFibety´, kmµv^FIneyaVy KWdak'rbb¨bCa

Fibety´ Edlmanrd½sPaCaFM, ehIyCaBiesseTAeTot, KWmankartyuTì (neyaVy) edémºIykäk

raC´eBjTI. KNbk§enH k*TTYly"agqab'rh&s nUvkarKS¨T«nBYkG~kCatiniymTSgGs', nigkarÓbtÄm¸y"agxÂSgBIsMNak'¨BHsgô Edl²tcg'Vn[VrSg¨tLb'mkv^jesaHeLIy.

«f© 31 ÓsPa ¨kum¨bwk§araCanusiTiì (e¨JHes¶cminenA) ¨bkas[e¨bIcºab'eVHeq~atmYy Edl

eroberogeLIgedayKN:kmµkareFÃIkicÍsn´aVrSg-Exµr Ð rd½sPabeN¶aHGasn~ nwg¨tève¨CéstSgeLIg

edaykareVHeq~atCasakl nigedaycMeJH. «f© 1 kJïa 1946 kareVHeq~at CasaklVneFÃIeLIg CaelIkTI1 enA¨beTskmõ¬Ca(12). pæ¬yGMBIlTìplEdlVrSgrg'cS, C&yC÷nHVneTAelIKNbk§¨bCa

Fibety´ EdlVnTTYl 60% «nsemÂgTSgGs'. k~¬gcMnYnekAGI 67 EdlsPaman, 50 VnmkBYk

¨bCaFibety´, 14 VneTABYkesrIPaB nig 3 eTABYkäkq&næ. karC÷nuMTI1 «nrd½sPa VneFÃIeLIgenA «f©

25 kJïa enAcMeJHmux¨BHraCa. sPamin¨BmbMeBjmuxkar¨twmEtBinit´BiPak§acºab', ehIy¨bkas

xÂçneLIg — tampÂèvehtu — CasPaEtgrd½FmµnuJï. mansemÂgPaKe¨cInenAk~¬gsPa, KNbk§¨bCa Fibety´ TamTarykkard·knSrd½aPiVl, EdlCaTmÂab'k~¬g¨beTs¨bCaFibety´bsÍwmTis. Ex F~è

1946, CamYynwgext‘TSg 5 EdlVrSgeTIbnwgykVnBIesommkv^j(13), rd½aPiVlmunIer"t epær

d÷ENgeTArd½aPiVlyuti‘vg§. cMnYneBl 3-4 GaTit´bu"eNöaH Vn¨Kb'¨Kan'dl'rd½aPiVlyuti‘vg§ edémºIbeJÍjKMeragrd½FmµnuJïmYy.

«f© 6 ÓsPa 1947, rd½FmµnuJï Vn¨tèv¨BHraCap¶l'eTA[¨bCaraås‘Exµr. cmÂg¨sbtam

KMeragrd½FmµnuJïVrSg«nq~S1946(14), G~keroberogbEnÄmkareQÃgyl'C÷nan'enaHxÂH dUcCama¨ta 21 Ð

(GMNacTSgGmºalmaNecjmkBI¨BHraCa) nigma¨ta 25 Ð (blÂ&gû«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca Caekr‘−mrtk«n G~ktBUCePT¨bus«n¨BHVTGgðDYg) (bkE¨b). pæ¬ynwgcMNg'rbs'KN:kmµkareFÃIkicÍsik§a, rd½FmµnuJï

enH[GMNacxÂSgNas'eTArd½sPa. BitehIy kard·knSkicÍkarrd½enAelInaykrd½mån‘I Edl¨BHecA EtgtSg, ehIyEdlerIsykrd½mån‘IxÂçnäg. bu"En‘naykrd½mån‘IenH, CamYynwgrd½aPiVlTSgmUl, ¨tèv

TTYlkarTukcit‘BIrd½sPaeTot (EdlmanGaNti‘ 4 q~S). sPaCan'xõs'mYyVn¨tèvbegûéteLIg Ð cmÂg

¨sbtam¨kum¨bwk§asaFarNrd½VrSg,

¨kum¨bwk§a¨BHraCaNac¨kmanEtmuxkarxagBie¨KaH

BiPak§a

suTìsaF elIerOgcºab'. ¨kum¨bwk§aenH mansmaC^ke¨CéstSg nigsmaC^kCab'eq~at (EdleVHeday segÅb) ehIysmaC^kTSgGs'¨tèvmanGayuy"agtic 40 q~S.

eBlEdlxÂçnkMBugEtcab'ep¶émkmµv^FIneyaVyrbs'xÂçn,

KNbk§¨bCaFibety´Vt'bg'mYy

rMeBcnUvG~kd·knSrbs'xÂçn. enA«f© 18 kkûda, mÍas' yuti‘vg§ suKty"agcMElkenAäEkb (eKfa

yuti‘vg§ Vn¨tèveKsmÂab'). kareVHeq~at¨twm¨tèv (e¨JHrd½sPabeN¶aHGasn~) nwg¨tèveFÃIeLIgenAEx

v^cÏika 1947, ¨BHecAnigbk§BYkerobcMtTl'm¶geTot nwgBYk¨bCaFibety´.

e¨bIlºic \EbgEck

semÂg|, ²s§rCnBIrnak'xagBYkes¶c begûétKNbk§neyaVyfµéBIreTot Ð elak jwk-CUL¬g d·knS


56 KNbk§exmrbuNökar (CamYyelak ln' nl', sm sarI, KU run .l.(15), elak Xwm Tit d·knS

KNbk§rYmCati (Union Nationale). bu"En‘karxitxMenH enAEt²tVnpl e¨BaHsemÂgPaKe¨cIn enAEt

VnmkBYk¨bCaFibety´m¶geTot Ð ekAGI 54 k~¬gcMeNamekAGITSgGs' 75. 21 VneTABYkesrIPaB,

cMENkexmrbuNökar nigrYmCati (Union Nationale) ²tVnekAGImYyeLIy. «f© 11 kum¸: 1948 elak

Qan v"m, GKðelxaFikar«nKNbk§¨bCaFibety´, TTYld·knSKN:rd½mån‘I. R

R

R

k~¬geBlEdlG~kneyaVyExµr kMBugeFÃIsågðamKNbk§enAP~MeBj,

Gsn‘isuxVnekItman

eLIgelI«pæ¨beTs. edaykgTahanenAkmõ¬Ca (kgTahan«nshPaBVrSg) Vn¨tèveKbJØèneTA¨suk

yYn edémºICYyVrSgcºSgevotmij, clna²s§r: ¨tçt¨tay"ageBjelj elIPaKxageCég«n¨beTs.

karehA[cuHcUledayelIkElgeTas[ kalBIq~S 1947, VnnSmkEtmnus§ 3-4 nak' Edl

cUlPÂammYyrMeBc k~¬gKNbk§¨bCaFiety´. enAxagtºèg nigenAxagekIt«n¨beTs, BYkevotmij Vn cab'ep¶émtSgTIk~¬g¨sukExµr. CamYynwgBUkExµre¨kamEdlxÂçnbJͬHbJÍèlVn, evotmijbegûét \kgT&B

¨bCaCnExµrrMedaH| (bkE¨b). Exµre¨kamTSgenH nwgVneTACas~èlelIkd÷bUgbgís'«nevotmij enA¨b-

eTskmõ¬Ca. edayVrm¸nwgGsn‘isux Edlkan'EtxÂSgeLIgpg, eday²tGMNacelIkgT&Bpg, eday

BYk¨bCaFibety´Tietonfa sÂèteBkk~¬gkarTamTarpg, ¨BHecAsIhnusMerccit‘suM[VrSgBinit´eLIg

v^j nUvTMnak'TMngVrSg-Exµr. k~¬gsMbu¨tmYycuH«f© 7 v^cÏika 1947 epÆéeTA[rd½aPiVlVrSg, ¨BHecA TamTar[Vn¨tçt¨takan'Ete¨cInelIkgT&B,

nwg[VnsÃ&yPaBkan'EtFMeLIgk~¬gerOgsn‘isuxk~¬g¨b

eTs (VrSgminsUvsbºaycit‘nwgkarelIkElgeTas[BYk²s§r:eT). «f© 5 mifuna 1948 enAqk smu¨T GaL¬g, GKðs~gkarfµé bußlLaEGr cuHkicͨBme¨BogmYyCamYyes¶c Vvday (hUCémijVncUl

«¨BehIy) TTYlsðal'äkraC´«n¨beTsevotNam(16). «f© 25 tula, ¨BHecAsIhnuepÆésMbu¨tmYy

eToteTArd½aPiVlVrSg, TamTarsiTiìep§g@ dUcEdlVrSgVnyl'¨Bm[eTA Vvday. enA{kas buN´tSgtu, «f© 9 v^cÏika 1948, ¨BHecAniyayeTAGKðs~gkar eLGugBIj"¬g GMBIäkraC´, karN_Edl

manCaelIkTI1 Ð \xƬMniyayGMBIäkraC´ BIe¨JHxƬMeCOCak'fa Jk´enHCakUnesaedaH¨saycMeNaTTSg

Gs'rbs'eyIg.|ùùù

karN_EdlVrSg²tyl'GÃIesaH GMBIkarTamTarTSgenH, VnCYyelIk[kan'Etxõs'eLIgnUv

kit´anuPaB«nKNbk§¨bCaFiety´ EdlelgsnÂwkeboCatiniym. cab'tSgBIq~S 1948, BYktMNag

raås¶¨bCaFibety´ pæb'cºab'TSgGs' Edles¶cdak'mkrd½sPa. kartTl'K~arvag \niti| nig \¨bti-

bti‘|,

laynwgkarkan'bk§BYkk~¬gKNbk§¨bCaFibety´

eFÃI[manv^bti‘KN:rd½mån‘I

(rd½aPiVl

Qan v"m, rd½aPiVl Eb"n nut .l.ùùù) edayBuMGacQ~HBYk¨bCaFibety´k~¬gkareVHeq~at, es¶ce¨bI lºicmYyeTot Ð eFÃI[man \karEbkecj| enAk~¬g«pæKNbk§enaHEtm¶g. KW \G~kEbkecj| m~ak'BI

KNbk§¨bCaFibety´, elak Ey"m sMbUr, EdlVnTTYlkard·knSrd½aPiVlenAExkum¸: 1949. rd½a PiVl Ey"m sMbUr cab'ep¶émkicÍkark~¬geBlBiVkbn‘ic e¨JHfaenA«f© 21 ÓsPa 1949, rd½sPa

VrSgVneVHeq~atsMercPØab' kUsSgsuIn eTA¨beTsevotNam eday²tVnBie¨KaHCamun CamYy¨b

eTskmõ¬Ca(17), ehIyeday²tmaneFÃIlkÅn‘ik:BiessGÃI[dl'Exµrkmõ¬Cae¨kam (eTaHbI¨BHecAVnTam


57 TarCae¨cIndgmkehIyk¶I). kar¨bqSg«nrd½sPacMeJHrd½aPiVl k*ecjmuxxÂSgkÂaPÂam. elIsBIenaH,

elak Ey"m sMbUr TTYlekr‘−dMENl«nrd½aPiVlmun@ nUvcMeNaTFM2 Ð erOg²s§r: nigerOgevotmij.

edayxÃHkgTahanedémºIbågûabBYkTSgenaH, rd½aPiVleFÃIkarGMJvnavmYydl'clna²s§r: edémºIkar

rYbrYmK~a«nExµrTSgGs' eqõaHmuxeTABYkevotmij, ehIyFanafanwgelIkElgeTas[TSgGs' dUckalBI

mun. ExkJïa 1949, elak Ey"m sMbUr TTYlC&yC÷nHmYy CamYykarsMucuHcUl«nem²s§r: dab QYn

EdlnSmknUvBlCae¨cInJn'nak' (karcuHcUlenH VneFÃI[VrSgElgTukcit‘elIelak Ey"m sMbUr).

edayC÷hrVnrwgbwug BIkarcuHcUlrbs' dab QYn, ¨BHecAcab'ccarCamYyVrSgeTot. «f© 8 v^cÏika 1949, CamYyK~anwgkarcuHhtÄelxayl'¨BmelIrd½FmµnuJïExµr eday¨bFan«nshPaBVrSg (¨bFa

naFibtI¨beTsVrSg),

snìisJïaVrSg-Exµr

mYyk*Vn¨tèveFÃIeLIgEdr.

snìisJïaenHTTYlsðal',

tampÂèvcºab'nUv \äkraC´\ «n¨beTskmõ¬Ca. \saFarNrd½VrSgTTYlsðal'¨BHraCaNac¨k¨kugkmõ¬Ca

Card½äkraC´.\, eKGacGank~¬gma¨ta 1 «nsnìisJïaenH. bu"En‘ cuHmke¨kammk, karbgÅabgÅSgecHEt

maneLIg Ð ¨beTskmõ¬CanwgGacdak'cMNgTUtCamYy¨beTsäeTotVn(18) Tal'Etrd½aPiVlVrSg

yl'¨Bm. ExµrTTYlkar¨tçt¨taelIkgT&B nignKrVl, bu"En‘k~¬geBlNamansågðam bJØakarTahan ¨tèvdak'mke¨kamVrSgv^j. CnCatiVrSgk~¬g¨sukExµr enAEtmanGP&yäksiTìiBiess dUcCaminenA e¨kamcºab'rbs'rd½Exµr.l.

edaysµanEtVnTTYlC&yC÷nHmYyeTot, elak Ey"m sMbUr yksnìisJïaeTArd½sPa edémºI

sMukaryl'¨Bm. rd½sPa min¨twmEtminyl'¨Bm, EfmTSgeVHeq~atdkesckI¶Tukcit‘BIrd½aPiVleTot, e¨kamkarC÷ruj«nBYktMNagraås‘ ¨bCaFibety´ EdlecaTfard½aPiVlVnkºt'. edaytUccit‘Edr, elak Ey"m sMbUr suM[rd½sPadkesckI¶minTukcit‘enaHeTAv^j, ebIBuMenaHeT nwgsuM[¨BHraCarMlay. rd½sPaenAEth~wgdEdl, Ey"m sMbUr eFÃI[es¶cyl'¨BmrMlay, ehIyk*suMlaQb'CamYyrd½aPiVl

TSgmUl. CaelIkd÷bUgbgís', ¨BHecA nerat¶m sIhnu e¨bIma¨ta 21 (GMNacTSgGs'GmºalmaN

ecjmkBI¨BHraCa) ehIycuHraC¨kwt´mYy rMlayrd½sPa(19). edémºIrg'cSkareVHeq~atfµé, GMNacTSg bu"nµanVn¨tèvepærmkes¶cv^jeday¨bFanrd½sPa, elak eGov ekIs (GKðelxaFikar KNbk§¨bCa

Fibety´C÷nYselak Qan v"m) Edlyl'eXIjfa Gsn‘isuxEdlmanenAk~¬g¨beTs BuMGac[kar

eVHeq~ateFÃIeTAedayerobryVneLIy. edaysMKal'fa snìisJïa«f© 8 v^cÏika CaeCaKC&yelIkd÷bUg

k~¬gkicÍccarTarykäkraC´, ¨BHecAehAelak Ey"m sMbUr mkeFÃICanaykrd½mån‘Iv^j ehIy \GnuJïati‘|

[d·knSrd½aPiVl edayminVc'manrd½sPa. elak Ey"m sMbUr fÃédºitEtminVneFÃI[rd½sPayl'

¨BmTTYlsnìisJïa«f© 8 v^cÏika, k*enAEtbn‘kicÍccarCamYyVrSgeTot, ehIycab'niyayK~a GMBIrebob cat'EcgkarGnuvt‘n_. mind·gCamkBIehtuGÃIEdr, VrSg¨sab'EtdkykeTAv^j nUvkaryl'¨BmxÂHEdl

xÂçnVn[elIerOgtulakar nigerOgkgT&B.

R

R

R

k~¬geBlEdlkicÍccarkMBugeFÃIeTATSg¨tdab¨tdYs, BYkevotmijk*xMB¨g·gtSgTIrbs'xÂçnenA¨b-

eTskmõ¬CaEdr. tamry: \kgT&B¨bCaCnExµrrMedaH| EdlenAe¨kambJØakar sWg gu"kmij ehIyEdl

bJͬHbJÍèlVnExµr²s§r:xÂHenaH(20),

evotmij¨bkaskarekIteLIg«n

\rNsir§CatirYbrYmK~a«nExµr


58 esrI, FNUK|. «f© 14 mkra 1950 enAP~MeBj, G~kd·knS¨bCaFibety´ eGov ekIs Vn¨tèveK

smÂab'nwg¨Kab'Ebk«dmYy, enAk~¬gTIs~ak'karKNbk§. kar¨bqSg«nBYk¨bCaFibety´Tl'nwgelak

Ey"m sMbUr k*kan'EtxÂSgeLIg@. karrMeCébrMCYlmanrhUteTAdl'k~¬gv^T´al&y. rd½aPiVl¨tèvehAkg

rk§a²Nëècin

(eCégexµA)

mkbågûabBYkEdleFÃI[¨Cçl¨cbl'.

ExmIna

1950,

sWg

gu"kmij(21)

\GeJØIj\ KN:kmµakar¨btibti‘evotmij «n Nam-bU (kUsSgsIun) [xM¨bwgE¨bgCamYy \kgT&B¨bCa CnExµrrMedaH\ edémºItyuTìnwgc¨kBti‘niymVrSg, ehIy¨bkaskarbegûét \rd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~«n

kmõ¬CaesrI\. Gsn‘isux k*eLIgdl'kMritxõs'bMput. cracrtampÂèvCatinana ¨tèveFÃIeLIge¨kamkarkarJr

«nkºçnrfyn‘Tahan (kugv&r). enAtam¨sukE¨scMkar, BYk²s§r: - evotmij ¨tçt¨tadUcCard½aPiVl

\Tnæwm| mYyEdr(22). bN¶aCn¨tèvbg'BnìGakrmYyeTA[ \kgT&B¨bCaCn| tamry:KN:kmµkarhirJï vtĬmYyrbs' \kgT&B| enH. cMeJHmuxsÄankarN_KYr[P&yVrm¸enH Ey"m sMbUr etOnVrSg[qab'

p¶l'GavuFyuTìP&Në¨Kb'¨Kan' edémºIEknTahan 5 000 nak'. dac'Exemsa, edémºIeqÂIytbnwg \esck¶I

GeJØIj| rbs' sWg gu"kmij, Tahan 3 000 nak' «nkgT&BEmnETnrbs'evotmij «n Nam-bU pÂas' mktSgTIk~¬gext‘«¨BEvg. edayP&yVrm¸, VrSgTamTar[elak Ey"m sMbUr cuHhtÄelxaelIkicͨBm

e¨BogbeN¶aHGasn~mYy dak'kgexmrPUminæe¨kambJØakarVrSg. Ey"m sMbUr min¨Bm, VrSgbgÅ^tbgÅ÷

¨BHraCa[pÂas'rd½aPiVl. edaymYycMENkeTot karbgÅ^tbgÅ÷dUcK~aenH es¶cVnTTYlBIsMNak'BYk ¨bCaFibety´Edr —EdleqHqYlxÂSgbnæab'BIXadkmµelIelak eGov ekIs— es¶ck*bJÎb'rd½aPiVl Ey"m sMbUr eTA, enA«f© 3 ÓsPa 1950.

bnæab'mk k*manry:eBlCad÷Nak'mYy BIq~S 1950(23) eTAq~S 1951 EdlenAk~¬genaH v^bti‘

KN:rd½mån‘I ekItmanCabn‘bnæab'K~a (mÍas' \¨kumhÂçg| munIBg§, evCØbNëit sun m"m, elak Guß÷ Qag

sußn). k~¬gry:eBlenaH, ¨BHecAxMniyayp§Hp§ar[Vt'xwgsmºar ¨bEk¨bkan'K~a, ehIyxMBn´l'[

KNbk§TSgGs' cUlrYbrYmK~ak~¬grd½aPiVlb¨gçbb¨gçmCatimYy e¨kamkard·knS«nelak Ey"m sMbUr,

bu"En‘²tVnkareLIy. kareVHeq~atenA«f© 5 kJïa 1951 [C&yC÷nHm¶geTot, CaelIkTI3 Cab'K~a, eTA KNbk§¨bCaFibety´ Ð 54 ekAGI k~¬gcMnYnekAGITSgGs' 78, Tl'nwg 18 eTAKNbk§esrIPaB.

«f© 12 tula, rd½aPiVl¨bCaFibety´ «nelak hßuy knì¬l TTYlesck¶ITukcit‘BIrd½sPa. Cafµém¶g eTot kartTl'K~arvag niti nig ¨btibti‘ k*cab'ep¶émeLIg(24).

CamYynwgkarsgôwmfa nwgVnG~k \kN¶al| m~ak' EdlGacCECkCamYyBYk¨bCaFibety´

¨BmTSgbJͬHbJÍèlBYk²s§r: Tl'nwgevotmij, ¨BHecAsuM[VrSgElgelak sWg gu"kfan' mkv^j,

EdleKbMbrbg'enAä¨sukVrSg. «f© 29 tula, elak sWg gu"kfan' mkdl'P~MeBj, TTYledayG~kKS

¨T 5 000 nak' EdlsbºayrIkrayy"agxÂSg. eTaHbIKat'Vnsn´a (tamG~kxÂHfa) fanwgmin¨bLèk

k~¬gerOgneyaVyk*eday, sWg gu"kfan' cab'eFÃIsaCafµé nUvkarBn´¬H[¨bqSgnwgVrSg. edémºIkicÍenH,

Kat'begûétsarBátmanmYyenAP~MeBj eQµaH \Exµre¨kak|, ehIyeFÃIkareXasnaenAtamext‘. k~¬gkicÍ

snænaCasaFarN:mYyenA¨kugtaEkv, elak sWg gu"kfan' Edlmanelak V"c QWn (rd½mån‘I¨ksYg eXasnakar«nrd½aPiVl hußy knì¬l) CUnmkpg, beJÍjcMNgeCég«nkartyuTìrbs'Kat' РǨb

eTskmõ¬Ca¨tèvTamTar[VrSgdkT&BxÂçnecjeTATSgGs', eTIbGaceFÃI[manäkraC´eBjTI nwg[Cév^t neyaVyedérdUcFmµtav^jÈ. VrSgv^nicÏ&yfa skmµPaBelak sWg gu"kfan' Gac[e¨KaHf~ak'dl'


59 sn‘isuxxÂçn (GFibtIPaB), k*[biTsarBátman Exµre¨kak enAExkum¸: 1952. sWg gu"kfan' k*e¨Cés

erIsmaKáaEdlenAsl' Ð cUl«¨B(25). «f© 9 mIna, EdlCa«f©xYb äkraC´ cMeJHG~kbegûét sarBátman

nKrvt‘ nig Exµre¨kak, sWg gu"kfan' eFÃIesck¶IGMJvnavdl'¨beTs [kan'GavuF¨byuTì ykäkraC´, tamsMelgsÄanIyv^T´¬lYclak'mYy(26) enAP~MdgErk. edaymanG~kraCkarxagKym~ak'y"agsÃahab'

—elak eGov suIcUv— CYyeFÃIkarpg, sWg gu"kfan' xM¨bEm¨bmUlBYk¨kum²s§r: EdlminTan'cuHcUl

nwgraCrd½aPiVlenAeLIy (man ekA tk' Caedém), ehIybegéûtKN:kmµkarExµrrMedaHCatimYyeTot. minyUreLIy, karsuß÷¨KlMK~ak*ekItmaneLIg rvagKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ nig clna²s§r:. tSgEtBI

ekItmk raCaFibety´BuMEdlTTYlkarKMramkMEhgdUec~HeLIy. edémºIC÷ruj[rd½aPiVl hußy knì¬l

TmÂak'eborbs'xÂçn, ¨BHecA¨Vb'rd½aPiVl[cat'v^FankarN_CacSVc' Tl'nwgclna²s§r:. min¨twm

EtmineFÃItames¶c, elak hußy knì¬l EfmTSg[cab'mit‘es¶cBIrnak'eTot Ð elak Ey"m sMbUr nig

ln'

nl'.

1-edayecaTBYktMNagraås‘¨bCaFibety´

fa¨cLMyk¨beyaCn_KNbk§xÂçn

Ca

¨beyaCn_¨beTsxÂçn, 2-ykelselIkarcab'elak Ey"m sMbUr nig ln' nl', ¨BHecAbJÎb' rd½aPiVl hußy knì¬l enA«f© 15 mifuna 1952, ehIykan'naTInaykrd½mån‘IxÂçnäg.

bnæab'BI \rd½¨bhar¨tèvcºab'| enHmk, ¨BHecAsuMeTArd½sPa[Gnumti‘¨bKl'mknUvGMNacBi-

essk~¬gevlabIq~S,

edaysn´afanwgykäkraC´eBjTI[Vnk~¬gry:eBlbIq~SenH.

edémºITl'nwg

clna²s§r:, es¶cdak'eTArd½sPanUvKMeragfv^kamYyEdl 30% Tukd÷kl'Tije¨KOgGavuF, ehIyEdl

suMtMelIgBnìGakrTSgLay. esck¶IsuMenHeFÃIeTArd½sPaehIy, es¶cecjeTAesomrab ehIynSGtIt em²s§r: dab QYn eFÃI¨btibti‘karmYyrkcab' sWg gu"kfan'. enAd÷Nac'q~S 1952 ¨BHecA¨tLb'mk P~MeBjv^j eday²tVneCaKC&yGÃIeLIy. k~¬graCFanI ¨BHecAVnd·gfa rd½sPaVnTat'ecalTSg

Gs'nUvkarsuM[TTYlsnìisJïa «f© 8 v^cÏika 1949 sMNuMGMNacBiess nwgKMeragfv^kar. elIsBI

enH BYkrd½mån‘I (Edle¨cInEt¨kumjati‘es¶c Ð mÍas' sug edt, sirimt:, eb"geV"HyuKnìr .l. ¨Vb' es¶c[d·gBIkarbMrugkºt'mYyEdlcg'rMlayraCaFiety´.

karrMeCébrMCYlk*VneTAdl'BYksis§v^T´a

l&yeTot EdlnSK~aeFÃIkUdkmµ cab'tSgBI«f© 8 F~è 1952, kUdkmµEdlCab'rhUtCagmYyEx. elIkenH

¨BHecAe¨bIJk´ecaT 3 Ð 1- faBYk¨bCaFibety´xÂHTak'Tgnwgevotmij(27), 2- faKN:kmµkar nayk«nKNbk§¨bCaFiety´Vnbegûét \KNkmµkareFÃIXatkmµ| mYy (tMNagraås¶ 9 nak' Vn¨tèv

cab'XuMXSg), 3- faeKe¨bIhibkarTUtrbs'Vgkk edémºITak'Tgnwg sWg gu"kfan'. rYcehIy es¶ck*e¨bI

CaelIkTI2 nUvma¨taTI 21 «nrd½FmµnuJï, edaycuHraC¨kwt´mYyrMlayrd½sPaenA«f© 13 mkra 1953

(28)

nig¨kwt´mYyeTot¨bkase¨bIcºab'GaCÆaswk enA«f©CamYyK~a.

niyayeTAkan'G~ksarBátmanm~ak', ¨BHecAfa Ð \rd½sPaVnkÂayeTACaTIC÷rkrbs'karkºt'.

ebIVrSgecjBI²Nëècin eyIgnwgVnäkraC´, ¨VkdehIy, b"uEn‘Vnbu"nµanq~S? xƬMeFÃIsh¨btibti‘karpÂèv

swkCamYyVrSg edémºIkarJresrIPaBeyIg. k~¬geBlCamYyK~a xƬMccarCamYyVrSgk~¬gbriyakas

mYyesµaH¨tg' edémºIedaH¨sayTMnas'xÂH. enHCaC÷hrrbs'xƬM!| (sarBátman \LWmu"g|), «f© 18-19

mkra 1953). edayyWtCagq©aye¨kayBYk¨bCaFiety´ EdlCaKU¨bECg, es¶ceTIbnwgyl'n&yBit

¨Vkdrbs'bMNg«n¨bCaraås‘ Ð äkraC´! . edémºI¨bEm¨bmUlTak'Taj¨bCaraås‘, es¶cenAsl'Et

meF´aVymYyeT,

KW¨tèvEtrk[VnnUväkraC´enH.

BuMenaHesat

raCaFiety´nwg¨tèvVt'bg'eday


60 ecosBuMrYc ebIsinCaclnaExµr²s§r: (CamYy sWg gu"kfan' nig KN:kmµkarExµrrMedaHCati) É clna

Exµr-evotmij (CamYynwg sWg gu"kmij nigrd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~«nkmõ¬CaesrI) deN¶émykäkraC´

Vnmun.

R

R

R

dUc hUCémij Edr, ¨BHecAcg'ccarykäkraC´enH q©ayBIbriyakasGaNaniKmniym. «f© 9

kum¸: 1953, bnæab'BIVnepærtMENgnaykrd½mån‘IeTAelak Eb"n nut nigdak'¨kum¨bwk§araCanusiTiì e¨kam

kard·knSrbs'sem¶c nerat¶m sura¨mit Edl¨tèvCaÒBuk, ¨BHVT sIhnu ecjBIP~MeBjeTA¨sukV-

rSg. KWCakarcab'ep¶émry:eBl¨bvti¶saås¶ EdlBYkG~kneyaVysgðmraås¶niymVndak'eQµaHfa

\¨BHraCbUCnIykmµedémºIäkraC´|. tSgBIeBlcuHsMctenA¨kugrU"m, ¨BHecAepÆésarmYyeTAelak vuSg sg' GUrIy"Ul (¨bFanaFitITI1 «nsaFarNrd½TI4 VrSg) bgúajkaryl'eXIj«n¨BHecA elIkareFÃI[

manäkraC´enA¨beTskmõ¬Ca. mkdl'¨sukVrSg ¨BHVTsIhnus~ak'enAä LaNaBUl (kUtdah§ç)

ehIyepÆéBITIenaH nUvsMbu¨tCae¨cIneTA vuSgsg' GUrIy"Ul, TamTar[epærGMNacTahan nigtulakar

mkExµrv^j. «f© 25 mIna eTIbeKTTYl¨BHraCaenAv^man eGlIeh§. kicÍsnæna sIhnu-GUrIy"Ul ²tecj

CaGÃITSgGs', e¨JHGUrIy"UleFÃICamin¾Etm¶g. ¨tLb'mkenAä hìgEtnbÂè, ¨BHecAxMeFÃI[kicÍccareTAmux

eLIgv^j, edayTak'TgnwgG~kTTYlxus¨tèvVrSgCae¨cIn. bu"En‘karTamTarTSgenH ²tVn¨tèveKTTYl

¾eLIy.

edaytUccit‘Edr, ¨BHecAnwkeXIjdl'shrd½Gaemrik EdlCaG~kp¶l'GavuFe¨cInCageK (bnæab'

BIcinVnkÂayeTACakumµ¬ynis‘) dl'T&BVrSgenA²Nëècin. bnæab'BIVnTukshkarImYycMnYn [enAcSeFÃI

kicÍccarCamYyVrSg (elak Eb"n nut nig sm sarI), ¨BHraCaVnmkdl' mu"ger"Gal' enA«f© 12 emsa 1953, ehIys~ak'enA kaNada mYyGaTit´ edémºIeFÃI[BYksarBátman kaNada ¨Cçt¨CabxÂH GM BIerOgExµr. «f© 19 emsa ¨BHVTsIhnuVn¨tèvTTYlenA va"sIugetan edayelak rIeQIt nicsun

(Gnu¨bFanaFibtIGaemrikSg).

bnæab'mk

¨BHecACYbsnænak~¬geBlmYyem"ag

CamYyrd½elxaFikar

dlÂws. eTAem«nkicÍkarTUtGaemrikSg ¨BHecAniyayfa Ð \ebIminrkkaredaH¨sayxagpÂèvneyaVy

eT kar¨bwgE¨bgxageyaFa, eTaHbIGaemrikSgCYyem¶ck*eday, k*nwgminGacQ~HEdr. C&yC÷nH minGac ykVneLIy ebI¨bCaraås‘mincUlrYmk~¬gkartyuTì edaymanC÷enOfaxÂçntyuTìedémºI¨beyaCn_xÂçn. [

äkraC´Bit¨Vkddl'¨beTsTSgLayenA²Nëècin KWeFÃI[¨beTsTSgenHyl'kan'Etcºas' dl'kar

TTYlxus¨tèvrbs'xÂçnk~¬gsågðamenH, sågðamEdlkarQ~Hcaj' TTYlykcit‘Tukdak' BIelak¨bCaFib

ety´TSgmUl.| cemÂIyrbs' dlÂws Ð \TUlbgð÷sn´anwg¨BHGgðfa kalNae¨KaHf~ak'kumµ¬ynis‘Gs' BI¨beTs¨BHGgðehIy,

eyIgnwgeFÃIGIÃTSgGs'EdlGaceFÃIeTAVn

edémºI[VrSgTTYlsðal'äkraC´

y"ageBjeljrbs' (¨beTs) ¨BHGgð. bu"En‘drabNas¨tèvrYmrbs'eyIg (evotmij) minTan'braC&y eT –– ehIy¨BHGgð¨Cabcºas'favamansmtÄPaB nigeVskMcat'ecalraCaFibety´Exµr ¨BmTSg TMenomTMlab'd*¨tkalrbs' (¨beTs) ¨BHGgð, GariyFám d*cas'yUrGEgÃg ehIynig¨bCaFiety´d*

ekµgrbs'¨BHGgð — drabNae¨KaHf~ak'd*FMenH EdlGacCae¨KaHf~ak'dl'Cév^trbs' (¨beTs) ¨BHGgð

minTan'kMcat'VneT eyIgminGaceFÃI[VrSgGs'cit‘Gs'kmÂSgVneLIy (ùùù). TMnas'rvag¨BHGgðnig


61 VrSg nwgbMerIEt¨beyaCn_s¨tèvrYmeyIgeT.| (¨sg'ecjBI \neyaVye¨kA¨beTskmõ¬Ca| eday rU"eh§sµif).

edayGaemrikSglaypl¨beyaCn_xÂçn

CamYypl¨beyaCn_VrSg,

¨BHecAk*Vnxkcit‘m¶g

eTot. munnwgecjBIjèvy"kmkP~MeBjv^j edaykat'tamtUk´è ¨BHecAeFÃIesck¶IEfÂgkarN_mYyeTAsar

Bátmanjèvy"kEfm Ð tSgBIbu"nµanq~SmkehIy, KMnitfaevotmijtyuTìedémºIäkraC´«n¨beTs kan'Et

maneKeC¯e¨cIneLIg k~¬gBBYkvrCnExµr. ebIVrSgmin[äkraC´kan'Ete¨cIneLIgenAExµreT, k~¬g 3-4 Ex

xagmuxenH ExµrGacrYbrYmEmnETnCamYyevotmij. esck¶IEfÂgkarN_enH eFÃI[eKPÆak'epíél¨Kb'K~ak~¬g cMeNamG~kneyaVyVrSg, ehIyxÂHE¨skfaCa \kSbitPØg'k| (chantage). bnæab'BIkarKMramenH, VrSgbnæn'²riyabfbn‘ic, ehIykicÍccarVrSg-Exµr k*cab'eFÃIeLIgv^j enAd÷Nac'Exemsa. «f© 9 ÓsPa

1953, elak Eb"n nut nigelak d·mu"gEsl, rd½mån‘I¨ksYgshKtrd½, cuHkicͨBme¨Bog VrSg-Exµr

mYy EdlenAk~¬genaH ExµrenAEtminVnTTYl[eBjcit‘EmnETn. VrSgmin¨Bm[es¶ceFÃI CaGKðem

bJØakar kgkmÂSg¨bqSgevotmij edaymanÓt¶mesnIyVrSgm~ak'CaTI¨bwk§a, bu"En‘¨BmTuk[enAe¨kam

karTTYlxus¨tèveBjTI«nkgexmrPUminæ PUmiPaKTSgLay EdlenAxaglicTenÂemKgð (ehAPUmiPaK

sÃy&t). cMENkEdndéEdlenAcenÂaHTenÂemKgð nig¨BMEdnExµr-yYn (EdlenAk~¬genaH evotmijdak'T&B

Cag 10 000 nak') TIbJØakarVrSgTuksMrab'xÂçn (kgT&BExµrman 12 kgvresnatUc Edl 6 Carbs'

VrSg). cinenA¨sukExµrcUlmke¨kamnitibJïti‘Exµr bu"En‘CnCatiVrSgenAEtmanGP&yäksiTiì mincUl

e¨kamcºab'ExµreTot. karTas'ExÃgK~a elIerOghirJïvtĬ nigesd½kicÍ enAsl'TSg¨sug, ehIyTas'kan'

EtxÂSgeTAeTot edayrd½aPiVlVrSg sMercEtm~ak'äg enA«f© 11 ÓsPa [bJͬHt«m¨Vk' \b´a"s|

EdlcayCamYyK~ak~¬g¨beTsTSg3 «n²Nëècin (Ganelxeyag 23)

«f© 12 mifuna, bnæab'BIVnepærd÷ENgTSgGs'm¶geTot eTAelak Eb"n nut, ¨BHecAsMerccit‘

eTAVgkk ehIyb"genATIenaH edémºIbegûétrd½aPiVle¨kA¨beTs (en exil) mYy. «f© 16, edaymanG~k mk CamYy 26 nak'pg (k~¬genaHmanmÍas' suIsuvti‘ sirImt:, rd½mån‘I¨ksYgkarJr¨beTs), ¨BHecAmk

dl'Vgkk TTYledayÓt¶mesnIy pav ¨sIya"Nn, emnKrVl«f. enAP~MeBj, e¨kayeBles¶c

ecjd÷eNIr, v^T´¬Catip§aysarrbs'¨BHecAeTAVrSg Ð \edaycg'ecosvagcmºSg É karbHeVrTl'

nwg¨beTsVrSg —cmºSg É karbHeVrEdlExµrkan'Ete¨cIneLIg@ cg'eFÃI— xƬMcakecjBImatuPUmi edémºIyk[VnnUväkraC´Edl¨bCaCatiExµrcg'Vn,

edaymincSVc'[karTak'TgCaPatrPaBCamYy

¨beTsVrSgmane¨KaHf~ak'CasÄaBreLIy. ¨beTsVrSgeFÃI[eKyl'eXIj, tamGakbºkiriyanigkar

raErkrbs'xÂçn, faxÂçnmincg'[eLIy eTaHk~¬gbcͬbºn~ eTaHk~¬gGnaKt nUväkraC´Bit¨Vkd, EdlCavtĬ

EtmYyGaceFÃICaedémTI «nsh¨bti‘bti‘karpÂèvswkd*esµaH nigEdlman¨beyaCn_ rvag¨beTseyIgTSg2 ehIyedémºIksagkarrYbrYmrbs'eyIg k~¬gshPaBVrSg.

enA¨beTs«f, ¨BHecA EdlGaCÆaFr«fsMKal'faCaG~kePosxÂçnneyaVy Vn¨tèvesomham

min[eFÃIskmµPaBneyaVyGÃITSgGs'. ¨BHVTsIhnu ¨BmTSgG~keTACamYy k*¨tLb'mkVt'd÷bg v^j EdlVnTTYlsÃ&yPaBehIy. k~¬gcenÂaHeBlenaH enAP~MeBj, sPaBtantwg k*ekItmaneLIgrvag

ExµrnigVrSg. Ót¶mesnIy dãLg'kÂat, embJØakarT&BeCégeKakenAkmõ¬Ca, ehAkgTahanC÷nYymkBI ¨sukyYn edémºIkarJrsuIv^lVrSg ¨bmaN 600 nak' eTA¨sukExµr. kgkarJr«nshPaBEdlman


62 VrSg, yYn, m"arU"kSg nigGal'eh§rIyag nigmankgkSePÂIgFM cSCYyKS¨Tpg, rayK~adak'¨Kb'kEnÂgyuTì saås¶enA¨kugP~MeBj. cMENkxagExµr, kgTahan«nvresnIy¨tI But qay (GtItem²s§r:cuHcUlBIEx

ÓsPa 1953) kan'kab'GaKarraCkarTSgGs'.

BI¨kugVt'd÷bg ¨BHecA¨Vb'VrSgfard½aPiVlExµrTat'ecalkicͨBme¨Bog «f© 6 ÓsPa ehIy

suM[eFÃIkicÍccarfµé Edlk~¬genaH ExµrTamTarlkÅn‘ik:mYydUc \dUmInIj"¬g| rbs'¨beTsV"KIs‘g' cMeJH

mux¨beTsGg'eKÂs. «f© 2 kkûda ¨BHraCaGMJvnavtamraCsarmYyeTA¨bCaCati ehA¨bmUlkmÂSgrs'

revékTSgGs'«n¨beTs edémºIcSrk§aTukäkraC´ edaybegûét kgCévBl nig narIkÂahan . PÂammYy

rMeBc bursnignarI 20 000 nak' eqÂIytbnwgkarGMJvnavenH, ehIy¨bCu÷K~aenA¨kugesomrab nig

Vt'd÷bg. EsíkeLIg«f© 3 kkûda, rd½aPiVlVrSgrbs' LanIEjl ¨bCu÷KN:rd½mån‘I ehIy[kMNt' kicÍmYyeTAGKðs~gkar¨bcSsmaKtrd½TSgbI,

EdlenAk~¬genaHrd½aPiVlVrSges~Ifanwg[

äkraC´

e¨kaykicÍccarfµéeTot. edémºIbgúajsuqnæ:rbs'xÂçn VrSgdak'G~kkarTUtm~ak', m"UrIs dãh§g', CaGKð

s~gkarenA²Nëècin. k~¬gbriyakasmYyEdltwgEdr, kicÍccarVrSg-Exµr cab'eFÃIeLIgenA«f© 31 kkûda

enAP~MeBj rvagelak Eb"n nut nigelak dãh§g'. kicÍccarenH VnecjCakar¨Bme¨BogCaelIk d÷bUgmYy enA«f© 9 sIha, elIkarepærmkExµrv^jnUvGMNactulakar nignKrVl. «f© 17 tula 1953,

esna¨bmux h§èß va"g, k~¬gzan:CatMNag«nkgT&BVrSg, eFÃIBiFIepærGMNacTahanmk¨beTskmõ¬Ca,

ehIybgúètcuHmkCasÄaBrnUvTg'CatiVrSg, kicÍEdlbJÍb' 90 q~S«nGaNaniKmkmµrbs'VrSg. «f© 8

v^cÏika 1953, ¨BHecAsIhnu eFÃId÷eNIrcUld*maneCaKC&yk~¬g¨kugP~MeBj, ehIysm&ymYyeTotk*cab'

ebIkTMB&reLIg, sm&ysgðmraås‘niym(29) sm&y«nGMNacpæal'xÂçn. ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


63

GFibºay (1)

erOgstÃesk nig erOgkUncab Edlsem¶csIhnuEfÂgk~¬g \²Nëècin eXIjBIeb"kSg| bJÍSg

(2)

elak V"c QWn Vn¨tèveK (Cbu"n) edaHElgBIekaH¨tLac e¨kayBIVnCab'XuMXSgcMnYnBIr

ya"gcºas'nUvsÄanPaBenH.

q~S. k~¬gesovePA \kmõ¬Cak~¬gsågðamenAGasIuPaKGeK~y_| Lwk ehatan' nig ma"lxum xat'Evl

sresrfa elakGacar´ ecov EdlCab'CamYyK~anwgelak V"c QWn VnsuKt \e¨kamTaruN

(3)

kmµ ÉedayeKykeTA¨bharCév^t|.

BYkEdltTl'nwgraCaFibety´enH EbkCaBIrcMENkeTAeTot : BYkTI1, EdleKVnehAfaBYk \xags¶S|, ¨bmUlp¶¬÷G~kEdlVneCaKCSe¨cIn nwgt«mÂbsÍwmTis ehIyEdlcg'eXIj¨beTs

xÂçn mansÄab&nneyaVynigsgðmkicÍ dUcEdlmanenAbsÍwm¨beTs. BYkTI2, \xageqÃg| Ca nimit‘rUb«nkarbHeVrrbs'TÃIbGasIuTl'nwgbsÍwmTis. mnus§EdlenAk~¬gBYkTI 2 enH e¨cInEt

VnTTYlcMeNHv^CØa nigkarGb'rMenAbsÍwm¨beTs. bu"En‘G~kTSgenH Tat'ecalTSg¨sugnUvt«mÂ

bsÍwm¨beTs EdlxÂçnyl'faCaedémehtu «nkarBukrlYynig¨TuDe¨Tamrbs'sgðmxÂçn. BYk

(4)

enHCakmÂSg«nrbbrYmsMVc'enAGasuI.

e¨bob¨bdUceTA¨beTsevotNam rd½karGaNaniKmVn¨Begéyken‘IyTSg¨sug cMeJHkarGb'rM

enA¨beTskmõ¬Ca. enAq~S 1939 eBlEdl¨beTskmõ¬Camansis§EtbYnnak'k~¬gmF´msik§a

PaKTI2 ¨beTsevotNammansaklv^T´al&ymYyeTAehIy (1904). k~¬gq~S 1937 enA

¨beTs«f mhav^T´al&yv^T´asaås¶neyaVy zamµa"sat VnebIkTÃareLIg edémºIGb'rMG~k neyaVy

nigG~kkarTUt.

eBlEdlqíwgx~grbs'evotNammansuTìEtG~kBhubecÍkeTs

bNëit v^sÃkr G~knitisaås¶ .l. ¨beTskmõ¬CaenABIe¨kayq©ayNas'. eday²tmankar emIlgay eyIg¨tèvEtebIkEP~k[eXIjfa rd½mån‘ITI1 rd½månI‘ Ót¶mesnIy tMNagraås¶ TUt .l. elIkElgEtmYycMnYntUc mankMritkarGb'rM¨twmEtmF´msik§a. GtItsis§salard½

VlTSgenaH (salaEdlVrSgbegûétedémºIeFÃI[m"asuInrd½karGaNaniKmxÂçnedér) ¨tçt¨tay"ag dac'muxelI¨beTskmõ¬Ca k~¬gry:evlaCag 25 q~S. eBlEdlyuvCnecjBImhav^T´al&y mkdl'elIqakCév^t¨beTs TMnas'rhUtdl'rvagC÷nan'mnus§ (conflit de génération) k*ekItman

eLIg. VtuPUt hßuy nim-hßU yn'-exov sMpn CalTìpl«nTMnas'enaH. edémºI¨kjSbuN´ sk¶ixÂçn[Cab' nahµWnpæb'min[eLIgekµgNa Edlmin¨BmcUlk~¬ge¨KOgyn‘BukrlYyrbs'xÂçn.

dUcBYkcinEdr nahµWne¨bIcMNgGaJh_BiJh_ edémºITak'ekµg[mkCamYyxÂçn. mhav^eyaK«n (5)

(6)

¨bCaCnExµrsBëf© CakarkÂaymYy«nd÷e×sgðmenH.

suTì b"UlIn nig EbßNa haEm"l VnsresresovePAmYyeQµaH \skÅIPaBGMBImnus§XadenA

kmõ¬Ca| EdlenAk~¬gcMeNamesovePAmuneKTSgGs' (1976) EdlVn¨Vb'mtiGn‘rCati GMBI

mhav^eyaKExµr.

G~keVHeq~at ¨tèveqÂIynwgsMnYr5 :


64 1) ¨bCaCncg'[¨beTsVnäkraC´eBjTI ÉeT?

2) ¨bCaCncg'¨bqSgnwgkarv^l¨tLb'mkv^j «nVrSg ÉeT? 3) ¨bCaCneBjcit‘nwgkarbegûétmuxgarCard½mån‘ITI1 ÉeT?

4) ¨bCaCnTukcit‘ÉeT elIrd½aPiVlsBëf© Edlmanelak sWg gu"kfan' CaG~kd·knS

ehIyEdlmanebskkmµd*xõs' ¨tèvkarJrnigrk§aTukCasÄaBr nUväkraC´nigesrIPaB

¨beTs?

5) ¨bCaCncg'VnÉeT nUvkarkarJrBIsMNak'mhaGMNacbreTsNamYy? (bkE¨b).

k~¬gcMeNam G~kmaneQµaHk~¬gbJØIeVHeq~atTSg 674 048 nak' G~kEdlVneVHman

cMnYn 541 470 nak' ehIyVneqÂIy 100% fa \cg'| eTAsMnYrTI1nigTI2, fa \eBjcit‘| eTA

sMnYrTI3, fa \Tukcit‘| eTAsMnYrTI4, ehIyfa \eT| eTAsMnYrTI5 (dkecjBI \savta«nGasuI

(7)

GeK~y_| eday hÃIlIB dãv^ElÂ).

tamG~kniBnì dav^D Es‘gEbßk clnaExµr²s§r: Edlelak sWg gu"kfan' CaG~kbegûét Vnman eLIgtSgBIq~S 1941 (?) KWmuneBlEdl sWg gu"kfan' ¨tèvVrSgrkcab' ehIyePosxÂçnmk

Vgkk rYcmktUk´è. clnaenHcab'bd^snìielITwkdéEdlVrSg[eTAesom tamsnìisJïa¨kug tUk´èq~S 1941. tamG~kniBnìdEdl, k~¬gcenÂaHq~S 1941 nig 1945 BYkG~kCatiniymmYy¨kum

e¨kamkard·knS«n sWg gu"kfan' ehIyEdlVnePosxÂçneTAenA¨beTs«f VneFÃIkarerobcM rcnasmõnì«nclnaenH edaymanesomCYypg (elak fan' cuH-eLIg Vgkk-tUk´è É GÃI?).

«f© 8 sIha 1946 kg²s§r:cUlvay¨kugesomrab kan'kab'Ggðrvt‘ ehIyVj'ecalnay

TahanVrSgBIrnak'enATIenaH. eBlEdlesom[ext‘TSg 5 mkExµrv^jenAExv^cÏika 1946

(Ganelxeyag 13) BYkem²s§r:¨tèv¨tLb'eTAenAVgkkv^j EdlenATIenaHBYkG~kCatiniym äeTot@ ecHEtmkbn‘bnæab'K~a. ExkJïa 1947 BYkenAVgkk¨bkaskarekIteLIg«n \rd½aPi-

Vl «n kmõ¬CaesrI| EdlVn¨tèvTTYlsðal'edayrd½aPiVl«frbs' ¨BiDI P~Myg'. bu"En‘ dl'

Pibulsågðam ¨tLb'mkkan'GMNacv^j Exµr²s§r:Vn¨tèveKhamXat' min[eFÃIskmµPaBelI

Twkdéesom.

¨tLb'mk¨beTskmõ¬Cav^j G~kd·knS²s§r:¨bmaN 12 nak' begûétKN:kmµaFikarExµr

rMedaHCatimYy

e¨kamGFibtIPaBrbs'

dab

QYn.

KN:kmµakarenH²tVnman¨bsiTìPaB

e¨JHem@ rk¨tèvK~aBuMekIt ehIym~ak'@ eFÃItamkaryl'eXIjerogxÂçn k~¬gTwkdém¶¬M@ EdlxÂçn¨kjS

Vn KWfa²tmanedértamEx§neyaVyrYmGÃImYyeLIy. emPaKe¨cIn eFÃIecarkmµbÂn'raås‘Etm¶g.

G~kpgGacenAcSGMBI¨kum²s§r:d*sahav d·knSedayeQµaH esob, tk', yI .l. ¨kumecarenH ¨b¨Bwt‘y"agskmµtam¨BMEdnExµr-«f CaehtueFÃI[rGak'rGYlxÂSg dl'karrt'BnìGavuFEdlevot

mijTijBI¨sukesom

ykeTA[kgäkPaBenAyYnxagtºèg.

tamry:

\kgT&B¨bCaCnExµr

rMedaH| (APKL) rbs'xÂçn evotmijxMbJͬHbJÍèlBYkem²s§r:. k~¬gBYkenH xÂHk*¨BmedérCamYy xÂHeTotmin¨BmehIyk*vayevotmijEdr.

eqÂIytbnwgkarehA[cuHcUl«nraCrd½aPiVl

G~k

EdlmkmuneK KW dab QYn (e¨kaymk Ót¶mesnIy QYn mجleB¨C, kºt'ehIyVn¨tèveK

sMLab'enAq~S 1959) k~¬gExkJïa 1949, rYcehIy Cabn‘bnæab' man : But-qay nig GUßcnil


65 eB¨C enAExÓsPa 1953, nerat¶m cnærg§I nig sava"gvg§ enAExkum¸: 1954 (e¨kayVnäk raC´). k~¬gExkum¸: 1954 dEdl eGo sIucUv mkdl'P~MeBjedémºIccarkarcuHcUl«n sWg gu"k fan'. mind·gCamkBIehtuGÃIEdr karccarenH²tVnecjCaGÃI ehIy sWg gu"kfan' k*min¨Bm

(8)

cUlnwges¶c.

manExµrkmõ¬Cae¨kameyIgCae¨cIn EdlVnkan'kab'muxgarFM@ k~¬grd½karevotNamxagtºèg (CaBi

esse¨kayega"Dineyom) TSgsIuv^lTSgTahan. elak sWg «f egÿg EdleKsðal'Nas'

enAkmõ¬Cae¨kam

(9)

tºèg.

enAk~¬gcMeNamExµrkmõ¬Cae¨kamEdlVneFÃICasmaC^k¨BwTìsPaevotNamxag

tamkicͨBme¨BogenAh§WENvq~S 1954 kgTahanbreTsTSgGs' TSgevotmij TSgVrSg ¨tèvecjBI¨beTskmõ¬Ca. tamsMNuM«nraCrd½aPiVl mhaGMNacFM@ ¨Bm[¨beTskmõ¬Ca TTYlsm¸ar:swk nigbuKðlikTahanbreTs (cMnYnmankMrit) edémºIkarJrTwkdéxÂçn. CUeGnLay

EdlxÂacE¨kg¨beTsExµrnig¨beTslavFÂak'e¨kam²TìiBlGaemrikSg Vnyl'¨Bm²tC÷Tas' eBlEdlKat'd·gfa rd½aPiVlExµrgakeTArkVrSgm¶geTot edémºIksagkgT&BxÂçn. KN:eb(10)

skkmµeyaFaVrSgenAEtbn‘skmµPaBeTAeTot rhUtdl'ExmIna 1970.

¨BHecAmkdl'¨sukVrSg enA«f© 12 ÓsPa 1946 cMeBlEdleKkMBugeFÃIkareXasnaeVH

eq~at. es¶cVneTACYbnwg ehÃlic hðèva"g' EdlC÷nYs dãehðal EdlVnlaQb'. «f© 26

mifuna eday²tmanePÂgPÂat'k¶¬gk¶SgdUckalmkdl'Edr ¨BHecAecjBI¨sukVrSgmk¨sukExµr.

(11) (12)

k~¬gcenÂaHeBlenaH h§ßk bßédU VnCab'eq~atCanaykrd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~.

tam miltun Gussºßn KNbk§eCOnelOn rbs'mÍas' mu"gtaNa Vn¨tèvtemÂIgedayBYk

KhbtIExµr-cin enAP~MeBj.

G~keVHeq~atC÷nan'enaH suTìEtePT¨busTSgGs' e¨JHnarI EdlkalenaH eKdak'Tukk~¬gf~ak'TI2 «nEpnsgðm ²tTan'mansiTìieVHeq~atenAeLIy. m´a"geTot kareVHeq~atsm&yenaH ²tman cUleTAdl'BiPBksikreT Q~Hcaj'KWenAelITI¨kugnigTI¨bCu÷CnTSgGs'. bu"En‘k~¬gkal:eTs:

sBëf©enH bnæab'BIVneXIjkarBukrlYy«n¨KçsarExµrCae¨cIn -karBukrlYyEdlVnnSExµr

¨khmmkkan'GMNac, sMnYrmYy¨tèvEtecaTeLIg : eTaHbIxÂçnKYrmansiTiìeVHeq~atk*eday etInarI

(13)

Exµrcg'enA¨twmEtPriya Écg'eTACaBlrd½Edr?

e¨kamkarTamTarrbs'VrSg edémºIykBIesomv^jnUvTwkdéExµrniglav EdlsnìisJïa¨kugtUk´è

q~S 1941 Vn[eTAesom rd½aPiVl«frbs' esnI¨VemaCØ yl'¨BmCECkCamYytMNagrd½a

PiVlbeN¶aHGasn~VrSg enA«¨BnKrk~¬g«f© 9 emsa 1946. edaykarCECkenH²tecjCa GÃI[Cak'lak' Óbºti‘ehtutam¨BMEdnk*ekItmaneLIg cab'BIExÓsPa. «f© 24 sIha, 4 «f©mun eBlEdlGgðkarsh¨bCaCati ¨tèvBiPak§aelIebkÅPaB«n¨beTs«f, VrSg¨Vb'eTArd½aPiVl

GaemrikSgfa xÂçnnwgminykkarTamTarTwkdéenH eTAdak'muxtulakarGn‘rCatienA LaeGy eT

(dUcEdl«fVnes~é)

bu"En‘xÂçnnwgbn‘sågðamCamYy¨beTs«f

ehIynwge¨bIsiTiìmin¨Bmdac'

Ghgûa (veto) rbs'xÂçn Tl'nwgkarcUl«n¨beTs«fk~¬g Gùsùbù. CamYynwgkarsMruHsMrYl

rbs'rd½aPiVlGaemrikSg

karCECkK~aVrSg-«f

k*cab'eFÃIeLIgv^j

k~¬gExkJïa

m¶genHenA


66 va"sIugetan. kicÍccarVn¨tèvnSedaymÍas' va"n«v"f´akn xagesom nigedayelak h§ßkBIkU (rd½TUtenA ev"eNh§ßèeGLa) xagVrSg. «f© 17 v^cÏika 1946 kicÍsn´aVrSg-«f mYyk*Vn

¨tèveFÃIeLIg edaylb'snìisJïa¨kugtUk´èq~S 1941. 3 GaTit´e¨kaymk kgTahanVrSgk* (14)

cUlkan'kab' Vt'd÷bgv^j.

rd½FmµnuJïEdlVrSge¨bIrhUtdl'eBlcb'sågðam Vn¨tèveFÃIeLIgtSgBIq~S 1875 (saFarN

rd½TI3). k~¬gExtula 1945 e¨kamkares~Ieyabl'«nÓt¶mesnIy dãehðal ¨bCaCnVrSgVn

eVHeq~at¨BmpÂas'rd½FmµnuJï ehIyerIsk~¬geBlCamYyK~anUvsPaeroberogrd½FmµnuJïmYy Edl

[GMNacTSgGs'eTArd½sPa (mankarerIs¨bFanaFibtICaedém). dak'eTA[¨bCaCnsMerctam

¨bCamti enAExÓsPa 1946 KMeragenHVn¨tèvVrSgTat'ecalk~¬gPaK 53% Tl'nwg 47% .

KMeragrd½FmµnuJïenH Vn¨tèvExµrykmkeFÃICaKMrU. G~ksik§aneyaVyxÂH VneQ©akBinit´rd½

FmµnuJïExµrq~S 1947. elak Lakes cuHk~¬gniekÅbbTKat'fa \rd½FmµnuJïq~S 1947 Vn¨tèveFÃI

eLIgedayyuvCnExµrmYy¨kum EdlminVnd·gcºas'nUvkar¨tèvkarBit¨Vkd«n¨beTs. eBl xÂH G~kTSgenaHe¨cInEt¨cLMykpl¨beyaCn_«nvNö:xÂçn, vNö:fµémYy«nG~kEdlmanP&BÃCag eK, Ca¨beyaCn_rbs'¨bCaCn. ehIy¨kumenH KWEp~kd·knS«nKNbk§¨bCaFibety´|. (M. Larché) .

elak PYg tun k~¬g \niekÅbbTelIkarv^bti‘Exµr| sresrfa Ð rd½FmµnuJï«nq~S 1947 Ca

s~a«d«nvNö:G~kmanmF´m«n¨bCaCati (Bourgeoisie nationale) Edledaycg'eLIgkan'GMNac,

Vneq¿t{kaslíe¨kayeBlcb'sågðamelakelIkTI2

edémºIsresresck¶IEcgcºab'mYy

EdlbMerI¨beyaCn_xÂçn. dUec~H rbbraCaFibety´fµéEdlmanrd½sPaenH ¨Kan'EtTTYlsðal'Ca

pÂèvkar nigkarJrkarmane¨bobnigGP&yäksiTiìEdlykVnedayvNö:manP&BÃTSgLay . ùùù

rd½FmµnuJïExµrfµé

dºitEtykKMnittamKMrU¨bCaFibety´mYy,

Vnykcit‘Tukdak'min[eday

cºas'nUvGFibtIPaBeTA¨bCaCati, dUcEdlVneFÃIrd½FmµnuJïPaKe¨cIn Edl¨bkbeday¨bCaFi-

bety´nigesrIPaB «n¨beTsGasuIPaKGeK~y_, ÓTahrN_ ma¨ta 3 «nrd½FmµnuJï«f«nq~S

1949 Ð \GMNacCaGFibtIecjmkBI¨bCaCnesom. ¨BHraCa k~¬gzan:Ca¨bmuxrd½ e¨bIGMNac

enHtamesck¶Icat'Ecg«nrd½FmµnuJï.| dUcK~aEdr rd½FmµnuJïlav«nq~S 1947 ma¨ta 3 Ð GFibtI (15)

PaBCatiecjmkTSgmUlBI¨bCaCnlav.

e¨kaymk elak jwk CUL¬g [KNbk§exmr:buNökar eTAelak ln' nl' kan'kab'. Vn

buN´Vns&k¶ie¨kammÂb'elak CUL¬g, elak ln' nl' cUlmky"agrmTm´ k~¬gqakneyaVy Exµr edayd·knSKNbk§enH EdlsmaC^ke¨cInEtExµrkmõ¬Cae¨kam. nSeTAKal'¨BHecAeday

G~kKSJrrbs'xÂçn —elak CUL¬g— mån‘IxagnKrVl ln' nl' Vn¨tèveKcab'eVHeTAelICa vr:esnIyeTa

ehIyEtgtSgCaG~kTTYlxus¨tèvk~¬gext‘Vt'd÷bg

elIkartyuTìTl'nwgBYk

²s§r:rbs' sWg gu"kfan' k~¬gExF~è 1952. mYyExe¨kayBIVnäkraC´ ¨BHVT sIhnu

eFÃI¨btibti‘kar \samKðI| k~¬gext‘Vt'd÷bg, enAExF~è 1953, edémºIrkvayevotmij. KWenAk~¬g ¨btibti‘kar \samKðI| enHehIy, EdlsamKðIPaB ln' nl' — sIhnu VnekIteLIg. samKðI

PaB Edl 17 q~Se¨kaymkVnrlay, ehIykÂayeTACamhaekalahlcMeJH¨bCaCatiExµr.


67 elak ln' nl', Exµrkmõ¬Cae¨kamekItenAeragd÷rI (taynij), VnTTYlpûayTI1 rbs'Kat'enAq~S (16)

1955, q~SEdlKat'Vn¨tèvEtgtSgCanayGKðesnaFikar «nkgexmr:PUminæ.

¨Kab'EbkEdlFÂak'elIkMBg'Ep haypug enA«f© 24 v^cÏika 1946 VnkMeTckicÍsn´a sSgtWnI

hUCémij. «f© 19 F~è, karbHeVrenAhaNUy[sJïa«nkarcab'ep¶émsågðamelIkTI1 «n²Nëè

cin. ExmIna 1947 dah§g'el´I Vn¨tèvC÷nYseday bulLaEGß. edémºIrkmeF´aVybJÍb'

sågðam, bulLaEGß elgsnÂwkeboVvday, EdlenAähugkug e¨kameQµaHfamÍas' v^j Fuy.

Vvday vayt«mÂPÂam Ð PØab'kUsSgsIunmkevotNam. rd½sPaVrSgeVHeq~atPØab' kUsSg (17)

sIun eTAevotNam enA«f© 21 ÓsPa 1949.

niyay[Bit, edayxÃl'nwgcMeNaTk~¬g¨sukxÂSgeBk bJúalkÅn‘ik:«nkUsSgsuIn minsUvVn

TTYlkarykcit‘Tukdak'BIraCrd½aPiVlbu"nµaneT. enA«f©TI 11 mIna 1948 sPa«nshPaB

VrSgBinit´KMeragkarbegûét¨kumC÷nuMmYyenAkUsSgsIun EdlmanPar:eVHeq~at \yl'¨Bmɨb

qSg| nigkarPØab'kUsSgsuInmkevotNam. KMeragkarenHlIlaTSg¨sug ÉemIlgayExµrBn'

eBk e¨JHk~¬gsmaC^k 64 nak' EdleKbMrug[mank~¬g¨kumC÷nuMenaH, 48 nak' CaCnCatiyYn 16

nak' CaCnCatiVrSg. k~¬gkicÍBiPak§aelIKMeragkarlIlaenH, KN:¨btiPUExµrEdld·knSeday

mÍas'k§¨tI BIg JgyuKnìr ²tVnsUvmat'keT, ehIydl'eBleVHeq~at KN:¨btiPUVneVH (18) (19)

(20)

ùùù GnubºvaT.

bnæab'BIGg'eKÂs nigshrd½Gaemrik, ¨beTskaNada TTYlsðal'¨beTskmõ¬Card½äkraC´ enA

«f©TI 30 F~è 1953.

k~¬g \savta«nGasuIPaKGeK~y_|, hÃßélIB dã rIEl bJØak'«f© 18 kJïa 1949 Etmin[edémehtu «nkarrMlayrd½sPaenHeT. ebItam rU"ehߧsµif \k~¬gneyaVye¨kA¨beTskmõ¬Ca|, karrMlay enHVn¨tèveFÃIeLIge¨kaysnìisJïa«nExv^cÏika 1949.

tSgBIExmkra 1947, tMNagExµr²s§r:CamYyK~anwgtMNaglavesrI nigtMNagevotNam

esrI, VnbegûétKN:kmµkarcMruHGci«ån‘y_mYy edémºIeFÃI[maneLIgnUvsh¨btibti‘karBit¨Vkd

ehIyman¨bsiTìPaBelI«pæneyaVy, esd½kicÍ, eyaFa nigTUtk~¬gkartyuTìrYmTl'nwgc¨kBti‘

niymVrSg. KN:kmµkarenHVnepÆéesck¶IGMJvnavmYyeTArd½aPiVl sùrùGaù (sarBátman

(21)

(22)

LWm"ugd_, «f©TI 7/1/47).

BiteBkeTAehIy, \sWg gu"kmij| CaeQµaHbegûétedayBYkevotmij. ¨Kan'Et¾eKsgûaPÂamfa E¨kgbgbíèn sWg gu"kfan'. VrSg²tVncSyUreLIy edémºIecaT sWg gu"kfan' facUlCamYy evotmij eBlEdlKat'cUl«¨BenAExmina 1952.

enAk~¬g¨kugTSgLay, evotmijk*manskmµPaBxÂSgEdr. k~¬gBBYkyYnGen‘a¨bevsn_, evotmij

erIsmnus§eFÃI¨kumP~ak'garsm©at'k~¬gkicÍp¶l'esº¿g Ggðasluy, Tijf~S, TijGgûr .l. dl'

eQµaHfa \evotmij| VnVt'CamYykaredérecjeTArbs'VrSg, eQµaHfa \evotkug| k*ekItman

eLIgCamYykarcUlmk«nGaemrikSg. bu"En‘KW¨kumP~ak'garsm©at'dEdlh~wg, EdleKdas'[eFÃI skmµPaBeLIgv^jk~¬gsågðamTI2 «n²Nëècin.


68 (23)

enAq~S1950, e¨kamkarerobcMrbs'VrSg, ¨beTs²NëècinTSgbIC÷nMuK~aenA¨kugb"UedémºIeFÃIlkÅni‘k:

«n \shKtrd½|. ¨beTssmaC^kTSgenH¨Bme¨BogeFÃI[manEtmYynUv¨kdas¨Vk', kicÍkar

FnaKarnigKy

edaymankarEckK~anUvcMNUlBnìKy

kMBg'Ep«¨BnKrVneTACaEpsÃy&t.

G~kpgGaccSVnGMBI¨kdas¨Vk' 100 EdlmanrUbnarIExµr lav nigyYn, ehIyEdlcayVn

enAevogcnæn_ É«¨BnKrdUcCaenAP~MeBjEdr. k~¬gkarEckK~anUvcMNUlBnìKy, G~kkan'esd½kicÍ Exµr eBlenaHVnbeN¶ay[yYnmane¨BobCag, eday¨beTskmõ¬CaykEt 23% k~¬geBl

EdlxÂçnCaG~kp¶l'vtĬFatuedémTSgGs' —CaBiessxagksikmµ— eTA[¨sukyYnEdlbeJÍj

tamÓs§ah_kmµeTACaplitpls¨mab'lk'teTAeTot.

ExÓsPa

1953,

rd½aPiVlVrSg

¨sab'EtEtbJͬHEtm~ak'ägnUvt«m¨Vk' \b´"as| enaH, karbJͬHt«mÂEdleFÃI[¨beTsTSgbI

minsbºaycit‘CaxÂSg. «f© 25 kum¸: 1954, bIExe¨kayäkraC´, VrSgTTYlsðal'eKalKMnit

«nGFibtIPaBExµrxagerOgesd½kicÍ, ¨kdas¨Vk', KynighirJïvtĬ. edémºIC÷rujesd½kicÍxÂçnEdl

kMBugmankarBiVk, ¨beTskmõ¬Ca TarykcMENkxÂçnxagcMNUlBnìKyEdleLIgdl' 800

lan b´"as. dUceKGacrg'cS, yYnpæb'kargarenHedayButeFÃICaeQÂaHCamYyExµr. bnæab'mk

edon ebonPU, h§WENv, sågðam²NëècinTI2 eFÃI[karTar \Cae¨cInelIke¨cIndg| rbs'Exµr²t

VnplGÃITSgGs'. VrSg, eq¿t{kasBICemÂaHExµr—yYnenH, Vnyk¨Vk'TSglanenHe¨bI

(24)

¨Vs'eTA. ¨Vk'EdlCarbs'rd½ExµrenH enAk~¬gFnaKaVrSgrhUtsBëf©.

BitehIy, k~¬g¨beTsmYyEdlcab'tSgBIekIteLIg Vnsðal'Etrbb«nes¶cCamÍas'Cév^t, kar

yl'eXIjGMBIKNbk§neyaVy BiVk¨Cçt¨Cab[cºas'eTAk~¬g¨sTab'raås‘¨bCaEdr. bu"En‘

eCaKC&y«nKNbk§¨bCaFibety´

BitCaeCaKC&yneyaVymYyehIy

e¨JHKNbk§enH

taglMnSPaKe¨cIn«n¨beTs Ð lMnSäkraC´niym. karv^nicÏ&yrbs'breTsm~ak'elIKNbk§

¨bCaFiety´, KYreyIgykmkBinit´Edr Ð \rd½sPaminse¨mckar elIneyaVyExµr CagKN: kmµkarnayk«nKNbk§¨bCaFibety´eT. KN:kmµkarenHCaGgðkarGafákMVMgmYy, ²tTTYl

xus¨tèvcMeJHmuxG~kNaeLIy, bu"En‘¨tçt¨taelIkarse¨mc«nrd½mån‘ITSgGs'nigelIskmµPaB «nG~kraCkarFM@.

BYk¨bCaFibety´d·knSrd½edayrebobkan'bk§BYk,

bJͬHbJÍèlrk«deCég

rbs'xÂçnk~¬gBYkG~kraCkar, eFÃI[kicÍkarraCkar¨cbUk¨cbl'Vt'sN¶ab'F~ab', begûéteLIgeday

ehtuenH nUvkarminsbºaycit‘Cae¨cIn, ehIyCajwkjy, minTSgcuHsMrugrvagK~aägpg. ùùù EmnETneTA,

edayehtufalkÅN:xÂçnnigeKaledAxÂçn

enAEt²tTMnak'TMngGÃICamYymhaCn

EdlCa¨bCaksikr, KNbk§TSgLayxitxMEteFÃIxÂçn[eTACa \smaKm«nG~kmanP&BÃ| Edl

xÃl'xÃayEtrkmuxrbrnigrkekAGI[smaC^kxÂçn. BYk¨bCaFibety´VneFÃIrd½FmµnuJï, b"uEn‘k~¬g

kare¨skXÂanGMNacrbs'xÂçn

ehIyedaysµanfanwgGacrk§aTukVnyUrnUvkard·knSkicÍkar

TSgLay, BYkenHVnePÂcfaenAk~¬gstirbs'raås‘ es¶cenAEtmann&yfa \Cati|, es¶cCaTIBwg BMnak' CaG~kkarJrraås¶FMbMput. eKePÂcfaeBlNamanv^bti‘, mhaCnnigesck¶Isgôwmrbs'

xÂçnnwggakeTArkes¶ceT, minEmngakeTArkKNbk§eLIy. edayxÂçn¨bqSgnwges¶c, KNbk§¨bCaFibety´¨bEhlCaVn[¨Bhµlixit kMritvasnaxÂçnehIy.| (hÃßélIB dã rIElÂ).


69 (25)

elak sWg gu"kfan' Vn¨tèvtamedaybJïavn‘mYycMnYnFM EdlenAk~¬genaHmanelxaFikarpæal'

rbs'Kat', elak hg§ Funhak' GnaKtrd½mån‘ITImYy«nsaFarNrd½Exµr. e¨kayq~S 1954,

G~kTSgenaHVncuHcUlmkes¶cCae¨cInK~aEdr,

ehIyVn¨tèvnKrVlsm©at'kt'sMKal'e¨kam

eQµaHfa \BYkdgErk|. e¨kaymk, dl'eBlekIterOg \ExµresrI|, BYkcas'@ «n¨kumdgErk

elIkElgEtelak hg§ Funhak' Vn¨tèveKcab'XuMXSgTSgGs', ehIyG~kEdleKyl'fa

(26)

xÂSg Vn¨tèveKsMlab'ecal.

«f© 1 tula 1949 enAeb"kSg, em"A esTug ¨bkaskMeNIt«nsaFarNrd½cin¨bCamanit. sh

rd½GaemrikEdlrhUtmkdl'eBlenaH

BuMe¨tkGrnwgGaNaniKmniymVrSgeT,

¨sab'EtEbr

e¨kayPÂambnæab'BIkar \xatbg'| ¨beTscinenH. CamYynwgkarekIteLIgenAedémq~S 1950, «n

KMnit¨bqSgy"aghYsehtunwgkumµ¬ynis‘ Edlp§BÃp§ayedayma"k'kaFI, «n¨TwsI¶ \ElºgdUmI

NU|, nig«nsågðamenAkUer", sùrùGaù nwgtMrg'kar¨bwgE¨bgrbs'xÂçneqõaHeTATÃIbGasuI edémºITb'

Tl'karB¨gékxÂçn«nlTiìrYmsMVc"EdlecjBIb¬k cin-rus§I. BIq~S 1950 eTAq~S 1954, Gaemri

kSgCaG~kp¶l'GavuFdl'ebsk:eyaFBlVrSgenA²Nëècin 80% «ncMNayk~¬gsågðam²Nëè

cinTImYy Cabnæ¬krbs' sùrù Gaù . k~¬gcenÂaHq~S 1951 nig 1954, GaemrikSgVn[ 25 lan dulÂareTAVrSg

edémºICYykmõ¬Ca.

cab'tSgBIq~S

1950

KN:ebskkmµGaemrikSgCae¨cIn

VncUlmkbn‘bnæab'K~ak~¬g¨sukExµr. elIkenH, elak sWg gu"kfan' EbreTArkGaemrikSg, ehIy ¨bEhlKat'elgsnÂwkebo

(27)

Vgkk.

\¨bqSgkumµ¬ynis‘|

VnCaKat'TTYlC÷nYyBI

esùGIuùGaù

enA

BYkXatkr«n¨bCaCnExµr, EdlsBëf©kan'GMNacenAP~MeBj, Caplitpl«nBYkExµrevotmij.

tSgBIvaekItmk, evotmijCae¨KaHf~ak'mYycMeJH¨beTskmõ¬Ca. EtKYr[s¶ay, G~kd·knSExµrBI

munVnykelsenH edémºIkMcat'G~kEdlVnE¨sk¨bqSgnwgGyuti‘Fmá. G~kd·knSVneFÃI[¨b CaCnVt'C÷enOfa evotmijenHGacCae¨KaHf~ak'dl'Cév^t«n¨beTs.

(28)

k~¬gevlaenaH hßU yn' enAeronä¨sukVrSg. eBlEdld·gfard½sPaVn¨tèvrMlay, hUß yn'

(29)

e¨kay«f©¨bkasäkraC´ (9 v^cÏika, EdlcMdUcCa«cdn´elI«f©cMerInGayu¨BHecAsIhnu, tSgtu),

epÆésMbu¨tmYyeTAes¶cedémºIfaÐ ¨BHGgðElgCaes¶cxƬMehIy. (²NëècineXIjBIeb"kSg).

¨BHecAsMercbegúIyK~aCamYyKNbk§¨bCaFibety´. «f© 25 mkra 1955 es¶c[karyl'

¨BmeTArd½aPiVl eLg Eg"t EdlekAGITSgLayVn¨tèvEckdl'KNbk§TSgGs' elIkElg

EtKNbk§¨bCaFibety´. «f© 7 kum¸:, ¨bCamtimYyVn¨tèveFÃIeLIg EdlenAk~¬genaHsMnYrKWÐ

¨BHraCebskkmµVneFÃIeLIgCaTIeBjcit‘«n¨bCaraås¶eyIgÉeT?. G~keVHeq~at 925 812

nak'VneqÂIy \eBjcit‘| k~¬gPaK 99,8% .

«f© 19 kum¸: ¨BHecA¨Vb'[d·gGMBIkarEkTMrg'rd½FmµnuJï Edl[naykrd½mån‘ITTYlxus

¨tèvcMeJHmuxes¶c, ElgcMeJHmuxrd½sPadUcmun kicÍenHVn¨tèvC÷Tas'eLIgedayKN:kmµkar Gn‘rCatixagkicͨtçt¨ta esùGIuùesù, Edlyl'faxusnwgrd½FmµnuJï. «f© 2 mIna 1955 ¨BH ecAdak'raC´epæreTAÒBuk, sem¶c nerat¶m sura¨mit. Exemsa, sem¶c \ÓbyuvraC| sIhnu

begûétsgðmraås‘niymCamYy \mit‘Pki¶| xÂH Ð elak sm sarI, Ey"m sMbUr, Xwm Tit .l.


70 eqÂIynwgesck¶IGMJvnav[cUlmkrYbrYmk~¬gsgðmraås‘niym, KNbk§TSgGs'VnrMlayxÂçn

ehIycUleTA, elIkElgEtKNbk§¨bCaCn ––CakarN_Fmµta–– EdlCarbs'Exµrevotmij,

KNbk§esrIPaBnig¨bCaFibety´. «f© 11 kJïa 1955, kareVHeq~atVneFÃIeLIg, ehIyG~k Q~HFM KW \KNbk§sgðmraås¶niym| EdlykVnekAGITSg 91 Edlnwgmank~¬grd½sPa.

hib¨Vk'sgðmraås‘niymVn¨tèvCYybMeBjeday tan' V" nigesd½éäeTot EdlVnmin¨Bm TTYld·knSrd½aPiVlenAExmina1945, bu"En‘EdlnwgCYyd·knSneyaVyesd½kicÍ«n \sem¶cÒ|

edaysarkayv^karenH.

KNbk§esrIPaBVn¨tèvrMlayxÂçnenAExkkûda

ety´VnekIteLIgv^j

15

q~Se¨kaymk

1956.

cMENkKNbk§¨bCaFib-

k~¬gkal:eTs:mYyep§geTot.

Exmina

1970,

¨beTskmõ¬CaVn¨tèvvaylukluyedayT&ByYnxageCég. minKitrYbrYmK~aedémºIQmmuxTl'nwg e¨KaHf~ak', G~kneyaVyExµrEbrCabegûétKNbk§eTot edémºIdeN¶ImGMNacK~a. lTìpl«nkar

emIlgayt÷bUnµan¨bvti‘saås¶enH, eyIgTSgGs'K~aVneXIjnigkMBugEteXIjenHehIy.

ÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆ


71

PaKTI 5

shB&nì²Nëècin edémºIGÃI?

eKBuMGac¨sLaj' Cati VneT ebIeKsíb' Cn «nCatixÂçn .


72 PaKTI 5 manTMrg'Ca sMnYr-cMeLIy. GtÄbTedémVn¨tèvsresrcb' nigp§ayenAd÷Nac'Ex

tula 1977. dUec~H¨Bwti‘karN_TSgLayEdlekIte¨kaymk nwgykeTAsik§ak~¬g \v^PaKcuge¨kay|

enAk~¬gTMB&rPØab'2 . rIä TMnak'TMngExµrcin k~¬g¨bvti‘saås¶«n¨beTsTSgBIr Vn¨tèvykeTAEcgk~¬gTMB&r PØab' 1.

sMnYr

äk-

shB&nì²Nëècin edémºIGÃI? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

eTa-

ehtuGÃI k*cSVc'eFÃI[Gs'mnus§? ebI¨beTsTSg3 nSK~aCECkEvkEjkrkkaredaH

¨saymYy¨bkbedayyuti‘FmáeTA etIeFÃIekIt É BuMekIt? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

TMB&r 73

75

¨tI-

ExµrnigyYnminTukcit¶K~aeTAv^jeTAmky"agxÂSg. ehtuem¶cVnCayYnGacbJͬHbJÍèl

bg÷kxYrExµr¨khmVn? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù

80

ctÃa-

ebIdUec~H etImuxkarnig²TiìBlrbs'¨beTscink~¬gmhav^eyaKExµrenA¨tg'Na? ùùùùùùùùùùùùù

90

bJÍ- d÷eNIrd*maneCaKC&y«n bu"l Bt eTAeb"kSg GacCasJïa«nkarbnæn'rbbExµr¨khm

ÉeT? KWfa¨bCaCnExµrGacnwgVn¨sak¨san¶xÂHeT? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù 103

q-

dUec~H etI¨bCaCnExµrnwgeTACay"agNak~¬gGnaKt? etIGnæak'enA¨tg'Na, sMNag

nwgrs'enA¨tg'Na? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù 104

sb¶- rhUtdl'kMritNa kmõ¬Ca¨bCaFibety´GacsgôwmelIsaFarNrd½cin¨bCamanit? ùùùù Gd½-

edayvay¨beTs«fCae¨cIndg E¨kgExµr¨khmcg'ykTwkdécas'v^jeTÉ? dUec~HeKmin

nBÃ-

etI¨bCaCnExµr lav nigevotNam GaccSTTYlGÃIxÂHVnBIelak ÇesrIÈ, CaBiessBI

Ts-

cMeJH¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg, cMeJHsMNl'«n¨bCaCneyIgelIdéExµr, etIeyIg ExµrenAbr-

111

CaG~kCatiniymxÂSg? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù 118

shrd½Gaemrik? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù 118

eTs GaceFÃIGÃICUn? ùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùùù 120


73

shB&nì²Nëècin edémºIGÃI?

GaNaniKmkmµrbs'VrSgelI²NëècinenAstvt§r_TI 19 VnbJÎb'y"ag¨twmnUvsnæ¬Hrbs'yYn

EdlVneVHxÂçnCab' 9 stvt§r_mkehIy k~¬gkarxitxMB¨gékTwkdé. dl'Vt'vt‘man«nbsÍwm¨beTseTA,

²NëècinsBëf© ¨tLb'mkk~¬gkal:eTs:PUmisaås¶neyaVy«nstvt§r_TI 19 v^j EbÂkEtmanmhaGM NacGasuIfµémYy Edllatsnìwg¨semalGafákMVMgxÂçnmkelI. mhaGMNacfµéenH KWsaFarNrd½cin

¨bCamanit.

enAstvt§r_TI 10, bnæab'BIVnrMedaHxÂçnBI²TiìBlcinmk, yYn¨tèvQmmuxTl'nwgcMeNaTfµé1 Ð

karEbksay«ncMnYn¨bCaBlkrrbs'xÂçn. edayenAkegÿnk~¬gdgCnÂgTen¨khmEdlCadérabmYytUc, ¨sukyYn¨tèvkarlatxÂçneTArkTIäeTot edémºIrs'. enAd÷Nac'stvt§r_TI 16 yYnelbVn¨sukcMV",

ehIy 300 q~Se¨kaymk d÷eNIrcuHmkTisxagtºègrbs'yYn Vncb'nwgkarykVnkUsSgsuIn, kmõ¬Ca

e¨kamrbs'Exµr. KWenAeBlxÂçncab'edéreqõaHeTATisxaglic EdlyYnCYb¨bTH«f muxTl'nwgmux, «f

EdlVn¨tèvmu"gehðaledjecjBIyunNan ehIyEdlVncuHmkxagtºèg cab'tSgBIstvt§r_TI 13,

edayruj¨canExµ niglav EdlenAelIpÂèvrbs'xÂçn. «fnigyYn eCosvagkar¨bTUs‘r"ayK~a ehIyerIs

ykmeF´aVy¨tCak'mYy KWkarEckK~anUvTwkdéExµrniglav. GaNaniKmkmµrbs'VrSg min¨twmEtxa

XSgkarEbgEckenH, EfmTSgCb'rd½TSgBIr[rs'eLIgv^j.

Cab'C^tmYystvt§r_, yYntyuTì²t¨sak¨san‘ edémºIrMedaHxÂçnBI¨kjSVrSg. CamYyK~anwgkar

tyuTìenH KMeragB¨gékTwkdék*¨tèvVneFÃIEdr. eQµaH |KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin| Edl hUCémij dak'

[clnabd^vt‘n_yYnenAq~S 1930 bgúaj[eXIjcºas'nUveKalbMNgrbs'G~kd·knSyYnenH. esc

k¶IEfÂgqnæ:elIkTI1 rbs'evotmij(1) EdlVneFÃIeLIgenAExtula 1941 kan'EtCak'lak'eTAeTot Ð

\b¨gçbb¨gçm¨sTab'sgðmTSgGs', Ggðkarbd^vt‘n_TSgGs', GaNikCnCatiTSgGs'. smõnìkicÍrvag

¨bCaCnTSgGs' EdleKC^HCan'enA²Nëècin|. k~¬gkartyuTìedémºIäkraC´«n¨beTsxÂçn hUCémij emIl

eXIjrYceTAehIy nUvcMeNaT —EdlecosBuMrYc— «nkarN_man¨bCaCne¨cInhYsenAevotNam. hUCé

mij KiteXIjfa ebIVrSgGacb¨gçbb¨gçm kmõ¬Ca lav nigevotNam [eTACard½mYy edaykmÂSgkS

ePÂIg nigeTaHbImanKMnuMQWcab'«n¨bCaCnk*eday, ¨beTsevotNamritEt¨sçl{b¨kesabkmõ¬Ca nig

lav CamYymuxkarxÂçnCa \G~krMedaH| nigCa \G~kp§BÃp§aymenaKmv^CØa|. enAq~S 1945, eBlEdlV-

rSg, k~¬gkarxMQaneCégrbs'xÂçnmk²Nëècinv^j, Vnes~Idl'¨beTsTSg \¨VM| nUvrUbmn‘ shB&nì²Nëè cin, hUCémij ²tEdl¨bEkkm¶gNaeLIy. cMVMgrSgCl' laynwgkard·kCJØènmnus§[mkenAelIdé

TMenr VnhYssm&yeTAehIy (?) . edémºIelbykkmõ¬Caniglav, evotNamenAsl'EtmeF´aVy mYyeT,

meF´aVyEdlGacecosvagkarp¶næaeTasrbs'mtiGn‘rCati

KWkarqÂgkat'tamd÷Nak'mYy

EdlCashB&nì«nrd½TSgbI. rUbPaBKYr[rnìt'«nkarGt'XÂan, «nmhn‘rayesd½kicÍ EdlmkGMBIkarman

¨bCaCne¨cInhYs EtgEteFÃI[G~kd·knS¨beTsevotNamPitP&yCanicÍ. cMeJH hUCémij dUcCacMeJH

buBÃkarIxÂçn nigcMeJHG~kbn‘tMENgxÂçn, manEtkarB¨gékTwkdéeT EdlGacTaj¨beTsevotNamecj


74 putBIe¨KaHf~ak'«nkarman¨bCaCne¨cInhYsenH. dUec~HEmn, 2PaK3 «n«pæ¨beTsevotNam suTìswgEt CaP~Mfµe¨cIn (emIlEpnTITMB&r 142-143) dUec~HGt'dSGÃIduH (eKe¨cInEte¨bobPUmisaås‘¨beTsevot-

Nam eTAnwgPUmisaås¶¨beTs suIlI EdlmandérabEtmYybnæHya"gcegí¿t beN¶aytameq~rsmu¨T. yYnrs'enAy"agcegí¿tcgíl'elIdérabEdlxÂçnGaceFÃIE¨scMkarVn. enAq~S 1970 ¨beTsevotNam

manbN¶aCnC^t 50 lannak' Edlrs'enAelIEt 1PaK3 «n«pæ¨beTsTSgmUl, KWfaelI«pæ dImYy EdltUcCagkmõ¬CaeTAeTot! ehIyenAelI«pædéEt 1PaK3 enH manEtval \¨tIekaN| EdlTenÂemKgð

nigTen¨khmhUrkat'cak'cUlsmu¨TeT EdlCaplitkr«n¨sUv. eKV"n'faenAq~S 2000 bN¶aCnyYn

nwgeLIgdl' 75 lan! CakarBitNas' EdlFnFanksikmµ«n¨beTsnwgxÃH«f©NamYyBuMxan cMeJH

mat'yYnTSgGs' (karxÃHenHcab'manbeN¶IreTAehIy. enAq~S 1976 yYnVn¨tèvkar¨sèv 1,2 lan

etanEfmeTot).

cMeJHkar¨tèvkarB¨gékTwkdéenH, kmõ¬CaCaTIedAmYyy"ag¨bNIt. e¨JHfavaldéduH EdlBuMsUv

manmnus§enAenH eJreBjeTAedaysmºti‘FmµCatiEdl²tTan'maneKb"HJl'. pæ¬yK~a¨sLHBIbN¶a

CnenAevotNam,

ExµreyIgVnsðal'PaBsmºèNásbºayrhUt.

fÃédºitEtrd½KµanneyaVy¨twm¨tèv

xagkare¨bI¨Vs'Twk, fÃédºitEteyIgeFÃIE¨stamrebobburaN, ehIyeTaHbI «pædéEdlVn¨tèvPØçrras'Kas'

dSmanTMhMtictYck*eday, kmõ¬Camunsågðam Ca¨beTsd·k¨sèvecjeTAe¨kA. BitehIy ebIeKemIl¨b-

eTsenA²NëècinmYym¶g@ dac'BIK~a, ¨beTsTSgenaHBuMsUvmaneT. bu"En¶ebIdak'mkCamYyK~anUvFnFan xagEr", xagksikmµnigxagTwk, ¨beTsTSgbIrYmK~amansPaBCa \¨beTs| mYyman, ehIycºas'CaenA

k~¬gcMeNam¨beTsEdlsmºèNáCageKenAGasuIPaKGeK~y_ (emIlEpnTI).

sn~isITenAh§WENv q~S 1954 ¨Kan'EtCaÓbºti‘ehtuGa¨kk'mYy EdlxaXSgmYyEPÂtsin min

[subinrbs' hUCémij kÂayeTACakarBit. G~kd·knSyYnsBëf©¨Kan'EtedértampÂèvEdl hU VnKUsTuk [. esaknadkmµCaTIrnìt'nigCaTIexÂacp§a «n¨bCaCnExµrsBëf©enH ¨Kan'EtCalTìpl«nPaKTI1 «n

KMeragkarrbs'yYnkumµ¬ynis‘. PaKTI1 «nKMeragkarenH KWkareFÃI[Gs'mnus§BIkmõ¬Ca, kicÍEdlCaC÷ hanTI1 EdlyYn¨tèveVH munnwgcUlmkk~¬gshB&nìmYy«nrd½enA²Nëècin.


75

ehtuGÃIk*cSVc'eFÃI[Gs'mnus§? ebI¨beTsTSgbInSK~aCECk

EvkEjkrkkaredaH¨saymYy¨bkbedayyuti‘FmáeTA etIeFÃIekIt É BuMekIt?

tbnwgsMnYrenH G~kniBnìVrSg Gg'e¨d m"as'sug Vn[cemÂIymYyrYceTAehIy Ð \²NèëcinCa

karpð¬÷K~a«n¨bCaCnmYycMnYn EdleKBuMGaclaycUlK~aVneLIy ebImine¨bIkmÂSgeXareXA nigkar[

G~kQ~HelbykG~kcaj'|. BitehIy eKBuMsUveXIjPaB¨sedogK~a rvagGariyFmáExµrnigGariyFmá

yYneT. bu"En‘karxusK~arvagvbºFmá nigrvagTs§n:elICév^trs'enAenH BuMGacBn´l'[Gs'Etm~ak'ägeT

faehtuGÃIVnCashKmn_TSg2 laycUlK~aBMuekIt. dUec~HEmn, karxkcit‘Cab'rab'stvt§r_ EdlmkGM

BIkar¨tçt¨tarbs'breTs Vnbegûétk~¬g¨TègExµrnUvcMNg'ya"gxØab'mYy nwgkarJrGgðPaBCatisasn_ nigvbºFmárbs'xÂçn.

snæ¬Hcit‘karJrenH

EdleKe¨cInEtsMKal'edayxusfaCaKMnuM

rvagsasn_nig

sasn_, beJÍjxÂçneLIgCakar¨bqSgya"gsÃitsÃaj nwgkarbu"nb"glaybJÍèl Ébgûat'BIsMNak'br

eTsTSgGs' eTaHCayYn ÉminEmnyYnk*eday.

m´a"geTot eyIgGacsegûteXIjfa karxÃl'xÃayFMbMput EdlelcecjBIneyaVye¨kA¨b

eTs«nkmõ¬Ca k~¬gkML¬g 25 q~SmunenHmanEtmYyeT Ð karrYcCév^t«n¨beTs. k~¬gry:eBlenH mnus§

TSgmYyC÷nan' Vn¨tèv¨Cçt¨Caby"age¨CAnwgcMeNaT«nCév^t¨beTsenH, cMeNaTEdlEmnETneTA Ca

s~èl«nKMnitCatiniymExµr. minsMxan'eT rbbneyaVyEdlmnus§mYyC÷nan'enH¨tèvTTYlyk, bu"En‘

mnus§TSgenHnwgTat'ecal²txaneLIy nUvkareFÃIshB&nìCamYyrd½äeTot. lkÅx&Në xanB¬MVn (sine qua non) Edl¨tèvbMeBjmunnwgTajkmõ¬CacUlk~¬gshB&nìmYyCamYyyYn (niglav) KWkarbMVt'¨tg'@ nUvmnus§TSgmYyC÷nan'enH EdlCae¨KOgyn‘«n¨beTs. karenH²tBiVkeFÃIesaHeLIy. KW¨Kan'Et

cak'BYk \G~k¨k| [bHTl'nwgBYk \G~kman| eTAVnehIy. \G~k¨k| elIsBIG~kGP&BÃ Edl²tFnFan

²tcMeNHv^CØa É ²t¨Kçsar, manBYkecar nigBYk¨bmwkeTot, niyaymYym"at' KWBYkG~kEdlVnxkcit‘

nigVn¨tèveVHbg'ecaledaysgðm. BYk \G~kman| KWmin¨twmEtBYkEdlVnPØçrE¨selIx~graås¶eT

EfmTSgBYkEdlmancMeNHv^CØa eTaHtictYcs¶çces¶Igk¶I, e¨JHcMeNHv^CØaenHVn¨tèvsMKal'faCasJïa «nkarman.

edémºIeFÃIkarcak'bMbHenH yYnkumµ¬ynis¶man \Gat'| BIrsnÂwkEdlsuTìEtxÂSg@ Ð 1, karEbk

Vk'K~axagk~¬g (rvag ln' nl' nig nerat¶m sIhnu) Edl[elsdl'sågðambd^vt‘n_, 2, BYkExµrevot mij.

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ sMnYrTI 3 Ð ExµrnigyYnminTukcit‘K~aeTAv^jeTAmkxÂSg Nas'.

ehtuem¶cVnCayYnGacbJͬHbJÍèlbg÷k

xYrExµr¨khmVn?

(enATMB&r 80)


76

GFibºay (1)

edayeyIgBuMsUvTak'cit‘nwgkard·gGMBIsavtarbs'¨beTsC^txageyIg, edémkMeNIt«nevotmij

enAEtCasMnYrmYyminTan'mancMeLIycMeJHExµreyIgCae¨cIn. G~kniBnì k~¬gkicÍsnænaCamYyG~k neyaVyeyIgxÂH EdlVnsðal'yuKevotmij, segûteXIjfaGs'elakTSgenaHdUcCa¨cLM

fa KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²NëècinCaevotmij. cMeJHmit‘G~kGan eyIgsUmCUneLIgv^jnUvsavta

segÅb«nevotmij. GgðkareyaF: -neyaVyenHmin¨twmEtVnedjVrSgecjBI²NëècineT,

EfmTSgVnbEgÃrpÂèv¨bvti‘saås¶«n¨beTseyIgeTot e¨JHfa —cUreyIgkuMePÂc— BYk saL¬t

sr, eGog sarI, sun esn, sU Pwm .l. ¨Kan'EtCaplitplelIkTI2 rbs'evotmijeT. savta«nevotmijBuMGacTajecj[dac'BICév¨bvti‘rbs'G~kbegûétxÂçneLIy, KWrbs' hU Cémij

(esovePAEdlniyayBIerOgenHmane¨cInNas', bu"En‘EdllíCageK KWrbs' hÃßélIB d· rIElÂ, \savta«nevotNam BI 1940 eTA 1952|, hageVHp§ay sWy 1952).

C&yC÷nH«nCbu"nelIrus§I enAq~S 1905 eFÃI[Vt'C÷enOfaBYkEsºks BuMecHcaj'. GasuI

PaKGeK~y_TSgmUl, EdlBYkEsºksVnykeFÃICaGaNaniKm cab'kMerIkeLIg. jaties¶c yYnm~ak'eQµaH KYg ed, edaymanG~kGk§rsaås¶ pan' bUycUv EdlCaÒBuk«nkarbd^vt‘n_yYn

CUneTApg, ePosxÂçneTAenA¨beTsCbu"nk~¬gq~S 1906, ehIyBITIenaHnSK~aj¬Hjg'yYn[bHeVr

Tl'nwgVrSg KYg ed sresrsMbu¨tCae¨cInCamYynwgQamxÂçn. e¨kaykarbd^vt¶n_cin«nq~S 1911 sußn y"atesn, pan' bUycUv mkenAäkg'tug edémºI[VnC^tevotNam. k~¬gq~S 1912

enAkg'tug cUv ¨bEm¨bmUlVnG~kCatiniymyYnxÂHk~¬g¨kum \kicÍsamKðIedémºIksagevotNam

eLIgv^j| (evotNam Pik kÃwk dugmijhUy, Puk kÃwk), ehIyerobcMrd½aPiVle¨kA¨beTsmYy

CamYymÍas' KYg ed. cmºSgrvagK~aägk~¬g¨sukcin xaXSgBYkCatiniymyYnelIkd÷bUgenH min

[eTAmuxVnq©ay

k~¬gskmµPaBxÂçn

cUvVnCab'KukrYcElgmkv^jeday

sußn

y"atesn.

bnæab'BIsaFarNrd½cinVnTTYlbraC&yCae¨cIndg k~¬gkar¨byuTìCamYyBYk \mhaemcmºSg| EdlBuMTan'cuHcUlenATisxageCég, KNbk§ KYmintag (cinCatiniym) EdlmanmUld½anenAkg' tug k*erobcMbk§xÂçneLIgv^j edaymin¨Bm[BYkkumµ¬ynis‘ (em"A, CU .l.) cUlmkCamYy, ehIymYycMENkeTotEkE¨bkgT&Brbs'xÂçntamKMrUrus§I. Ót¶mesnIy Cag kayCak Vn¨tèv

eKbJØèneTAshPaBsUevot.

eBl¨tLb'mkv^j,

eKk*se¨mcbegûétbNëitsPaeyaFamYy

enA va"mVÃ" k~¬gExmkra 1924. bNëitsPaenH manTI¨bwk§arus§ICaG~kbgúat'be¨gon (d·knS

eday mi«x bUrU"DIn nigÓt¶mesnIy va"s'suIlI bÂèßEQ). pan' bUycUv niyaynwgcin[¨BmTTYl

yYn 40 nak' k~¬gbNëitsPaeyaFa va"mVÃ". enAkg'tugEkºrK~anwg¨kum \PukkÃwk| rbs'cUv, G~k CatiniymyYnmYyBYkeTotp¶¬÷K~ak~¬g¨kum \tStSsa| enAq~S 1923. k~¬gq~S 1924 \tStSsa|

bJØènsmaC^kxÂçnm~ak', pS hug«f, [eTAsmÂab' \KUEvrn&r eh§eNr"al'| Em"LSg. edayxÂçn

bMeBjebskkmµBuMcb', pS hug«f k*smÂab'xÂçnenAkg'tug. elIkCavér:burs«nevotNam, pS

hug«f VneXIjp~èrrbs'xÂçnkÂayeTACaTIskûar:bUCamYy.


77 enAq~SEdlbNëitsPa va"mVÃ" Vn¨tèvbegûéteLIg, hU Cémij, ehA lIFuy, mkdl'

kg'tug enAExF~è 1924, edaykat'tam mU"sðè bnæab'BId÷eNIrCu÷v^jBiPBelakmYy. eQµaHBIkMeNIt egÿg

siujKug, e¨kaymkehA egÿg tatfaj', rYcehIy egÿg GaykÃwk, hUCémij ekItenAq~S 1890 k~¬g¨suk

ej" Gan' (GNöamxageCég). bnæab'BIVneFÃImF´msik§aenA¨kugehÃ, rYcehIyeronxagC÷nYjVn 3-4

Ex enA«¨BnKr, hU cUleFÃIeVyenAkV"l' \LamIra"l'LaTUs -e¨tvél|, enAq~S 1912, edémºImkTÃIb

GWr"ub. enAq~S 1913, Kat'cuHeCég¨kugL¬g¨d_ ehIyrs'enATIenaH 4 q~S edayeFÃIkarCaG~klagcank~¬g

sN½aKar kaltun. enAq~S 1917, hU mkdl'V"rIs, Kat'cUlsußbk~¬gneyaVy. enAq~S 1919, yk

KMnittamesck¶Ies~I man 14 x «n¨bFanaFibtIGaemrikSg v^lsun, Kat'eTA Evr«s edémºIbgúajkmµv^FI

man 8 x rbs'Kat'edémºI[esrIPaBeTAevotNamGaNaniKm, hU VnCYbsðal'G~kd·knSsgðmniym VrSg, m"akEsl kasSg nig ma"rIyus mu"get. enAq~S 1920, KNbk§sgðmniymVrSgbJØèn hU

[eTACa¨btiPUenAsmaC¨kug TY. q~S 1921, hU Cémij begûétsarBátmanmYyeQµaH \LWV"rIy"a| Edl

E¨bmkfa G~ketaky"ak. k~¬gq~SdEdl Kat'eTA mU"sðè cUlrYmk~¬gsmaCTI 4 «nkUminETn (Jk´kat'«n

kumµ¬ynis‘Gn‘rCati. kuM¨cLMnwg KYmintag cin). q~Sbnæab'mk, Kat'eTA¨kugenaHm¶geTot, elIkenH KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘VrSgbJØènKat'eTAerobcMclna \ksikrGn‘rCati| (e¨ksæinETn) EdlenAk~¬genaH

Kat'VnCab'eq~atCasmaC^kKN:kmµakar¨btibti‘. e¨kaykicÍC÷nuMehIy, hU enAEtk~¬g mU"sðè rYccuHeQµaH

eronk~¬gsaklv^T´al&y«nG~keFÃIkar«nbUJáTisk~¬gq~S 1924. rYcehIyKat'k*ecjBIm"Usðè mkkg'tug

edayeFÃIkarCaG~kbkE¨bPasaenAkugsußlsUev¿t. enAkg'tug hU Cémij CYbCamYy¨kumG~kCatiniym yYnTSgLay. Kat'Bn´l'G~kbegûét¨kum \tStSsa|, hUTugma"v nig eLhugpug, [¨BmeFÃIbd^vt‘n_, ehIyG~kTSgBIrk*dak'eQµaHfµé[clnaxÂçnfa

\smaKmyuvCnbd^vt‘n_ev¿tNam|

(evotNam

kak

em"j faj'-ejon dug CéhUy, É faj'-ej¿n). enAq~S 1925 hU eFÃIkicÍkMcat'KU¨bECgrbs'xÂçn, pan' bUycUv EdlkMBugEterobcMbegûétKNbk§mYy, \KNbk§CatiniymevotNam| (evotNam kÃwk dan'

dag, VNQDD). cUv Vn¨tèveKnSeTAcUlk~¬gGnæak'mYy EdlnSKat'eTA[nKrVlVrSgenAesog«h (EdlkalenaHeKEbgEckK~a¨tçtdUc¨kugEbßLSg) (G~kdak'Gnæak'VnTTYlrgÃan'xan'exA 10mWun b´a"s). fÃétºitEtKµan

pan'

bUycUv,

KNbk§CatiniymevotNamVn¨tèveKbegûéteLIgenAhaNUy

k~¬gq~S

1927. ykKMrUtam KYmintag cin, KNbk§enHVn¨tèvd·knSeday egÿg «fhuk, ehIyVneTACaKU

¨bECgrbs'smaKm \faj'-ej¿n|. enAkg'tug, tamry:¨kumfaj'-ej¿n, hU Cémij ¨bEm¨bmUl

rksav&kxÂçn edaybJͬHbJÍèllTiì m"ak§ eLnIn. Kat'eVHp§ay¨Bwti‘b&¨tral'GaTit´ mYyeQµaH

\faj'ej¿n| (yuvCn) EdltamenaHKat'p§BÃp§ayKMnit¨bqSgnwgGaNaniKmniym nigKMnitbd^vt‘n_.

BIExmifuna 1925 eTAemsa 1927, ¨Bwt‘ib&¨tecjVn 88 elx. hU cSdl'elx 60 eTIbKat'

¨Vb'sav&kfa

sågðamedémºIäkraC´

¨tèveFÃICamYyK~anwgsågðamedémºIGMNacp¶ac'kar«nvNö:kmµkr-

ksikr e¨kayry:eBlbJÍèllTiì 4 Ex, hU e¨CésykG~kBUEkCageK[CYyeFÃIkarKat', ykG~kxÂHeTA

p¶SepÆénwgbNëitsPaeyaFa va"mVÃ", ehIybJØènBYkenAsl'eTA¨beTsevotNam edémºIp§BÃp§aynUv KMnitKat' (sav&k 200 nak'k~¬gcenÂaHq~S 1925 nig 27).

enAq~S 1927, e¨kayBIVncUlK~ak~¬gry:mYyya"gxÂI, BYk KYmintag nigBYkkumµ¬ynis‘cin Ebk

K~av^j. hUCémij, bUrU"DIn nigTI¨bwk§arus§IäeTot¨tèvecjBI¨sukcin. hU Tugma"v Edld·knSsmaKm


78 faj'-ej¿n Vn¨tèv KYmintag cab', e¨kaybn‘icmk. ¨kum faj'-ej¿n rt'mkenAhugkug, Edl

enATIenaH LS DwkFW TTYld·knS. enAq~S 1928, clna kUminETn bJØèn hU eTA¨beTsGalÂWm"g',

ehIyq~Sbnæab'mk eTA¨beTs«f EdlenAk~¬genaHmanyYn 2 mWunnak'rs'enA. e¨kameQµaHfa fag C^n,

hU Cémij edérCYbshKmn_yYnenA Ódn, PiC^t, sakun nigNaxun, edayTak'TgCanicÍ CamYy¨kum

faj'-ej¿n ähugkug. ExÓsPa 1929, BYk faj'-ej¿n eFÃICasmaCmYyenAhugkug EdlKitKUr erobcMKNbk§kumµ¬ynis¶yYnmYy. bu"En‘¨btiPUEdlmkBIkEnÂgCae¨cInenAevotNam, edayEqítcit‘nwg

Cév^teqItqayrbs' LS DwkFW, em faj'-ejon, k*BuM¨BmcUlrYmk~¬gsmaCenaH. ¨tLb'mk¨sukyYnv^j

G~kTSgenaHbegûét \KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘| Cae¨cInenAtamPUmiPaKxÂçn. eBlenaHehIyEdl kUminETn

bJØèn hUCémij mkhugkugv^jedémºIb¨gçbb¨gçmBYk \KNbk§kumµ¬ynis¶| GayTSgGs'. dUec~HehIy

eTIbKNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin (dug edOg kug sag dag) VnekIteLIgenAhugkugk~¬g«f© 6 mkra

1930. k~¬g¨sukcin enAq~S 1930, k*manKNbk§yYnBIr¨bECgK~a, bu"En‘EdltyuTìnwgs¨tèvEtmYy

KWGaNaniKmniymVrSg Ð KNbk§CatiniymevotNam, cas'CagehIyminEmnkumµ¬ynis‘ EdlBYk

KYmintag KSJr, KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin EdlKSJredayBYkkumµ¬ynis‘cin, CakarN_Fmµta.

muneK, BYkCatiniymse¨mcvay. k~¬gyb'«nEf© 9 eTA 10 kum¸:, karbHeVrmYy (Edl¾rnæW

xÂSgenAsm&yenaH) ekIteLIgenATI¨bCu÷Cn ey"n Vy. Tahan«neyaFPUmibHeVreLIgehIysmÂab'BYk nayTahanVrSg. VrSgbJØa[yn‘ehaHeFÃIGn‘raKmn_ ehIykarbHeVrk*Vn¨tèvbågûaby"agrh&s.

em«nKNbk§Catiniym, egÿg «fhuk Vn¨tèveKcab'Vn ehIysmÂab'ecaleTA. e¨kay¨Bwti‘karN_

enA ey"n Vy enH, ¨ksYgsn¶isuxVrSgenA²Nëècin tamrkcab'BYkCatiniymTSgGs'. bu"En‘KN

bk§kumµ¬ynis‘TSgGs'k*sMerc eFÃI[mankarbHeVrmYyEdr. Exkkûda 1930 enA ej"-Gan (¨suk

kMeNIt hU Cémij), BYkkumµ¬ynis‘yYn¨bkasbegûét \mUld½anbd^vt‘n_| sUevot nanak~¬g¨suk ej"-Gan

edaymaneQµaHfa \sUevot ej"-Gan|. mUld½anTSgenHman¨kumG~k¨sukkan'kSePÂIgkarJrPUmiäg,

mantulakar¨bCaCn ehIyeFÃIkicÍEckdéK~a (cmÂgtammUld½ancinkumµ¬ynis‘). «f© 12 kJïa 1930,

ksikr 6 Jn'nak' nSK~aedértMrg'eTA¨kug v^n, EdlCaTI¨bCu÷ext‘. kgTahaneFÃIGn‘raKmn_ ehIybMEbk VtukmµenH. emd·knSxÂHEdlman pS yuSgdug, tug Dwkfag nig y" egÿgya"b' Vn¨tèveKcab'bJÍèl

Kuk. tameKfa, hU Cémij ²tVncUlrYmk~¬gVtukmµenHeT ehIyenAähugkug.

«f© 10 mifuna 1931, nKrVlGg'eKÂseLamB&Tìkariyal&y kUminETn enAhugkug ehIycab'

hU Cémij enATIenaH. Vnsµak¶IGg'eKÂsm~ak'eQµaH elAs_Vy karJr, hU Vn¨tèveKedaHElgv^jenA

edémq~S 1933. eLIgkV"l'mk¨sukGg'eKÂs, hU Vn¨tèveKcab'm¶geTotenAsigúbUrI eday²tlixitqÂg

Edn, ehIyykmkdak'Kukhugkugv^j. elIkenHtamerOgniTanxÂH, hU rt'ecjBIKukVn, ehIymkdl'

¨sukcin EdlenATIenaH Kat'xMrkTak'TgCamYykumµ¬ynis‘cin EdlkMBugmankarN_BiVkEdr. e¨kay

mk hU eLIgkV"l'rus§ImYymk vaÂ" DIv"Us‘¬k, ehIymk mU"sðè. enAmU"sðè Kat'cUleronenAsaklv^T´al&y

eLnIn ehIyrkkareFÃIVnk~¬gv^CØasÄan¨sav¨Cav«nkarsik§aGaNaniKm. enAk~¬geBlenaH karbågûab

BYksmaC^k«nKNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin edaynKrVlVrSgkMBugEtbn‘eTAeTotenA²Nëècin. enAq~S 1935, KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²NëècinbJØèn¨btiPUBIrnak', eL hugpug (G~kbegûétm~ak'«n \faj'-ej¿n|)

nig egÿg FImij«x eTAsmaCTI7 «nkUminETn ämU"sðè. k~¬g{kasenaH, eL hugpug VnCab'eq~atCasma


79 C^kKN:kmµkar¨btibti‘«nclnakUminETn. dUec~H hU Cémij Vn¨tèveKElgrab'Gan, ehIykarN_enH

¨bEhlCaTNëkmµGMBIbraC&yk~¬gVtukmµ sUevot ej"-Gan kalBIq~S 1930. k~¬gq~S 1936 enA¨suk

VrSg, eKkMBugEtelIktemûIg \rNsir§¨bCamanit|. enA²Nëècin G~kbd^vt‘n_yYnCae¨cInnak'Vn¨tèveK

ElgBIKukv^j. Cafµém¶geTot kareVHBumõp§ayep§g@ rbs'BYkkumµ¬ynis‘ nigBYkCatiniymyYn cab'eFÃI

eLIgv^j. enAq~S 1937, Cbu"ncUllukluy¨beTscin. Cafµém¶geTot, KY mintag nigcinkumµ¬ynis‘

cab'«dK~aeLIgv^j.

shPaBsUevotEGbxÂçnmkC^t¨beTscin

ehIycuHkicÍcgem¨tIPaBCamYycin

edaymankar[xÍI¨Vk' 259 landulÂar. hUCémij Gac¨tLb'mk¨sukcinv^jeday²tmankarBiVk.

elIkenH hU cUleTAcUlCamYyBYkkumµ¬ynis‘cinä¨kugs´a"n, enAd÷Nac'q~S 1938. BI¨sukcin, Kat'xM

Tak'TgeLIgv^jCamYyKN:kmµkarkN¶al«nbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin. Exv^cÏika 1939 T&BCbu"nkan'

kab'Vnext‘ kÃagsuI. TnæwmK~anwgkarrlM«nsaFarNrd½TI3 VrSg, Cbu"ncUlkan'kab'evotNamxageCég

enAEx kJïa 1940.

enA²Nëècin, \KUEvn&r eh§ßeNr"al'| dãKU, edayxÂacclnabd^vt‘n_yYnTSgGs'mt'K~aeFÃIkarbH

eVr, sMercvay[Vnmun Ð CnCatiyYnCae¨cInJn'nak', eTaHVn¨tèveKsMKal'Cakumµ¬ynis‘ Ék*²t esaH, k*Vn¨tèveKcab'XuMXSg. eL hugpug, GKðelxaFikar«nbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin, nigsmaC^k

KN:kmµkar¨btibti‘xÂHeTot Vn¨tèveKsMLab'ecal. dUec~H KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²NëècinVnxÍat'xÍay

mYyeBleTA. bu"En‘smaC^kCae¨cInVnePosxÂçnrYceTAdl'¨sukcin, CaBiessenAext‘ yun Nn. hU

Cémij Edlm¶genHTTYlC÷nYyCa¨Vk'kasy"age¨cInBIcinkumµ¬ynis‘, xitxM¨bEm¨bmUlyYnTSgLay

EdlePosxÂçnmkenA¨beTscin. kicͨbEm¨bmUlTSgenHnSKat'[CYbG~kd·knSyYne¨cInnak' Edlman

nayTahanm~ak'k~¬gT&Bcin KYmintag eQµaH hU gu"kLS. nayTahanyYnenHk*kMBug¨bEm¨bmUlK~IK~amk k~¬gclnaxÂçneQµaH \smaKmedémºIkicÍsamKðIedImºIäkraC´evotNam| (evotNam dukLab' dugmij

hUy) EdlVn¨tèvbegûéteLIgtSgBIq~S 1935 enA NnKig. edayVn hU gu"kLS CYypg, hU Cémij

Vn¨tèveKnS[CYbG~kd·knS KYmintag m~ak'enA kÃaylin eQµaH lI Céesn. G~kd·knScinenHkMBugrk mnus§m~ak'Edl¨BmeTAesIubkarN_elITItSgT&BCbu"nenAevotNamxageCég,

ehIyKUsKMeragpÂèvcUl

mYyk~¬gGnaKts¨mab'T&Bcin. hU eq¿t{kasPÂam ehIydak'ebkÅPaBrbs'xÂçn.

enAExtula 1940, hU Cémij es~Idl'¨kumyYnTSgGs'[cUlk~¬grNsir§rYbrYmmYy, ehIynS

K~amkenAtam¨BMEdncin-yYn. \¨kumevotNam dukLab' dugmijhUy| rbs' hU gu"kLS k*cUlK~aCa

mYyBYkKNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin k~¬grNsir§fµémYyeQµaHfa \evotNam dukLab' dugmij| (kicÍ

samKðIedémºIäkraC´«nev¿tNam), eQµaHEdlVrSgehAkat'fa evotmij. hU gu"kLS VnCab'eq~atCa emclna. ä pS yuSgdug Cab'CaPUQYy, ehIyevotmijk*VnekIteLIgedayy"agenHäg. CamYy

clnaevotmij, hU Cémij ¨tLb'cUlmk¨beTskMeNItv^j edémºItyuTìtamsågðamqµk'Tb'Tl'nwg

VrSg. sågðambd^vt‘n_EmnETnk*cab'ep¶émeLIgcMeJHG~kneyaVy hU Cémij EdlVnrg'cS{kas enH 21 q~SmkehIy, tSgBIxÂçnVneTA «vr«s enAq~S 1919.

ÚÚÚÚÚÚÚÚ


80

ExµrnigyYnminTukcit‘K~aeTAv^jeTAmkxÂSgNas'. ehtuem¶c VnCayYnGacbJͬHbJÍèlbg÷kxYrExµr¨khmVn?

BYkXatkr«n¨bCaCnExµrEdlkan'kab'GMNacCagbIq~SenA¨sukExµrBuMEdlVn¨tèvbg÷kxYreday

CnCatiyYneT bu"En‘Vn¨tèvbJͬHbJÍèledayBYkEdlsem¶c sIhnu Vn[eQµaHfa \Exµr-evotmij|.

edémºIyl'faehtuem¶cVnCaCnCatiExµrkÂayeTACa Exµr-evotmij ekIt ehIyBinit´emIlkarv^vt‘n_«nBYk

enH eyIg¨tèv¨tLb'mke¨kaycMnYn 30 q~Sv^j. Cad÷bUgeyIg¨tèvd·gfa

kUnesaEdlebIk[evotmijVnTTYleCaKC&y

KWBYkGaNikCnCati

ep§g@ «n²Nëècin. eTaHbIkarN_enH [eKrkeC¯BuMekIt, kgTahanelIkd÷bUgrbs'evotmij²tmanCn

CatiyYneT, bu"En‘mansuTìEtBYk \fU|(1) Edlsíb'yYnrab'd÷Nr dUcCnCatixÂHEdr. dUec~HEmn, eq¿t {kasBIkarbHeVrmYyrbs'BYkkånæaj fU Tl'nwgGMNacGaNaniKmk~¬gq~S 1940, y" egÿgya"b'

erobcMtemÂIgmUld½anmYy EdlnwgeTACaTIedém«nkartyuTìd*yUrTl'nwgVrSg. teTAenH KWkarr"ayr"ab'«n

G~kniBnìVrSgeQµaH eh§ßra" eL kÃag GMBIbecÍkeTsEdl y"ab' Vne¨bI edémºIcUleTAk~¬gBYk fU (k~¬g esovePA |ya"b' Ésågðam«n¨bCaCn| bNöaKar dãNUEGl 1973) Ð

\tamd÷bUnµan«n hUCémij, y"ab' eroneTsPasaBYkG~k¨sukP~M ehIyecHniyaylµmk~¬geBlxÂI

bn‘icEdr. Kat'[eKbe¨gondl'mnus§Kat'eTot. edayykcit‘Tukdak'elI¨bsiTìPaB«nkareXasna Kat'[eFÃIkmµsik§aneyaVy eTAtamTMenomG~k¨sukÐ \CamYyBYk ma"n' s (kånæaj¨sukP~MmYy) (man

BYk m"an' exµA, kùkùnù) eyIg¨tèvrhUtKUrrUbeTot edémºI[eKyl'KMniteyIg, Kat'Vnniyay¨Vb'e¨kay

mk. edémºI[yl'fa VrSgnigCbu"n CJØk'Qam¨bCaCneyIg, eyIgKUrrUbVrSgm~ak'nigCbu"nm~ak'vay

yYn, ÉrUbksikrm~ak' sgût'edayTm©n'BnìdarnigkMENn. eyIgeFÃIKMnUr1eTot Edlman Kin m~ak' (GaNikCnmYy¨kumeTot), m"anm~ak' É fUm~ak' edérkan'«dK~a edémºIbgúajkarcSVc'«nkarrYbrYmCatiTl'

nwgBYklukluy|. y"ab'Vnd·knSG~kbgúat'mYy¨kum EdleFÃIkark~¬gPUmiPaK hÃaGan egÿgbß^n. Kat'

r"ayr"ab'fa

edémºIeFÃI[bN¶aCnTukcit¶

Kat'VnbJØa[mnus§rbs'Kat'bnæn'xÂçneTAtamTMenomTMlab'

rbs'eK ehIynigeFÃIBiFIsºf eBlNacUleTAk~¬gPUmi ma"n mYy.l. edayy"agenHägEdlVn¨tèv

sageLIg e¨kamsnæ¬Hrbs' y"ab' nig¨sbtamKMnitrbs' hUCémij, nUveKalKMnitmYyk~¬gcMeNam

eKalKMnitneyaVyäeTot«nrbbfµé Ð karCYyKS¨TBYkGaNikCn EdleKnwgeKarBC÷enO nigTMenom.

Ót¶mesnIybInak'«nkgT&Bevotmij CaCnCatifU. kgBlFMelx 312 nig 316 EdlVn

cUlrYmk~¬gkar¨byuTì«n edon ebon PU mansuTìEtCnCatifU (20 000 nak', KW 20% «neyaFa evotmij enAq~S 1954). rd½mån‘I¨ksYgkarJr¨beTs k~¬grd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~TI1 «nsaFarNrd½¨bCaFib-

ety´evotNam, CUy"agtag, CaCnCatifU. eBlEdlevotmij cab'cUlmkk~¬gevotNamxagtºèg vak* VneFÃImUld½anCaTIedémmYy edaye¨bIBYkGaNikCnEdlrs'enAä \TITYlxõs'| Edr(2). dUceKGacrg'


81 cS, Exµre¨kam EdltyuTìtSgBIstvt§r_TI 19 edémºIrk§aGgðPaB Catisasn_ nigvbºFmáxÂçn k*evotmij

BuMVnbMePÂcEdr. dUcGaNikCnCatiäeTot eKbbYlbgbíèneyIg[¨byuTìtTl'nwgVrSg edaysn´afa

nwg[sÃ&yPaBTUlMTUlay eBlNa²Nëècinrlas'xÂçnBIVrSgGaNaniKmniym.

tSgBIq~S 1946, hUCémij cab'ykcit‘Tukdak'nwg¨beTskmõ¬Ca. eKaledABIrya"gcºas'las'

mank~¬gKMnitG~kd·knSyYn. TI1, sMrab'e¨bIkarPÂam@ KWsÄabnapÂèvecjcUlmYy edémºId·knSkSePÂIgEdl

Tijedayrt'BnìBI¨suk«f ykmkevotNamxagtºèg ehIyedémºIrkesº¿gbJØènmk¨sukenH (¨sUvVt' d÷bg, ¨tITenÂsab .l.). kicÍkarenHVn¨tèv¨bKl'[kgäkPaBevotmij(3). TI2, sMrab'eBlxag

e¨kay KWeFÃI[¨beTskmõ¬CaeTACarNb eBlNa²NëècinrYcBI¨kjSVrSgehIy, edaye¨bIKNbk§

kumµ¬ynis‘ \Cabgbíèn| mYy EdlmansuTìEtExµrEdl¨buge¨bobxÂçnC÷nYsVrSg. kicÍkarenHVn¨tèvTuk

[Exµr (EdlelIkd÷bUgsuTìEtExµrkmõ¬Cae¨kam) ehIynigExµrkat'yYn ÉyYnEdlekItenA¨sukExµr ehIy

EdlVncUlsußbk~¬gsgðmExµr. G~kniBnì EbßNahÃl', k~¬gesovePArbs'xÂçneQµaH \evotmij| (bNöa

Kar Garm"g'kULSg, 1960) VnbgúajTMrg'TMray«nExµrevotmij ehIyBn´l'k~¬geBlCamYyK~a nUv

becÍkeTsbJÍèlxÂçnrbs'evotmij mkk~¬gkmõ¬Ca Ð

Çbu"En‘¨beTsGasIuBIrVnTTYly"agFM k~¬gkML¬ge¨cInq~SmkehIy nUv²TiìBl«nneyaVye¨kA

¨beTs«n sùbùvù (saFarNrd½¨bCaFibety´evotNam) Ð lavnigkmõ¬Ca. edaykt'sMKal'sPaB

Tn'ex§ayxagcMnYn¨bCaBlkr xagkgT&B nigxagesd½kicÍ«n¨beTsBIrenH cMeJHmux sùbùvù, eKKYr Binit´[yUr nUvTMnak'TMngrvag¨beTsBIrenH nig sùbùvù. ÈGtIt:

smaC^k«nshB&nì²NëècindUcCaevotNamEdr

¨beTsBIrenHmanCamYyG~kC^txag

yYnxÂçn min¨twmEtkarBiesaFn_elIGaNaniKmniymVrSgeT EfmTSg¨bvti‘mYyd*Evg «nkarrs'enACa

mYyK~aEdl, Cajwkjy, BuMsUv¨bkbedaysn‘iPaB, ehIyEdlrd½tUcTSgBIre¨cInEtCaG~kbg'xat.

kardkykPaBGaNaniKmecjBIkmõ¬Caniglav VneFÃIeLIgtamrebobmYy¨sYlbYlEdr ehIyBuMKYreTA

CaehtumYyEdleFÃI[manGn‘raKmn_yYneT. bu"En‘cMeJHerOgenH, sùbùvù dUcCaVnlaymenaKmv^CØa ma"k§niym rbs'xÂçncUlK~anwgeKalbMNgmYyEdlfaTMenomTMlab' (siTìi) CatiniymyYn. e¨JHfa

TwkdéyYnTSgGs'EdlenAe¨kamEx§¨sbelx 18 nigenAxaglic«nsæwgexµA ¨Kan'EtCaTwkdéEdlxÂçn cUlmkenAelIeT, ehIycMeJH (Twkdé) evotNamxagtºèg GaNaniKmkmµenHenAfµé@ enAeLIy. say

hûg eTIbnwgeTACayYnenAq~S 1688 eT, ehIyhaeTog EdlenAxagnirtI«ne¨Cay (²Nëècin) eTACayYn

enAq~S 1714 KWfaticCag 150 q~S muneBlEdlVrSgmkdl'. bu"En‘ KWtSgBImunq~S 1850 eTAehIy

EdlmYyPaKFM«n¨beTslav VnenAe¨kamGMNac (¨bUtiktUr"a) es¶cGNöam, ehIyenAq~S 1846

¨beTsesomnig¨beTsGNöam EbgEckkmõ¬CaCaPUmiPaKep§g@ EdlxÂçnsnìwg²TiìBlelI. CaelIk

begúéy,

KWkarcUlmktSgTI«nVrSgeT

Edl¨VkdCaVn¨sg'¨beTsTSgBIrecjBIkarVt'bg'TSg

mUl, karVt'bg'EdlraCaNac¨kcam Vnsðal'kalBI 2 stvt§r_mun.

ÈkarrMlwksavtaenH CakarcSVc' edémºIyl'Gakbºkiriyarbs'yYnkumµ¬ynis‘ Éminkumµ¬ynis‘,

cMeJHmuxlav nigkmõ¬Ca — KW¨Kan'EtCaTwkdéBIrEdl, \tamcºab'|, ¨tèvsMKal'fadUcCarbs'evotNam eTAehIy, ehIy¨bEhlCanwgeTAdUec~HEmn ebIKµanÓbsKð«nGaNaniKm (VrSg). EmnETneTA cMeJH

TMnak'TMngrvagkmõ¬CanigevotNamxagtºèg, kardk (²Nëècin) ecjBIkarkk'bJÍS (nwgVrSg) GaNa


82 niKm VnbeJÏHcMeNaTrvag¨beTsTSgBIr— sayhûgecaTP~MeBjfaVn[C÷rkdl'BYkyYnEdl¨b

qSgnwgrd½aPiVlxÂçn, P~MeBjecaTsayhûgfaeFÃITukÅbukem~jdl'BYkGaNikCnExµrd*e¨cIn (440 000 nak'!) Edlrs'enAtamPaKe¨kam«nTenÂemKgð, ehIyCYyKS¨TBYkExµrEdl¨bqSgnwgsem¶csIhnu .

ÈcMENkäTMnak'TMngrvagsaFarNrd½¨bCaFibety´evotNamnigkmõ¬Cav^j, e¨cInEtCakarbn‘

neyaVyEdlCaTMenomTMlab'rbs'yYn edémºIcUl (k~¬gTwkdéExµr). neyaVyenH Vn¨tèvGnuvt‘n_

y"age¨cInk~¬gcenÂaHq~S 1950 nig 1954 e¨JHfasÄankarN_xagk~¬grbs'Exµr dUcCaebIk{kas[

Nas'. enAExmIna 1945 G~kneyaVyExµrm~ak'EdlmanedémkMeNItenA¨sukyYn, sWg gu"kfan', KS Jreday Cbu"n, ¨bkasäkraC´eBjTI«nkmõ¬Ca e¨kaykare¨bIkmÂSg«nCbu"n EdleVskMcat'rd½kar

VrSg. k~¬gnaTICard½månI‘TI1 Kat'xM¨bqSgnwgkarv^l¨tLb'mkv^j«nVrSg bu"En‘Vn¨tèvkgäkPaB«n Ót¶mesnIy LWEKÂ cab'y"agrh&s ehIyVn¨tèvbMbrbg'. edaHElgmkv^jtamkarTTUcsuM«n¨BHecA

(²LèvenHsem¶c) sIhnu enAq~S 1951 Kat'¨tLb'mkkmõ¬Ca edémºI¨Kan'EteVHxÂçnm¶geToteTAk~¬gkar ¨bqSgnwges¶cKat' k*dUcCa¨bqSgnwgVrSgEdr.

Èbu"En‘ evot-mij ²tVnrg'cSkar¨tLb'mkv^j«n sWg gu"kfan' eT edémºI¨bmUlmkTuke¨kam«d

rbs'xÂçn nUvBYkExµrmincuHcUlTSg¨kumEdlmanBBYk¨kum \Esllul| nigkgäkPaBBiessevotmij

cSCYy¨Bçt«dpg. tSgBI«f© 19 mina 1950 eTAehIy KWminTan'TSgVnmYyExpg e¨kaykarbegûét KNbk§ Lav-dug (KNbk§G~keFÃIkar, sBëf©kan'GMNacenAevotNam, kùkùnù), BiFIsem¸aF«n

\KN:kmµkarkN¶al«nkarrMedaH¨bCaCnExµr| Vn¨tèveFÃIeLIg, ehIyEdleTACarNbsuTìsaF«n sù

bùvù (saFarNrd½¨bCaFibety´evot-Nam). k~¬gkareXasnaevotmijenAkmõ¬Ca eK¾niyayBIExµr m~ak'y"agGafákMVMgeQµaH sWg gu"kmij. bu"En‘EmnETneTA ¨btibti‘karevotmijenAkmõ¬Ca enAe¨kambgðab'

«nnay \kariyal&ykN¶al«nTk§iNTis|, kUnkat'Exµr-yYnm~ak'eQµaH suIv ehg.

Èedayehtufa enA¨beTskmõ¬CamankareFÃIlºat«nebsk:eyaFBl (VrSg) ticCagenA¨b-

eTsevotNam, TIbJØakarnana«nevotmijenATisxagtºèg k*cab'ep¶émeFÃIclnamk¨beTskmõ¬Cak~¬grdèv

ek¶A (eGet) q~S 1950. k~¬geBly"agxÂé ¨beTskmõ¬Cak*Cab'cUlk~¬greboberobcMrd½VlevotmijmYy

Edr, ehIykicÍenH¨tèvEteKsMKal'faCard½aPiVlTahanmYyelITwkdékan'kab' e¨JHeFÃIeLIgenAk~¬gdébr

eTs. kmõ¬CaTSgmUlVn¨tèvEckCabIPUmiPaK (emon), CaEb"k (vg') ehIyCaäkPaB nigCa¨kum \Esl lul| Gay (¨suk, XuM, PUmi). KN:kmµkar¨kbx&Në (V"gkagsuW) Vn¨tèvdak'BIelIPUmiPaKExµrTSgbI,

KN:kmµkarsMrab'PUmiPaKnirtI²tmanExµreT, ehIyBIreTot mYy@ manEtExµrm~ak'k~¬gcMeNamsmaC^k

TSg7 «nKN:kmµkar.

ÈenA«f© 22 v^cÏika 1950, sni~sITTImYyrvagG~kd·knSevotmij nigBYkmincuHcUl«nkmõ¬Canig

lav Vn¨tèveFÃIeLIg. lTìpl«nsn~isITenH KWesck¶IEfÂgkarN_mYy cuHhtÄelxaeday tug Dwkfag

edémºIevotmij, suIv ehg edémºIkmõ¬Ca nigmÍas'mincuHcUl supanuvg§ edémºIlav, ehIyEdlcg'eFÃIkmµv^FI

dUcteTA Ð smõnìPaBmYyrvag¨beTsTSg3 edayykCamUld½annUv \smPaB nig kareKarBeTAv^j

eTAmknUvGFibtIPaB nigbUrNPaBTwkdé«n¨beTsnimYy@|, xitxMedémºI \lb'bMVt'kar¨bkan'BUCsasn_

(KWfaTwkcit‘¨bqSgyYn«nlavnigExµr) EdlVrSgGaNaniKmniymVneFÃI[man|, rYcCabegúéy suM[¨b CaCnTSg3 rYbrYmK~a[kan'EtC^tsi~TiìeLIgedémºI¨byuTì. karerobcMeday¨sbK~anUv \rNsir§rYbrYm|


83 rbs'Exµr nig rbs'lav EdlcMLgtamKMrU elon-evot k*ecHEtedéreTAmux, ehIyenA«f© 11 mIna 1951

sn~isITmYyeTotk*eFÃIeLIg Edl¨bCu÷BYkt÷Nag elon-evot rbs' sùbùvù (tugDwkfag) nigBYk

t÷NagrNsir§CatirYbrYmExµr (FNUK, kùkùnù) nigBYktMNagrNsir§CatirYbrYm V"eftLav. elIkenH

esck¶IsMerccit‘EdlVn¨tèveKeVHeq~at maneKalxÂH«nkmµv^FImYycºas'las'eTAehIy Ð kicÍkarCa eKalFM«nkarbd^vt‘n_«n¨beTsTSgbI KWedjecjBYkGaNaniKmniymVrSg nig (semÂgCYgfµémYy)

BYkGn‘raKmn_niym GaemrikSg. \KN:kmµkarnaykGci«ån‘y_mYyVn¨tèvbegûéteLIg EdlmaneQµaH

fa \KN:kmµkar«nsmõnìPaB«n¨bCaCn evot-Nam, Exµr nig V"eftLav|.

È ²LèvenH evotmij¨bugrYcCae¨scnwgdak'KNbk§CamUld½anmYyEdlcab'BITIenaH eKGac

temÂIgGgðkarkumµ¬ynis‘ExµrmYy, e¨JHfaBYk \ExµresrI| (Exµr²s§r:) cUlcit‘eFÃIkareday²tsN¶ab'

F~ab'eBk, tamEtcit‘BYkemk~¬g¨suk. KN:kmµkarmYyeTotVn¨tèvbegûéteLIgEdlmaneQµaHy"agEvg

fa \KN:kmµkarkN¶aledémºIrt'kicÍkaredémºIbegûétKN:bk§bd^vt‘n_«n¨bCaCnExµr| (Vgy"agdugfan'

Lab'dagj"agdagkakm"agkav-man). ¨tg'nwgk*Edr eKBuMVneFÃIedayxØIxØaeT, e¨JHfakmµv^FI«nKNbk§

fµéenH Vn¨tèvsresreLIgedayG~käkeTsyYnEtm¶g edémºIEckbn‘eTA[Exµr tam¨kumevotmijk~¬g

¨suk. rebobEdl¨tèveFÃItamVn¨tèv¨Vb'y"agcºas'k~¬gkMNt'Bn´l'EdlPØab'CamYylkÅn‘ik: «nKN bk§fµé ehIyEdlVnEckp§ayCamYyK~a Ð

dl'smmit‘TSgGs',

12-

enHCaäksarBIrEdlTak'Tgnwg Ð Ex§neyaVy«nKNbk§.

lkÅn‘ik:«nKNbk§bd^vt‘n_«n¨bCaCnkmõ¬Ca.

lkÅn‘ik: Vn¨tèvGnumti‘CaäkcÏ&næ edayV"gkagsWu «nkmõ¬Ca. cMENkxagEx§neyaVy«nKN

bk§ V"gkagsWu VnGnumti‘EtEx§bnæat'FM@ eT Edlmit‘nwgykeTAeFÃICamUld½an«nkicÍkarrbs'mit‘ nig «nkarbgúat'bgúajdl'G~kcUlfµék~¬g \KNbk§bd^vt‘n_«n¨bCaCnExµr|. edayäksarenHVn¨tèv sresreLIgy"agelOn, eK¨tève¨bIeBlevlaxÂH edémºIsik§a[hµt'ct'nige¨CA.ùùù

eyIgsUm[ (KN:kmµkar) PUmiPaK bkE¨b CaExµr rYcEckp§ayenAk~¬g¨kumTSgLay. eyIgsgôwwm

fak~¬gry:eBlrt'kicÍkar edémºIerIsrkG~kcUl nigedémºIerobcMEsllulTSgLayEdlKNbk§nwg BwgEpíkeTAelI edémºIekIteLIg[¨twm¨tèvtamcºab', mit‘nwgbågðb'äksarenHCamYymtirbs'mit‘ Edl

mit‘nwgeFÃIeLIg[Vndl'KN:kmµkarkN¶al edémºIrt'kicÍkark~¬gkML¬gExkum¸: 1952. KN:kmµkarnwg¨bmUlp¶¬÷mtiTSgGs'

ehIynwgykKMnittamedémºIeFÃIesck¶IEfÂgeKalbMNgneya-

VyCapÂèvkar«nKNbk§. esckI¶EfÂgeKalbMNgenH nwgVn¨tèvEckcayCapÂèvkar k~¬gcMeNam

¨bCaCnEteBlNaEdl V"gkagsWu nwgVnyl'¨BmehIy.

(htÄelxa) «f© 5 sIha 1951

KN:kmµkarkN¶aledémºIrt'kicÍkaredémºIbegûétKNbk§bd^vt‘n_ «n ¨bCaCnExµr.


84 ÈlkÅn‘ik:«nKNbk§bd^vt‘n_«n¨bCaCnExµr

EdlVn¨tèveroberogeLIgedayTIbJØakarevot

mijenAkmõ¬CaenH minCaGÃIe¨kABIesck¶IsegÅb«nlkÅn‘ik:rbs' Lav-dug eT. karxusK~amanmYykEnÂg

ehIyy"agsMxan' Ð ²t manniyayBI \lTiìFM@ «n ma"k§, Ginhðil, eLnIn nig em"A-esTug| eT. kar niyayBIlTiìneyaVy manenAEtk~¬gXÂamYyEdlminGs'esckI¶ Ð \lTiì«n KNbk§ CalTiì¨bCaFi

ety´¨bCamanit.(4)

Ècab'tSgBIeBlenHeTA, karrIkcMerIn«nkarbH¨bqSgExµr eFÃIeLIgy"ag²telí¿gtamKMrUyYnrbs'

xÂçn. enAq~S 1952, KN:kmµakarCati«nkarrMedaHExµr E¨bxÂçneTACa \rd½aPiVlExµrtsUß| d·knSeday

s·g gu"kmij ehIyEdlVn¨tèv \TTYlsðal'| PÂam BI V"eftLav nigBI sùbùvù e¨kABIenH ²trd½ä

NaeTotTTYlsðal'eLIy. \rd½aPiVltsUß| enH mansar:sMxan'bn‘ic enAeBlC^teFÃIsni~sIT h§W

ENv, e¨JHfaebI sùbùvù eFÃI[eKTTYlsðal'VnnUvvt¶manCapÂèvehtu «nrbbTSgBIrenH EdlxÂçnKS

Jr, C÷hrrbs'xÂçncMeJHmuxVrSgnwgrwgbwugy"agxÂSg. k~¬geBlEdleCaKC&yxagTahanrbs'xÂçnman

eLIgCabn‘bnæab'K~a enAlavnigkmõ¬Ca BIExF~è 1953 eTAExemsa 1954, G~kd·knS sùbùvù k*niyay jwkjyeLIg nigxÂSgeLIgGMBI \rd½aPiVl| «n sWg gu"kmij nig supanuvg§. karb¶èrebskkmµK~a k*

maneLIg,

ehIyrhUtmaneTAdl'esck¶IEfÂgkarN_«n

\rd½mån‘I¨ksYgkarbreTs|

«nrbb

sWg

gu"kmij, ekmunI, Edltva"enA«f© 20 mIna 1954 Tl'nwg \Gn‘raKmn_GaemrikSgenA¨sukExµr\ ehIyecaT

¨BHecAsIhnu —EdlVnTTYlBIVrSgnUväkraC´«n¨beTs enAExtula 1953— faCatukûta.

Èbu"En‘karbegûét \rd½aPiVltsUßExµr| Cakarbn‘¬bbEn‘geBk. ¨bCaCnExµrPaKe¨cInenAesµaH¨tg''

nwges¶cxÂçn

ehIynigsÄab&ntamTMenomTMlab'xÂçn.

ehIyeKeXIjcºas'eBknUv«dbreTs

—yYn—

EdlenABIe¨kayesck¶I¨bkasnigsunærkfaTSgLayenaH EdlCajwkjy Vn¨tèvbkpæal'BIPasa

yYn. ¨beTskmõ¬Ca nig¨beTslavBuM¨BmGgð¬yenA h§·ENv e¨kaytu CamYy \rd½aPiVlbIsac| TSgenaH ehIyb¬kkumµ¬ynis‘ k*bnæn'xÂçntam. k~¬gry:eBlticCagBIrEx, rcnasmõnìrd½aPiVlevotmij

enAkmõ¬CaVt'Gs' dUcCa¨tèvmn‘GaKm. sWg gu"kfan' eFÃIskmµPaBm¶geTotCamYyes¶cxÂçn —bu"En‘¨Kan' EtedémºICab'¨bLak'm¶geTotk~¬gkarb"unb"grMlMes¶cenH k~¬gq~S 1959. sWg gu"kmij —etImnus§enHman

Emn ÉmYyCa sIuv ehg?— ecjeTACamYykgäkPaBevotmij Edl¨tLb'eTAevotNamxageCégv^j e¨kaykicͨBme¨BogQb'cºSgK~a. sùbùvù caj'TwkTImYyenAkmõ¬Ca.

ÈkarP&n‘¨cLMEdlVneFÃI ¨tèvEtEkeLIgv^j. EmnETneTA karEkenHnwg¨sYleFÃICagkar EdleK

mansgôwmTukenAhaNUy. edayVnTTYlTukÅbukem~jxÂSgBIG~kC^txagminkumµ¬ynis‘xÂçnBIrnak' KW¨b

eTsevotNamxagtºègnig«f, kmõ¬CaeXIjelcecjmkv^j nUvÓVyklrYmtamTMenomTMlab' Edl

eFÃI[xÂçnVnVt'äkraC´kalBIGtIt:. kmõ¬Cak*EbrrkTÃarTSgGs'EdlebIk[xÂçnrYcBIe¨KaHf~ak'ùùù ehIy haNUyCaTÃarmYyEdr. sùbùvù Elgman¨BMEdnCamYynwgkmõ¬CaehIy, ehIysarBtámanxÂçnnigv^T´¬

xÂçnkarJr¨beyaCn_Exµr, minEmnedayesck¶I¨sLaj'BiesselIraCaFibety´ExµreT, bu"En‘BIe¨JHG~k

C^txagrbs'ExµrCasmõnìmit‘y"agC^ts~iTiìnwgshrd½Gaemrik. sem¶csIhnu —es¶cnwgdak'raC´[ÒBuk m¶ayenAq~S 1955— ElgTTYlkareCrtµHtiHedolCaGlÂCØéBIv^T´¬haNUyehIy, pæ¬y¨sLHeTAv^j.

bu"En‘sem¶cenAcS ehIyExµrk*minePÂc karcUllukluyevotmijk~¬g¨beTskmõ¬Ca enAExkum¸: 1954,


85 ehIykicÍkarTak'TgEdlmaneLIgrvagP~MeBj nig haNUy ¨Kan'Etsmrm´, ²telIsBIenHeLIy. G~ktMNagpÂèvTUtExµrm~ak'eTAenAä sayhûg bu"En‘KµantMNagExµrenAhaNUyeT (rhUtdl'q~S 1960).

Èdl'Exv^cÏika 1958 eTIbKN:¨btiPUyYnxageCégmYymkdl'P~MeBj, bu"En‘munnwgmkdl' Exµr

Vn¨Vb'rYce¨sc ehIyy"agcºas'fa k~¬geBl²LèvenH²tmanerOgTTYlsðal'rd½aPiVlhaNUyeT.

kicÍccarenA¨twmEt eFÃIkicͨBme¨BogJNiCØkmµmYy cuH«f© 20 v^cÏika EdltamenaH sùbùvù nwgp¶l'dl'

kmõ¬CanUvF´èg, CatiCéhìssÃat, GMeVH nig¨kNat' ehIynigEt b¶èrK~anUvplitplksikmµ. kicͨBm

e¨BogenHmanniyayEdrGMBI \karsgôwm| nwgeFÃI[manTMnak'TMngxag«¨bsNIy_ nigxagvbºFmá, dUec~H

eKdUcCaGac[eyabl'bJÍb'fa

sùbùvù

VnElgGnuvt‘n_

—y"agehacNas'k*k~¬geBl²LèvenH

Edr— nYvneyaVyykkmõ¬CaeFÃI \rNb|, e¨JHneyaVyenHVnxUcxatm¶geTAehIy.È

(cb'kardk¨sg') dUec~HtSgBIq~S 1950 rcnasmõnìeBjeljCaKN:kmµkar-¨kbx&Në (V"gkagsWu) Vn¨tèveFÃI

eLIgeBjraCaNac¨k, ehIyenAe¨kamkar¨tçt¨tarbs'vresnIyäk egÿg fat'sWg (ehA hn:l:KIrI)

«nkgT&Bevotmij(5). cMENkxagreboberobcMBYk¨kume¨kammkeTot Vn¨tèvcMLg²texÍaHBIKMrU evot

mij enAevotNam(6). enA«f© 11 mifuna 1950 salamYysMrab'Gb'rMneyaVydl'BYk¨kbx&Në (f~ak'XuM, ¨suk) Vn¨tèvbegûéteLIgenAPUmiPaKnirtI EdlmaneQµaHfa salaGacar´ Ehm-ecov (!).

sis§C÷nan'TImYyman 140 nak' EdlmkBI¨Kb'TItMbn'«nraCaNac¨k(7). enAk~¬gtMbn' \rMedaH| mYy,

kgT&B¨bCaCnExµrrMedaH (APKL, emIlPaKTI4, erOgk~¬g¨beTs) sem¸aFenA«f© 14 sIha 1950 sala

TahanmYysMrab'bg÷kbgÃãnExµr EdlcUlk~¬gCYrxÂçn (CMnan'TI1 man \V"kTIsg'| Exµr 100 nak').

rd½aPiVlmYysuTìsaF Edlman¨Kb'¨ksYgbMerIkarTSgGs' (nKrVl, eXasnakar, esd½

kicÍ, sik§aFikar .l. mktSgTIenAtaEkv. k~¬gsni~sITenA h§·ENv q~S1954, pSyuSgdug, fÃétºitEt

xÂçnBUEkEfÂgsuM, ²tVneFÃI[eKyl'¨BmTTYlExµr-evotmij enAe¨kaytuC÷nuMeT. eBlEdlevotmijdk

T&BxÂçnecjBIkmõ¬Ca(8) ¨sbtamkicͨBme¨Bog h§·ENv, ¨kbx&NëExµrTSgGs'd*mant«m ¨BmTSgekµg Exµrrab'Jn'nak'eTot EdlcUlcit‘ ÉBuMsUvcUlcit‘nwgxÂçn k*evotmijBuMVnePÂcd·kCJØèneTAEdr. ExµrTSg

Jn'nak'enH (5000 nak', tamEbßNahaEm"l), EdlVneTAtam ÉeTAedayeKbgÅ÷CamYyevotmij k~¬g kar¨tLb'mkpæHrbs'BYkenH, Vn¨tèveKbJØènmkkmõ¬Cav^j e¨kay¨Bwti‘karN_«nExmIna 1970.

Exµr¨khmBuMEdlVn¨tèvbJͬHbJÍèledayCnCatiyYneT, bu"En‘edayCnCatiEdlmanEsºkdUc

xÂçn KWBYkExµr-evotmij. TukÅesakExµreyIgTSgGs' KWenA¨tg'h~wg!

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ sMnYrTI4 Ð

ebIdUec~H etImuxkar nig ²TiìBlrbs'¨beTscin k~¬gmhav^eyaKExµr enA¨tg'NaxÂH? (TMB&r 90)


86

GFibºay (1)

Jk´ \fU| k~¬gPasayYn E¨bmkfaG~k¨sukedém. dUec~HExµrkmõ¬Cae¨kamk*Vn¨tèvehAfa fU Edr.

sBëf©enH CnCatifU Ca¨kumGaNikCnFMCageKenAevotNamxageCég (400 000 nak') tam

Cn m"ak'GaliEsæ (k~¬g \GaNikCn¨sukP~MnigevotNam Ð kUnesamYyebIkbgúajsågðam ²Nëècin|, hageVHp§ay BIET Kuns‘aED), BUkfUVnbu"nb"gdeN¶émykblÂ&gûyYnEdr, enAst-

vt§r_TI 16, EtykBuMVn. bnæab'BIkarbHeVrenH, yYnVnse¨mclaybJÍèlbgûat'BYkfU edaynamuWnTSgLayEdlenA¨tçt¨tafU. namWunyYnTSgenaHVnerobkarCamYy¨sIfU ehIykUn

xÂçnEdlekItbn‘bnæab'mk, ehAfa fU-TI, VnkCavNö:vrCnfU. eBlEdlVrSgmkdl'²Nëècin

BYkfU, EdllkÅN:rUbkaydUcExµrNas' (CaBiesssmº¬r¨säm), VnVt'Gs'rlIgnUvPa saedémrbs'xÂçn.

(2)

VrSgVnyl'edayyWtNas'dl'sar:sMxan'«nGaNikCnCatiep§g@.

Ót¶mnavé

dah§g'

el´I, e¨kayeBlmkdl'kUsSgsIunbn‘icmk, VnbegûéttMbn'sÃy&tBYkm"Uyxagtºèg (ZAMS)

edémºI[VrSg¨tçt¨taCnCatienHedaypæal' (kicÍEdlGaemrikSgVneFÃIEdre¨kaymk). karerob cMkgqµk'k~¬gBYkGaNikCnVn¨tèvTukdak'[¨kum \kumµ"g'dU| cMruHq&¨teyag (GCMA) EdlxÂçnäg

enAe¨kambgðab'¨ksYgsm©at'VrSg (SDECE). bu"En‘karerobcMTSgenHVn¨tèveFÃIeLIgedayyWt Nas' (1953 - 54).

(3)

emevotmij«n Nam-bU (yYnxagtºèg) eQµaH egÿg-bß^n, ehA \EP~kmYy|, eQµaHEdlVn¨tèv

sðal''xÂSgBITahanVrSgEdlVn \vay| enA²Nëècin. lºIlºajedaysarePrvkmµrbs'xÂçn,

eQµaHenHVneFÃI[ \ya"b'| dl'kgäkPaBVrSgenAevotNamxagtºèg. mnus§GanaFibety´,

egÿg-bß^n Vn¨tèv¨Bmaneday hUCémij. ¨bEhlCaxÂçnBuMVneFÃItambJØaxÂHrbs' hU, eQµaH enHVn¨tèveKekaHehAeTAevotNamxageCégenAq~S 1946. tampÂèvrbs'xÂçn, egÿg-bß^n Vn¨tèv

TTYlbgðab'[eqogcUlmkdéExµr edémºIriHrkpÂèvecjcUlmYys¨mab'd·kGavuFTijBI¨sukesom.

egÿg-bß^n Vngab'eday«cdn´k~¬gkarBYnsæak'rbs'kgäkPaBExµrmYyenA¨kecH (emIlTs§na vd¶é \Giuss‘èrIy"a|, elxBiess 24). eKGaccat'Tukq~S 1946 Caq~SEdlevotmijcab'cUlxÂçn

mk¨beTskmõ¬Ca. (4)

bgbíènePosxÂçneyIgnigeyaFaExµr¨khmVnbJØak'fa

xÂçn²tEdlVn¾niyayBIlTiì

ma"k§

eLnIn É em"A esTug eT. \Jk´KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘Exµr| eTIbnwgecjBImat' bu"l-Bt kalxÂçn

eTAeb"kSg. k~¬gesovePAEdlKat'sresr 15 q~SmunExµr¨khmcUlmkykGMNac, EbßNa

hÃl'

bJØak'GMBIvtĬEdlk~¬g¨sukExµrsBëf©enaHehAfa

\Ggðkar\.

GgðkarenHminCaGÃIe¨kABI

\KNbk§| k~¬gsm&yExµrevotmijeT. cmÂgtamKMrUedém«nreboberobcM Exµr-evotmij, rcna

smõnì«nGgðkarExµr¨khmCarebob \rukÅCatiduH| (Kl', Emk, Fag .l.) Ð


87 GgðkarelI k

k

x

x

x

x

K K K

K K K

K K K

K K K

mhaCn

( \K| sðal'Et \x|, ²tsðal' \k| eT) kar¨bDitrbs'evotmijenH man¨bsiTìiPaB²teFÂay edémºIlak'VMgnwgkarJrBYkG~kd·knSxÂçn. edémºIdwgfaetIbJØamYymkBINa,

ehIyG~kNaCaG~k[,

eK¨tèvrukrktamEmkFagTSgGs'.

karenHeFÃIeTABuMrYceLIy e¨JHCnTSgLay²tsðal'K~aTSgGs'eT, ehIym´"ageTotedayman

¨kumKijTnæwmmYyEdl \Vnkar| Nas'. ebIbJØamYyBuMVn¨tèveFÃItam, Ggðkar¨sNukrkeT

kEnÂgNaEdlVnefÂaHeFÂay. eyIgVneXIjehIynUvrebobEdlemExµr¨khmBit¨Vkd Vn

e¨bIedémºIlak'VMgxÂçn. eBlEdlVnGMNacehIy \KNbk§| ¨Kan'EteFÃIxÂçn[eTACaGgðkar,

ehIyreboberobcMtamExµr-evotmij k~¬gPUmiPaKnana ykeQµaHfa \KN:k¶ab'rd½GMNac| Edl

CarcnasmõnìtamPUmiPaK«nGgðkar. dãvéEl r"ayr"ab'dUcteTAenH Ð

reboberobcMedém«nevotmij

Vn¨tèvG~kniBnì

hÃßéilIB

\edémºép§BÃp§aykmµv^FIxÂçnniglatsnìwg²TìiBlxÂçn, evotmijmantSgBIedémkMeNItxÂçn

nUvreboberobcM«nKNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin. egÿg GaykÃwk (hUCémij) eq¿t{kas«nsmaC

enA¨kug

Ti§n

TI§

(Tsin Tsi)

edémºIeFÃIkarerobcMsaCafµé.

dUcCaKNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘²NëècinEdr,

cºas'Nas'karN_Edlevotmij,

nwgGaceFÃIkarelITwkdé²NëècinVnEtedaylak'bMBYn

xÂçn. dUec~H ¨tèvEtxitxMerobcMGgðkarmYyEdllak'xÂçnVn, xMriHrkrebobfµénigÓVyfµé Edl

s¨mçltamkmµv^FIfµéenH. karGt'Fµt'y"agsÃitsÃajrbs' egÿg GaykÃwk VnTTYlplk~¬g

eBlenHehIy.

G~kd·knSTSgGs'«nKNbk§Vnyl'dl'PaBGsarbg'«nkicÍkarTSgLay

Edl²tVn¨tèverobcM[hµt'ct'min[eFÂayeLIy.

ehIyeCaKC&y«nevotmij

nwgmkGMBI

karN_Edl, k~¬gry:eBl4q~S, xÂçnnwgerobcMs¨mçl²t¨sak¨san‘nUvGgðkarrbs'xÂçn eTAtam skmµPaBfµéNaEdlnwgGaceFÃIVn, ehIynigB¨g·g²tQb'QrnUv¨bsiTiìPaB«nBYk¨kum Edl

manmkehIy. etIGgðkarenHCaGÃI?|

\enAxage¨kamman Esllul (Cé-bU), tUc@eT, ¨bmUlp¶¬÷mnus§EdlmanGÃICamYyK~a

xÂHehIy dUcCarbrrksuI, zan:sgðm É kånæajCatisasn_. EsllulTSgLay, Edlman


88 muxgarbgûBYk¨kum, mansPaBbiTC^tNas', eday²tTak'TgK~aBImYyeTAmYyeLIy. manEt

emEslluleT EdlTak'TgCamYyG~kenAxagelIxÂçn|.

\EsllulnimYy@ enAk~¬grcnasmõnìmYy (EdleyIgnwgehAfa \¨tg'eLIgelI|) Edl

tamFmµtaskmµPaBlatsnìwgeBjelI¨beTsevotNam

ehIyEdl¨bmUlp¶¬÷EslluldUc

K~aTSgGs' KWfaEdlmnus§k~¬genaHmanrbrrksuIdUcK~a, zan:sgðmdUcK~a É kånæajCatisasn_

dUcK~a. rcnasmõnì \¨tg'eLIgelI| TSgenaHmantamFmµtanUvyIehaEtmYyfa \smaKmyYn

edémºIe¨sac¨sg'¨beTs| (evotNam KW kÃwkhUy). enAq~S 1944, evotmijVnehAmk T§inT§I nUvBYktMNagsmaKmyuvCn (faj'ejon), narI (PUnU), kmµkr (kugsag), eyaFa (bß^n

suI). enAk~¬gmNëlnimYy@, kard·knSrcnasmõnì \¨tg'eLIgelI| nimYy@enAk~¬gbnæ¬kKN: kmµkarCab'eq~atmYyEdlerIsykemxÂçnäg.|

\bu"En‘esck¶I¨tèvkar«nkartyuTìTSgxagTahan TSgxagneyaVy nS[¨bmUlp¶¬÷meF´a

VyTSgGs's¨mab'eXasna«nEsllulnanatamPUmiPaKnimYy@, ehIydak'e¨kambJØakar

emEtm~ak' EdltSgeLIgedayKN:kmµkarkN¶al«nKNbk§ ehIyEdleFÃItamkarENnS«n

KN:kmµkarenH. dUec~H, cMeJHmuxtMNagTSgGs'EdlVnCab'eq~at, karcat'EcgskmµPaB manEtmYyehIyEdlmkBIelI.|

\edayehtuenH¨sukyYnVn¨tèvEckCabI \bU|, ɨbeTs (Vk'bU Étugkwg, ¨TugbU É

GNöam, NambU ÉkUsSgsuIn). bU nimYy@ Vn¨tèvEbgCaext‘, ¨suk, XuM, PUminigsgûat'.

bMENgTwkdénimYy@ enAe¨kamkarTTYlxus¨tèv«nKN:kmµkarmYyEdlman¨btiPUCab'eq~ateVH

edayBBYkrcnasmõnì \¨tg'eLIgelI|, ehIyKN:kmµkarenH¨tèvd·knSedayemm~ak'EdltSg

edayembMENgTwkdéxagelI. emKN:kmµkarmanGMNacse¨mckary"agTUlMTUlay ehIy[ {vaTEtm~ak'ägelIbMENgTwkdéTSgmUl, BYksmaC^kKN:kmµkar¨Kan'EtmansemÂgk~¬gkarBie¨KaH ehIyeFÃICaG~k¨btibt‘i.|

\reboberobcMenHhµt'ct'Nas'enAk~¬g \bU| nimYy@, embMENgTwkdITSgLay¨tèveFÃI[

¨sbtamkarbJØanigkicÍENnS«nGaCÆaFrEdlenAelIxÂçn.

pæ¬yeTAv^j,

edaymkBIkarBiVk

xagkarTak'Tg, \bU| TSgbIVnTTYlsÃ&yPaBFMlµmEdr. EmnETneTA, meF´aVyeFÃI²TiìBlcM@

eTAelIKNbk§ enAk~¬gkN¶ab'«dKN:kmµkar \bU| TSgbI, EdlmanesrIPaBlµmEdr cMeJHmux

KN:kmµkarkN¶al. CaBiessKN:kmµkarNambUmanesrIPaBesæIrEteBjTI k~¬gskmµPaB xÂçn, eday¨BmTTYlBIKN:kmµkarkN¶alEtkicÍkarENnSTUeTAxagneyaVy.|

\Cabegúéy, enABIelIGgðkarevotmij manKN:kmµkarkN¶alEdldak'lTiìEtmYynwg

kicÍcat'EcgEtmYy[tam.| (cb'dk¨sg')

pæ·meTAnwgrcnasmõnìevotmij, reboberobcMrd½Vl«nkmõ¬Ca¨bCaFiety´, elIkElgEt

kEnÂgbMEpÂkxÂH, dUcK~aebHbiT. ehIymanG~kniBnìxagbsÍwm¨beTsCae¨cInEdlsresr¨Vb'

eKägfaCareboberobcMfµé !


89 (5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

GgðkarelIsm&yenaH KW vr:esnIy_äk egÿg fan'sWg EdlVnykeQµaHExµr (VlIeTAeTot!) Ca \hn:l:KIrI|. e¨kaysn~isITh§WENv egÿg fan's·g, EdlVnbeJÍjmuxxÂçn, nST&Bevot mijcUl¨sukkMeNItv^j.

tSgBIkalenaH, min¨twmEtreboberobcMeT EdlVn¨tèvcmÂgtamevotmij, bu"En‘rebobniyay

—Pasa— kumµ¬ynis‘ExµrmYyk*Vn¨tèvbegûétEdr. bu"En‘edayKµanäksar, eyIgBuMGacGHGag

VneTfa \Pasa| Exµr¨khmsBëf© enAEtdEdldUckalBIsm&yevotmij.

BYk bu"l Bt, nYn Ca, ng sYn, sU Pwm .l. KWminsuTìEtVneronenAsalaenH?

elak ln' nl' Vn¨tèvraCrd½aPiVldak'[enAGmKN:kmµkarGn‘rCati (esùGIuùesù), edémºI

¨tçtemIlkarcakecj«nT&Bevotmij. Kat'Vn¾eKniyayCaelIkd÷bUgBIeQµaH \Ekv mas| m~ak'EdlnwgGacCaG~ktMNagenA h§WENv «n \rd½aPiVl| rbs' sWg gu"kmij, ebIsinCard½aPi VlenHnwgVn¨tèvTTYlsðal'BImhaGMNac. e¨kaymkeToteQµaH \Ekv mas| enHVn¨tèv

eK¾m¶geTot, faCaG~kbegûétm~ak'«nKNbk§¨bCaCn. bu"En‘KµannrNaVneXIjmux ÉrUbft

Ekv mas enHeT.

ÚÚÚÚÚÚÚ


90 ebIdUec~H etImuxkar nig²TiìBlrbs'¨beTscin k~¬gmhav^eyaKExµr enA¨tg'NaxÂH?

mYkrebobcinEdlExµr¨khmJk', vt‘man«nG~käkeTscinenAkmõ¬Ca, karedjBYkTUtrus§Iecj

enAExemsa 1975 suTìEtCakarN_tUc@ EdleFÃI[G~kxÂHsµan rhUtdl'fa¨bCaCnExµr Vn¨tèvcin

ykeTAeFÃIkarBiesaFn_ \sgðmfµé| mYy. esck¶IÓbmaTSgenH, EdlmkBIkarrevérvayrkerOgGsÍar´

edémºIÓs§ahkmµlk'Btáman,

Vn¨tèvbeJÍjmkedayrh&seBk.

nUvGFikrN_TI2 k~¬gerOgExµr rvagcinnigyYn.

eK¨Kan'EtTs§nak~¬geBlenH

GFikrN_TI1 VnekIteLIgkalBIsni~sITenAh§WENvk~¬gq~S 1954(1), EdlCakarN_bgúaj

¨beTscinCamhaGMNacmYyelIk¶arGukneyaVyGn‘rCati. tSgBIk~¬gsunærkfarbs'xÂçnelIkTI1 enA h§WENv, pS yuSgdug EdltSgxÂçnCa \G~knSJk´«n¨bCaCnTSgbI«n²Nëècin|, TamTar[Exµrevotmij

(rd½aPiVl«n sWg gu"kmij) nigBYktMNag V"eftLav mansiTiìcUlrYmk~¬gsn~isIT, sMNUmEdlrd½

mån‘IVrSg h§ßk bßédU ¨bjab'¨bjal'nwgTat'ecal(2). bJúaPaBtMNag«nExµr-evotmij nig V"eft

Lav Edl pS yuSgdug bMpuseLIgenH eFÃI[sni~sITecjBuMrYc. kare¨sac¨sg'elIkenH mkBI¨beTs

cin. «f© 8 ÓsPa, CUeGnLay EdltSgBIedém KS¨TkicÍkarrbs' pS yuSgdug ¨sab'EteFÃI[eKd·gfa

Kat'VnsMerccit‘yl'eXIjdUc h§ßkbßédU, KWfa bMEbkcMeNaT¨beTsevotNam, qak«ncMVMgrvagyYn

K~aäg, BIcMeNaT¨beTslavnig¨beTskmõ¬Ca EdlVn¨tèvlukluyeday \T&BbreTs| (Ganfa \T&B evotmij\)(3).

Gn‘raKmn_«n

CUeGnLay

min¨twmEtVneFÃI[sni~sITecjrYceT,

EfmTSgVnCYy

kmõ¬Ca[rYcxÂçnBIkarbd^vt‘n_mYyEdlcºas'CabgúèrQamxÂSgdUcsBëf©enH, karbd^vt‘n_EdlCaTIVrm¸«n

rd½elxaFikarGaemrikSg CnhÃsEsædlÂws(4).

karxÂacE¨kg Exµr-evotmij elbyk¨beTs Vncab'¨Kvat' sem¶csIhnu eTAk~¬grgÃg'«dcin.

h§WENvVnbegúIyäkraC´«nkmõ¬Ca, Vn'Dug mYyq~Se¨kaymk (1955) cab'bgÅ^tcinnigExµr[C^ts~iTì

K~a(5). BIsn~isITenA Vn'Dug eTAExmIna 1970, 15q~SknÂgeTA EdleJreBjeTAedaykarTMnak'TMng

lírvagcinnigExµr, BitEmnEtlík'BNáedayB´¬HsgôraxÂH. sMrs'qÂas'K~anwgkarkMejIj CaGavuFFM«n

karTUtrbs'cinenAGasuIGeK~y_. ¨BmK~anwgkarrk§aTMnak'TMnglíCamYyrd½aPiVlk~¬g¨suk, cinmin¨twm

EtKS¨TBIe¨kAeT EfmTSgciJÍwmBYkcUl«¨BeFÃIbd^vt‘n_eTot, ehIye¨bIBYkenHsMrab'kMejIjnig¨Bman —

kare¨bI¨Vs'Edl \Vnkar| y"agxÂSg. kicÍkarTUtrebobenH Vn¨tèvGnuvt‘n_k~¬g¨beTs«f, PUma nig

m"aeLsuI. manEt¨beTskmõ¬CaeT EdlputBIkºçnenH. dUec~HEmn kEnÂgd*¨bNItsMrab'¨beTscin k~¬g neyaVye¨kA¨beTs«nkmõ¬Ca,

neyaVyminTukcit‘rbs'ExµrelIshPaBsUevot

nigkardac'TMnak'

TMnglírvagkmõ¬Canigshrd½Gaemrik (Gan \TMnak'TMngExµr-cin|) eFÃI[Gt'GMeBIdl'karbegûét nigciJÍwm

¨kumcUl«¨BeFÃIkarbd^vt‘n_

(6)

.

ExmIna 1970 ebIkyuKfµémYy«nsavta¨beTskmõ¬Ca Ð yuK«nkarcuH{nfy, yuK«nesck¶ITukÅ

esak bnæab'BIkaregébmuxeLIgk~¬gry:eBlmYyy"agxÂé. s~èrkSePÂIgCaelIkd÷bUg, EdlVnehAmhaeka


91 lahlmYy mkp¶ac'Cév^tExµrTSglannak'enH Vn¨tèvVj'eLIg, cUreyIgkuMePÂc, edayBYkyYnkumµ¬y nis‘. bnæab'BIVnbgúèrQamExµr nigbMpÂajsmºti‘rd½Exµr, yYnVneFÃI[sågðamlukluyrbs'xÂçnkÂay

eTACasågðamrvagExµrK~aäg. lºicyuTìsaås‘d*eq~ImenH ¨tèveFÃIeLIgCa 5 d÷Nak' dUcteTA Ð 1-

2-

3-

4-

5-

karvayy"agrh&smYy, eday¨kum \kumµ"g'dU| bMpÂaj, kMeTcPaKe¨cIn«nsMNg'CamUl

d½ansgðmkicÍ—esd½kicÍ«n¨beTs Ð sõan, f~l', mnæIreBT´, sala, eragc¨k .l.

eFÃI[kan'kab'Vny"ag¨VkdnUvPUmiPaK emKgð-elI TSgmUl(7) edayvaybMP&n‘y"ag

xÂSg k~¬gPUmiPaKxagtºèg nigPaKkN¶al«n¨beTs (kMBg'sõW, kMBt, kMBg'FM, kMBg'q~Sg

.l.(8)

kareVHbg'ecalPUmiPaK

sågðam,

emKgð-elI

TSgmUledaykgT&BExµr

tSgBIeBlcab'ep¶ém

ebIk[yYnk¶ab'Tuke¨bI¨Vs'nUvfamBlmYyd*FMxagmnus§ (9)

EdlnwgbegûéteLIgnUvkgäkPaBelIkd÷bUg«nT&BExµr¨khm .

nigxagksikmµ

bJØènmkmatuPUmiv^jnUvhÃègBYkExµr-evotmij Edle¨skXÂan 15 q~SmkehIy, ehIy

EdlcSEtkMeTc nigbgúèrQamdl' \kmõ¬CakJØHc¨kBti‘GaemrikSg|. BYkenH, EdlsBÃ

«f©kan'GMNacEmnETnenAkmõ¬Ca, CaG~kksagkgT&BExµr¨khm(10).

eFÃI[sågðam \eTACaExµr| edayfyecjbn‘icm¶g@ edémºI, CaelIkbegúéy, ¨Kan'Etkan'

naTICaG~kp¶l'GavuFyuTìP&Në (mkBI¨sukcin kat'tampÂèvlMhUCémij)(11).

cMENkxag¨beTscinv^j, edayxÂçn yWt CagyYn25 q~S, manEt«dTeT eBlEdl¨Bwti‘karN_

mIna 1970 pæ¬HeLIg. «cdn´«n¨BhµlixitVnyksem¶csIhnu eTAeVHecaläeb"kSg. VnkUnGuk

mYyy"agsMxan', cinxMrt'[Tan'eBlevlav^j. VneTACaÒBukFmá«nkarbd^vt‘n_Exµr, cinnigyYneFÃIkicÍ

t¨mèvK~amYy tamsn~isITelIkTI2 «n¨bCaCn²Nëècin (emsa 1970). ¨beTscinmansIhnu (Edl

man¨bCa¨biyPaBk~¬g¨bCaksikrExµr nigk~¬gGn‘rCati) ehIymanGavuFyuTìP&Në. ¨beTsyYnmanBYk

Exµr-evotmij ehIy[T&BxÂçneFÃIGn‘raKmn_pæal'(12). cinKS¨TsIhnuCamYynwgraCrd½aPiVlrYbrYmCati

«nkmõ¬Ca, Exµr-evotmijcUlCamYysIhnu, edémºIbMerI¨beyaCn_xÂçnVn, k~¬grNsir§rYbrYmCati«nkmõ¬Ca

(FUNK,

¨sedogK~anwgbgrbs'xÂçn,

FNUK).

\¨BHGgðKitEterOgTUteTArYcenAäe¨kAcuH,

Tuk[eyIgxƬM

eFÃIsågðamrMedaHk~¬g¨suk|, Exµr¨khm¨Vb'sem¶csIhnu. pÂèveTAkan'C&yC÷nHGacenAEvgq©ay, eday

mkBIcMVMgenAevotNam nigkarkan'k¶ab'«nGaemrikSg. e¨kamsMbke¨kAmYy Edlbgúajkar¨tèvK~a²t

elí¿g, BYkTSgBIr¨kum (sIhnu nig Exµr-evotmij) erobcMxÂçn edémºIkMcat'K~aeTAv^jeTAmk.

erOg \v"ETehðt| nigkarFÂak'«n nicsun mkruj¨Bwti‘karN_[remoly"agelOn. C&yC÷nHmk

dl'qab'CagVne¨KagTuk. bIExmuneBlExµr¨khmcUlP~MeBj, sem¶csIhnu, cºas'Nas' CamYyBr

sBÃsaFukar«nCUeGnLay,

bgúajsmasPaB«nraCrd½aPiVlrYbrYmCati

nig«nrNsir§

\hìg|.

sIhnu²tVn \dak'| eT eQµaH saL¬t sr, eGog sarI, sun esn .l.ùùùù G~kd·knSExµr¨khm \eFÃIenAevotNam| Ð


92 rd½mån‘ITImYy Ð

Eb"n nut

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgFmµkarnigsgðmkicÍ Ð

CU ect

Óbrd½mån‘ITImYy, rd½mån‘IkarJr¨beTs nigGKðem

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgesd½kicÍCatinighirJïvtĬ Ð

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgmha«pæ, shkrN_nigGPivDón

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgp¶l'GavuFyuTìP&Në Ð Em"n san

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgeXasnakar Ð

Óbrd½mån‘I¨ksYgmha«pænigsn‘isuxÐ suk FYk

bJØakarkgkmÂSgrMedaH Ð

exov sMpn

shKmn_ Ð

hUß yn'

hußy nwm

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgkarbreTs

sarin qak

kuy FYn

Óbrd½mån‘I¨ksYgkarJr¨beTs Ð Kg' supl

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgyuti‘Fmá nigEkTMrg'tulakar Ð

Óbrd½mån‘I¨ksYgeXasnakar Ð

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgsaFarNsuxaPiVl Ð CYn eCOn

Óbrd½mån‘IkarbreTs Ð

nerat¶m PUris§ra

rd½mån‘I¨ksYgsaFarNkar, TUrKmnaKmn_ nig sÄabnaeLIgv^j

tUc PWn

Óbrd½mån‘IkarbreTs Ð

TIv Gul

rs' cit‘Fmá va"n' BInI

kariyal&yneyaVy «n rNsir§ Ð ¨bFan Ð Eb"n nut . smaC^k Ð ecA esg, dYg sMGul, can' yUr"an', Ca san, hUß yn', hußy nwm,

hYt smºt‘I, exov sMpn, sarin qak, CYn mum.

karcakecjy"agelOn«nGaemrikSg TukkEnÂgkan'GMNac[enATMenrk~¬g¨kugP~MeBj. edayd·g

xÂçnfaBuMGac¨tçt¨taExµr¨khmVn,

ehIyedayxÂaccUlGnæak'Exµr¨khmPÂame¨kayeBlVnC&yC÷nH,

sIhnu, bnæab'BIVnd·gfa \raC| FanIFÂak'ehIy, suM[cinbJØènT&B¨sYcmYykgeTAP~MeBj. CUeGnLay

Edlcg'elgsnÂwkebo \sIhnu| xÂçn[ \Gs'«d|, yl'¨Bmtam. k~¬gPaB¨Cçl¨cbl'«nC&yC÷nH,

TahancinTSgkV"l'ehaHcuHdéenAeJFicintug(13).

bu"En‘Exµr¨khm,

Edl¨bEhlCaVnd·gGs'GMBI

klÓVyTSgLay, cat'v^FankarN_Vnmun. kar¨bNSgdeN¶ImGMNac rujExµr¨khm[eFÃIGMeBI eXareXA«¨B«p§TImYye¨kayeBlxÂçnmkdl'P~MeBj

Ð

karCen¿sbN¶aCnecjBIrd½FanI,

ehIy

e¨kaymkecjBITI¨bCu÷CnTSgGs'(14). BitehIy KWenAk~¬g¨kugTSgLayEdlbN¶aCn nigG~kePos xÂçnTSglannak'rg'cSTTYl \sem¶cÒ| nigsn‘iPaBCaTITnæwgemIl, EdlExµr¨khmGacFÂak'k~¬gGnæak'

v^j. smõnìPaB CUeGnLay-sIhnu caj' \Twk| TImYy. rd½mån‘ITImYycinnwgpÂas'lºic ehIye¨bI

sMrs'rbs'xÂçnedémºIlºgdak' sIhnu k~¬gGMNacv^j(15).

eBlsem¶csIhnuCan'déP~MeBjv^j enA«f© 9 kJïa 1975, GtIt:bitaäkraC´Cati GacEtbgúèr

TwkEP~keCakfõal'

smÂab'ya"g«¨B«p§.

edayeXIjraCFanImYyGs'mnus§rlIg \kUnecACaTIes~ha|

²tVnenATIenHeT

ehIyFuMkÂinGsuPExµrrab'muWnnak'EdleK

edémºIfÃaysMErkCeyad*KwkkgrMBgdUc

kalmun. subinnwgVneFÃIdUcÓt¶mesnIy_ d·ehðal ²tVneTACakarBiteT. rd½mån‘ITImYy CUeGnLay

sÂab'enA«f© 7 mkra 1976, bursEdlxÂçnKSJr (sem¶csIhnu) Vn \laQb'| ehIyC÷nYseday


93 exov sMpn enA«f© 5 emsa. snÂwkebo \sIhnu| ElgelgekItehIy. ¨beTscinEdlnwg¨kajxM

etag¨beTskmõ¬CateTAeTot enAsl'EtpÂèvmYyeT Ð cUlCamYyExµr¨khm(16). ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ

sMnYrTI5 Ð d÷eNIrd*maneCaKC&y«n bu"l Bt eTAeb"kSg

GacCasJïa«nkarbnæn'rbbExµr¨khmÉeT? KWfa¨bCaCn

ExµrGacnwgVn¨sak¨san‘xÂHeT?

(enATMB&r 103)

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


94

GFibºay (1)

e¨kayq~S 1949 q~S«nkar¨bkassaFarNrd½¨bCamanitcin, sågðamenAevotNamkan'EteqH qYlxÂSgeLIg. VrSg, CYyedayGaemrikSg, KS¨TVvday. b¬kcin-rus§I KS¨ThUCémij.

VrSgm~ak'Vnsresrfa

sågðamenaHTMJrelbsis§salasSgesoTSgC÷nan'.

enAV"rIs

rd½aPiVlFÂak'mYyeLIgmYy bn‘bnæab'K~a tamelº¯nmYyEdleKminEdleXIj. rIäenA²Nëècin

BYkÓt¶mesnIyVn¨tèvpÂas'b¶èry"agrenÄIn Ð rWuEv (1949), dWL&¨t (1950), saLg' (1952),

Nava"r (1953). enAedémq~S 1954, mhaGMNacTSg4 GaemrikSg-Gg'eKÂs-VrSg-sh

PaBsUevot EdlC÷nuMK~aenA EbßLSg edémºIBiPak§aerOgeFÃI[¨beTsGalWÂm"g'manEtmYyv^j nig

erOgsn‘isuxTÃIbGWru"b, ²tVnrkeXIjkaredaH¨sayGÃI[Bit¨VkdeT bu"En‘se¨mcenA«f© 18

kum¸: fanwgCYbK~am¶geTotenA h§WENv. karCYbK~aenHedémºICECkBIerOgkUer", nigBIkareFÃI[man

sn‘iPaBeLIgv^jenA²Nëècin edaynwgmanehA¨beTscineTAcUlrYmpg. «f© 13 mina, evot mijvays¨mukcUlmUld½an \¨tg'es| edonebonPU. kMBugEteBj¨byuTìdeN¶ImedonebonPU,

kgvr:esnatUcevotmijBIr cUlk~¬g¨beTskmõ¬Ca¨tg'ext‘sæwgE¨tg ehIy«f© 2 emsa, kan'kab' TI¨bCu÷Cnevén«s.

bu"En‘tSgBIExvicÏika 1953 ¨beTskmõ¬CaCa¨beTsäkraC´. ebIcMeNaTExµr²s§r: dUc

CaVnedaH¨sayehIyedaykarcuHcUl«nemCae¨cIn

(k~¬gTisJy&B´enAsl'mnus§Cae¨cIn

rynak'eTot EdlenACamYy sWg gu"kfan'), enAsl'cMeNaTkgT&B¨bCaCnExµrrMedaH (APKL)

nigcMeNaTevotmijeTot. bnæab'BIkarQÂanJnevotmijelIkenH, ¨BHecA nerat¶m sIhnu,

eday¨Bme¨BogCamYyÓt¶mesnIy Nava"r, kan'bJØakarkgkmÂSgVrSg-Exµr ehIysuMC÷nYy

pæal'BIshrd½Gaemrik. sÄankarN_swkenA edonebonPU eFÃI[GaemrikSgVrm¸. rd½elxaFikar dlÂws, burstYäkenAsm&yenaH, CaG~kcg'CYyVrSgedaypæal'. ¨bFanaFibtI Gaysiun

hUvevé, edayxÂac¨btikmµcindUcenAkUer", sæak'esæIrnwgCYyedaypæal'. bu"En‘se¨mceTA, enA«f© 4 emsa 1954, GaysiunhUvevé yl'¨Bmtam dlÂws, [EtG~kenHbbYl¨beTsGg'eKÂs cUl

rYm¨byuTìVn ehIynigBn´l'¨beTsGasIuTSgLay [¨BmrYbrYmK~ak~¬gsmõnìkicÍmYyTl'nwg kumµ¬ynis‘. k~¬gkML¬gEtbIbYn«f©, dlÂws sYreyabl'dl'tMNag¨Kb'¨beTsTSgGs'EdlTak'

TgnwgkarN_enH Ð Gg'eKÂs-VrSg-GUås¶alI-nUEvleh§Lg'-hÃIlIBIn-«f-kmõ¬Ca-lav nig evotNam. Gg'eKÂsmin¨Bm¨Clk'xÂçnk~¬gkarp§ge¨BgenH, ¨beTsVrSg, Edlesd½kicÍdun

dabxÂSge¨JHEtsågðamenH, rkkaredaH¨saymYytamkicÍccar.

«f© 26 emsa, dUcVne¨KagTuk, sn~isITGMBIerOgkUer"ebIkeLIgenAh§WENv. «f© 7

ÓsPa, e¨kaykartsUßcMnYn 55 «f©, edonebonPU FÂak'k~¬gkN¶ab'«devotmij. cab'tSgBI«f©

bnæab', 8 ÓsPa, kar¨bCu÷TImYyGMBI²Nëècink*cab'ep¶émeLIg. k~¬genaHman¨btiPU«n¨beTsVrSg

(bßédU rYcmk EB´r m"g'edsåhÃg'), «n¨beTssUevot (m"ULètUv), «n¨beTsGg'eKÂs (Gg'tUnI eG

Edn), «n¨beTscin (CUeGnLay), «nsaFarNrd½¨bCaFibety´evotNam (pS yuSgdug), «n

¨beTskmõ¬Ca (eTB pn), «nsaFarNrd½evotNamniglav. rd½aPiVlGaemrikSgbJØènG~k


95 segûtkarN_m~ak'mk, ebEdlsµif. «f© 7 sIha, kicͨBme¨BogQb'Vj'K~aenAkmõ¬Ca Vn

(2)

¨tèveFÃIeLIg.

tbnwg pS yuSgdug Edlfa \¨bCaCnExµrnigV"eftLav rYbrYmy"ags~iTìCamYy¨bCaCnevot Nam, Vn¨byuTìedayvérPaBedémºIesrIPaB, äkraC´, äkPaB, ¨bCaFibety´ùùù vt‘man«ntM-

Nag¨beTsExµr nigtMNagV"eftLav nigCakarFanamYyEfmeTotcMeJHeCaKC&y«nsn~isIT

ùùù|, h§ßkbßédU eqÂIyfa \esck¶Ies~Irbs'evotmijTUlMTUlay, ehIyk~¬genaHehtukarN_TSg

bu"nµanlayLMK~a. elak dug cg'bgúajrUbPaBTUeTAmYyEdlTak'Tgnwg¨beTsTSgbI«n²Nëè

cin Ð lav-kmõ¬Ca nigevotNam. bu"En‘k~¬gbJúaTSgenHmanmYyPaKEdlecjBIsmtÄkicÍrbs'

Kat'ùùù. hUCémij Tat'ecalkalBIq~S 1946 nUvshB&nì²Nëècin. etI²LèvKat'cg'dak'shB&nì

enHmkv^j edémºI¨beyaCn_evotmijÉGÃI? ¨beTsVrSgnwgyl'¨BmdkT&BxÂçnecjBIkmõ¬Canig

(3)

lav ebIevotNamdkT&BxÂçnEdrùùù| (k~¬gsarBtáman LWmu"gd_ «n«f© 15 ÓsPa 1954).

bJúaPaBtMNag«nrd½aPiVlrbs' sWg gu"kmij enAk~¬gsn~isIT, EdlVnkkayeLIgeday pS yuSgdug, eFÃI[mankarCECkK~ay"agtwgmat'rvagKN:¨btiPUExµr (elak eTB pn, sm sarI,

ng KimnI) nwgKN:¨btiPUsaFarNrd½¨bCaFibety´evotNam. ¨bqSgnwgsMNMurbs'elak

pS yuSgdug, elak eTB pn EfÂgfa Ð \rd½aPiVlEtmYy«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca, Edl¨twm¨tèvtam

cºab' KWraCrd½aPiVl, e¨JHfaKWrd½aPiVlenHEdlVnTTYläkraC´BI¨beTsVrSg|. edémºIxM eFÃI[VnkarKS¨TeBjTMhwg«nb¬kcin-sUevot, pS yuSgdug beJÍjkarsMGagGMBI \c¨kBti‘

niymGaemrikSg| EdlkMBugKMramkMEhgsn‘iPaB«nGasuIPaKGeK~y_ (dug t¨mg'eTAkicÍerobcM«n

GaemrikSgedémºItemÂIg esGatU —EdlnwgTTYlhtÄelxabegûétenA«f© 8 kJïa 1954). cemÂIy «nelak eTB pn Ð \KSJr¨beTsxƬMTl'nwgkarQÂanJnbreTs CakicͨtèvnwgTMenomTMlab'«n

Gaemrik, G~kkarJresrIPaB. shrd½Gaemrik²tcg'begûétGaNac¨kGaNaniKmmYyeT. eK

¨Kan'Etcg'p¶l'mkeyIgnUvmeF´aVy¨twm¨tèv edémºIrk§aTukäkraC´eyIg, nigedémºITb'¨beTs

eyIgkuM[eTACaGaNaniKm«nc¨kBti‘kumµ¬ynis‘!|. mU"LètUv \¨bFanrYm| nig CU eGnLay KS¨T

sMNuM«nsaFarNrd½¨bCaFibety´evotNam, bu"En‘TSgBIrnak'Vn¨BmK~anwgKitKUr bMVt'TM-

nas'enHedayCECkK~apæal', CaäkCn|! «f© 16 mifuna, tamkarcat'Ecg«n CU eGnLay, kicÍ snænamYyrvag CU nig eGEdn (¨bFanrYm) VneFÃIeLIgEdlnwgBie¨KaHGMBIGnaKt«nkmõ¬Ca.

edayes~I \f~èr| mYyCamYy eGEdn, CU TTYleKalKMnit«nkardkecjBIkmõ¬CanUvT&BbreTsTSg

Gs' (TSgevotmij TSgVrSg), ehIyTTYlsðal'raCrd½aPiVl Card½aPiVl¨tèvcºab'EtmYy«n

kmõ¬Ca, bu"En‘bkmkv^j, TamTarkuM[¨beTskmõ¬Ca (niglav) kÂayeTACamUld½anT&BGaemrikSg k~¬geBlGnaKt. CamYynwgkares~Irbs' CU, eGEdnk*¨bjab'eTACYb¨btiPUVrSg h§ßk bßédU.

k~¬gerOgenH, CakarN_mYycºas'Nas' Edl¨beyaCn_VrSg nig¨beyaCn_cin ¨sbcUlCa

mYyK~a, e¨JHfa¨bsinebImanshB&nì²NëècinmYye¨kamkard·knS«nevotmij, CakarN_Fmµta

EdlVrSgnwgGs'²TìiBlrbs'xÂçn ehIycink*BiVksnìwg²TiìPaBxÂçnmkelIkmõ¬CaniglavEdr.

«f© 18 kkûda, \¨beTsFM| TSg4 BiPak§aK~aeTot. CU eGnLay es~IdUcmunm¶geTot

ehIyTarBI eGEdn nUvkarFanay"agmF´&tmYyelI¨beTskmõ¬Ca EdlKat'mincg'eXIjeTACa


96 mUld½anGaemrikSg. eGEdn [karFana \e¨kApÂèvkar| rbs'Kat'eTA CU ehIybJØak'fakmõ¬Canig

lav nwgeTACa¨beTsGB´a¨kwt Edlnwg¨tèvkarJreday¨beTsVrSg k~¬g¨kbx&Në«nsh

PaBVrSg. dl'¨tg'enH, sni~sITk*C^tcb'ehIy. karCYbK~aedémºIcuHhtÄelxabegúIyVn¨tèv

snµt'eFÃIenA«f© 20 kkûda em"ag 9 yb' k~¬glMenA«n Gg'tUnI eGEdn. KN:¨btiPUExµr, Edlmk

dl'yWt 2 em"ag (G~kebIkLanVnvegÃgpÂèvk~¬gh§WENv), ¨sab'EtBMu¨BmcuHhtÄelxaelIkicÍ

¨Bme¨Bogbegúéy. eTB pn BMu¨BmcuHhtÄelxay"agdac'Nat' drabNama¨ta 3-4 Edltam

mtiKat', eFÃI[mane¨KaHf~ak'k~¬gGnaKtdl'sn‘isux«nkmõ¬Ca, minVn¨tèvEkE¨bCamuneT. mU"Lè tUv, twgcit‘esæIrTb'BuMVn, ¨BmTTYleFÃIGaCÆakN¶aledémºIbJÍb'begúéy[Vnrh&s. enHCama ¨taTSgLayEdlCab'ecaT ehIynigkarEkE¨b Ð k-

kicͨBme¨BogbegúéyEcgfa

¨beTskmõ¬Caman¨bePTCa¨beTs

\GB´a¨kwt|,

²t

e¨CotE¨Ckk~¬gkicÍkarGn‘rCatimYyNaeLIy enAeBlevlaNak*eday. elIerOgenH,

kmõ¬Casn´afanwgmincUlk~¬gsmõnìkicÍeyaFaNa

Edlmin¨twm¨tèvtamFmµnuJï«nGgð

karsh¨bCaCatieLIy, bu"En‘TamTar[mansiTiìdak'mUld½anT&BbreTs enAeBlNa

EdlxÂçnyl'famane¨KaHf~ak'. eTaHbI pS yuSgdug tva" ¨bqSgy"agxÂSgk*eday,

x-

K-

mU"LètUv ¨Bm[Ekma¨taenH, karN_EdleFÃI[¨btiPUTSgGs'PÆak'¨Kb'K~a.

evotmijsuM[karnSGavuFyuTìP&NënigbuKðlikeyaFabreTscUlmkkmõ¬Ca eFÃIenA¨tg'

kEnÂgxÂH«n¨beTs, EdleKkMrwtTukmun. kmõ¬Cacg'[karnScUlenHeFÃIenAkEnÂgNak*

eday«n¨BMEdnxÂçn. ¨tg'enHsn~isITk*yl'¨BmtamsMNuMExµrEdr.

elIbJúa«nkarfyecj«nT&Bevotmij nigkardkGavuFecjBIkgExµr-evotmij, pS

yuSgdug es~I[BYkExµrEdlVneFÃIsh¨btibti‘karCamYyevotmijenAmansiTìikan'Ga

vuF ehIyp¶¬÷K~aenAk~¬gPUmiPaKkMNt'TukmYy rhUtdl'eBleVHeq~atCati (dug cg'Eck

kmõ¬CaCaBIrdUcEdlsn~isITVneFÃIcMeJHevotNam). bnæab'BIkartva"¨bqSgya"gxÂSg

«nKN:¨btiPUExµr, evotmijes~I[manKN:kmµkarcMruHmYyEdlmantMNag«nraCrd½a

PiVlnigtMNag«nrd½aPiVl sWg gu"kmij, ehIyEdlnwgedaH¨saybJúa«nkar

bJÍèlkgExµrevotmijmkk~¬gsgðmCativij, ehIykarsMercTSgLay«nKN:kmµkar

cMruHenH nwg¨tèv¨tçtBinit´edayKN:kmµkarGn‘rCatimYyxagkicͨtçt¨ta. eday²t rvl'nwg¨btikmµeBjedaykMhwg«nBYk¨btiPUevotmij, mU"LètUv Garkat'CaelIkbegúIy

edayTat'ecalerOgTTYlsðal'rd½aPiVl«n sWg gu"kmij. CaTIbJÍb', kicͨBm

e¨BogbegúéyVnTTYlhtÄelxak~¬geBlG¨Fa¨te¨CA (em"ag 2 PÂW) «n«f© 21 kkûda

1954. kicͨBme¨BogenHCasJïabgúajpÂèvbt'mYy«nd÷eNIrsavta¨beTskmõ¬Ca .

(elak h§g' sUEvl, EdleBlenaHCard½TUtVrSgenA¨kug Ebßgn_, smaC^k«nKN:

¨btiPUVrSg, r"ayr"ab'k~¬gTs§navd¶é \Guiss‘èrIy"a| (elxBiess 25) faÐ \CaelIk TImYy ehIy¨bEhlCamanEtm¶gKt'k~¬gCév^t kargarrbs'Kat'CaG~keFÃIsn~isIT, rd½

mån‘IkarbreTs«nshPaBsUevot (mU"LètUv), cMeJHmuxlkÅN:¨byuTìxÂSg«nshkarI


97 Kat'xagkmõ¬Ca, elak sm sarI, k*FÂaysMeNIcehIyyl'¨Bmtamm¶geTotCaelIk

(4)

begúéy.|)

\drabNas¨tèvrYmrbs'eyIg,

evotmij,

minTan'braC&yeT

mansmtÄPaBnwgeVskMcat'ecalraCaFibety´Exµr

—ehIy¨BHGgð¨Cabcºas'fava

¨BmTSgTMenomTMlab'd*¨tkalrbs'¨b

eTs¨BHGgð, GriyFmád*cas'yUrGEgÃg ehIynig¨bCaFibety´d*ekµgrbs'¨BHGgð— drabNa e¨KaHf~ak'd*FMenH, EdlGacCae¨KaHf~ak'dl'Cév^trbs' (¨beTs) ¨BHGgð, minTan'kMcat'ecjVn

eT, eyIgminGaceFÃI[VrSgGs'cit‘ Gs'kmÂSgVneLIy.|, rd½elxaFikarbreTsGaemrikSg,

dlÂws, eqÂIyeTA¨BHecA sIhnu, kales¶cTamTaräkraC´enAq~S 1953, (emIlPaKTI4, TMB&r

(5)

60). karVrm¸rbs'dlÂws, cMeJHeBlsBëf©enH, eTACaTMnaymYy.

sn~isITenAVn'Dug (emsa 1955) Ca¨Bwti‘karN_xÂSgEdlVneFÃI[sem¶csIhnu sMercKUs

¨taEx§neyaVye¨kA¨beTs«nkmõ¬Ca. k~¬gkicÍsnænaep§g@ CaäkCneTÃPaKI nig¨tIPaKI Ca

mYy CU eGnLay nig pS yuSgdug elIGnaKt«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca, sIhnuVn \Vk'cit‘|

elIbursTSgBIrenH EdlecHKYrsmy"ag¨bNIt. TSgBIrnak'es~IeTA sIhnu nUvkarb¶èrTMnak'

TMngK~a EdlykmUld½anelIneyaVymine¨CotE¨CkK~amYy! kares~IenHcak'cMcMNucex§ay«n

(6)

sem¶csIhnu Edl, edayVnbNëit enhru x§wbBn´¬Hpg, kMBugrkeTsn_p§aybJÍsIla!

BIq~S

1958

eTA

1967,

¨beTskmõ¬Canig¨beTscin

¨V¨s&yTak'TgK~ay"agmenarm´.

sIhnu eq¿t{kasBI \mit‘PaBcin| enH edémºIkMcat'bcÍami¨txageqÃg. kicÍenHVneFÃIeTArYceday

cin \eFÃImind·g|. BYkkumµ¬ynis‘Exµr, k~¬gkarrt'eKcBIkarbågûabrbs' sIhnu, Vnt¨mg'eTATÃar EtmYyEdlxÂçnenAsl' Ð evotNamxageCég. karminrvérvl'«ncinelIBYkkumµ¬ynis‘Exµr mkBI

mUlehtuesd½kicÍEdr Ð ebIk~¬gkmõ¬Caman¨kumkgqµk'kumµ¬ynis‘, sem¶csIhnu cºas'CacUlCa

mYyGaemrikSg. dUec~Hcin¨tèvEtCYyk~¬geBlCamYyK~adl'rNsir§bI Ð yYn lav nigExµr.

karN_enH esd½kicÍcinsm&yenaHBuMGacTTYlbnæ¬kVneLIy. cMeJHG~kd·knScin, ebIkumµ¬y-

nis‘TTYlC&yC÷nHenAevotNam, CakarN_FmµtaEdlkmõ¬CaniglavrGilcUlrgÃg'sgðmniym.

KW¨Kan'EtbJúaeBlevlaeT. karyl'eXIjenHk*¨sbK~anwgeyabl'sem¶csIhnuEdr Edl

xMrkmit‘PaBcin

(7)

edémºIecosvagkar¨bTUs¶r"ayk~¬geBlxagmuxCamYy

(Jk´ehACajwkjyeday sIhnu).

\kumµ¬ynis‘cin—yYn|

tSgBI«f©d÷bUg«nsågðam, BYkyYnxageCég¨tçt¨taPUmiPaK emKgð-elI TSgGs' ehIybiTpÂèvCati

elx 7 VnenA¨tg'TenÂbiT! Ót¶mesnIy ln' nl' Vns¬tcit‘y"agxÂSg eBlEdleK¨Vb'fa

¨kecHVnFÂak'ehIy. embJØakarEp~kswkrg¨kecH, ecg sayMubßn, enAmuxkarvaysMruky"ag xÂSg«nkumµ¬ynis‘, rt'ecalTahanxÂçnEdlesæIrEtTSgGs'Vn¨tèvcab'CaeQÂIy. k~¬geBlrg'

cStulakarswk, sayuMbßn VnecjBIKukrYc ehIyeTAcUlCamYyExµr¨khm enAExemsa, eBl

Edl nicsun [TahanGaemrikSgcUlk~¬gdéExµr (C÷erA 30 Kùmù, tMbn' \EpÂsnèæc|) edémºIsMGat

TIC¨mkevotkug, ln' nl' suM[GaemrikSgbgúçskarvaycUlrbs'xÂçndl'¨kecH ehIykan'kab'

¨kugenH rhUtdl'eBlT&BExµrrkTahanC÷nYyVn. bu"En‘sMNuMenH ²tVn¨tèv \KSg| ykCa

karN_eT.


98 (8)

k~¬gPaKxagtºègnwgkN¶al«n¨beTs, evotkugvaytam¨kumkumµ"g'dUtUc@ eT. bu"En‘cMeJHnay

TahaneyIg, Edlsux¨sçl 15 q~SmkehIynwgsn¶iPaB«nbJÍsIla, KWCakar¨Cçl¨cal y"agxÂSg. edayP&ysÂn'nwgkarvayCu÷v^j¨kugP~MeBj, TIGKðembJØakarsµanEtyYnt¨mg'rkrd½

FanI. (9)

(10)

kare¨tHriHBicarNabn‘ic

\yk| P~MeBjPÂamdUec~HeT.

¨bEhlCaVnbgúaj[eXIjfayYn²tman¨beyaCn_nwg

tSgBId÷Nac'q~S 1972, kgTahanExµr¨khmGac¨byuTìdl'f~ak'kgBlFM.

k~¬gBIrq~Sd÷bUg«nsågðam, kgTahankumµ¬ynis‘suTìEtyYnTSgGs'. skÅIPaB«nbN¶aCn «nPUmi

PaKCae¨cIn¨tèvK~aTSgGs' Ð k~¬gkareTAmkrbs'xÂçn, yYnman¨kumExµrtUc@ edérCamYy, Edlk~¬g eBlenaHeKsµanfaEtBYk \G~kbgúajpÂèv|. EtEmnETneTA, KWBYkTSgenaHehIyEdlCa¨kum¨kb

x&NëbJØènBIhaNUy. karEknTahanCaelIkdMbUgVneFÃIeLIgeday²tcMeNaT. BYkxilxUc

nigecar¨sukTSgbu"nµanVn¨tèveK[kSePÂIgkan' ehIyEtgtSgk~¬gmYyb"¨bicEP~kCaemPUmi — em

XuM! karyksIhnumkkan'GMNacv^j Vn¨tèveKniyayBImat'mYyeTAmat'mYy! PUmiNaEdl

TTwgrwgrUs VnTTYlTNëkmµya"gsahav (karsmÂab'rgðalmanrab'minGs', Edl«¨B«p§Cag

eK KWenA¨tJMgCg, k~¬gq~S 1971). kare¨bI¨Vs'kSePÂIgFM ¨Kab'Ebk, ¨Kab'ru"kEkt, (d÷bUgrus§I

rYcmkcin) Vn¨tèvTuk[y"agdac'muxdl'BYkyYn, rhUtdl'q~S 1975.

CamYyd÷eNIrfµé@ «n b"ul Bt eTAeb"kSgnigkar¨bkasxYbTI 17 «nKNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘

Exµr, BYksarBtámanbsÍwm¨beTseFÃIkarsµanEtBIsEtJsdUcsBÃdg. xÂHniyayrhUtdl'fa ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ

pÂèvCatieyIgxÂH pùCù1 = P~MeBj — G~kelOg — sÃayerog — («¨BnKr) pùCù3 = P~MeBj — taEkv — kMBt

pùCù4 = P~MeBj — kMBg'sõW — kMBg'esam

pùCù5 = P~MeBj — kMBg'q~Sg — eBaF−sat' — Vt'd÷bg — sIusupun — eV"yEb"t pùCù6 = E¨Bkk¶am — sðn' — kMBg'FM — esomrab — sIusupun pùCù7 = sðn' — kMBg'cam — E¨kk — emmt' — s~çl (taynij)

(L¬knij)

(PUmiPaKEpÂsnèæc)

pùCù12 = kMBg'FM — GnÂg'«¨B — revog — pÂèvEbkEqb/mÂ諨B — ¨seLA (Tl'muxxug, lav)

pùCù13 = s~çl — ¨kecH — sæwgE¨tg — (xug, Vk'es, lav) pùCù19 = sæwgE¨tg — lMpat' — (epÂKU, evotNam)


99 KµanTMnak'TMngGÃIrvag Exµr-evotmij nwgBYkemExµr¨khmsBëf©enHeT. enHKWCakar¨bmafeBj

TIdl'v^JïaNkÅ&nì«neyaFaeyIg

(11)

(12)

EdlVnbUCaCév^tenAsmrPUmi nig«nbgbíènksikreyIgEdl

Vn¨tèveKsmÂab'rgðaly"ag«¨B«p§.

k~¬geBlenHminTan'mansiÄticºas'las'elIcMnYnGavuF \kumµ¬ynis‘| EdlVn¨tèvp¶l'[Exµr¨k-

hmeT. yYncºas'CaminVnd·kCJØèn[eday²tykkM«reLIy. dUcCaExµreyIgk~¬geBlCJØèn kSePIÂgBIkMBg'esameTA[evotkug, yYn¨bEhlCaVn \ebHyk| mYyPaKEdr.

BYkkumµ¬ynis‘yYn, fÃIdºitEteKd·g¾¨Kb'K~a GMBIkar¨tèvr"UvK~a sIhnu-pSyuSgdug enAeb"kSg enA

«f© 21-3-70, Vn¨bEkkk~¬gBIrq~Sd÷bUg«nsågðamfa KµanT&BxÂçnenAkmõ¬CaeT. ma¨ta 20 «nkicÍ ¨Bme¨BogenAV"rIs «nExmkra 1973 CakarTTYlsarPaBmYyBit@. bu"En‘Kµan¨beTsNa mYydak''TNëkmµdl'evotNamxageCégeT,

d÷Nwgdl'G~kNaEdlsgôwmelIkarxÃl'xÃayrk

yut‘iFmá «nsn~isITGn‘rCatiTSgBYg! teTAenH KWGtÄbT«nkicͨBme¨BogenAV"rIs rvagshrd½ GaemriknigevotNamxageCég EdleFÃIenAExmkra 1973 (vKðTI7, ma¨ta20) Ð k/ù

PaKIEdlcUlrYmsn~isITenAV"rIsGMBIerOgevotNam

kicͨBme¨Bogh§WENv«nq~S

1954

elIkmõ¬Ca

¨tèveKarBy"agm"t'ct'dl'

nigkicͨBme¨Bogh§WENv«nq~S

1962 elIlav, kicͨBme¨BogEdleFÃI[man¨twm¨tèvnUvsiTiìCatiCaòsKl' «n

¨bCaCnkmõ¬Caniglav, KWäkraC´, GFibety´PaB, äkPaB nigbUrNPaBTwkdé«n

¨beTsTSgenH. PaKI ¨tèveKarBGB´a¨kwtPaB«nkmõ¬Caniglav. PaKI EdlcUl

rYmk~¬gsn~isITenAV"rIsGMBIevotNamsn´afamine¨bITwkdékmõ¬Caniglav edémºIb"H

Jl'eTAv^jeTAmkdl'GFibtIPaBK~a x/ù

K/ù

GFibtIPaB«n¨beTsäeTot.

nigdl'sn‘isuxK~a

nigedémºIb"HJl'dl'

breTsnwgbJÎb'skmµPaBTahanTSgGs'enAkmõ¬Caniglav, nwgdkecjBI¨b-

eTsTSgBIrenHnUvkgTahanTSgGs', TI¨bwk§aTahanTSgGs', buKðlikTahan, GavuF, ¨Kab' nigsm¸ar:cmºSg ehIynwgminbJÍèlmkeToteLIy.

kicÍkar«pæk~¬g«n kmõ¬Caniglav ¨tèv¨bCaCnTSgBIrcat'EcgerogxÂçneday²tbr-

eTse¨CotE¨Ck.

X/ù cMeNaTTSgLayEdlCab'C÷Jk'nwgTMnak'TMngrvag¨beTs«n²Nëècin edaH¨sayedayPaKI²NëècinelImUld½an

nwg¨tèv

«nkareKarBeTAv^jeTAmkdl'äkraC´

K~a, bUrNPaBTwkdéK~a nig«nkarmine¨CotE¨CkeTAv^jeTAmk dl'kicÍkar«pæk~¬gK~a.

(cuHhtÄelxaeday eLDwkfU nig hinrI Kis§ijeCé enA«f© 27 mkra 1973) (dk¨sg'

ecjBIsarBtáman \LWm"ug| «n«f© 26-1-73).

karN_mYyEdlVneFÃI[G~ksegûtkarN_breTsegOgq©l'y"agxÂSg KWG~kkan'GMNac

enAP~MeBjVnbJØa,

(13)

¨Kan'Etsni~sITenHcb'PÂam,

[kgT&BbJÎb'karVj'K~aCaäketaPaKI

ehIy[eFÃIbuN´mYyGbGrsaTrTTYlkicͨBme¨BogenH.

muneBlP~MeBjFÂak'bn‘ic, kar¨bkYt¨bECgK~arvagbk§BYkTSgLayk~¬g saFarNrd½ eFÃI[Ga-

emrikSgse¨mccit‘yk ln' Nun ecj[q©ayBIP~MeBj. \kaNun| Vn¨tèveK[eTAeFÃId÷eNIr


100 mYyeTAbreTsk~¬g

\zan:|

Card½TUt¨tac'cr.

Exµr¨khmeFÃI[manJk´ccamGar"amfa

k~¬g

d÷eNIrrbs'xÂçn ln' Nun VnTak'TgCamYyrus§I. eday²tcg'niyayfa karedjTUtrus§I

ecjBIP~MeBjenAExemsa 1975 mkEtGMBIerOgenH, eyIgGacniyayedaycºas'fa Exµr¨khm

(14)

²tVnedjBYkTUtshPaBsUevot e¨kamkarj¬Hjg'rbs'cineLIy. enAGasIuPaKGeK~y_,

karbd^vt‘n_Nak*Cabd^vt‘n_ksikmµEdr

(xÂSgNas'elIkElgEtcMeJH

hugkug nig sigúburI), e¨BaHfamhaCnPaKe¨cInCaksikr. vNö:kmµkrk~¬g¨kug ¨Kan'EtCaels

eT. karTak'Taj«nsPaB \eqItqay| EtgEteFÃI[manCanicÍ, k~¬gsgðm Ekºr-mUlFnniym,

nUvkarcakecjBI¨sukE¨scMkarmkrs'enAk~¬g¨kugv^j, karN_enHCakrNIy«nkmõ¬CaEdr. lb'

bMVt'¨kugTSgLayecj CaeKaledAFMmYy«nkumµ¬ynis‘GasuITSgGs' EdlkMBugEteLIgkan' GMNac, eTaHbIxÂçnyk¨Tws¶ItamlTiìNak*eday, eTaHbIxÂçnmanlkÅN:dac'Nat'xÂSg Étick*

eday. minEmnEtk~¬gkmõ¬Ca¨bCaFibety´eTEdleKlb'bMVt'¨kugecal, enAevotNam nig enAlav k*eKeFÃIdUec~HEdr, bu"En‘edaybn¶icm¶g@. EdlExµr¨khmedjbN¶aCn ecjGs'y"ag

elOnBIP~MeBjnig¨kugäeTotenH, KWminEmnmkBIerOgesd½kicÍ ÉedémºIbMeBjbMNgmenaKmv^CØa GÃIeT. Exµr¨khmVneFÃIedayGmnus§FmáenH e¨JHcg'ecosvagGnæak'4 dUcteTAenH, EdlGac

\kat'mux| xÂçnVn Ð k/ù

e¨kaykicͨBme¨BogenAV"rIs«nq~S 1973, eKfaGacmankicÍccarelIerOgExµr.

sIhnu, CamYykaryl'¨Bm«n CU eGnLay, eVHsnèæcmYyeTA Ð raCrd½aPi VlrYbrYmCati ¨BmeFÃIEtkicÍccar eTÃPaKI, CamYyGaemrikSgEtm¶g. sIhnu min

Emncg'EtTaj ln' nl' nigsaFarNrd½ecjeT, KWEfmTSg —ehIymunGÃI

TSgGs'— BYkExµr¨khm \kUnsis§| yYneTot (enAeBlenaH, rd½TUtVrSg

enA¨kugeb"kSg, eGEdn ma"Nak', eFÃICaG~kTak'Tg[). cab'tSgBIq~S 1973 enAkmõ¬Ca, eKeXIjmankgqµk' \sIhnuniym|. enAk~¬gPUmiPaKxÂH, mankarvay x/ù

K/ù

tTl'y"agxÂSg rvagExµr¨khm nig \BYksIhnu|.

eBlEdlKat'eTACard½mån‘ITImYy, hg§ Funhak' Vnrkccar, tamry:Vgkk,

CamYy¨kum sIhnu - exov sMpn - hßuy nim - hUß yn', kar¨bwgE¨bgEdlVn eFÃI[Kat' Vt'muxgareTA. suEs‘n

EhÃßrNg'Eds,

GtIt:GKðembJØakar, cg'eFÃIrd½¨bharmYyedémºIrMlM

ln' nl' ehIyyksIhnu (Etm~ak'äg) mkv^j. edayxÃHKuNsmºti‘mYy EdlVrSgehAfa \GIunIs´"aTIv| (karecHcat'EcgedayxÂçnäg mincSVc'maneK bJØa),

X/ù

suEs‘neTAsYreyabl'GaemrikSgsin.

eqÂIy \eT|, ehIyxÂçnk*s¶ab'. nl'

Nun

k*dUcK~aEdr

CakarN_Fmµta,

BuMVnenAes©¿mk~¬gkar¨bNSg

GaemrikSg

deN¶ImGMNaceT.

\Ót¶mesnIy_| Ehm ektdara nig¨kum \mU"Nas´è| rbs'xÂçn, nayTahanJk'

pûayxÂH

Edl¨tehb¨thbmkdak'esa¨cvak'enATÃarcUl¨ksYgeXasnakar

bgúaj[eXIjlºicklTSgLay«neBle¨kayenaH.


101 BitNas'eTAehIy, Exµr¨khmd·gGs'BIÓVyklTSgenaH. karN_EdlKYrkt'sMKal' KWBYk

edérlºicTSgenH, TSgG~kmansuTìcit‘ TSgG~ke¨skbuN´sk¶i, Vnyl'¨cLMGMBIGMNacEmn

ETnelIBYkExµr¨khm. TSgGs'K~a²tVnyl'dl'GtÄn&yy"ag¨Cale¨CA «nkarsmÂab'rgðal

«¨B«p§ enA¨tJMgCg, Ódugð, kMBg'cam .l. eLIy. eKsµanEtebIminsIhnu (EdlmanysCa

¨bFan«nrNsir§nigmankarKSJrBIeb"kSg) k* exov sMpn Edr (CamYygarxÂçnCaGKðembJØa

kar nigrd½mån¶IkarJr¨beTs) Edlkan'begú¿rd·knSbd^vt‘n_. minKW exov sMpn Edlk~¬geBl

mYyVn¨Vb'G~ksarBtámanVrSgm~ak'enAk~¬g«¨Bfa Ð \e¨KaHf~ak'FMbMputcMeJHkarbd^vt‘n_ KW

kalNaC&yC÷nHVnrh&seBk|? etI exov sMpn cg'[d·gfa minEmnxÂçneTG~kmanGMNac EmnETnÉGÃI? bu"En‘kalenaH cenÂaHq~S 1971 nig 73 ²tmannrNacab'PÂwkxÂSgeLIy eday

sµanEtniyayBIkicÍkarerobcM. emIleTA, edaycg'sgKMnMu—QWcab' elIsgðmxÂçn, edaycg'

eFÃI[Tal'Et sIhnu ykGMNacv^jBMuekIt, exov sMpn, EdlemIlgayemeron¨bvti‘saås¶ (15) (16)

dUcBYk \BukrlYy| enAP~MeBjEdr, Vnsuxcit‘cUlCamYy \bn| BYkhaNUy.

eKVnniyayGMBIkar[xÍI¨Vk' 1 000 landulÂar Edl CU eGnLay ¨BmeFÃI cMeJHkmõ¬Ca¨b-

CaFibety´ edémºI[Exµr¨khmTuk sIhnu Ca¨bmuxrd½.

muneBl bu"l Bt eTA¨sukcinbn‘ic, Ts§navd‘é \esd½kicÍcugbUJá¨beTs| cuHGtÄbTmYysr

esreday Nay"ancan'da e¨kamcMNgeCégfa \kmõ¬CanigcinminsUvs~iTìs~alK~a|, ehIyEdl EcgdUcteTAenH Ð

\sIhnu Ð ¨bPB[BtámanCatiGWru"bmYy Edld·ge¨cInGMBIeb"kSgniyayfa cinmin (R)

sbºaycit‘eTGMBIrebobEdleKEfTSsem¶csIhnu, ehIy \BYkbYnnak'|

Vn¨tèveK[TTYl

xus edayBuMVnxitxMeFÃI[ sIhnu enACa¨bmuxrd½. ¨bPBenHyl'fa minEmnCa«cdn´eT karN_Edl sIhnu Vn¨tèvdkecjBItMENge¨kayBImrNPaB«nrd½mån‘ITImYy CU eGnLay

(EdlCaG~kKSJr sIhnu k~¬gry:eBl¨VMq~SEdlsem¶cenAeb"kSg), Tl'nwgBYkG~kdac'Nat'

xÂSgk~¬gcMeNamExµr¨khm. ²LèvenHeb"kSgdUcCaVneXIjfa karTmÂak'sIhnu VneFÃI[kmõ¬Ca Vt'G~knSJk´m~ak'EdlmansmtÄPaB, mkGMBIneyaVyeFÃIxÂçnäekaGnafa.

\fÃIdºitEtTMnas'rvag¨beTscin«nhYKYehÃg nwgkmõ¬CaminTan'ecjenAeLIyeT, eKeXIj

mansJïafa eb"kSgminsUvmankars~iTìs~alk~¬gkicÍTak'Tgrbs'xÂçnCamYykmõ¬Ca. karbriyay BIerOgExµredayTIP~ak'garBtámancinfµé —¨bdab'vas'kMritmit‘PaBmYyEdleKTTYlsðal'— Vn

FÂak'cuHmky"ags¶çces¶Igk~¬gq~SEdlknÂgeTAenH. ¨bdUceTAnwgGtÄbTcMnYn 22 elIkmõ¬Ca Edl

TIP~ak'garBtámancinfµéVncuHp§ayk~¬gExkkûda-sIha 1976, TIP~ak'garVncuHEtbYnGtÄbTeT

k~¬gry:kaldUcK~aq~SenH.

\sJïamYy«nkarcuHGn'«nPaBkk'ek¶Arbs'eb"kSg KWkMritminsUvxÂSg«nPaBtMNagrbs'

¨beTscink~¬gBiFICb'elogbuN´xYbenAExemsa.

k~¬gBiFICb'elogq~SeTA,

EdleFÃIeLIgmun

mrNPaB«n em"A esTug nigkarFÂak'«nBYkbYnnak', VnmkcUlrYmsmaC^kbInak'«nkariyal&y

neyaVy ¨BmTSgrd½mån‘IkarbreTsk~¬geBlenaH, Cav KYnhY (e¨kaymkeKElgrab'rk). q~S

(R) ¨bBnì em"A esTug nigK~aKat'.


102 enH, VnmkcUlrYmk~¬gBiFIsmaC^km~ak'«nkariyal&yneyaVy nigrd½mån‘IkarbreTs hYghY.

sunærkfarbs' hYghY ¨tCak'Cag Cav KYnhY EdlVnEfÂgGMBIesck¶I¨VemaCØnwgkarEdlman \mit‘rYm¨byuTì| esµaH¨tg'dUcExµr.|

\karcuH¨tCak' «nTMnak'TMng«n¨beTsTSgBIr ¨bEhlCamineFÃI[mankardac'edacxÂSg

É[eXIjCasaFarN: nUvsågðamsÂabVkûadUckrNICamYy¨beTsGal'VnIeT, e¨JH¨beTs

TSgBIr ¨tèvkarK~a eTAv^jeTAmk. cinmin¨twmEt[xÍI¨Vk'y"age¨cInsemºIm sMrab'karksag

eLIgv^je¨kaysågðameT (¨bEhl 1 000 landulÂarGaemrikSg, Edlk~¬genaHmanC÷nYyCa rbs' t«m 20 landulÂar), EfmTSgVn —tameKsµan— [buKðlikbecÍkeTs 1 000 nak'

mkCYsCulpÂèv nigÓbkrN_d·knStamGakas nigGysµ&yyan, e¨KOgp¶l'GKiðsnInigerag c¨ksMxan'@ äeTot ¨BmTSg[d÷bUnµanxagGPivDón_ksikmµ. elIsBIkar[GavuFFmµta, cin

Vnp¶l'kV"l'sMrab'eFÃIlºat ehIybgúat'Exµr[ecHe¨bI¨Vs'. Gakascrcin (e¨kaymk tam

edayGakascryYnniglav) enAEtCasõanFMEdlPØab'¨beTsmkBiPBelakxage¨kA. ebsk

kmµExµrxagJNiCØkmµEdlecje¨kA¨beTsCaelIkd÷bUg

mktSgTIk~¬gFnaKarkumµ¬ynis‘mYy

enA hugkug (Ts§navd¶é, 10 F~è 76) ehIykicÍCYjdUrTSgLayeFÃItamry:FnaKar«n¨beTs cin. eTaHbIkmõ¬CaVnebIkbn‘icm¶g@ nUvkarTak'TgxagBaNiCØkmµCamYyelakxage¨kAk*eday

—CaBiessCamYyCbu"n— eBlevlamYyry:nigknÂgeTA munnwgP~MeBjGacrwg«drwgeCégedérEt m~ak'ägVn.|

\tbmkv^j,

CamYyneyaVye¨kA¨beTsd*äkraC´rbs'xÂçn

xÂçn¨bqSgnwgshPaBsUevot,

nigC÷hrya"gxÂSgrbs'

kmõ¬CaeFÃIsmnwgTwk¨Vk'k~¬gv^k&yb&¨tcinNas'.

eb"kSgcg'[kmõ¬CaEkE¨bC÷hrCatiniymelIslubrbs'xÂçn

fÃédºitEt

nigbMVt'TMnas'xÂçnCamYy¨beTs

«f, PaBäkraC´y"agmanH«nkmõ¬CaVn¨tèvTTYlsðal'fa karFanamYyTl'nwges~¿tTSgLay

«nmhaGMNac dUctTl'nwgkarekIteLIg«nb¬k²NëècinäkraC´mYyEdr. eTaH¨beTsTSgBIrmin

cUlcit‘nwgneyaVyk~¬gK~axÂSgy"agNak*eday, kmõ¬Canigcin nwgenAEtedérCamYyK~ae¨JHEt mUlehtuy"agxÂIenH Ð ¨beyaCn_rd½ .|

(Ts§navd¶éesd½kicÍcugbUJá¨beTs 30 kkûda 1977) ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


103

d÷eNIrd*maneCaKC&y«n bu"l Bt eTAeb"kSgGacCa sJïa «n karbnæn'rbbExµr¨khmÉeT?

KWfa

¨bCaCnExµrGacnwgVn¨sak¨san‘xÂHÉeT? eTaHCaG~kd·knScin¨bmUlmnus§mYylannak' elITIlan eTonGanem"n edémºIeFÃIkarTTYly"ag

GsÍar´mYydl' bu"l Bt nigedémºI¨Vb'eTABiPBelakfa kmõ¬Ca Ca \kEnÂgsMrSgTuk| rbs'cink*eday, eKaledA«nG~kd·knSsBëf©nigk~¬gGnaKt«n¨beTsevotNam

enAEt²tE¨b¨bçleLIy

Ð

bMeBj

cMNg' hU Cémij, KWfa ykkmõ¬Caniglav cUlk~¬gshB&nìrd½mYy e¨kamkard·knS«nevotNam. man

e¨cInK~a G~kEdlcSemIl, edayeqat, karN_EdlExµr¨khmebIky"agFM nUvTÃar¨beTs edémºI[ \ecA

hÃay| yYnxÂçncUlmkykkmõ¬Ca. enHKWmeF´aVyEdl hU Cémij BuMVn¨Vb'eyIgeT. G~kd·knS

evotNammanCae¨cInK~a nUvkarBiesaFn_Cab' 40q~S xagsågðambd^vt‘n. _ eKVnQmmux k~¬gkartyuTì

y"agyUredémºIäkraC´¨beTseKTl'nwgGaNaniKmniym nigc¨kBti‘niym Cae¨cIn Ð VrSg, cin,

Cbu"n, GaemrikSg. kan'cgûèt¨beTsmYyEdl —cMeJHEP~kBiPBelakTSgmUl— Ca¨beTsrgkmµ, G~k

TSgenHecH ehIynigenAEtecH ecosvagmin[eKfaxÂçnCac¨kBti‘v^jVn. etIExµr¨khmGnuvt‘n_²texÍaH

nUv¨Tws¶Ibd^vt‘n_«nvNö:kmµkr-ksikr

rbs'em"A(1)?

ÉmYyyk

KMniteday²txusmYybnæat'BIlTiì ma"k§-eLnIn? ÉmYyBYkenH \duslag[brisuTì| edémºIeFÃIsgðmfµé

mYyenAkmõ¬Ca? ²tsMxan'eT ¨bPB«nlTiìEdlemExµr¨khmykKMnittam, karEdl¨tèvsgût'elI KWBYk enHVnTTYlkarhÃwkhÃWnxagbecÍkeTssågðambd^vt‘n_enA¨sukyYn.

ebIKµanC÷nYycin(2)

karbd^vt¶n_

yYn¨bEhlCaminVnC&yC÷nHeT. dUcK~aEdr ebIKµanC÷nYyyYn emeraKkumµ¬ynis‘ ²tmankmÂSg¨Kb'

¨Kan'nwgkMeTc ehIykb'ecalnUvGriyFmáExµreLIy. BitehIy VneronenAsalayYn minEmnVnn&y E¨bmkCanicÍfaCaxƬMkJØHyYn ehIybMerIpl¨beyaCn_yYneT. bu"En‘ ebI¨beTsevotNamVneFÃIBlikmµ y"age¨cInedémºICYyExµr¨khm KWmkBI¨beTsenHeXIjfaxÂçnGacTajpl¨beyaCn_mkv^jVn. mk

dl'eBlenH G~kd·knSyYnGacsbºayrIkraynwglTìplelIkd÷bUgehIy, rgÃan'«nkarsbº¬rsrbs'

xÂçn Ð ¨beTskmõ¬CaGs'mnus§ edaykarbMpÂajxÂçnäg(3). eTaHeyIgcg' Émincg' Exµr¨khmkMBugEteFÃI [Gs'mnus§BI¨beTsxÂçnehIy e¨JHfa Ð k/

EfmelIGsuPExµr 1 200 000 nak' Edl¨BwTìsPaGaemrikSgVnTTYlsðal', bnæab'

BIkarCECkmYyya"g¨twm¨tèvelIKNeny´mk, nigmanmYycMnYneTot, EdleyIgminhßannwg

mincg'V"n',

«nG~ksÂab'edayehtuCévsaås‘.

ehIyeyIgminniyayBIkarEdlTarkcab'

kMeNItBuMVn nigBIkarsmÂab'¨tg'@ EdlnwgenAEtmaneTotpg.

x/ù

k~¬gGMeBIqûçtkMeral nigsmÂab'rbs'xÂçn Exµr¨khmeFÃI[man¨btikmµeTAmk bn‘K~a Edl

nwgnS¨beTseTA[mankarkMeTcTSggg·tmuxmYyCaTIexÂacp§ar. eKalv^T´asaås‘Edlfa kmµ

begûIt¨btikmµ nwgbgúaj[eyIgeXIj Ð kareFÃIVbnS[mankarbHeVr, karbHeVrnS[man


104 karbågûab ehIykg'c¨kenHecHEtv^leTAeTot. karbHeVrenHecjBIbN¶aCn k*dUcCaecjBI bk§BYk¨bECg.

edémºIeFÃI[Gs'mnus§BIkmõ¬Ca, evotNam²tVc'e¨bIkgT&BxÂçneLIy. bu"En‘mkdl'eBl

enH¨Kan'Etcb'd÷Nak'mYyeT. GnaKteXIjdUcCaexµAgg·tNas'. ¨bCaCnExµr¨tèv¨bugxÂçncS TTYlrgB´¬Hsgôrae¨cIneTot EdlbgúajxÂçnenAeCégemXeTAehIy.

dUec~H etI¨bCaCnExµrnwgeTACay"agNak~¬gGnaKt? etIGnæak'enA¨tg'Na, sMNagnwgrs'enA¨tg'Na?

e¨kay¨Bwt‘ikarN_ 18 mIna 1970, eBlEdl¨beTskmõ¬CacUlk~¬gpÂèvfye¨kayBuMVn «n

cMVMgK~aäg, elak nYn eXOn, saås¶acar´briJïab&¨t¨bvti‘sa¨s¶ «nmhav^T´al&yGk§rsaås¶ nig

mnus§saås¶¨kugP~MeBj, tamry:esovePAmYyeQµaH Çd÷eNIreqõaHeTATisxaglic nig²Nëècink~¬gq~S

2000È, [kar¨BmanmYyeTAKUv^vaTTSgBIr Ð \vasna«n¨beTseyokNamCavasna«n¨bCaCatimYy

EdlB¨gékTwkdéedaysågðam ehIyEdl¨tèveKeFÃIsågðameTAGnaKteTot.|

k~¬gCe¨mA, nYn eXOn cg'niyaydUcteTAenH eTAkan'G~kd·knSTSgBIrxag Ð k~¬gkMeralnig

smÂab'K~aeTAv^jeTAmk cUrG~kkuMePÂce¨KaHf~ak'yYnEdlkMBugEtXÂSemIleyIg. d÷bUnµan¨bvti‘sa¨s¶Vn

¨Vb'eyIgrYcehIyfa

KWedaysarcMVMgK~aeyIgTSgenHehIy

EdlyYneq¿t{kasral'dgedémºIruj

¨caneyIgecj. CaCagkMeTcK~aäg, KYreyIgxMsn§MCév^tExµrv^j edémºIQmmuxTl'nwgsågðammYyk~¬g

GnaKt CamYyevotNameBlNaEdl¨beTsenH nwgVnrYmmkEtmYyv^j.

dUcCaFmµtaeTAehIy, karGMJvnavenH²tVn¨tèveK¾eLIy. karsn~id½an«nelak nYn eXOn

eXIjfa¨tèvdUec~HEmn k~¬geBl²LèvenH. eTIbnwgecjeKIm@ BIsågðamd*rnìt'mYyk~¬gkML¬g¨VMq~S Edl

VneFÃI[sÂab'nigrbYsmnus§ 8 00 000 nak' k~¬gbN¶aCn(4), ¨beTskmõ¬CacUlk~¬gdegû¿bkarbd^

vt‘n_d*manButtº¬t nigd*«¨B«p§mYy EdlKabmYlxÂçn[hUrQame¨caHesæIrEtGs'eTAeTot. kMBugEt ¨tdab¨tdYsedaymuxrbYsTSgenH,

sarBtámanTSgLayEcgBIsJïa«nsågðammYyeTotrvagkmõ¬Ca

nigevotNam, Edlk~¬geBlenH¨Kan'EtCa \CemÂaHerOg¨BMEdn|. karN_mYyfµé Ð kmõ¬Ca, elIkenH, eTACa

\G~kQÂanBan\ eTAv^j (sMenog«nsunærkfarbs' bu"l Bt enAeb"kSg [eKsµanTukfa nwgmancMVMg y"agFMmYyrvagyYnnigExµr). G~kd·knSExµr¨khmkMBugEtnSCatiExµrTSgmUleTAeFÃIGt¶XatkmµehIy Ð

edémºIIlukluykmõ¬Ca yYne¨bIedayeCaKC&ynUvels \GaNaniKmniymVrSg| (1951- 54), rYcmk

els \c¨kBti‘GaemrikSg| (mina 1970), elIkenHKµanGÃIXat'yYnmin[e¨bIels \c¨kBti‘niymcin|

eT. enAExemsa 1975, eBlEdlBYkcincuHkV"l'ehaHenAeJFicintug, edaysµanfacincUlkan'kab' kmõ¬Ca

yYnVncUlvayCaTUeTAtam¨BMEdn

ehIykan'kab'ekaHExµrTSgGs'k~¬gsmu¨T(5).

enHCakar

¨BmanmYyehIy EdlevotNameVHeTA[cin. Tal'Etman \Ts§nkicÍCamit‘PaB| «n eL dYn(R) enA ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (R) eL dYn Ð elxaFikarTImYy«nKNbk§ Lav-dug. lºIfaCaG~kdac'Nat'xÂSgk~¬gcMeNamG~kd·knSyYn.


105 P~MeBj eTIbGFikrN_enHVn¨tèvedaH¨saymYyeBlsin (bnæab'BI \Ts§nkicÍ| enH, eGog sarI Vn elcecjCaelIkd÷bUgCaÓbrd½mån‘ITImYy

nigrd½mån‘IkarbreTs,

¨BmK~anwgeQµaHCae¨cIneTotEdl

rhUtmkdl'eBlenaH enA \e¨kayvSgnn| enAeLIy.

TMnas' cin-yYn TIBIrVncab'ep¶émehIy. cMeJHEP~kG~kd·knS¨beTsevotNam, ebI¨beTs

kmõ¬CakÂayeTACamUld½anmYy«n¨beTscin,

äkPaBrbs'¨beTsevotNam¨tèvkÂayeTACabJúav^j.

e¨JHfayUr Éqab' cinGacbn‘kicÍEdl CU eGnLay VneFÃImkBImun Ð Tuk¨beTsyYn[enAEtEbkK~a

eday¨T¨Tg'kartsßUyYn Tl'nwghaNUy tammaKáa«n¨beTsExµr. karmYyeTotEdlcºas'KW ebIcin

TTYlra"b'begûénGavuFyuTìP&Nëdl'Exµr¨khm,

yYnk*nwgTarC÷nYykan'Ete¨cIn

BIshPaBsUevotEdr.

ehIyenA«f©EdlG~kd·knSyYnv^nicÏ&yfaC÷nYypÂèvswk«ncindl'kmõ¬CaVnhYskMrit

EdlCae¨KaHf~ak'

mYydl'evotNam, kgTahanyYnnwgeTAmux¨Bwti‘karN_ ehIynwgvaylukluy¨beTsExµrm¶geTot.

tamsµan, dUcCaenAExmIna 1970 Edr, BYklukluynwgeFÃIsågðamrh&smYy edayvaysMrukCamYy

kmÂSgTSgGs'rbs'xÂçn

edémºIkMeTcT&BExµr¨khm.

elIkenH,

eKGacnwgeXIjyYnk¶ab'Cab'¨beTs

kmõ¬Ca EdlGacElg¨bTUs¶nwgxÂçn e¨JHfabN¶aCnExµr, edayVnrgTukÅevTnaxÂSgeBk, Gacnwg TTYl

yYn Ca G~krMedaH !

GMeBIGa¨kk'VneFÃIrYceTAehIy, bu"En‘²txUcxatTSgGs'eT.

ebIG~kd·knSExµr¨khm, fÃédºitEtxÂçnsahav«¨B«p§ nigqûçtvegÃg«¨kNa, enAmankard·gsÂab'—

d·grs'enAeLIy— eyIgcg'fa BYkenHsuxcit‘Vk'muxCaCagVt'¨suk, xÂçn¨tèvcat'v^FankarN_dUcteTA EdleXIjdUcCakicÍticbMputEdl¨tèveFÃI edémºIsgôwmfanwgeXIj¨bCaCatiExµrrYcCév^t Ð k)

bJÎb'karkab'sMLab'e¨scnwgcit‘.

mnus§.

bnìèrkargar«nbN¶aCnedayeFÃI[eTAtamkmÂSg

x)

GnuJïat[¨kumeBT´cUleTAkmõ¬Ca edémºIB´aVlG~kCm©W, edaymancMnYn¨Kb'¨Kan', nig

K)

[Gahar¨Kb'¨Kan'dl'bN¶aCn, edayman ÉGt'C÷nYyBIxage¨kA.

X)

sÄitenAk~¬gry: evlaEdl¨tèvkar.

edayman¨beTscin nigshPaBsUevotCYypg (Exµr¨khm, ehIyCamYyxÂènkmõ¬Ca

TSgmUl, manEtxatTSgGs' ebIenAEteqµIgnwgshPaBsUevot) ekaHehAKN:kmµkar

Gn‘CatixagkicͨtçtBinit´ (es GuI es) mkeFÃI[eKeKarB¨BMEdnExµr (ebI es GIu es enH

g)

Gs'manGaNti‘ ¨tèvTamTar[manKN:kmµkarrebobK~aenH).

Fanasn‘isuxk~¬g«pæ¨beTs (sn‘isuxdl'¨kumeBT´ nig¨kumG~kCYyäeTot, xaXSgkuM[

mankarbHeVr«nbN¶aCn — v^FankarN_enHeFÃI[exÂaccit‘Nas' bu"En‘CakarcSVc')

edayehAmknUvT&BGn‘rCati (BYkmYk \exov| «n Gùsùbù ÉkgTahanEdlmkEtBI

¨beTssgðmniym).

v^FankarN_TSg 5x enH KWedémºIbJÎb'mrNkmµk~¬g¨sukExµrEtbu"eNöaH. GP&yäksiTiìnwg

E¨skehAdl'BiPBelakxage¨kA enAk~¬g«dG~kd·knSExµr¨khmehIy, EdlnwgenAEtemIlxus¨tèvk~¬g

¨suk. BitehIyBiPBelakenAFµwg, cat'karGÃIedayxÂçnägBMuekIt, bu"En‘eKnwgcUleTACYy¨bCaCnExµrPÂam

eBlNaEdlrd½aPiVlkmõ¬Ca mkrkeKmun.


106 e¨kaymk

evlad*sMxan'bMputnwgmkdl',

evlaEdl¨beTskmõ¬Canwge¨CéserIsykneya-

Vyfµé, evlaEdlkgeyaFaGn‘rCatinwg¨tèvdkxÂçnecj edaymineFÃIGÃI[mansågðamrvagExµrK~aägm¶g eTot. bu"En‘eyIgBMuTan'eTAdl'd÷Nak'enaHenAeLIyeT. karsMercCaGayuCév^t kare¨CéserIsd*sMxan'

bMput, sMrab'eBlPÂam@ enH, enAelIExµr¨khm Ð karbd^vt‘n_ É ¨beTs. ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ

sMnYrTI 7 Ð rhUtmkdl'k¨mitNa kmõ¬Ca¨bCaFiety´

GacsgôwmelIsaFarNrd½cin¨bCamanit? (enATMB&r 111) ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


107

GFibºay (1)

karbd^vt‘n_yYnykKMnittamkarbd^vt‘n_cinEdr. k~¬gesck¶Iep¶ém«nlkÅn‘ik: «n dagLav-dug (KNbk§«nG~keFÃIkar, begûétenAExmIna 1951), eKGacGan Ð \mUld½an«nKNbk§ Lav-dug

nigeKalKMnitTSgLayEdlENnSKNbk§enH k~¬gskmµPaBTSgGs'rbs'xÂçnKW lTiì«nma"k§, Ginhwðl eLnIn, em"A

esTug, s¨mçleTAtamesck¶I¨tèvkarBit¨Vkd«nkarbd^vt‘n_|. ebIeK

emIllkÅn‘ik:«nKNbk§bd^vt‘n_«nkmõ¬Ca,

EdleFÃIeLIgedayTIbJØakarevotmijenA¨sukExµr

ehIyEdl¨Kan'EtCaesck¶IsegÅb«nlkÅn‘ik:KNbk§

Lav-dug,

eKeXIjEtkarBn´¬H[gb'

gg·tmux, dUck~¬gXÂaenHCaedém Ð \b¨gçbb¨gçm¨bCaCnTSgmUl k~¬grNsir§Exµr²s§r:, eday

eFÃIsh¨btibt‘ikary"agC^ts~iTìCamYy¨bCaCn«nevotNam niglavùùù ehIybn‘y"agxØab'xØçn kartyuTìedémºIkMeTc[Gs'VrSgGaNaniKmniym,

GaemrikSgGn‘raKmn_niymnigxƬMkJØHva|.

(emIlesovePA \evot-mij\ rbs' EbßNahÃl', bNöaKar Gam"g'kULSg 1960. GanTMB&r 83

nig 84 «nk¨mgenHEdr).

ebIsinCaG~kd·knSyYn²tVnmanKMnitTuM cºgnwgsresr \karXat'XSgk~¬gKMnit| mYy

edaydak'lkÅx&Nëfa ¨tèvs¨mçllTiìkumµ¬ynis‘eTAtamlTìPaB nigsÄanPaBk~¬g¨suk, kar

bd^vt‘n_yYn¨bEhlCasahav«¨B«p§dUcrbs'Exµr¨khmEdr. ¨by&t~bu"Nöwgem¶c GMeBIrMelaPBI

sMNak'G~k \xage¨kam| enAEtVnekItmaneLIgdUcEdlG~kniBnì hÃßélIB dãvéEl Ecgk~¬gkar GFibºayGMBIkareLIgkan'tMENg«nevotmij k~¬grd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~TImYy «nsaFarN rd½¨bCaFibety´evotNam 1945 Ð

\ùùùùùù dUec~HEmn karN_sMxan'k~¬geBlenH minEmnJk´EdleKniyay ÉGtÄbTEdleK

sresrk~¬gTI¨kugTSgLay dUchaNUy É ev" eT. e¨JHfaenATIenaHmanebskkmµBYksmõnì

mit‘EdlcuH-eLIg, dUec~Hrd½aPiVl¨tèvEt \Tukmux| xÂçn ehIyrk§aPaBerobry. karN_sMxan'KW ehtuEdlekItmaneLIgenATICnbT.|

\cab'PÂameLIg karbd^vt‘n_tam¨sukE¨s-cMkarmanlkÅN:p¶ac'kar, dac'Nat'Etm¶g.

munnwg{vaTep§g@ cMeJHKN:kmµkarTSgLay«n¨bCaCnVn¨tèverobcMeLIg, karbd^vt‘n_, bd^

vt‘n_EmnETn, Vncab'ep¶émrYceTAehIy.

\enAtamXuMnigPUmiTSgLay, G~kmanmux-mat' nignamWunTSgry@ nak' ¨tèveKrkerOg,

vayd÷¨cMFak', cab', rhUtdl'smÂab'rgðalpg. G~knSGaT−BYkeLIgkMhl'TSgenaH e¨cInEtCn

EdleKminsðal',

enaH—

äbN¶aCnv^j

²tman¨btikmµGÃIeLIy.

EdlP&ytk's¬tCaTUeTA

BnìnaKartUcFMTSgGs'

—bu"En‘eBlxÂHyl'¨BmtamEdr

¨tèveKebIkTÃareLIg¨BmK~a

ehIy

CHecjmkelI¨beTsnUvG~keTas \neyaVy| nigG~kCab'eTasedaybTelµIs, Edl¨sv·g

eCakedaykarsgswk.

ekalahl'nigPaB¨cbUk¨cbl'

rwtEt¨sYlekItmaneLIgeTAeTot

edayehtufatSgBIe¨cInExmkehIy GMNacrbs'rd½aPiVl, e¨kABIenAk~¬gTI¨bCu÷CnFM@, manEt

eQµaHeT.|


108 \bn‘iceTotmk

e¨scnwgcit‘,

eKk*rab'ElgGs'nUvcMnYnkarlYcbÂn',

karbMVt'¨Vk'kas,

karEqkeqr,

karcab'cgeday

\karrwbGUsyksmºti‘BYkG~kmanhÃas'siuH

nig¨bqSg

bd^vt‘n_|, nigXadkmµ e¨kay (ÉKµan) kareFÃIhak'dUcCakat'esck¶Ieday \tulakar¨bCaCn|

EdleKbegûéteLIgy"agqk'keN¶ot. BYkG~k¨bwgE¨bgeFÃIkar[bk§kumµ¬ynis‘²Nëècin yl'fa

eBlevlamkdl'ehIy EdleK¨tèvGnuvt‘n_kmµv^FIeFÃI \karbMVt'mUlFnniymhÃas'suiH|, kmµ

v^FIEdlbe¨gondl'xÂçn k~¬gkºçneFÃI[ekItclacl. k~¬gTI¨bCu÷Cnext‘nigXuMCae¨cIn, CaBiess

enAGNöamxageCégnigenAtugkwg, KN:kmµkar«n¨bCaCn bJØa[bMVt'ecalnUvBiFIbuN´¨b«B

NIyep§g@, [eFÃIkarEckdéE¨scMkar, [rwbGUs¨TB´smºti‘BYkG~kman, ehIyd·knSkicÍkar

TSgenHedaypæal'.|

\KN:kmµkarTSgLay«n¨bCaCncUlkan'kab'XuMTSgBYg,

TSgLayEdlenAk~¬gKN:kmµkarTSgenaH

GMNacEmnETnenAk~¬g«dBYkkumµ¬ynis‘

bgúajxÂçnCakumµ¬ynis‘.|

ehIyes¶cc¨klíwtelíac

eFÃIkarsgût'sgû^nnigePrvkmµ.

enA¨Kb'TIkEnÂg

EdlCajwkjye¨cInEtmnus§e¨kAXuM

\y"agenHkarbd^vt‘n_k*mantSgBIedémTInUvlkÅN:CakartyuTìsgðmy"agxÂSg

ÉBYkEdl

BuHeJr

bMput. k~¬gPaKe¨cIn«nPUmiPaKTSgLay karbd^vt‘n_enHbJØak'xÂçnfamanxÂwmsarCakumµ¬ynis‘, ehIyeFÃIeLIgeTAtamEx§bnæat'dac'Nat' «nkmµv^FIeLnInniym.|

\GMeBIhYsehtuTSgenH GacEteFÃI[Gab'{ndl'karbd^vt‘n_, [karenHFÂak'eTAk~¬gPaB

vegÃgvk'vé. G~kd·knSkumµ¬ynis‘d·gPÂamGMBIkarenH. dYgVk'm"ay, G~kd·knSm~ak', nig¨Vb'xƬMyUr

e¨kaymk (enAExmIna 1947) GMBIkicÍEdlKat'xMeFÃI, k~¬gnaTICaGFikarxagkicÍkarneyaVy nigrd½Vl¨bcSPaKxagekIt«nNam-bU (kUsSgsuIn), edémºIbgíg'snæ¬HxÂSgkÂaxuseBlevla «n

G~ktyuTìxage¨kam edayBn´l'dl'G~kTSgenaHfa Par:kicÍk~¬geBlenH minEmnkareFÃIbd^vt‘n_

kmµkr-ksikreT bu"En‘KWkarrMlM \GaNaniKmniym| edayGMJvnavdl'¨bCaCn TSgmUl [eFÃI kartyuTìTl'nwgGaNaniKmniymenH.|

Gs'.

\dUec~HEmn cMeJH hU Cémij nig¨kumrbs'Kat', kardeN¶émykäkraC´¨tèveFÃImunGÃITSg Kat'yl'fa

eBlevlaebIk{kas[Nas'

ehIy¨bEhlCamin¨tLb'mkm¶geTot

eLIy. dUec~HkarGÃITSgGs'¨tèveFÃItMrg'eTAeKalbMNgenaH. karbd^vt‘n_k~¬gsgðmenAelI«pæTIBIr eT, e¨kayq©ayeTAeTot. (ùùù) ebIkarbd^vt‘n_manlkÅN:tammenaKmv^CØa , BYkhUCémijnwgbg' xatTSgGs'ehIy. edaymanEt 5000 nak' , BYkenHBuMGacsgôwmbMbt'bMEbnmhaCnVneT.

(ùùù)|

\bågûabGMeBIhYsehtu, rkkarrYbrYm¨bCaCn[Vn Ð KW[eTAdl'eKaledATSgBIrenH

Edl hU Cémij nig¨kumKat'cab'eFÃIkarPÂam. dUec~HEmn hU Cémij enAEteCOCak'faùùù kardak'

edayKMhuknUvrbbsgðmniymmkelIevotNam eFÃIeTABuMrYceLIy. ¨bCaCn²t¨buge¨bobnwg

TTYlrbbenHeLIy, edaymkGMBITMenomTMlab'nigstixÂçnpg. k~¬gkML¬ge¨cInq~SeTot, ¨beTs

evotNam¨tèvedéry"agyWteTAkan'sgðmniym tamkarhat'eron nigtamkar¨b¨Bwt‘¨bCaFibety´. (ùùù)|


109 \k~¬geBl²LèvenH kareCarhYs¨bmaN«n \G~ktyuTìxage¨kam| Vn¨CmuC¨beTs

evot-NameTAk~¬gekalahl. edémºIkan'kab'kicÍkarVnv^j hU Cémij manEt¨kummYytUc,

\xYr| sam-Essibnak'enAhaNUy, minTSge¨cInbu"NöwgpgenA¨Kb'ext‘äeTot. kareXasna,

karniyayBn´l' (e¨JHkmÂSgGavuFminTan'manenAeLIy) CameF´aVyEtBIr EdlBYkenHGac e¨bI¨Vs'Vnùùù|.

(hÃßélIB d·véElÂ, k~¬g \savta«nevot-Nam BI1940 eTA 1952|, hageVHp§aysWy) enA¨beTsyYn kartyuTìvNö:eFÃIeTACamYykartyuTìedémºIäkraC´ (d÷bUgTl'nwgVrSg,

rYcmkTl'nwgGaemrikSgedémºIb¨gçbb¨gçm¨beTs). dUcK~aEdr enA¨beTscin, em"AesTug, Ca mYyK~anwgkartyuTìvNö:,

VntyuTìBId÷bUgTl'nwgCbu"n.

enA¨beTskmõ¬Ca

manEtkartyuTì

vNö:bu"eNöaH. ebIenAevotNam karbd^vt‘n_Vn¨tèveFÃIeLIgedaybJïvn‘, enAkmõ¬Ca KWG~kl©wt

l©g'EdleFÃIbd^vt‘n_ Ð etImnus§rebobNaEdl exov sMpn, eGog sarI, saL¬t sr e¨bI ¨Vs'? eBlNaCnTSgbIenHnwg¨tèvVt'xÂçndUcG~käeTotEdr? (2)

BIrd½aPiVlbeN¶aHGasn~TImYy«nsaFarNrd½¨bCaFibety´evotNam

enAq~S

1945

eTA

edon ebonPU enAq~S 1954, min¨twmEtkarbd^vt‘n_cineT EdlVnCaKMrUdl'evotmij, bu"En‘bnæab' BIcab'kMeNItenAq~S 1949 cin¨bCamanitKS¨TyYntampÂèvsm¸ar:eTot. enAq~S 1950 kgT&B

cinelx 2 VneFÃI[ecjCarUbragnigbgúat'kgBlFMevotmijelx 304, 308, 312, nig

320. karbd^vt‘n_ksikmµ EdlhaNUyeFÃIeLIgBIq~S 1953 eTA 1956 KWcmÂg²telí¿gBI

KMrUcin. k~¬gry:s¨gðamTI2 «n²Nëècin, cinVnCYyyYnxageCége¨cInNas' Óù e¨kam¨KuDecv,

shPaBsUevot[C÷nYyyYnxageCégt«m 350 landulÂar. k~¬gkML¬geBlenaH C÷nYycinmk (3)

yYnt«m 450 landulÂar.

karN_EdlKYr[rnìt'mYyeTot KWmnus§EdlenA¨sukExµr e¨kayExemsa 1975 nigmanmYy cMnYnFMEdlBikar tSgBIkMeNItnUvkay nigstiedayedémehtuCévsa¨s¶. etIExµrbd^vt‘n_d*mha

GsÍar´mYylannak'

dUcEdlVne¨KagTukedayExµr¨khm

mankmÂSgGÃIQmmuxTl'nwgyYn

50 lannak' (75 lan enAq~S 2000!) k~¬gsunærkfarbs'xÂçnenAeb"kSg bu"l Bt Vnfa \eyIg¨tèvkarmnus§ 20 lannak'|. (emIlTs§navd¶éeb"kSg (Péking Review) elx 41, Extula

(4) (5)

1977). etI bu"l Bt cg'ebIkTÃarkmõ¬Ca[ \G~kGen¶a¨bevsn_| cin ÉGÃI? esµIK~anwgcMnYnG~krge¨KaHeday¨Kab'EbkbrmaNU huIrU"sIum"a ¨VMbIdg.

tSgBIyUrmkehIy yYncg'VnekaHExµrNas'. kare¨skXÂanenH minEmnmkEtBIkMNb'e¨bg katEdlGacmanenAe¨kamCaysmu¨TenaHeT,

KWedémºIbMeBjesck¶I¨tèvkaryuTìsa¨s¶Edr.

dUec~HEmn, eBlNamankarv^vaT, yYnGacxæb'cracrmin[kV"l'cUlEpkMBg'esamVn ebIxÂçn CaG~kkan'kab'ekaHTSgenaH, kMBg'esamEdlCaEpsmu¨TEtmYyrbs'Exµr.


110 ekaHExµrFM@ BIrameTAJm haeTog KW Ð ekaH¨cL¬H, ekaH¨kbI, ekaHòs§I, ekaHtaKav,

ekaH¨semac, ekaHfµé, ekaHesH, ekaH¨tl' (PUkÃwk), ekaHGågûg, ekaHesHmYyeTot, ekaHeJ,

ekaHGn‘ay, nigekaHBIreTot enAq©ayBIeq~r Ð ekaHBULè«v nigekaHtag.

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


111

rhUtdl'kMritNa kmõ¬Ca¨bCaFibety´ Gac sgôwmelIsaFarNrd½cin¨bCamanit?

cMNgEdle¨kok¨beTscineTAnwg¨beTskmõ¬Ca k~¬gkal:eTs:sBëf©«nkarTak'Tg cin-Exµr

Vn¨tèvrwteLIgedayEtJk´BIrm"at'

\¨beyaCn_rd½|,

dUcEdlVnsresredayG~keqÂIyqÂgm~ak'«n

Ts§navd¶éesd½kicÍcugbUJá¨beTs, Nay"an' can'da (GanTMB&r 101, elxeyag 16)

enAExmkra 1973 eBlEdlsn~isITenAV"rIselI¨beTsevotNamkMBugeFÃIeLIg, Gnurd½elxa

FikarGaemrikSg sußlÂIva"n' VnecalJk´dUcteTAenH Ð \¨beTscincUlcit‘eXIjmanrd½ bYn \rebob (R)

¨sukbl'kg'|

Cag²NëècinEtmYye¨kamkarENnS«nevotNamxageCég EdlenAe¨kam²TìiBlsh

PaBsUevot| (siuc) (emIlTs§navd¶éesd½kicÍcugbUJá¨beTs, Exkum¸: 1973). e¨kaykarcuHhtÄelxa

elIkicͨBme¨BogEdlbJØak'sn~isITdEdl, hinrI KIs§ijeCé(1) VnniyayrebobenHEdr eTAkan'G~k

karTUtcinm~ak', edaycMGn'elgbn‘icpg Ð \ebIeyIg, GaemrikSg, CaG~kcaj', Gs'elak, cin, CaG~krg

e¨KaH.|

|Jk´Elbxay| «nG~kTTYlxus¨tèvxagkarbreTsGaemrikSgenH niyayminticeT GMBITMhM

«nkarv^vaT cin-rus§I, min¨twmEtenA²NëècineT, bu"En‘enAk~¬gGasIuPaKGeK~y_TSgmUl. shPaBsUevot EdlneyaVye¨kA¨beTscMeJHrd½TSgLay«nGasuIPaKGeK~y_ minsUvelaPln'bu"nµan munv^vaTenH

ekIteLIg(2), kMBugEtlatsnìwg²TiìòTìixÂçnelIPUmiPaKenH«nBiPBelak bn‘icm¶g@ bu"En‘Cak'eLIg@. tam ÓVyenH rus§Icg'eLamB&Tìcin tamry:¨beTsTSgLayEdlenAe¨kam²TìiBlxÂçn. e¨kaybraC&y«nGaemrikSgenA²Nëècin,

eTscinGacetagCab'EmkeQIkmõ¬Ca,

KWedaysarsnæ¬Hsti¨bqSgyYnrbs'Exµr

k~¬geBlEdlevot-Nam(3)

niglav(4)

Edl¨b-

FÂak'eTAe¨kam²TìiBl

shPaBsUevot. dUcCacin¨tèvkar¨beTskmõ¬CaEdr Exµr¨khm¨tèvkar¨beTscin. BYkenHEbreTArkcin

min¨twmEtedémºITb'Tl'nwgkmÂSgyYneT, bu"En‘edémºIB¨g·gGMNacxÂçnEdr edayeFÃIkarbMVk'karbu"nb"g¨b-

qSgkarbd^vt‘n_. bu"En‘eKGacsYrfa etIk~¬gkML¬geBlbu"nµan ²TìiBlcinelIkmõ¬Ca nwgenAEtxÂSgdEdl?

Vncab'ep¶émrYceTAehIy kar¨bNSg¨bECgK~ay"agsÃitsÃaj rvagmhaGMNacsgðmniymTSgBIr enA

¨beTs«f, PUma nigm"aeLsuI. TMnas'cin-rus§IenA²Nëècin EdlbN¶ak'K~amk kÂayeTACaTMnas' Exµr-

yYn, yk \cMeNaTmuxBIr| mYyy"agBiVk mk[cinedaH¨say. edayevotNamnigkmõ¬CaenAk~¬g«s

evonmenaKmv^CØadUcK~a ¨beTscin¨tève¨CéserIsykkaredaH¨saymYyEdlmineXÂag Ð eTAelImYy EdlCab'nwgcintamelahit nigtamsavtarab'stvt§r_, É eTAelImYyeTot EdlcinkarJredémºI

¨beyaCn_xÂçnpæal'.

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ

(R) sMedAeTArd½ bßulkarI, yUehðasÂavé, nigGal'VnI EdlmanrbbsgðmniymdUcK~a bu"En‘man \mit‘smÂaj'| xusK~a.


112 erOgenHd·gehIy, eyIg¨tèvsMKal'fa sågðammYyeTotrvagkmõ¬CanigevotNam. Edl²LèvenH

¨Kan'EtenAk~¬gkarsµanTuk, Gacnwgpæ¬HeLIgEsík@ enH. karN_enHGacekItmaneLIgNas' dUcEdl

¨bvti‘sa¨s¶«nGasuIVnbe¨gondl'eyIg, ¨bvt‘isa¨s¶Edlmankarbt'EbnCae¨cIn EdleKBuMGacsµan TukCamuneLIy. k~¬gkrNIcMVMgExµr-yYn, ¨beTscinmanEtC÷erIsbIeT Ð k)

cinp¶l'C÷nYyy"ageBjeljxagGavuFyuTìP&Nëdl'Exµr¨khm.

VneT rus§I

x)

nwgkgT&ByYnEdlmane¨cInCagy"agelIslub(5)

(CaBiessGakasyanEdlnwg¨tçt¨tapÂèvGakas)?

bu"En‘BYkenHTb'Tl'

nigGavuFy"agTMenIbrbs' eBlNaeyaFaxÂçnsÂab'

Gs'e¨cIneTA etIExµr¨khmEbreTArknrNa? eTArkbN¶aCnEdlxÂçnykeTAeFÃITaskr?

kgT&BExµr¨khmxÍat'xÍayeTA, etIcincab'«dmÍas' \shB&nì²NëècinÉeT? edémºIenA[

esµImuxnwgshPaBsUevot?

(eKVneXIjrYcm¶gmkehIy

karN_Edlcin

\¨tLb'

e¨kay, Ebr!| enAmux¨Bwt‘ikarN_EdlxÂçnxaXSgBuMVn KWenAeBlEdlExµr¨khmQ~H K)

elIsIhnu).

etIcin¨bkassågðamTl'nwg evotNam \d*tUc| ÉeT, karN_EdlGacnS[shPaB

sUevoteFÃIGn¶raKmn_ ehIybegûétplv^VkEdleKesæIrEtminhßannwkeTAdl'? ¨beTs

lavEdlCab'¨BMEdnK~a FÂak'eTAk~¬g«drus§IeTAehIy, etIkmõ¬Ca KYrcineFÃIBlikmµ[ÉeT?

bu"En‘eKBMuGacsµanTukCamunVneLIy facinnwgman¨btikmµy"agenH y"agenaH. dUcCa¨beTs

TSgGs'enAGasuIEdr (elIkElgEtCbu"n?) EdlbN¶aCnBuMEdlVnsðal'eLIy faGÃICa¨bCaFibety´

Bit¨Vkd, ¨beTscin, mha¨beTsmYyEdlGariyFmáenAk~¬gBBYkcas'CageKTSgGs'k~¬gBiPBelak, enAEtCa¨beTsmYyEdlneyaVyrd½enAk~¬gkN¶ab'«dmnus§EtmYy¨kum. bu"En‘ebIeyIgebIkTMB&r¨bvti‘

saås‘eyIgeLIgv^j eyIgnwgeXIjehtukarN_xÂH EdlGac[eyIgriHKit.

k~¬gry:kalTSgmUl«nGMNacrbs' sIhnu, eKGacfa¨beTskmõ¬CaCarNb¨beTscink*Vn

Edr (Gan \TMnak'TMngExµr-cin|). k~¬g¨Kb'eBlmanTMnas'TwkdéCamYy¨beTsC^txag, sem¶cKMramfa cinnwgelIkT&BmkCYykmõ¬Ca. enAExsIha 1962, e¨kayBIVneFÃI[ekaHPUkÃwk (ekaH¨tl')(6) eTACa

mUld½aneCégTwky"agFMbMput«n¨beTs edémºIbJÍb'karlYcbJÍèlxÂçn«nevotkug EdlmkBI¨sukExµrtam

smu¨T, evotNamxagtºègTamTarekaHmYycMnYnBIkmõ¬Ca Ð ekaHfµé, ekaHesH, ekaHGn‘ay, ekaHtaKav nig

ekaHeJ. ¨beTsTSgBIrv^HEtnwgcºSgK~a. BI¨kugeb"kSg CUeGnLay KMramfanwg[T&BcineFÃIGn‘raKmn_.

enAExmIna 1964 elak ln' nl', Edlk~¬gkalenaHCanayGKðesnaFikarkgT&B, eFÃITs§n

kicÍmYyenA¨beTscin

Edlnwg[mkKat'nUvGavuFsMrab'bIkgvresnatUc.

k~¬geBlenaH¨bFan

em"A

¨Vb'eTAKat'fa Ð \eyIgnwgenAEkºr¨beTskmõ¬CaCanicÍ k~¬gkarTb'Tl'nwgc¨kBti‘GaemrikSgnigbrivar.|

G~kd·knSExµreLIgTwkcit‘nwgkarrab'rkrbs'G~kd·knScinNas' ehIyk*begûéterOgminBitmYy, ¨bEhl

CaedémºIbgÅkcit‘BYkv^Tìg§naxageqÃg CagedémºIbMP&yG~kC^txagEdlekagkac Ð Jk§ccamGarammYy

elcecjenAP~MeBj rYcbnæab'mk¾eBj¨beTskmõ¬Ca fakV"l'ehaHcinTSgJn' EdleKlabsJïa T&BGakasExµr xag!

e¨tomxÂçnTukrYce¨sc

nwgeFÃIGn‘raKmn_eBlNakmõ¬Ca¨tèvQÂanJneday¨beTsC^t


113 sunærkfa«nsem¶csIhnuk~¬gsmaCCati enAExF~è 1964, Edl¨Vb'dl'¨beTs[d·gfa cin

sn´aEtp¶l'GavuF minFanaeFÃIGn‘raKmn_kgT&BeT eBlNamankarQÂanJn, k*eFÃI[rlayesck¶I sgôwmenaHmYyeBleTA.

s~ak'enAeb"kSge¨kayExmIna 1970, sIhnusgôwmTSg¨sugelI CUeGnLay. ¨bFanrNsir§

rYbrYmCati«nkmõ¬Ca —ehIy¨sukExµrTSgmUlk*¨bEhlCadUec~HEdr— CaG~krge¨KaHnwgkareCOs¬g(7) elI cinenH.

cMENkxag \mtisaklelak| v^j, cUreyIgQb'sgôwmep¶kp¶çlelIeTA. ¨btikmµ«nBiPB

elakcMeJHmuxkarsmÂab'rgðalGs'ExµreyIgrab'lannak'

bgúaj[eyIgeXIjcºas'nUv¨bsiTìPaB«n

\mtiBiPBelak| enH. krNI«n¨bCaCatiV"eLsæIn k*CaÓTahrN_mYyEdr. vasna«nkmõ¬Caep¶kp¶çl

eTAelIEtkar¨bwgE¨bgrbs' exmrCn bu"eNöaH.

KW exmrCn eT EdlnwgsMercfaxÂçnnwgsðal' Énwgminsðal'vasna«nCnCaticam(8). ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ sMnYrTI 8 Ð edayvay¨bhar«fCae¨cIndg E¨kgExµr¨khmcg'yk

Twkdécas'v^jÉeT? dUec~HeKminCaG~kCatiniymxÂSg? (enATMB&r 118) ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


114

GFibºay (1)

KW hinrI Kis§ijeCé EdlVnbMeBjkrNIykicÍxÂçnCaGaemrikSg eday¨can¨beTsExµrcUlP~k'

(2)

kEnÂgsMrab'²Nëècink~¬gneyaVye¨kA¨beTs «nshPaBsUevot e¨kam nIKIta ¨Kèeqv minsUv

(3)

ePÂIgsågðam edémºI¨sg'Cév^tTahanGaemrikSg.

sMxan'bu"nµaneT. cab'tSgBIq~S 1965 GaeLcsIuH kussuIhðIn EkE¨bCafµénUvneyaVyrus§I

cMeJHevotNamxageCég nigkUer"xageCég.

k~¬geBlfµé@ enH y" egÿgy"ab' VnEfÂgkarN_fa Ð \enAq~S 2000 evotNamnwgElgCa¨b-

eTsBuMsUvlUtlas'ehIy|. k~¬geBlEdlG~kd·knSExµr¨khm[sMLab'BYkeBT´, G~kbecÍk-

eTs, bJïav&n‘, [biTsalanigsaklv^T´al&y, G~kd·knSyYncat'v^FankarN_pæ¬yeTAv^j. edémºIeFÃI[xÂçnTMenIb

(4)

Tis k*yYnxMrkEdr.

evotNamEbreTArkshPaBsUevotCaBiess,

bu"En‘becÍkeTs«nbsÍwm

¨beTslavCacMNImYy EdlyYn¨sYlelb edayehtufa Ð k- lavman¨BMEdnCab'nwgevotNamxageCég

x- elI«pædéTMhM 236 000 Kùm2, ¨bCaCnlavmancMnYnEt 3 lannak' enAq~S 1975

(minTSgdl' 13 nak' k~¬g1 Kùm2 pg, KWfaticCag 1 Ca 3 ebIe¨bobeTAnwgkmõ¬CamunExemsa

1975). ¨bCaCnd*ticenHEbgEckCaCnCatisasn_ep§g@ e¨cIneTAeTot, Caehtu[sgðmGac e¨bHqaVneday¨sçl.

mYycMENkeTot

Jk'kN¶al¨beTslavVn¨Cçt¨CabnwgvbºFmá

yYneTAehIy (V"eftLav, rd½mån¶ITImYysBëf© «ksUnpu÷v^han manÒBukyYn, cMENk¨bmuxrd½ mÍas'supanuvg§ man¨bBnìyYn).

sniìsJïakarJrK~aeTAv^jeTAmk, EdlVncuHk~¬geBlfµé@ enH ehIyEdlcglavnwg

evotNam k~¬gry:eBl 25q~S, KWCasal¨kmkat'eTas¨bharCév^tlav. yUreTA, ebIKµanGÃI

mkeFÃI[E¨b¨bçlsÄankarN_Fmµta, ¨bCaCnlavnwgkÂayeTACaGaNikCnmYy¨kum k~¬gsmu¨T

(5)

CnCatiyYn.

cºab'mYyfµé@

enAevotNam

GnuJïat[rd½aPiVlTukTahanTSgGs'

bMerIkgT&BteTAeTot,

ehIydak'karTTYlxus¨tèvxagGPivDón_esd½kicÍ k~¬g«drd½mån‘I¨ksYgkarJr¨beTs, y" egÿg

y"ab'. teTAenH KWtarage¨bobeFobkgT&ByYnnigExµr (¨sg'ecjBIsarBtáman LWmu"gd_ «f© 3

emsa 1978) Ð

TUeTA =

Tahan

T&ByYn

615

000

nigkgsn‘isux¨bCaCn

nak'.

kgyam¨BMEdn,

yameq~rsmu¨T

= 50 000 nak'. kg¨bCara¨s‘kan'

GavuF = 1 500 000 nak'.


115 eCégeKak=

18 kgBlFMefµéreCég. 3 kgvresnaFMrfe¨kaH. 20 kgvresna

FMVj'kS¨CçcehaH \sam|. 40 kgvresnaFMkSePÂIgVj'yn‘

ehaH. manCaBiess 900 eCégGakas =

eCégTwk =

nig et-59.

rfe¨kaHmF´m Fun et-34, et-54

12 000 nak' Ð yn‘ehaHcmºSg 198 (CaBiess 110 mic-17

nig sßUxUy-7, 80 mic-19 nig mic-21). yn‘ehaHd·knS 50

ÓTìm¸aKc¨k 25.

3 000 nak' Ð navaGmkarJr 2. kaNUtelOnVj'kS¨CçcehaH

4. kaNUtep§g@ TUkeLIgeKak Ð 80. ÓTìm¸aKc¨k 10 . sMNl'BIGaemrikSg Ð rfe¨kaH 500. yn‘ehaHnigÓTìm¸aKc¨k

1 100.

T&BExµr TUeTA =

Tahan 80 000 nak'. EckCa 4 kgBlFM nig 3 kgvresnaFM

eCégeKak =

rfe¨kaH¨sald·keyaFa 175. 26 kSePÂIgFM Fun 155 mùmù,

sÃy&t.

200 kSePÂIgFM Fun 105 mùmù, kSePÂIgtºal'nigkSePÂIgFMminfy

e¨kay Fun 107 mùmù. sm¸ar:TSgenHeFÃIedaycin rus§I nig

eCégGakas =

eCégTwk =

(6)

(7)

GaemrikSg.

¨bEhlCaPØab'eTAT&BeCégeKak. manyn‘ehaHcmºSg 10 Fun

GaGiN-20,

yn‘ehaHd·knS

ÓTìm¸aKc¨k 25.

10,

yn‘ehaHsMrab'hat'

35,

kV"l'tUceFÃIlºat TUkeLIgeKak = 150.

ekaH¨tl'¨tèvVnVrSg[eTAyYn k~¬geBlPØab' kUsSgsIun eTAevotNam enAq~S 1949 (Ca mYyK~anwgekaH V"r"aEsl EdlcinnigyYndeN¶ImK~asBëf©). ebIeKemIlEpnTIeq~rsmu¨TExµr,

eKGacEt¨sgakcit‘nwgGyuti‘FmáBIrCan' «nGaCÆaFrVrSgsm&yenaH.

karTukcit‘s¶èk, karsgôwmrhUtePÂcxÂçn, kareCOs¬gelIGÃImYyEdlminBit min¨bsiTìdUcsµan, GacCae¨KaHf~ak'mYyy"agFMdl'sgðm

ebImnus§k~¬gsgðmenaHmanKuNv^bti‘TSgenHe¨cInK~a

eBk. ÓTahrN_ Ð manminticeT G~kEdlVnykeQµaHbIenH \ hUß yn', hußy niwm, exov

sMpn| Canimit‘rUb«nkarsíatsíM«nCatiniymExµr, Casgôwmrbs'¨beTskmõ¬Ca. sgðmExµreyIg

¨b¨Bwt‘TMlab'Ga¨kk'mYy EdlbegûétnigkMLaKuNv^bti‘xagelIenH, Éy"agehacNas' k*sN¶M

karvag«vnigsuPnicÏ&yEdr. TMlab'Ga¨kk'enHKWC÷enOelIGar&k§G~kta eTvta ²ånæ¨Bhµ TsVrmI


116 vtĬsk¶isiTì .l. min¨twmEtCnFmµtaeT EdleCOehIyeFÃIBiFIk~¬gCév^tpæal'xÂçn, KWrhUtdl'es¶c

Epndé (nig¨bFanaFibtI) Edlcat'karrd½tamBiFIenaH Ð bYgsYgsuMTwkeP¿g [ÓTìm¸aKc¨kVc

x§ac' \B&TìsIma| Cu÷v^jP~MeBj .l.

e¨kayExemsa 1975 enHeTot k*enAmanG~kneyaVyeyIg \cak'KmõIr| edémºIKitKUr

(8)

karrMedaHCati!

CnCaticammansN¶ansasn_

dUcmnus§EdlenAe¨Caym"aeLsuI

nigenAk~¬gekaHd*e¨cIn«n

mhasmu¨TV"suIhÃik (sasn_m"aeLyU — bU"lIeNsuIEyn). enAedém¨Kis¶skraC, CnCatienH

VncUlmkenAtamCaysmu¨T

EdllatsnìwgBITÃarGNöammkdl'e¨Cayva"«r"La.

cab'BI

stvt§r_TI 10 eTA, camVnb"HTgð^cnwgExµr k~¬geBlEdlxÂçnkMBug¨tèvyYnruj¨cancuHBITis

xageCég. k~¬gkML¬gstvt§r_TI 12 TSgmUl camnwgExµrcºSgK~arhUt edaymankarkan'kab'Twk

déK~aeTAv^jeTAmk. enAq~S 1177, bnæab'BIVnvays¨mukGgðr edaymin[Exµrd·gxÂçnCamun,

camkan'kab'raCFanIcMnYn¨VMq~S.

k~¬gq~S

1181,

kUnrbs'es¶c

Faraniånæavrµ&nTI2 (1150-

1160) rMedaHGgðrv^jVn ehIyeLIgesayraC´e¨kameQµaHfa C&yvrµ&nTI7 . eqÂIytbnwgkar

QÂanJnmYyrbs'cam enAq~S 1190, C&yvrµ&nTI7 vaylukcUl¨beTscMV". cab'tSgBIq~S

1203 eTA, ¨sukcMV"kÂayeTACaext‘mYyrbs'Exµr. enAq~S 1227, es¶c²ånæavrµ&nTI2 (1201-

1243) EdlCaBuTìsasnikCny"ag¨CHfÂadUcÒBuk (C&yvrµ&nTI7) Edr ehIyEdlcg'Gnuvt‘n_

emt‘akruNaFmá, bJØa[dkT&BecjBIcMV". k~¬gq~SdEdl, GPiVlext‘cMV"TTYlmû¬dCaes¶c

ehIy¨beTscMV"k*manraCaFibety´pæal'v^j.

¨beTscam¨tèvyYnvaylukeTot.

bu"En‘

ecjBIGaNac¨kExµrminVnyUrbu"nµan,

enAstvt§r_TI 18, ¨beTscMV" VnVt'BIEpnTIBiPBelak ehIy¨bCaCncamk*Vn

sÂab'Vt'bg'. G~kEdlenAsl' rt'eTA¨Ckekanäkmõ¬Ca (GaNikCnmYy¨kumtUc rs'enAk~¬gkU-

sSgsuIn). k~¬gq~S 1970, CnCaticamenAkmõ¬CamancMnYn 80 000 nak' Edle¨cInEtrs'enA

edaykarensaT. pæ¬ynwgCnCaticin EdlVnxitxMbJÍèlxÂçnk~¬gsgðmExµr ehIyk~¬geBlCa mYyK~a eFÃI[Exµr¨Cçt¨CabnwgvbºFmáxÂçnEdr, camEtgEtrs'enAdac'edayELk k~¬gshKmn_

xÂçn. karN_enH¨bEhlCamkBIsasna«nCnCaticam, ehAExµr²sÂam (¨beTscMV"Edlman

vbºFmáeyageTA²Nëa Vnkan'sasnamhama"t' enAstvt§r_TI 15). edayxÃl'xÃay cg'rk§a Tukekr‘i_mrtkvbºFmánigsasnaxÂçn,

cMNg'EdlCasn¬æH¨BlwgFmµta

rbs'¨kumGaNikCn,

¨Kçsarcam[kUnNaEdlBUEk cUleFÃIkark~¬grd½karnigkgT&BExµr. mån‘InignayTahancamTSg

enaH manPar:karJr¨beyaCn_«nshKmn_xÂçn. k~¬gcMeNamenaH, G~kEdlVnbMeBjmuxkar enHy"ageBjelj KW GtIt:Ót¶mesnIy_ eLH kaEsm. G~kerobcMy"agsMxan'm~ak' «n \rd½

¨bhar| «n«f© 18 mIna, eLH kaEsm Ca«ds¶SmYy«n ln' nl' k~¬geBld*yUr. Ót¶mesnIy_

kaEsm Vn¨tèvelak ln' nl' cat'[bMeBjebskkmµsm©at'Cae¨cIn. CamYynwgmrNPaB rbs'Kat'enAm"aeLsuIk~¬geBlfµé@ sBëf© EdlVt'bg'.

enH,

KWXÂSgmYyy"agFM

«nerOgsm©at'k~¬g¨bvti‘sa¨s¶Exµr


117 CamYynwgkareLIgkan'GMNac«nExµr¨khm,

BYkExµr²sÂamVnsðal'mhav^eyaKmYy

eTot Ð karsmÂab'rgðal dUcEdlVnsðal'nwgkMBugEtsðal' bgbíèneyIgk~¬g¨sukEdr. cam

mYycMnYntUcVnecjrYcBIkmõ¬Ca, ehIyrkeXIjC÷rkk~¬g¨beTsmYyeTot CaBiessm"aeLsIu. camVnVt'EmnETnehIyBIbJØImnus§rs'.

eyIg, Exµr, ¨tèvTajd÷bUnµanecjBIsavta¨beTscMV"nig¨bCaCncam. G~kEdlyl'

fa kar¨BçyVrm¸GMBICév^t¨bCaCatiExµr CaTuTid½^niym, KYrQb'emIlgay¨bvti‘sa¨s¶ ehIyKit BicarNaeLIgv^j.

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


118

edayvay¨beTs«fCae¨cIndg E¨kgExµr¨khmcg'yk Twkdécas'v^jeTÉ? dUec~HeKminCaG~kCatiniymxÂSg?

enAelIdéenH Kµan¨beTsNaenAk~¬gkal:eTs:PUmisa¨s¶neyaVymYy EdlCUrct'dUc¨beTs

ExµreT Ð karN_EdlmanG~kC^txagBIrcg' B¨gékTwkdé(1).

edém¨sl'«f, EdllºIfacgí¬ly"agcºas'nUvkarE¨b¨bçlFM@ «nvaeyaneyaVyGn‘rCati, dUc

Caman, elIkenH, nUvkarBiVkk~¬gPaBTn'PÂn'rbs'xÂçn. sm&yfµé«nGMNacp¶ac'kar«nvNö:kmµkr ksikr,

EdlVn¨tèveKniymk~¬g¨beTsTSgbI«n²Nëècin,

eFÃI[¨beTs«f¨BçyVrm¸.

ÓTahrN_Exµr

ritEt

bMP&y«feTAeTot Edlsæak'esæIrnwgEbrxÂçneTArkTisdUcK~a. kMBugEtE¨b¨bçleBjTMhwg, «frkkaredaH

¨saymYyedémºI \ecj| xÂçn[rYc edaymin[bg'xate¨cIn.

\k~¬gbcͬbºn~enH esomenATn'ex§ayxag«pæk~¬g BuMGaclatsnìwgteTAeTotVneT ebImindUec~aH

äkPaBesomcºas'Ca¨tèvTTYlkarKMramkMEhgBICnCatiPaKtic y"agF©n'minElgeLIy karlatsnìwg

hYsmaD nwgnSmk[esomnUvPaBTn'ex§ayv^jeTùùù.|, elak nYn eXOn VnsresrenAq~S 1970. k~¬geBlsBëf©enH, CaelIkTI2, karsn~id½anrbs' nYn eXOn [eXIjfa¨tèvdUec~HEmn(2). edémºIelb

kmõ¬Ca niglavVn evotNam¨tèveFÃI[«fenAnwgfûl' k~¬gC÷hrG~kcSEtkarJrxÂçn. kar¨tçt¨taelIlav

nwgsMrYly"age¨cIndl'karsML¬tenH. karEdlÓbºti‘ehtutam¨BMEdnExµr-esom niglav-esom Vn

ekIteLIgCae¨cInk~¬geBlCamYyK~a eFÃI[mansMnYrenH Ð etImnus§Edlkan'GMNacEmnETnenAkmõ¬Ca sBëf©enH CaExµr ÉmYyCayYn (kat' Éminkat') BYne¨kamsJØatiExµr?(3) e¨JHfa eKBuMGacbd^esF

VneT karN_EdlBYkenHbMerI¨beyaCn_yYn, TSgk~¬g¨BMEdn TSge¨kA¨BMEdn.

etI¨bCaCnExµr, lav nig evotNam GaccSTTYlGÃIxÂH VnBIelak \esrI|, CaBiessBIshrd½Gaemrik?

e¨kayBIVnmanGMNacy"agxÂSgelI²Nëècin k~¬gkML¬geBlCag 25 q~S, shrd½GaemrikVn

dkxÂçnfyecj edayTukEtGnus§avrIy_y"aglamk lb'lagy"agNak*BuM¨CHeLIy. etI¨bvti‘sa¨s¶

niyay¨tèv Éxus ebI[ \c¨kBti‘niymGaemrikSg| Etm~ak'ägTTYlxuselImhn‘rayenA²Nëècin nig

elITukÅevTnaEdlVn¨tèvrgedaymnus§ BI 2 eTA 3 tMN k~¬g¨bCaCnTSgbI? Gacfa¨tèvk*Vn, Gacfa xusk*Vn.


119 bu"En‘enAelIdéenH, ebImanrd½aPiVlmYyEdlKµansiTiìniyayBI \siTiìmnus§| ehIyCaBiess BI

siTiìmnus§enAkmõ¬Ca, KWcºas'Card½aPiVlGaemrikSgenHäg. kicÍTak'TgrvagGaemrikSgnigExµr Vnb¶èr EtkaremIlgay nigkarxkcit‘.

Gaemrikrbs' nicsun ykkmõ¬Cae¨bI¨Vs' edémºIdkxÂçnecjBIevotNam \CamYykiti‘ys|

(GanlixitcMh «nshKmn_ExµrenAkaNada eTA¨bFanaFibtI karETr, enAk~¬g¨Bwti‘b&¨telx 4, Exkum¸:

1977). Cab'k~¬gGnæak'sågðam, ¨beTsenHTmÂak'elIkmõ¬Ca, Etk~¬gkML¬g 4 q~S (1969-1973) nUv

¨Kab'EbkcMnYn 500 000 etan!

Gaemrikrbs' ehߧr"al' hÃ&d, edayv^lkº¬gmYyeBl, sMerceVHbg'ecalsmõnìmit‘Exµr nig

evotNam rbs'xÂçn ehIyrt'ecjeTA²tgake¨kayeLIy.

Gaemrikrbs' C^mµI karETr eFÃICaePÂcerOgehtuTSgGs' ehIy¨bjab'¨bjal'eTArkcab'«dExµr

¨khm EdlTTwkeCaknwgQamExµrenAeLIy(4), ehIyeTsnabeN¶Ir@ GMBIkar karJrsiTiìmnus§! karBiesaFn_«n²Nëècin

elImit‘PaBGaemrikSg

EdlsgôwmelIGaemrikd*xÂSg, G~kkarJresrIPaB!

¨tèveTACad÷bUnµandl'¨bCaCatiTSgLayNa

karEdlCbu"nvay ePIlharbY enAq~S 1941 VnTajGaemrikecjBIäekaniymrbs'xÂçn.

edaye¨bIkmÂSgTSgGs'EdlxÂçnman GaemrikvaydeNI¶mykVnCae¨cIn nigy"agq©ay ehIyknÂgput

mhasmu¨TV"suIhÃikeTot. mktame¨kayVrSg, ehIydUcBYkVrSgEdr, GaemrikSgVnmkpugxÂçnk~¬g ²Nëècin. bnæab'BIVnbgúèrQamevotNam, lav nig Exµry"age¨cIn nigbgúèrQamägy"agGsar²t kar, GaemrikdkxÂçnfyecj, braC&y, e¨TamTSgxÂçn e¨TamTSgKMnit. Cafµém¶geTot GaemriklUncUl

k~¬grUgxÂçnv^j Ð bnæab'BIkmõ¬Ca KWevotNam, rYcmk kUer". mYym¶g@ kUn dUmINU VnrlM, ÉebIniyay[ ¨tèv, Vn¨tèveVHbg'ecal.

bu"En‘karv^l¨tLb'v^j «nGaemrikk~¬gPaBäekaniymenH minEmnbgúajfa¨beTsenHcg'eXIj

mansn‘iPaB nigPaBnwgnrk~¬gBiPBelakeT. xusq©ayeTAv^j, karN_enHCakarsgswk — ehIyy"ag sahav!

k~¬geBlEdls¨tèvrYmrbs'²Nëècin KWkg bU-dUy rbs' hUCémij nigsav&kxÂçn kMBugsab

e¨JHmnus§Xad nigrMelaPelIsiTiìmnus§ k~¬gEdndékMeNItrbs'¨bCaCatiTSgbI, ¨bCaCnExµr, lav

nigevotNam ¨tèvrYbrYmK~ay"agC^ts~iTì edémºIbJÎrrNsir§mYyy"agrwgTl'nwgs¨tèvrYmd*TmiL nigd*

«¨B«p§. ¨bCaCatiTSgLay«nGasIu nwgminbeN¶ay[c¨kBt‘iniymtugkwg Q~HVneLIy.


120

cMeJH¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg, cMeJHsMNl'«n¨bCaCneyIg elIdéExµr, etIeyIg ExµrenAbreTs GaceFÃIGÃICUn?

eTaHbIeyIgcg' Émincg' ¨bCaCnExµr ÒBukeyIg m¶ayeyIg bgbíèneyIg TSg¨bus¨sI Kg'nwg

bHeVreLIg. eTaHbIeyIgcg' Émincg' QamKg'nwghUreTotenAelIdéeyIg. Kµanmnus§Nam~ak'Edl

Gac¨TSrgTaruNkmµExµr¨khm eday²tbHeVreLIy. ehIyebIeyIg nwkeTAdl'¨twmEt¨KçsareyIgä ¨sukExµr k*xÂçneyIgKYrEteTAdl'TIenaHrYce¨sceTAehIy.

yl'¨BmTTYlrbbExµr¨khm KWsuxcit‘beN¶ay[CatieyIgsÂab'. ¨beTsTSgLayEdlenA

Cab'nwgkmõ¬CaeyIg mhaGMNacEdlenAq©ayEmn bu"En‘Edl²TìiBlxÂçneTAdl'¨Kb'TIkEnÂg min¨Kan'Et

cSemIl¨beTseyIgdac'degúémbu"eNöaHeT. xÂHxMykcMeNjGMBIkarEdleyIgex§aHQam xÂHeTotEdl

yl'faxÂçnmane¨KaHf~ak' kMBugcat'v^Fankar karJrxÂçn. meF´aVyrbs'rd½TSgenH VneTAdl'TIkEnÂg

rYceTAehIy Ék*Vne¨KagTukehIye¨sc dak'k~¬gftturbs'eK. enHKWCakarFmµta enHCaneyaVy Gn‘rCati CaElºgGukrbs'G~kd·knSsgðmmnus§TSgLay. enAelITIlan¨byuTì

QmmuxTl'nwgkgkmÂSgEdlTMenIbTan'sm&y (5)

eyIgmaneyaFa \Exµr¨khmeyIg|

ehIyCaBiess¨VCÆa

EdlBitehIy BUEksmÂab'²trujra bu"En‘eqat minsUvecHd·g

ehIy CaBiess Etäkäg²tbN¶aCnKS¨T. enAelItuccarQmmuxTl'nwgKUCECkEdlecHd·gehIy qÂat eyIgmanmnus§EdleyIgminEdlsðal' sJØatimincºas'las' ÉEdlv^lkº¬gxUcsµartI(6).

eXIjfa ebIeyIgTuk¨beTs[enAe¨kamEtExµr¨khmEtäg kmõ¬CanwgmuxEtbg'xat¨Kb'C÷BUk.

ehIyminTan'TSgeTAdl'eBlcºSg nigccarenaHpg kmõ¬CaVnVt'bg'nigkMBugEtVt'bg'bN¶aCnrab'

lan EdlCaCnrYmCatieyIg elahitrbs'CatieyIg.

¨tèvEteyIgeTAdl'k~¬gTwkdéExµrEdr! eyIgEdlCaG~kecHd·gExµr É ebIniyay[¨tèv eyIgEdl

CasMNl'G~kecHd·gExµr eyIgmankrNIykicÍ nig katBÃkicÍ ykkmÂSgkaynigkmÂSgKMnit eTAcUlrYm

k~¬g clnatsUßExµr.

ebI¨bCaCatimYyTSgmUlcg'rs' ehIytyuTìedémºIrk§aCév^txÂçn KµankmÂSgGÃImYy k~¬gelakenH

EdlGackinkMeTc¨bCaCatienaHeT. e¨JHfa karsMxan' KWkardac'cit‘ karcg'Q~Hedaye¨bI¨Vs'¨Kb' smtÄPaBTSgGs'EdlxÂçnman. bJúaäeTot@ ¨Kan'EtCakarbnæab'bn§MeT.

cMeJHmhn‘ray«nmatuPUmieyIg eyIgmin¨tèvdak'kMhuseTAelI¨beTsNamYyeT bu"En‘mkelI

xÂçneyIg. kalNa¨bCaCatimYyeVHbg'xÂçnecalehIy ¨bCaCatimYyeTotnwgmksågðb'elI ehIyTM-

JrelbVt'. enHKWCacºab'FmµCati cºab'«nkarv^vt‘n_rbs'GariyFmáTSgLay.

eBlEdlGaNac¨keyIgcuHGn'fy bnæab'BIkarFÂak'raCFanIGgðr es¶ceyIgTSgLayVneVH

bg'xÂçnecal bu"En‘sMrab'EtxÂçnägm~ak'.


121 buBÃkarIeyIg FÂak'k~¬gkargg·tggl' Vt'cMNgTSgGs'CamYy¨bvti‘sa¨s‘xÂçn e¨JHbcÍami¨t

Vn bMp^ÂcbMpÂaj¨bmUlykGs'nUvkºçnx~at kab'smÂab'ekorykeTAGs'nUvG~k¨VCÆraCbNëit(7).

CédUnCétaeyIg CamYynwgBnÂW¨Bwm@ EdlnSmkedayGaNaniKmniymVrSg VnebIkEP~kPÆak'

eLIg. bu"En‘edayTm©n' raCaFibety´ p¶ac'karsgût'xÂSgeBk G~kxÂHElgrvérvl' ehIyKitEteq¿tTaj

ykkM«r[Gs'BI«d dUc \¨kbIGt'XÂan EdlsuI¨beTsäg|. G~käeTot eday \K~ad·gxÂçnfaGs'kMLSg

eBk| edémºIeLIgzan:sgðm[Tan'BYkTImYy ¨TSenA¨kI¨kTSgpÂèvsm¸ar: TSgpÂèvKMnitsµartI(8). (GanTMB&r 24 PaKTI 3).

bg@ eyIg k*eVHxÂçnecaleTot xÂHedaymkBItUccit‘e¨JHbMNgneyaVyxÂçnBuMVnsMerc.

xÂHedayeXIjfakarBukrlYyeFÃI[qab'manNas'. BYkTImYy biTmat'TMlak'«dElgtyuTì ÉbeN¶ay

xÂçn[luHlg'eTAtammenaKmv^CØabreTs. BYkTI2 Vt'Gs'ehIynUvkareGonxµas' nUvkarTTYlxus¨tèv

ehIyKitEtBIekIb¨bmUl¨TB´smºti‘ Ð cMeJHG~kxÂH \man| E¨bmkfa kiti‘ys. cMeJHG~kxÂHeTot ¨twm¨tèvehIy \¨k| E¨bmkfa ePÂI minsUvqÂat.

eyIgkMBugeXIjehIyfakarEdlsgðmeyIgTSgmUl

nSK~aeVHbg'xÂçnecalCaTUeTA

ehIyCa

erogrhUtmkenH VneFÃI[¨beTseyIgFÂak'dl'f~ak'Na ehIyeFÃI[¨bCaCneyIg Edlm¶gNak*CaG~k

TTYle¨KaHEdr rgTukÅesakdl'kMritNa?

²LèvenH enAeBld÷Nac'stvt§r_TI 20 etIeyIg yuvCnExµrC÷nan'fµé nwgeFÃItamG~kmun@ eyIgÉ

eT? etIeyIg \KµansamKðIFmátampÂèvcit‘|, \²tmanmenaseJÍtnaCatibn‘icbn‘çc|, \²tyl'famatuPUmi

CaGÃIeLIy| dUcG~kmun@ eyIg ÉGÃI? (GanTMB&r 23-24 PaKTI 3). etIeyIgnwg¨kJt'«demIl¨bCaCati eyIgrlayVt' ÉGÃI?

min¨Kb'¨Kan'eT ebI¨Kan'EteyIgniyayfa xÂçneyIgVnEqítcit‘nwgPaBGn' karBukrlYy nigkar

minTTYlxus¨tèv rbs'bg@ eyIg. etIeyIgVneFÃIGÃIehIy cMeJHmatuPUmieyIg? etIeyIgVn[GÃIehIy dl'¨bCaCneyIg?

e¨kayExmIna 1970 eyIgEdlCaeBT´ G~kGk§rsa¨s¶ G~kv^T´asa¨s¶ G~kbecÍkeTs .l.

VnTukcMeNHv^CØaeyIgsMrab'ksag¨beTseLIgv^j eBlNaEdlsågðamcb'ehIy. cMeNHv^CØaEdl

rd½kmõ¬CaVnp¶l'mkeyIg Gs'ry:eBl 20 eTA 30 q~S edaypæal' nigtamry:¨beTsCamit‘.

e¨kayExemsa 1975 cab'BIeBlEdlGanbnæat'enHeTA eyIgGacKµan{kas GacKµanlTì

PaB hucCUneTA¨bCaCneyIgv^jnUvbMNulrbs'eyIg ebIeyIgenAEt cS cS cS teTAeTot.

etIeyIgFÂak'Twkcit‘ ÉGÃI e¨JHkarenAes©¿m²tkMerIkrbs'G~käeTot? ÉmYyeyIghYscit‘ e¨JH

G~kEdlbeJÍjKMnit ecHEtTas'ETgExÃgKMnit EbkVk'K~a? enHCakarFmµtaeT enAk~¬gsgðmNak*dUec~H Edr.

eyIgTSgGs'K~aman cMeJHmuxsavtaeyIg nUvkarTTYlxus¨tèvmYy EdleyIg¨tèvbMeBj Ð

kare¨sac¨sg'Cév^t¨beTseyIg. ebIeyIgmin¨bfuyeFÃIGÃImYy[dl'kmõ¬CaeT enAk~¬g¨bvti‘sa¨s¶Exµr

eyIgnwgminmant«mÂhYsBIBYk \¨kbIGt'XÂan| É BYk \Gs'kmÂSg| kalBImunenaHeT! bgbíènrYmCati

eyIg¨tèvElgrg'cSksag¨beTseLIgv^j

ÉcSbMerI¨twmEtCaBlrd½suIv^l.

eyIg¨tèvcUlrYm cab'BIeBlenHeTA k~¬gkartsßU¨bdab'GavuF «n ¨bCaCneyIg. elIsBIbMBg'kSePÂIgeTA


122 eTot kartsUߨtèvkar xYrkºal edémºIe¨KagEpnkar B´aVl vHkat' rkesº¿g bgúat'Gb'rM begûét

¨kbx&Në nig ùùù Kit!

eTAnwgcm©l'Edlfa

\E¨kgeyIgeFÃIkartsUßmYyEdlcaj'muneTd·g?|

eyIgsYreTAv^j

faetI

eyIg, Exµr, EdlsBëf©enHCaBlrd½kaNada GaemrikSg VrSg .l. Gacrs'enAedayxõs'muxVneT

ebI¨bCaCatiExµrrlayVt'? etIbgbíènrYmCatieyIgEdlenAänay emIleXIjy"agem"cmkelIrUbeyIg? etICnEdleyIgenAk~¬g¨beTseK KiteXIjy"agem¶cmkelICatieyIg?

bgbíènrYmCati cUreyIgbgúajeTABiPBelakfa yuvCnExµrC÷nan'fµé xusBIC÷nan'mun@ ! cUreyIg

TajCév^teyIgecjBIPaBeVHbg'xÂçnecal nig BIPaBGam"as'mux ehIyhucCUneTA¨bCaCatieyIg! sÂab' edémºICati eTIbCév^teyIgkan'Etmann&y!

tula 1977


123

GFibºay (1)

k~¬gsm&ysaFarNrd½

G~kneyaVyeyIgxÂH

Vn¨bdUcsÄanPaBPUmisa¨s¶neyaVy«n

kmõ¬CaeTAnwgrbs'GuI¨saEGl. kar¨bdUcenH xÃH¨VkdniymTSg¨sug e¨JHfa sÄanPaBPUmi sa¨s¶neyaVy «n¨beTsTSgBIrxusK~aq©ayNas'. elak QUk em"gem"A EdlenAk~¬gcM-

eNamG~kneyaVyTSgenaH Vnniyay[kmõ¬Caman

\Kib bußt|(@) dUcmanenAGuI¨saEGl

Edr. rd½aPiVlsaFarNrd½ k*VnbJØènnisi§tnigG~ksik§axÂH eTA¨beTsTSgenHEdr. yk

KMnittamreboberobcMGuI¨saEGlTSgenH elak ln' nl' bJØa[erobcMCapæHdb'x~g, 50x~g .l.ùùù

(@) Kib bußt Ð PUmishkrN_enAGuI¨saEGl EdlCaBiessmanbN¶aCnTSg¨bus¨sI kan'GavuFkarJrpæal'. (2)

GaNikCnenA¨beTs«f Vn¨tèvEbgEckCa 5 ¨kumFM@ Ð cin, Exµr, m"aLayU, yYn nigG~k¨suk P~MxagTisøsan

e¨kABIG~k¨sukP~Msasn_«f.

muneBlEdlExµreyIgePosxÂçn

eday¨Bwti‘

karN_«f© 17 emsa 1975 GaNikCnExµrEdlenA¨beTs«f mancMnYn 450 000 nak' kal BIqµ~S 1939 (tamkarsæg'cMnYn¨bCaCneday vùGù ¨khS GtIt:TI¨bwk§a«nraCrd½aPiVl«f).

GaNikCnExµrTSgenaH rs'enAk~¬gext‘ep§g@ dUcteTAenH Ð rd½burI Naxunc&ysuI suP&NburI P~MsaraxS NaxnNay"ut PUmiPaKxaglic«nGrJï nigsurinæ. enAq~S 1932 rd½aPiVl«fVn[

biTsalavt‘Exµr ehIybgÅ÷G~krd½karEdlmanedémkMeNItCaExµr [niyayEtPasa«f. e¨kay

(3)

mk, tameKfa, GaNikCnExµrC÷nan'e¨kay@ k*VneCakCSnwgvbºFmá«f.

tSgBIedémkMeNIt«n¨bvti‘sa¨s¶eyIgmk ¨bCaCneyIgVnTTYlkard·knS Ékar¨tçt¨ta, k~¬g ry:evlaEvgÉxÂI, edaycM É edayExµrbN¶ak', BIsMNak'BYkp§ge¨BgbreTs EdlVncUl

mkedaydac'Etäg Éeday¨beTseKbJØènmk Ð ²Nëa cam-CÃa esom yYn B&rTuyehð

eGsº"aj¬"l VrSg Cbu"n cin nig GaemrikSg. k~¬gry: 22 q~Se¨kaybgís', bnæab'BIäkraC´«n q~S 1953, G~kd·knSeyIgVnekatE¨kg nigelIktMekIgCnbreTs elIsshesv^kExµrrbs'

xÂçn. karj"mnwg \eK| Cab'rab'tMNenH, TMlab'eXIjbreTsk~¬gkicÍd·knS¨beTsenH, Vn

bJØèlk~¬gstiExµreyIg nUvkarElgrvérvl'GMBIedémkMeNIt nigGtItkal «nmnus§EdlenAk~¬g

vNö:d·knSrbs'eyIg. etI¨bCaCneyIg TSgk~¬g¨beTs TSge¨kA¨beTs Vnman¨btikmµy"ag

em¶c enAeBld·gfaG~kd·knSkmõ¬Ca maneQµaHEdlxÂçnminEdl¾esaH dUcCa Ð nYn Ca, gYn kg, sU Pwm, jwm rs, bu"l Bt, vn ev"t, yun y"at .l. ? cuHebImnus§e¨kameQµaHTSgenHCayYn eTA etI¨beTseyIgeTACaGÃIehIy? Óù lav CamYy «ksUnpu÷v^han?

k~¬geBlEdleyIgs~ak'enAbreTsenH KYreyIg¨keLkemIlehIysYrfa etICnCatieK

beN¶ay[mnus§EdlmansJØatidUceKk*eday bu"En‘EdleTIbnwgmkdl'fµé eLIgdl'zan:d·k nS¨beTs ÉPUmi, sh¨Kas ÉsmaKmeKtUcNamYyeT? enHminEmnmkBIeKsíb'exõémbreTs eT bu"En‘eKkarJrCatieK rebobrs'enArbs'eK karyl'eXIjrbs'eK. k~¬gyb'«n«f© 16 emsa

1975 elak L¬g bUer"t, rd½mån‘ITImYy, eBlEdlGs'kmÂSgy"agxÂSg gakeTAsYrG~ksar-


124 BtámanVrSgm~ak'fa Ð \etIxƬM¨tèveFÃIdUcem¶c?|. tbnwgsMnYrGMBImUlehtuEdlnS[Exµr¨khm

smÂab'rgðal¨bCaCnäg,

Exµrm~ak'EdlmancMeNHv^CØay"age¨cIneqÂIyfa

Ð

\xÂçnminGac[

cemÂIyVneT munnwg \GicEsõ&r| G~kC÷najkarbsÍwm¨beTsVneFÃIv^PaKehIysin|. sYrnS GMBI¨bvti‘sa¨s¶ EdlsmaKmExµrmYyVnsresr, G~kecHd·gdEdleqÂIyfa Ð \minVc'eT

eKeTAebIkesovePAemIlk~¬gbNöal&yk*VnEdr. KMnitEdlecjmktamvacaTSgbIxagelIenH

KYrEtG~kEdlman eVHbg'ecal edémºIGnaKt«n¨beTseyIg Ð KMnitfa CnCatibreTs¨Kan'

(4)

ebICagCnCatiäg nigkarsíb'exõImrhUtdl'KMnitCnCatiäg.

¨bFanaFibtI

kakET

Vncab'ep¶émneyaVye¨kA¨beTsrbs'Kat'

edaysaklºgrkPØab'

cMNgeLIgv^j CamYy¨beTscMnYn¨bmaN 13 Edl¨bqSgtic Ée¨cInnwgGaemrikSg, Edl

enAk~¬genaHman kmõ¬Ca¨bCaFibety´ Edr. ¨ksYgkarbreTsGaemrikSgVneXIjfa Exµr¨khm hamXat'xÂçnmin[cUlk~¬g¨sukExµr (KN:ebskkmµ vUdkuk enAExmIna 1977).

(5)

Jk´rbs' bßév «qelog k~¬gGtÄbTeQµaH \karbMVt'BUCsasn_KYr[rnìt' nigkarsuImnus§enA

(6)

eBlEdlsem¶csIhnu ¨bFanrNsir§ \hìg| enAk~¬g¨kugeb"kSg \rd½mån‘I| Cae¨cInminTSg

¨beTskmõ¬Ca| cuHk~¬g¨Bwti‘b&¨tshKmn_ExµrenAkaNada elx 9 Extula 1977.

GacVneTAC^t ÉeTAeXIj¨BHGgðpg. rebobenHEdr eBlEdlsIhnueFÃITs§nkicÍCapÂèvkarenA V"rIs BYkGgðrk§VneFÃIy"agNamin[sem¶ceTAC^tExµrEdlmkcg'eXIj¨BHGgðVneLIy. ä

BYkG~kEhrhm k*mankiriyaKYr[eKmnæilEdr. elak tan' GußkNSeGog, GtItGnu¨bFanrd½

sPa, Vnbriyay¨Vb'eyIg GMBIGakbºkiriyabg«fÂKat' sarin qak rd½mån‘IkarbreTsrbs' sem¶csIhnu enAk~¬gcMNtGakasyan súaldãehðal Ð \xƬMnigkUnTSgLay xMsæ¬HeTArkKat'

sarin qak bu"En‘eyIg¨tèvQb'enAnwgfûl' e¨JHeXIjmuxKat'FµWg EP~kebIkEtemIleyIgGt'

eXIj. eTaHbIkUneBAxƬM EdlrlwkGß÷vaNas' ehIyEdlcg'yYrkatab[ k*BuMhßaneTAC^tKat' Edr|.

k~¬geBlmhasn~iVt Gùsùbù enAExkJïa 1977 enH smaC^kTSgbInak' «nKN:¨b-

tiPUExµr (e¨kaymkman eGog sarI ehIytameKfa man bu"l Bt Edr) KW Ð CYn ¨bsiTì can'

yUr"an' nigmnus§minsðal'muxm~ak' EdleKVneXIjmYyEPÂtk~¬gTUrTs§n_enAmu"ger"Gal' Jk' Gav-k¨tg'BNáexµA ehIymuxmat'dUccinsuTì. ¨bPBrbs'eyIgVnbJØak'fa mnus§e¨kayenH

KWcinEmn mannaTICa \TI¨bwk§a|! cMENkä can' yUr"an' minEdlVnCan'déExµrv^jeT e¨kay«f© 17 emsa 1975. etIKat'Vn¨tèvExµr¨khmEmnETn cat'[bMeBjebskkmµenHeT?

KWfaehtukarN_TSgenH Edlhak'dUcCaecjBIerOg¨belamelakbU"lIsnigcarkmµ Ca

karN_EdlVnekIteLIgEmn. ebIdUec~HehIy sMnYrmYy¨tèvEtecaTeLIg Ð etIkmõ¬Ca¨bCaFib-

(7)

ety´ nwgeTACay"agNa?

k~¬geBlsBëf©enH cab'tSgBIExemsa 1975 minKWGMeBIdEdl EdlVnekItmaneLIgv^j?

esovePAkºçn KmõIr t¨ma TSgGs'Vn¨tèvdutecal CamYybNöal&yCati. vtĬburaN Edlrk

t«mÂdak'Kµan ehIyEdlCasak§I«nGariyFmáeyIg Vn¨tèvkMeTcecalGs' CamYymnæIrtSg ektnPNëCati. vt‘Garam sala mhav^T´al&y Vn¨tèvbiTTÃar. BYkG~kecHd·g cab'tSgBI


125 bNëit eTAdl'G~k¨Kan'EtecHGanecHsresr Vn¨tèveKtamrkmux ehIysMLab'ecal. PUmi

XuM ¨suk ext‘ ElgmaneQµaHehIy manEtelx dl'eBlExµrC÷nan'e¨kayeyIgsÂab'Gs'eTA

nwgElgmaneQµaHExµrsMrab'TI¨bCu÷CnExµrNaTSgGs' e¨JHkUnekµgtUc@ EdlExµr¨khmyk

ecjBIÒBukm¶ayxÂçneTAbgúat' Vn¨tèveKbg÷k[e¨bIEtvak´s&Bæfµé. sUmºIEtGgðrvt‘ k*VnVt'

(8)

eQµaHxÂçnehIy ehIyenA¨twmEt \¨VsaTkMBUlbI|.

enHCakaremIlgayBIVrSg k~¬gsm&yGaNaniKmniym. sUmGan \ Moeurs et coutumes des Khmers | rbs' Guy Porée et Evelyne Maspéro (Payot, 1938.)

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


126

TMB&rPØab' 1

karTak'TgExµr-cin ebImnus§xMcgmit‘

¨beTskuMcgs¨tèv.

¨bvti‘sa¨s¶«nkmõ¬Cafµé

KWCa¨bvti‘sa¨s¶«nkarTak'TgExµr-VrSg,

¨bvti‘sa¨s¶«nkarTak'TgExµr-cin

(R)

rIä¨bvti‘sa¨s¶sBëf©

KW

. cMNgmit‘PaBrvagkmõ¬Canigcin¨bCamanit KYr[eyIggake¨kay

¨keLkemIleTAm¶geTotEdr. eTaHbImanyIehaCa \GB´a¨kwt|, kmõ¬Ca k*enAEtFÂak'k~¬gePÂIgsågðam Edl xÂçncg'ecosvagbMput.

BitehIy sn‘iPaB 15 q~S Edlkmõ¬CaVnsðal'e¨kaykar¨bkasäkraC´ nigGB´a¨kwtPaB KW

manedaysarkarbiun¨bsb'«n sem¶csIhnu k~¬gkarbt'Ebnecosregéksågðam¨tCak'«nmhaGMNac. karbuin¨bsb'enH

VnTTYlkarsresIry"age¨cInBIsMNak'G~ksegûtkarN_breTs

EdlmkBI¨Kb'

¨cklúk«nBiPBelak. KYr[s¶ay eday¨sv·gnwgkarekatsresIrenHeBk sIhnuVnePÂcTSg¨sug

dl'neyaVyk~¬g¨beTs. minKitedaH¨saybJúaBIKl'sgðmeLIgEtm¶g, minKitC÷erOnkarGb'rMmha

Cn edémºI[mhaCnyl'dl'karTTYlxus¨tèvrbs'xÂçnk~¬gsgðm sIhnuEbrCaB¨gékkareKarBbUCadl'

buKðlxÂçneTAv^j. neyaVyenH ritEtVn¨tèvkMLanigEfrk§aedayG~kEhhmeTAeTot edayBYkenHrk

EtTuk¨bCaCn[enAl©g'exÂAeTA edémºIxÂçn¨sNukk¶ab'. ¨kGWtnwgGgðrvt¶Nas' bu"En‘swgEt²td·gGÃITSg

Gs' GMBIGtItkalsm&yenaH, BukrlYy bu"En‘faxÂçnCaG~kkan'BuTìsasna, emIlgayt«mÂG~kd«T bu"En‘ faxÂçn¨sLaj'Cati, G~kEhhmsIhnuTSgenH —mnus§dEdl EdlnwgeTA \bribuNö:| ln' nl'—

ciJÍwmlTiìkumµ¬ynis‘Exµreday²td·gxÂçn.

Tukcit‘eK, eqatÉmYy¨sv·g, sIhnu ²tVnyl'dl'karcSVc'nwg[¨beTsman kgT&BmYy

EdlxÂSg GackarJrGFibtIPaBCatiVn. edémºIkarJrkmõ¬Ca \sem¶cÒ| ep¶kp¶çlTSg¨sugelI¨beTs

cin EdlbN¶aCn 800 lannak' eFÃI[¨BHGgðP&ypg Tukcit‘pg! karP&n‘¨cLMy"agmhimaenH ¨tèvG~k

d·knSsBëf©nwgGnaKt«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca ykeTABinit´eLIgv^j! kicÍTak'TgExµr-cin

BuMEmneTIbnwgmank~¬gsm&yenHeT.

GgðTUtExµrTImYyEdleKd·gfamanenA

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (R)

eKEck¨bvti‘sa¨s¶CabYnEp~k Ð savtaburaN BIedémkMeNItmkdl' Kùsù 395. savtayuKkN¶al (¨tèvnwgsm&ysk¶i-

PUmi) BIq~S 395 dl' 1453 q~SEdlBYkTYKIdeN¶ImVn¨kug kugs‘g'TINUb. savtayuKfµé BI 1453 dl'q~S 1789 (karbd^vt‘n_ VrSg). savtasBëf© cab'BI Kùsù 1789 mk. eyIgGacniyaydUcxagelIVn e¨JHkmõ¬CaeyIgeTIbnwgeXIjBnÂWxÂHeLIgv^j e¨kaykarmkdl'VrSg.


127 ¨sukcin Vn¨tèvbJØèneday¨BHecA¨sImara (hÃan'ecma"n' k~¬gPasacin) enA Kùsù 228 (sm&ynKrP~M É hÃßèNn. ¨sImara CaG~kbegûétgar \vrµ&n| Jk´sM¨sûwt EdlE¨bmkfa e¨kaH É e¨KOgkarJrxÂçn

TUeTA. garenHVn¨tèveVHbg' —rYcePÂcrhUtmk— CamYyK~anwgkarputBUCes¶c«nGgðr e¨kammuxlM

EBg«n ta¨tsk'Epím (1332—1340) es¶cExµre¨kaybgís' Edlykgarvrµ&nenHEdr KW ¨BHVT

nerat¶¶m sIhnuvrµ&n bnæab'BIsilacarwkTSgLay Vn¨tèvrkeXIjnwgGandac'eLIgv^j.

dUcPaKe¨cIn«n \nKr| TSgLay EdlenACu÷v^j¨beTscinEdr, ¨sukExµr (hÃèßNn) Vn¨tèvcin

sMKal'Card½cuHcUl. karbJØènraCTUtCamYysYysaGakrmk¨beTscin Vn¨tèveFÃICahUrEherogmk edayes¶c«nhÃèßNn

(nKrP~M)

rYcmk«ncinLa

(nKrBYkkUn²sIkmõ¬).

edayehtuenH,

cab'tSgBI

stvt§r_TI3 mk, GtÄbTcinGMBI¨sukExµr k*manmunsilacarwkExµr. enAq~S 506 PikŬExµrnamsgôBla

Vn¨tèves¶ccin«nraCvg§elog nimn‘eTA¨sukcinedémºIbkE¨b¨BH«¨tbIdk. PikŬenaHKg'enA¨sukcin 16

q~S. q~Sbnæab'mk, 507, ¨BHecA¨kugcin (vU) fÃaygarCa \emT&B| bågûabTisTk§iN, es¶cnKrP~M, dl' ¨BHVTC&yvrµ&n. enAq~S 1076 edaycinbbYleFÃIsågðamCamYynwgtugkwg, es¶chrs§avrµ&nTI3 bJØèn

ebsk:eyaFBlmYykg eTAlukluy¨suk ej"-Gan (¨sukhUCémij!). enAq~S 1285 C&yvrµ&nTI8

elIksYysaGakr eTA[BYkmu"gehðal. k~¬g Kùsù 1296 es¶cmu"gehðal TImYxan' bJØènebskkmµ

mYymkkmõ¬Ca e¨kamrCØkales¶c²ånæavrµ&nTI3 ehIyEdlenAk~¬genaHmanG~k¨bvt‘isa¨s¶ ecv takÃan'.

ecv takÃan' VnsresresovePAcas'CageKTSgGs' EdlGFibºayGMBIyesaFr: (Ggðr)

esovePAEdlCa¨bPB

ebIk[G~k¨bvti‘saås¶VrSgsðal'ehIysresrVn

GMBIGariyFmáExµrd÷bUg

(esovePA ecv takÃan' Vn¨tèvbkE¨beday Bù eb"lIÂyU k~¬g¨Bwti‘b&¨t«nsalaVrSgenAcugbUJá¨beTs,

enAq~S 1902). k~¬g Kùsù 1327 es¶c²ånæavrµ&n epærblÂ&gû[eTAkUnEdlesayraC´e¨kameQµaHfa

C&yvrµ&nTI9 brm²sUr. KWenAk~¬grCØkales¶cenH Edl \kardUcCabd^vt‘n_| TImYy (pseudo-révolution) Vn

pæ¬HeLIg edaybJÎb'y"agTan'hn'nUv²TìiBl¨BhµJïsasna ehIyykBuTìsasna mkdak'elI¨beTs v^j (cMGk«n¨Bhµlixit, eQµaH«nC&yvrµ&nTI9 muneBlesayraC´KW sIhnu!). \karbd^vt‘n_EkÂg| enH

dMNalK~anwgkarN_ Edlraås¶samJïeLIgesayraC´Caes¶c Ð ta¨tsk'Epím, niBÃanVT, lMBg'

.l. [sJïa«nkarcab'ep¶émcuH{nfy«nkmõ¬Ca Edlnwgmanry:¨VMstvt§r_. k~¬gkML¬g 500 q~SenaH

GaNac¨kExµrVnrebHricril rhUtmke¨kamkarruj¨can «nBYk«f nig BYkevot, GaNikCnBIrsasn_ EdlmanedémkMeNItenA¨sukcin.

bnæab'BIkarb¶èrK~axÂHk~¬gstvt§r_TI15, ¨bPB¨bvti‘saås‘k*Vns©at'Qwg GMBIkicÍTak'TgExµr-cin.

luHmkdl'stvt§r_TI17, eTIbeKVnd÷NwgxÂHeLIgv^j bu"En¶GMBIkarGen¶a¨bevsn_«nCnCaticin mkk~¬g

¨sukExµr (GanTMB&r 32, elxeyag 3). enAstvt§r_TI19, dUcCa¨beTskmõ¬CaEdr, ¨beTscin

VnFÂak'e¨kamGaNaniKmrbs'BYkEsºks. karcºSgK~ae¨JHerOgGaePon (Gg'eKÂsVj'¨Kab'EbkelI

kg'tug enAq~S 1841) Vncb'edaysnìisJïa¨kugNnkSg enAExsIha 1842 Edl[hugkug nig

ekaHxÂHeToteTAGg'eKÂs. tamsnìisJïa¨kugetonTi§n «nq~S 1885, cin[eTAVrSg¨tçtnUvnKrGNöam nig tugkwg EdlCa¨sukcMNuHxÂçn. ¨beTscineTIbnwgegébeLIgv^jelIqakneyaVy²Nëècin

1954 k~¬geBleFÃIsn~isIT¨kugh§WENv.

enAq~S


128 esæIrEtmYystvt§r_«nkar¨tçt¨tarbs'VrSg VneFÃI[ExµrmanTMlab'rs'enAeday \maneKkar

Jr|. e¨kayBIVnedjecjTSgminGs'Gal&ynUv \G~kkarJr| VrSg, raCaNac¨kExµr, enAmuxkar

bu"nb"gB¨gékTwkdéCaGlÂCØé«nG~kC^txagyYn, xMrk \G~kkarJr| m~ak'eTot. snæ¬HTImYyrbs'Exµr KW

t¨mg'eTAshrd½Gaemrik. enA«f© 17 tula 1953 VrSgepærGMNacswkmkkmõ¬Cav^j. enAmuxTahan

10 000 nak' «nkgT&BEmnETnrbs'evotmij (bgûb'k~¬gext‘ «¨BEvg, sÃayerog, taEkv, kMBt nig

Vt'd÷bg) nigmuxcMnYnEdleKmind·g «nTahanrbs'kgT&B¨bCaCnExµrrMedaHrbs' sWg gu"kmij (APKL)

kmõ¬CamanEt 12 kgvresnatUcefµéreCég. «f© 2 emsa 1954, kMBugEteBj¨byuTìenA edon ebonPU,

evotmijcUllukluykmõ¬CaBIxagTisøsan. «f© 20 ÓsPa raCrd½aPiVl¨bkassuMC÷nYyswkBI shrd½Gaemrik. enAh§WENv, eq¿t{kask~¬gkicÍBiPak§aCaeTÃPaKI, rd½aPiVlExµrxMsæg'emIlnUv¨btikmµ

GaemrikSg

k~¬geBlNakmõ¬Ca¨tèvlukluyedayevotmij.

shrd½Gaemrik,

edaycg'eKarBJk´

sn´arbs' Gg'tUnI eGEdn eTA CU eGnLay (EdlfanwgminnSkmõ¬CacUlk~¬gsmõnìPaBeyaFa CamYy

mhaGMNacxaglicNamYy), eqÂIyedaymin¨Bmsn´aGÃIeLIy.

ebIeKeCOtamG~kniBnì rUeh§sµif (\neyaVye¨kA¨beTs«nkmõ¬Ca|) EdlnSJk´sMdé «nG~k

TTYlxus¨tèvExµrk~¬gsm&yenaH, ¨beTskmõ¬Ca VnsuMcUlsmõnìPaB esGatU Edr EdleKkMBugEterob cMk~¬geBlenaH. tamG~kniBnìdEdl, rd½elxaFikar ebEdl sµif min¨BmTTYlebkÅPaBExµreday

sMGagfa mincg'bMJrbMJnelIkicͨBme¨Bogh§WENv, bu"En‘ suM[kmõ¬CaTukcit‘faxÂçnnwgenAe¨kammÂb'

\karJr| rbs' esGatU enH. «f© 8 kJïa 1954 enA¨kugm"anil, shrd½Gaemrik, Gg'eKÂs, VrSg,

GU¨s¶alI, nUEvleh§Lg', hÃßélIBIn, V"KIs‘g' nig «f cuHhtÄelxabegûétGgðkar«nsnìisJïa«nGasuI

PaKGeK~y_ (esGatU). dUcEdlVnsn´a, smõnìPaBswkenH dak'kmõ¬Cak~¬g \«pækarJr| rbs'xÂçnEdr. bu"En‘¨beTskmõ¬Ca edayBuMsUvTukcit‘elIkicÍ \karJr| enH, k*rkt¨mg'neyaVye¨kA¨beTsxÂçn eTA

TisfµéeTot.

CaelIkTImYy, enAExv^cÏika 1954, ¨BHecAsIhnubJØa[eXasnaGMBIEx§neyaVy \GB´a-

¨kwty"aghµt'ct'| mYy, e¨kayeBl¨tLb'mkBITs§nkicÍenA¨beTsPUma«nelak GUß nU. e¨kaybn‘ic mk elak enru mkeFÃITs§nkicÍäP~MeBj. KWk~¬geBlenaHehIy Edl¨BHVTsIhnuTTYlemeronTImYy

xagneyaVy \mincUlbk§xagNa| BIbNëit enru, ehIyecaTsmõnìPaB esGatU fanSmkEtbriya-

kasGsn‘isuxEdlpæ¬ynwgcMNg'sn‘iPaB EdlmhaGMNacVnkMNt'ehIy enAh§·ENv. «f© 2 mIna

1955, sem¶csIhnu dak'raC´[ÒBuk, sem¶cnerat¶m sura¨mwt. 3-4 GaTit´e¨kaymk sIhnusg

Ts§nkicÍdl' enru ä¨beTs²Nëa. CamYyrd½mån‘ITImYy²Nëa sem¶cÓbyuvraCsem¸aFcMNgeCég

neyaVy \bJÍsIla| eKalKMnitTSg¨VM«n \karrs'enACamYyK~aedaysn‘iPaB|!

enAExemsa 1955 sn~isITenAVn'Dug cab'eFÃIeLIg. CU eGnLay eq¿t{kasBIkicÍsnænaCa

äkCnCamYysIhnu edémºIvaysMrukxagpÂèvTUt. k~¬gkarCECkK~aenaH rd½mån‘ITImYycin es~IGMBIerOgkmõ¬Ca

suMC÷nYyswkBIshrd½Gaemrik. k~¬gerOgenH sIhnubJØak'eTA CU eGnLay fanwgminmanmUld½anT&B

GaemrikSgenAkmõ¬CaeLIy, ehIykmõ¬CanwgminsuM[ esGatU karJreT. eCOEmnETn, CU eGnLay ¨Vb'sem¶csIhnu[uTukcit‘fa

cinnwgmine¨C¿tE¨Ckk~¬gerOg«pæk~¬g«nkmõ¬CaeLIy.

«f©

16

ÓsPa

1955, kmõ¬Canigshrd½Gaemrik cuHhtÄelxaGMBIC÷nYyxagpÂèvT&B. bnæab'mk ebskkmµeyaFaGaemri-


129 kSgmYy (MAAG) k*mktSgTIäP~MeBj. «f© 11 kJïa kareVHeq~at[C&yC÷nHeTA KNbk§sgðm

raås¶niym.

Gs'kgÃl'BITMnas'xagk~¬g,

dUry"agrh&snUvneyaVye¨kA¨beTs

eCOCak'fa

GMNacnwgenAEtk~¬g«dxÂçnm~ak',

sem¶csIhnu

karN_EdlnwgeFÃI[GaemrikSgmineBjcit‘y"agxÂSg.

enAEx

kum¸: 1956, tbnwgesck¶IGeJØIjrbs' ¨bFanaFibtIhÃßélIBIn m"ak' saysay, sIhnueFÃITs§nkicÍ

CapÂèvkarenA¨kugm"anil. enATIenaH, ehtuEdleFÃI[eKPÆak'epíél¨Kb'K~a, naykrd½mån‘IExµr (kalenaHmin

Tan'tSgxÂçnCa¨bmuxrd½enAeLIy) EfÂgkarN_fa kmõ¬Ca²t¨tèvkarkicÍkarJr«n esGatU eT. «f© 13 Ex dEdl

sem¶ceFÃITs§nkicÍCapÂèvkarTImYyenA¨beTscin

EdlenATIenaH¨bFanem"AVnTTYl.

eb"kSg, Cafµém¶geTot, sIhnu Tat'ecalkicÍkarJr esGatU. edayq©l'nwg¨btikmµsem¶csIhnu,

enA

rd½

elxaFikar hÃsEsær dlÂws epÆélixitmYymkrd½månI‘karbreTsExµr tamry:elak ng KimnI, raCTUt

elIkd÷bUgenA¨bcS sùrùGaù, lixitcuH«f© 19 emsa ehIyEdlkardk¨sg'mandUcteTA Ð

\elakrd½mån‘I, xƬMmanesck¶IVrm¸edayd·gfa esck¶IEfÂgkarN_k~¬geBlfµé@ enH EdlecjBI

mCÎd½anep§g@ VneFÃI[¾kan'EtxÂSgfa shrd½Gaemrikbu"nb"gbgÅ÷¨beTskmõ¬Ca [cUlk~¬gsmõnìPaB

esGatU ebImin¨Bm nwgQb'VnC÷nYyesd½kicÍ, ehIyfa shrd½GaemrikVnbgÅ÷¨beTs evotNam

nig «f Camit‘nig¨bkbedayäkraC´ [cat'v^FankarCasågðamesd½kicÍTl'nwgkmõ¬Ca k~¬geKalbMNg dUcVn¾mkehIyenH.

\enA«f© 2 emsa rd½TUtGaemrikSg VnfÃayd÷NwgCapÂèvkardl'¨BHmhak§¨tiy_ TSgBIrGgð«n

kmõ¬Cafa shrd½GaemrikBuMEdlVnEfÂgCapÂèvkar nigCasaFarN:k~¬geBlNam¶geLIy nUvkaryl'

eXIjrbs'xÂçnelIneyaVye¨kA¨beTs«nkmõ¬Ca. neyaVyshrd½Gaemrikk~¬gkmõ¬Ca ykmUld½an

elIbTbJØamYyy"agxÂI Ð shrd½Gaemrik, tamry:kmµv^FIC÷nYy eyaFanigesd½kicÍ rbs'xÂçnrkCYydl' rd½aPiVlExµr k~¬gkar¨bwgE¨bgCaGlCéØ edémºIrk§aTukäkraC´ GFibtI «nraCaNac¨k. C÷nYyenHVn

¨tèvp¶l' EttamcMNg'«nraCrd½aPiVlExµreT EdlVnsuMCapÂèvkarnUvC÷nYyeyaFa k~¬g«f© 20 ÓsPa 1954 nig C÷nYyeyaFapg C÷nYyesd½kicÍpg enA«f© 1 kJïa 1954. \eTaHbI

shrd½GaemrikeC¯fa

e¨KaHf~ak'«nkarQÂanJnkumµ¬ynis‘

¨bCaCatiesrITSgLayGacTb'Tl'Vny"ag¨bt´k§Cag

tamry:kicÍkarJrrYmK~a,

¨beTsxÂHcUlcit‘mincUlrYmk~¬gkicÍerobcMsn¶isuxtamPUmiPaK

nig

k*neyaVyGaemrikSgTTYlsðal'fa

fÃétºitEt¨beTsTSgenaHVnse¨mccit‘

karJrxÂçn Tl'nwgkarQÂanJn Év^Tìg§na elIäkraC´xÂçn. kare¨CéserIsenH eyIgeKarB. shrd½Ga-

emrik minrkcMNg«nkarkarJrK~aeTAv^jeTAmk CamYy¨beTsNaeLIy ebI¨beTsenHmineC¯fa äk

raC´xÂçnnwg¨sYlrk§aTukCag edayGnuvt‘n_eKalKMnit«nsn‘isuxrYmenH|. (k~¬g \¨Bwti‘b&¨t«n¨ksYgkar breTsGaemrikSg|, 30 emsa 1956, TMB&r 727)

enAExmifuna 1956 kmõ¬Canigcin cuHkicͨBme¨BogTImYyxagJNiCØkmµ nigelIC÷nYymYyman

t«m 22 lan 4 EsndulÂar. «f© 27 v^ciÏka q~SdEdl CU eGnLay mkeFÃITs§nkicÍenAkmõ¬Ca, EdlCa

Ts§nkicÍTImYy«n G~kmuxG~kkarcinkumµ¬ynIs‘. k~¬g{kasenaH CU eGnLay Vn¨bkasdl'GaNik

CncinEdlrs'enAk~¬gkmõ¬Ca [bJÍèlxÂçnk~¬gsgðmExµr ehIyeKarBcºab'«n¨beTsExµr.

Exmifuna 1958 kgvresnatUcyYnxagtºègBIrkg rbs' ega" Dineyom cUlrMelaPk~¬gext‘sæwg

E¨tg ehIybgÅ^tbegðal¨BMEdn. sem¶csIhnu ehAshrd½Gaemrik[eFÃIGn‘raKmn_. mYyExbnæab'BI


130 Óbºti‘ehtuenH ¨beTskmõ¬CaTTYlsðal'tampÂèvcºab'dl' saFarNrd½cin¨bCamanit ehIyb¶èrrd½TUt

K~a. kicÍTak'TgCapÂèvTUtCamYycinenH VneFÃI[GaemrikSgPÆak'CaxÂSg eday²tVnd·gmuneLIy. va"

sIugetan ehArd½TUtxÂçn (xlås‘¬m) eTAsYrBie¨KaH. edaysMKal'kayv^karsem¶csIhnu Cakarrk

erOg, shrd½GaemrikerobcMKMeragkarN_edémºITmÂak'sIhnu (VnCamankarkºt'rbs' dab QYn mYyq~S

bnæab'mk). 2 Exe¨kaykarTTYlsðal'enH enAk~¬gmhasn~iVtTI 13 «nGgðkarsh¨bCaCati, kmõ¬Ca

KS¨Tkarrt'kicÍkar edémºI[cincUlk~¬g Gùsùbù. b"uEn‘ kicÍTak'TgCaelIkd÷bUgrvagExµrnigcinenH BuMEmn

VneFÃIeTAedaylí²texÍaHeT. dUec~HEmn, bnæab'BIkarb¶èrrd½TUtrvag¨beTsTSgBIrmk, ebskkmµesd½kicÍcinmYymktSgTIenAP~MeBj.

KN:ebskkmµenH

CYyCa¨Vk'kasdl'sarBtámanxageqÃgxÂH

ehIykan'kab'salacinenA¨sukExµr. BIrq~Se¨kaymk, 1960, CnCaticinCae¨cInnak' Vn¨tèvcab'

edayGaCÆaFrExµr e¨JHskmµPaBv^Tìg§na. enAExÓsPa, k~¬g{kasTs§nkicÍTIBIrrbs' CU eGnLay,

cin¨bmaN 60 nak'Vn¨tèvcab'bJØèneTA¨beTscinv^j. bnæab'BIÓbºti‘ehtuTSgenH ¨beTscinBinit´

eLIgCafµé nUvneyaVyxÂçncMeJHkmõ¬Ca.

enAExF~è 1960 lIv cavCé eFÃITs§nkicÍenAkmõ¬Ca EdlenATIenaH ¨bFanaFibtIcincuHsnìisJïa

mYyelImit‘PaBnigelIkarminQÂanJn CamYyraCrd½aPiVl. smaKmmYyeQµaH \smaKmmit‘PaB cin - Exµr| Vn¨tèvbegûéteLIg ehIyEdltSgTIs~ak'karenA¨kugeb"kSg (KWk~¬gq~S 1960 enaHehIy

Edl, tamsMdé bu"l-Bt enAeb"kSgk~¬geBlfµé@ enH, KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘ExµrVnekIteLIg). tbKuN

nwgneyaVycinEdl \KS¨Teday²tlkÅx&Në | nigEdl \mine¨CotE¨Ck|, kmõ¬Ca tMrg'xÂçntamEx§ neyaVye¨kA¨beTsrbs'cin

(k~¬geBlEdlevotNamxageCég,

fÃétºitEtxÂçns~iTìNas'CamYycin

kalsm&yenaH, VnmanneyaVy¨by&t~Cag!). enAExkJïa 1962 raCrd½aPiVlExµrTTYlsðal'

¨beTs Gal'VnI (mYyq~Se¨kaymk, enAExtula 1963, kmõ¬CanigGal'VnI dak'karse¨mccit‘mYy

enA Gùsùbù edémºIedj«tva"n'ecj ehIyTTYlcin¨bCamanitv^j k~¬gmhasn~iVt). enAExF~è 1962, k~¬gsn~isITenAkUL¬MbU EdlenruVnekaHehA edémºIedaH¨sayTMnas'¨BMEdncin-²Nëa, sIhnu erIsyk karccarpæal'rvagKUv^vaTTSgBIr ehIyTat'ecalesck¶Ies~I«neGh§Ib Edlcg'[begûétmNël²tT&B

mYy —karedaH¨sayEdlcinnwgminTTYleLIy. enAExtula 1964, eBlEdlcinBiesaF¨Kab'Ebk

brmaNUTImYyrbs'xÂçn, sem¶csIhnu Ca¨bmuxrd½Etm~ak'ägKt' EdlVnepÆésMbu¨tKS¨TeTAcin, k~¬g eBlEdl¨beTs«nb¬ksgðmniym karminyl'Tas'rbs'xÂçnùùùù

—yYnxageCégk*Edr— Vn¨bkan'karenAs©at'es©¿m CasJïa«n

sIhnu e¨bIkarC^ts~iTìCamYycinenH edémºIkMcat'BYkxageqÃgEdr EdlenAEtxÂSg. enAedémq~S

1962, smaC^k 15 nak'«nKNbk§¨bCaCn (enAk~¬genaHman ng-sYn GKðelxaFikar) Vn¨tèvcab' XuMXSg. CakarN_Fmµta neyaVysIhnuenH begûItkMhwgGaemrikSgEdlBn´¬HedaycM ÉmincM dl'

rNbxÂçnTSgBIr

sIhnueTot).

(esom

nig

yYn)

[bgûÓbºti‘ehtutam¨BMEdn

(enHebIminniyayBIkarrksmÂab'

tSgBIeBlEdlsn~isITenAh§WENvGMBI¨beTslavk~¬gq~S

1962

Vncab'eFÃIeLIg,

sem¶csIhnusMu[mhaGMNacnigrNbrbs'xÂçn B¨gékkarCECkdl'kmõ¬Ca edémºIedaH¨say[Gs'Et

m¶g nUvcMeNaT¨BMEdnrvagkmõ¬CanigG~kC^txag. ¨bFanaFibtI ekNWöDI ¨bEkkedayKYrsmtamsMbu¨t mYycuH«f© 31 sIha 1962. cMENkä ega" Dineyom Tat'ecalsMeNIenHy"agdac'Ghgûar ehIy


131 TamTar[mankar¨tçt¨ta¨BMEdnCaeTÃPaKI

(eyom

ecaTkmõ¬Cafa[C÷rkdl'eyokkug).

¨beTs«f,

kMBugEteBjCemÂaHerOg¨BHv^har, xæb'¨tecokeFÃIfÂg' CakarN_Fmµta. rIä¨beTscinv^j KS¨TTSg¨sug

nUvsMeNIrExµr!

enAExÓsPa 1963

(R)

lIv cavCé mkTs§nakmõ¬Cam¶geTotCaelIkTI2. muneBlKat'mkdl'

bn‘ic, evotNamxageCég EdlVnTamTarykekaHExµrdUcyYnxagtºègEdr kalBIq~S 1962, dkkar

TamTarxÂçneTAv^j. Exv^cÏika 1963, GaemrikSg[sÄanIyv^T´¬p§aysemÂgmYy eTABYkExµresrI. tbnwg

GMeBIenH, sIhnuedjKN:ebskkmµC÷nYyGaemrikSgecj. mYyExe¨kaymk, enAExF~è, kmõ¬Canigcin

cuHkicͨBme¨BogelIkTImYy

xagC÷nYyeyaFa.

enAelI«pæk~¬g

sem¶csIhnukan'EtrujeTAmuxxÂSg

nUvEpnkar \sgðmkmµ| edayykC÷nYjnScUl-d·kecj mk[CatieFÃI (GahrN_-nIhrN_).

ExsIha 1964, Óbºti‘ehtu«nQUgsmu¨Ttugkwg [sJïa«nkarcab'ep¶émsågðamTI2«n²Nëècin

(karVj'navaBiXad \ma"d'duk§| [elseTAGaemrikSg edémºITMlak'¨Kab'EbkelIhaNUy). karekIn

kMritsågðam«nGaemrikSg eFÃI[yYnxagtºègkan'EtekagkaceLIg. mYyGenÂIeTot kmõ¬CaVnp¶ac'cMNg TUtCamYy¨beTsenH tSgBIExsIha 1963 mkehIy (ega" Dineyom Vn¨tèveKrMlMenA«f© 1 v^cÏika).

cab'tSgBIExkum¸: 1964, bnæab'BIVnecaTkmõ¬Cafa d·kGavuF[eyokkug, GaCÆaFryYnxagtºèg bJØa[

kgTahanxÂçnedjtamevotkugk~¬gTwkdéExµr.

karrMelaPelI¨BMEdnenH

eFÃI[sÂab'nigrbYsdl'Exµr²t

eTas Cae¨cInnak'. kmõ¬Ca ecaTshrd½Gaemrikfa TajEx§jak'karvaycUlTSgenH. bN¶wgmYyVn

¨tèvdak'enA ¨kum¨bwk§asn‘isux«nGgðkarsh¨bCaCati EdlbJØènKN:kmµkaresIubGegûtmYymk bu"En‘

²tVnkarGÃIeLIy. cMENkxagKN:kmµkarGn‘rCatixagkicͨtçt¨tav^j (esùGIuùesù) ¨bEkkmin¨Bm

eFÃIGaCÆakN¶al tamsemÂgmin¨Bmdak'Ghgûa (véto) «n¨btiPUkaNada EdlsMGagfa erOgenHecj

BIsmtÄkicÍKN:kmµakar (esùGIuùesù Vn¨tèvbJÎb'eday²tmankMNt'«f©-Ex sine die

edaysem¶c

sIhnu enAd÷Nac'q~S 1969). karminsUv¨tèvK~arvagExµrnigGaemrikSg mankan'EtxÂSgeLIg ¨sbK~a

nwgkarrMelaP¨BMEdnedayyYnxagtºèg. rd½aPiVlTSgBIr¨Bmcab'eFÃIkarccaredémºIrkkaredaH¨say«n

cMeNaTenH. «f© 8 F~è 1964 enA¨kugjèvEdlI, elak sWn-san CYb¨V¨s&ynwgrd½TUtGaemrikSg

bunsal. GaemrikSgxMjat' \¨tecok| G~kTTYlxus¨tèvExµrfa shrd½Gaemrik²tmanmeF´aVyGÃI edémºIbgÅ^tbgÅ÷GaCÆaFryYnVneT cMeJHGaCÆaFresomk*Edr!

mYycMENkeTot TMnas'cin-sUevot Edlkan'EtxÂSgeLIgerogral'q~S k*C¨muH²TìiBlmkelI

²NìècinEdr. TMnas'eTÃPaKIrvag shrd½Gaemrik nigb¬kcin-sUevot VnkÂaybn‘icm¶g@ Cakar¨bECg

¨tIPaKI.

edayrkkar¨tèvr"UvK~aBuMVnCamYy

smõnìPaBGaemrik-yYnxagtºèg-esom,

sem¶csIhnu,

eday \cak'| elIbraC&yGaemrikSg, rkccarCamYysmõnìPaBmÅageTot (rNsir§eyokkug, yYnxag

eCég, V"eftLav nigrNsir§es~haCati«f) elI \karTTYlsðal'¨BMEdnkmõ¬Ca| (!). elIbJúaenH

sem¶csIhnuVneFÃIkMhusmYyFMNas' GMBIneyaVye¨kA¨beTs e¨JHfa KW ¨bmuxrd½ExµrEtm¶gEdl

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (R)-

ebIeKeCOtamd÷NwgEdlbegúébeday bu"l-Bt enAeb"kSgk~¬geBlfµé@enH, KWk~¬gq~S 1963 Edl sIhnu, k~¬glºicmYy edémºI

bgíab'BYkxageqÃg, ehABYkeqÃg 34 nak'EdlnKrVlsðal' [mkcUlrYmk~¬graCrd½aPiVl. bkE¨b \karGeJØIj| enH mkCa sJïa«nkarcab'ep¶émbågûabmYyfµéeTot, bu"l-Bt (saL¬t-sr) e¨CéserIsykpÂèvEdlnSeTA«¨B.


132 VnbegûétbJúa \¨BMEdnEdleKTTYlsðal'| enH ehIyesIybgúajeTAG~kC^txag nUvcMNucex§ay«n

¨beTs Ð karKµansmtÄPaB nig karKµancMNg'karJr[xagEtVnnUv¨BMEdnxÂçn! eyIgnwgeXIj k~¬geBlbn‘iceTotenH nUvrebobyYne¨bI¨Vs'PaBex§ayrbs'Exµr.

enAExkJïa 1964 k~¬geBleFÃITs§nkicÍenAeb"kSg, sem¶csIhnu, CamYykarCYyxÃayxÃl'«n

rd½aPiVlcin, CYbd÷Nag«nevotNamxageCég, «nrNsir§eyokkug(R) nig«nV"eftLav. esck¶IEfÂg karN_bJÍb'Edl lIv cavCé GanenA«f© 5 tula eFÃI[eLIgTwkcit‘Nas' Ð \eBlNamankarQÂanJn

tamkgT&B ¨beTskmõ¬CaGacrg'cSTTYlkarKS¨Ty"ageBjkmÂSg«n¨bCaCncin|. bu"En‘ lTìpl«nkicÍ

snænaCamYytMNagkumµ¬ynIs‘TSgLay«n²Nëècin

minsUvCa«fÂfÂaeT.

BYkTSgenHyl'¨Bm¨Kb'K~a

TTYlsðal'nigeKarBtammat' nUv¨BMEdnExµr, bu"En¶TSgGs'K~a ¨bEkkmin¨BmcuHhtÄelxaCalayl&kÅ Gk§reLIy! (karCECkK~a«nG~kTTYlxus¨tèvVnbn‘eTAeTot enAExv^cÏika nigenAExmkra 1965 e¨kam EP~kd*Tn'«n ecn-yI rd½mån‘IkarbreTscin). CaelIkd÷bUgbgís' sem¶csIhnud·gxÂçnfa Vn[t«mÂ

hYseBk dl'²TìiBlcinelIBYkkumµ¬ynis‘yYn ²TìiBlEdlrhUtmkdl'eBlenH, BitehIy, Vn bgúaj¨bsiTìPaBBIrdg Ð enAq~S 1954 k~¬gsn~isITenAh§WENv nigenAExÓsPa 1963 eBlEdl evotNamxageCégTamTarykekaHExµr.

eBl¨tLb'mkP~MeBjv^j sem¶csIhnu, edaycg'd·g¨btikmµcin, EfÂgsunærkfamYyenA«f© 8

tulafa karxitxMeFÃI[G~kd·knScin¨BmcuHsnìisJïakarJrK~aeTAv^jeTAmk

minVnsMerceLIy cin

sMGagfa¨beTskmõ¬Ca minenAk~¬gb¬ksgðmniymdUc¨beTsyYnxageCég. bu"En‘¨beTscin, sIhnubn‘

eTAeTot, sn´atammat' fanwgeFÃIdUcxÂçnVneFÃIenAkUer" (KWbJØènT&Bcinmk) eBlNakmõ¬Ca¨tèvQÂanJn edayshrd½Gaemriknigbrivar.

3-4

«f©e¨kaymk

sem¶csIhnuBenÂIsTMhM«nC÷nYycinmkkmõ¬Ca

edayEfÂgkarN_fa cinVnsn´a[mkExµrnUvGakasyanFun mic-19! ¨TSElgVn eb"kSgbJØèn

esna¨bmux ecn-yI mkkmõ¬Ca enAExv^cÏika edémºIEkt¨mèveLIgv^j. k~¬g{kasenaH Ót¶mesnIy_ ln'-

nl', edaycg'd·gEdrfa rhUtdl'kMrwtNa kmõ¬CaGacsgôwmelIC÷nYycin, niyayeTA ecn-yI fa Ð

\¨beTscin nig¨bCaCncin enAeBlfµé@enH (edogeTA esck¶IEfÂgkarN_bJÍb'«n lIv cavCé enA«f© 5 tula) VnbJØak'¨Vb'eyIgm¶geTotfa ebIBYkc¨kBt‘iniymeFÃIkicÍyayIxÂSgdl'TwkdéeyIg ¨beTscin

nig¨bCaCncinnwgKS¨TeyIgeday²tlkÅx&Në|. ecn-yI bJØak'sarCafµédl'Ót¶mesnIy_ ln'-nl'

nUv \karKS¨Ty"ageBjkmÂSg«n¨bCaCncin| bu"En‘bEnÄmfa \k~¬gkartyuTìd*¨twm¨tèv «nrd½aPiVlnig«n ¨bCaCnExµr edémºIkarJrGFibtIPaB nigbUrNPaBTwkdéùùùù ¨beTscineCOfa ¨beTskmõ¬Ca, CamYy¨b-

muxrd½d*kÂahanrbs'xÂçn, KMnitCatiniymrbs'xÂçn nig äkPaBrbs'xÂçn GacQ~Hs¨tèvTSgGs'edaye¨bI

kmÂSgxÂçnpæal'\. (k~¬g \TIP~ak'garBtámancinfµé| v^cÏika 1964).

sem¶csIhnu nig Ót¶mesnIy_ ln'-nl' yl'cºas'fa ecn-yI cg'niyayy"agem¶c. eTaH

y"agenHk*eday sIhnuk*enAEtEpíkxÂçnelIcin ehIyenAEtcecsTar karFanaCalayl&kÅGk§rBIBYk

mhaGMNac

elIkarTTYlsðal'¨BMEdn«nkmõ¬Ca.

enAExkum¸:

sn~isITmYy «n¨bCaCn²Nëècin eFÃIeLIgenATI¨kugP~MeBj.

1965,

e¨kamkarcat'Ecg«nkmõ¬Ca,

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (R)- rNsir§CatirMedaHevotNamxagtºèg (FNL) Vn¨tèvbegûétenA«f© 20 F~è 1960 edayman egÿg hUßfU Ca¨bFan.


133

TMB&rPØab' 2

viPaKcuge¨kay CamYykarEccUv

Exµrfµé¨tèvmanTSgBut manTSgkºçn.

rhUtmkdl'Exmkra 1978 —eBlEdlBiPBelakd·gfa Exµr¨khmnigyYn¨khm cºSgK~a

y"agxÂSg— kmõ¬Ca¨bCaFibety´ VnsMg÷lak'xÂçny"ages©¿m. ExµrG~kePosxÂçnrab'mWunnak' niyay¨tèv

K~aTSgGs'fa ¨bCaCnkmõ¬Cakan'EtesµIK~aehIy bu"En‘cMnYnk*kan'EtcuHfyeTAEdr. rIäkareXasnaCapÂèv karv^j ¨bkaseCaKC&y¨Kb'C÷BUk «nmhabd^vt‘n_d*mhaelatepÂaH mhaGsÍar´. BiPBelakVneXIjkarN_Bit cab'BIExmkra 1979 mk.

teTAenH eyIgnSK~aBinit´erOgehtuTSgLay EdlVnekIteLIge¨kayExkJïa 1977 mk KW

eBlEdl bu"l-Bt eTATs§na¨beTscin¨bCamanit ehIyVneFÃI[eKd·gfa \Ggðkar| enA¨sukExµr KW KNbk§kumµ¬ynis‘Exµr EdleKbegûéteLIg \tSgBIq~S 1960| mk.

1977 tula :

eLIy.

munnwgecjBIeb"kSgenA«f©TI 4, bu"l Bt ¨Vb'G~keFÃIsm¸asn_fa \¨kumcarkmµxµSg Edl

lak'xÂçnk~¬g¨beTseyIg mansPaBsíit ehIyBiVkrMelIgNas'|. bu"l-Bt Vn

eK¾fa

niyay bJÏwtbeJÏ¿gBI \Óbºti‘ehtuCae¨cIntam¨BMEdn|. sem¶csIhnu

rs'enACamYyG~km~agC^t¨kugP~MeBj

bu"En‘minGacG~kNaeTACYbVn

¨beTskmõ¬Ca VnsgbMNulrbs'xÂçn eTAGgðkarsh¨bCaCati (37 Jn'dulÂar É 180 Jn'

¨hÃg') ehIyk*GaceVHeq~atk~¬gmhasn~iVtTSgLay. k~¬gsarBtáman LWmu"g (Le

Monde)

«f© 6 Ð haNUyVn¨bkasBIrdgeTAP~MeBjnUvesck¶ImYy

EdleKGacfaCa kar¨Bmank*Vn faCakarehA[ccark*Vn. mankarbgúèrQamxÂHtam¨BMEdn kal BIExsIha.

«f© 7 Ð ¨ksYgBiessGaemrikSg niyayGMBIkar¨byuTìK~atam¨BMEdnExµr-yYn k~¬gd÷Nac'Ex

kJïa. yYnVne¨bIäkPaB EdlmkBIkgBlFMCae¨cIn nig e¨bIyn‘ehaH¨bedj-TMlak'¨Kab'Ebk

edémºIvayExµr¨khm EdlcUleTAk~¬gext‘ taynij (eragd÷rI).


134 karmkdl'y"age¨cIn «nG~kePosxÂçntamsmu¨T eFÃI[¨beTs«fVrm¸. k~¬gsmu¨TmankV"l'

C÷nYjCae¨cén Edlmin¨BmCYy¨sg'G~kePosxÂçn.

sarBtáman LWmu"g «f© 14 Ð eXIjdUcCamankarFUr¨san‘ rvag ²Nëècin nig ¨beTsmin

kumµ¬ynis‘TSgLay «nGasIuPaKGeK~y_.

kaEst LWmu"g «f©18 Ð tam¨bPBTUtenAhaNUy ExµrePosxÂçnenAevotNamman 60 000nak'

ehIye¨cInenACu÷v^j«¨BnKr nig tamext‘Cab'¨BMEdn.

«f© 20 Ð kgT&B«feLIgkan'GMNac ehIyTMlak'rd½aPiVl fanin«¨kv^Can. eQµaHBIrelc

ecjmk Ð Ót¶mesnIy_ e¨KOgsak' cmannæ nig Ót¶mesnIy_ saga"t celayU.

kaEst LWmu"g «f© 22 Ð yYnrab'rynak' Vn¨tèvsmÂab'edayExµr¨khm enAedémq~SenH. Exµr

¨khmVnvayPUmi¨bmaN 40 C^t taynij (eragd÷rI) nig cUduk (mat'¨Cèk). v^cÏika :

v^Fankar«f

edémºI¨tçtBinit´karcUlmk«nCnePosxÂçn

cMeJHCnePosxÂçn«n Gùsùbù.

eFÃI[Vrm¸dl'GKðs~gkard½an

«f© 11 Ð kmõ¬Ca dak'kMhuselI«f GMBIÓbºti‘ehtutam¨BMEdn (Exµr-«f) ehIyes~IkarCECkK~aeTÃ

PaKI. k~¬gq~SenH Óbºti‘ehtu¨bmaN 400 VnekItmaneLIg. Ót¶mesnIy_ e¨KOgsak' cmannæ Vn

¨tèvEtgtSgCard½mån‘ITImYy.

sÄanTUtGUås¶alIenA¨kugV"rIs ¨Vb'[d·gfa CnePosxÂçnmkBI²Nëècin mancMnYn 4 320 nak'

enAGUås‘alI. ¨beTsVrSg VnTTYl 40 000 nak' k~¬gGML¬g 2 q~SknÂH. shrd½Gaemrik VnTTYl 200 000 nak'.

elak env^n ¨bFanaFibtIPUma Ts§nakmõ¬Ca BI«f© 27 eTA 29. KWCa¨bmuxrd½breTsTI1 Edl

mkemIl¨sukExµr¨khm. ¨beTscin Vn[eyabl'eTAExµr¨khmfa ¨tèvecjBIPaBäekaGnafarbs'

xÂçn.

k~¬gkML¬gExv^cÏikaenH G~kePosxÂçntamsmu¨T 2 000 nak' Vnmkdl'¨beTsesom fÃédºitEt

manv^FankarxaXSg. F~è :

«f© 2 Ð Vgkk nig haNUy sMercfanwgb¶èrrd½TUtK~a. eKrkkarFUr¨san‘ kareFÃI[ TMnak'TMng manPaBFmµtaeLIgv^j.

«f© 31 Ð kardac'cMNgTUtrvag kmõ¬Ca nig evotNam. evotNam Cab'ecaTCaG~k

QÂanJn. P~MeBj E¨skefûaldl'karvaylukkmõ¬Ca edaykgBlFMyYnCae¨cIn.

1978 mkra :

sMnYrmYypæ¬HeLIgC÷uv^jBiPBelak Ð \sågðamTI 3 «n²Nëècin Vnpæ¬HehIyÉ?| \BYk kumµ¬ynIs‘cºSgK~aäg!| eK¾enAkEnÂgxÂHeTot. eb"kSgVneFÃIkare¨CéserIsehIy KWkan'

eCégxagExµr.


135 P~MeBjmin¨Bmccar

drabNamaneyaFayYnk~¬g¨sukExµr.

kar¨byuTìdUcCaenAEtk~¬gPUmiPaK

\cMBuHTa| sÃayerog. v^T´¬P~MeBjp§ayesck¶IsMbu¨tsem¶csIhnu eTA bu"l-Bt. Exµr¨khmGeJØIj

TUtmYycMnYn ¨bcS¨kugeb"kSg [eTATs§nakmõ¬Ca. P~MeBjefûal \PaBkMhUcKYr[hYscit‘| «n \BYk

lukluy|.

«f© 6 Ð P~MeBj¨bkas \C&yC÷nHeBjTI| EdleKBuMsUveCO enAbsÍwm¨beTs.

sarBtáman LWmug «f© 10 Ð evotNam rkbgÅ^txÂçnmkC^t¨beTs«nsmaKmGasßan. egÿg

Duy¨Tij rd½mån‘IkarbreTs nig y" dugy"ag Óbrd½mån‘I Ts§na¨beTsGasßan ehIyniyayfa cg'

ccar. ¨beh§h§wnsðI TI¨bwk§arbs'¨bFanaFibtI karETr xagerOgGn‘rCatifa cMVMgExµr-yYn Ca \ÓTahrN_TImYy «nsågðammincMeJHrvagcin nig shPaBsUevot|. kaEstdEdl «f© 12 Ð kar¨byuTìK~a dUcCaVnQb'ehIy.

«f© 15 Ð eGog-sarI ¨bkasfa kmõ¬Cacg' \rk§a nig karJr bUrNPaB siTìi nigpl¨beyaCn_

«nsmu¨TEdndérbs'xÂçn cm©ay 12 «m"l_ «nmNëlesd½kicÍp¶ac'muxrbs'xÂçn 200 «m"l_ nig«nVt smu¨Trbs'xÂçn.

haNUy nig P~MeBj dUcCaVnbJØènBlfµébEnÄm eTA¨BMEdneTotehIy. sunærkfa bu"l-Bt

«f© 17 Ð kgT&BVnTTYl \C&yC÷nHfµéeTot| edayVnkMcat'kgBlFMyYn 5. ¨beTslav¨bEkkfa

kgTahanyYn²tVnqÂgkat'TwkdélaveT

edémºIcUlvayExµr

ehIybJØak'm¶geTot

nUvGB´a¨kwtPaB

rbs'xÂçn k~¬gkarv^vaTenH. elak¨sI etg cav Priya CU eGnLay Ts§nakmõ¬Ca BIEf© 18.

kaEst LWmu"g «f© 26 Ð C÷hrrbs'haNUy nig P~MeBj enAEt²tp§Hp§aVn. G~ksarBtáman

Cae¨cIn TTYlsðal' edaymincM faTahanevotNamcUleTAk~¬g¨sukExµrEmn. kum¸: :

ral'Ex cMnYnG~kePosxÂçnBI²Nëècin EdlecjeTA¨beTsVrSg mancMnYn 1 000nak'.

«f© 2 Ð bnæab'BITs§nkicÍcMnYn 4 «f©enAkmõ¬Ca ÓbDwt bcÍarygðl rd½mån‘IkarbreTs«f

EfÂgfa Vgkk nig P~MeBj Vn¨Bme¨BogeFÃIkarb¶èrrd½TUtK~a.

sarBtáman LWmu"g «f© 4 Ð kar¨byuTì dUcCaVn¨tèvpíakmYyeBl bu"En‘mankareCrGae¨kas

K~aeTAv^jeTAmk. haNUyGMJvnavrkExµrC÷Tas'. k~¬gsm¸asn_CamYyTIP~ak'garevotNamp¶l'Btáman (GaùevùGIuù) enA«f© 26 mkra eQÂIysågðamm~ak'eQµaH jn sar"an' nayTahanrg niyayfa \xƬM¨Vf~a y"agek¿vkÂa [¨bCaCnExµrGacrs'enAk~¬gesrIPaBedayeBjelj e¨kamkard·knS«nGgðkarbd^vt‘n_ mYyd*PÂWsÃag nig yutu‘iFmá Edlrk§aTMnak'TMngd*C^ts~iTì CamYy¨beTsevotNam|!.

«f© 5 Ð haNUyes~IeTAP~MeBj nUvEpnkarmYyedémºI \edaH¨saycMeNaTerOg¨BMEdn|. G~k

sarBtáman V"¨TIs d·ebo Ð eKKYrsMKal'fa CaelIkTImYyEdlevotNames~I \karFana nigkar¨tYt Binit´Gn‘rCati|. rhUtmkdl'eBlenH evotNam EtgEtmin¨Bm[man Gn‘raKmn_ ÉkareFÃIGaCÆa kN¶al BIbreTseLIy. ¨beTscineFÃIkarvaysMrukpÂèvTUt. G~kd·knScin ecjeTAeFÃITs§nkicÍenA

¨beTsGasIuTSgLay.

y" yauMgsußg rd½TUtyYnenAV"rIs efûal \kareVssMGat«pæk~¬gya"gsahav| enAkmõ¬Ca.

ehIybgúajsMeNIevotNam GMBIEpnkareFÃI[mansn‘iPaB nig edaH¨saybJúa¨BMEdn.


136 «f©

8

Ð

P~MeBj

Tat'ecalsMeNIedaH¨sayerOg¨BMEdn

EdlxÂçn[eQµaHfaCa

\kay

v^kareXasna edémºIbMP&n‘mtiGn‘rCati| k~¬geBlEdlevotNam eFÃIkarvaysMrukfµéeTot edaye¨bIrf

e¨kaH nig yn‘ehaH cUlrhUtdl'cm©ayBI 4 eTA 7 Kùmù k~¬gTwkdéExµr.

«f© 9 Ð TIP~ak'garBtámancinfµé ecaTmU"sðèfaCa \edémehtu«nsÄanPaBtantwg| enA¨BMEdnkmõ¬Ca-

evotNam. v^man¨kwmLSg p¶næaeTasdl'neyaVyrbs'P~MeBj.

«f© 12 Ð v^T´¬Exµr¨khmsuM[ \bN¶aCnenAP~MeBj| karJrrd½FanI. G~ksegûtkarN_sYrfa enH

Cav^Fankarcit‘saås¶ ÉmYy Cad÷NwgfaTahanyYnC^tmkdl'P~MeBjehIy? enA«f© 13 v^T´¬dEdl

ecaTkarvaylukm¶geTotrbs'yYn k~¬gext‘sÃayerog nig rtnKIrI ehIyp§aycemÂIyrbs'eQÂIy sågðamm~ak' vresnIy_¨tI ¨twg yuSgehOg embJØakarrgvresnaFMelx 18 «nkgBlFMelx 9 Edl faxÂçnVnd·gtSgBIq~S 1972 nUvEpnkareFÃIshB&nì²Nëècin. kaEst

j"agdag

ep§geTot EdlGacksag|.

GgÃrP~MeBj[eqÂIytbnwgsMeNIsn‘iPaBrbs'yYn

ÉmYy

\cat'karGÃI

«f© 21 Ð evotNam¨Vb'cin[¨by&t~ edayecaTy"agcºas' fÃédº^tEtmincMeJH faTaj«dTaj

eCégP~MeBj. mina :

sarBtáman LWm"ug «f© 20 Ð tamG~kmuxkar¨ksYgkarbreTsExµr EdlVnTTYlG~k eqÂIyqÂg

TIP~ak'garBtámanyUehðasÂav

haNUy nUvkarccaredémºIbJÍb'karv^vaT.

tanyUK

P~MeBj¨Vf~acab'ep¶émeFÃICamYy

Exµr¨khmsmÂab'yYnrgðalenA haeTog (Jm). haNUy cab'erobcMkarvaysMruky"agFM Ð

kSePÂégFM rfe¨kaH nig kgp¶l'Ps¶¬PareLIgeTAkan'¨BMEdn.

«f© 22 Ð G~kebIkyn¶ehaHBIrnak' «nT&BGakasyYn cuHkV"l'ehaH edes-3 mYyenAswgúburI

ehIysuMsMctTMrSVnTTYl[cUlrs'enA BI¨beTsTI 3.

v^T´¬haNUyp§ayd÷Nwgfa sh¨KasäkCnTSgGs' ¨tèvVnrMlayecal k~¬gmYycMehog

xage¨kam «n¨beTsevotNam.

G~ksarBtámanbsÍwm¨beTsCae¨cIn VnTs§natMbn'¨BMEdn xag¨sukyYn. bu"En‘P~MeBj ebIk

TÃar¨beTs [eTAEtG~ksarBtáman yUehðasÂav.

«f© 30 Ð Ggðkar \Gn‘rCatielIkElgeTas| (Amnesty International) GMJvnavm¶geTot dl'rd½a

PiVlExµr GMBIkar¨bharCév^tminVc'kat'eTas EdlmanmktSgBIExemsa 1975.

bnæab'BIkarvaysMrukrbs'yYnenA ExF~è nig mkra CnePosxÂçnExµrenAevotNammancMnYn 2

Esn nak'. TSgs~gkard½an Gùsùbù cMeJHCnePosxÂçn TSg¨kumkakVT¨khm TSgmUlniFi Gùsùbù

seågðaHkumar ²tVn¨tèvevotNamehA[cUleTACYyG~kePosxÂçnExµrTSgenaHeT. Ót¶mesnIy_ e¨KOgsak' eFÃITs§nkicÍenAeb"kSg.

v^T´¬P~MeBj ¨Vb'GMBIkarebIkeLIgv^jnUvpÂèvGysµ&yyanP~MeBj-kMBg'esam EdlVn¨tèvxUc

xate¨JHyYn k¬~gext‘taEkv nigkMBt. KN:¨btiPU kmµkrpÂèvreTHePÂIgcinmYy¨kum Vnmkkmõ¬CatSgBI

edémExmIna.


137 emsa :

P~MeBj eFÃIkareVssMGat kMcat'BYkExµrlMeGogxagyYn. haNUy Gb'rMbgû¨kbx&Në

Exµrfµé@eTot Ð BYkeQÂIysågðam Vn¨tèveKEfTSB´aVl ehIyGb'rMeLIgv^j. G~k

kaEsteQµaH rU"Lg'-EB´r V"ra"gehða k~¬gsarBtáman LWmu"g «f© 1 Ð haNUy

minkMBugEtbegûét¨kbx&NëExµr edémºIC÷nYsBYkP~MeBjeTÉ?

v^T´¬P~MeBj ecaTfa kgTahanyYneFÃI¨btibti‘karpÂèveKak nigpÂèvTwk k~¬gext‘taEkv nigkMBt.

«f© 3 Ð v^T´¬haNUy CaPasaExµrcab'enAVgkk Ð \eyaFaExµrCaTI¨sLaj' enAk~¬gCYrrbs'G~k

mit‘G~kCae¨cInVnbEgÃrkSePÂIgmkVj'emrbs'xÂçnv^j. enHCasJïa«nkarPÆak'rlwkehIy|. \mit‘G~kCa e¨cInVnsÂab'y"agGasar²tkar k~¬gTMnas'erOg¨BMEdnrvag eyIgTSgBIr|. haNUy

p§ayCasaFarN:nUväksarBIr

mYyelITMnas'erOg¨BMEdn

\shB&nì²Nëècin CaerOgcas' EdleKePÂcVt'eTAehIy|.

mYyeTotGHGagfa

v^T´¬P~MeBj ecaThaNUyfa VnmkyayICafµéeTot.

enAV"rIs G~kkarTUtyYnm~ak'eFÃIsni~sITBtáman Ð evotNam mancMNg'rkedaH¨saytamkicÍ

ccar ehIyecaTCafµéeTotdl' GMeBIyg'X~g«nG~kd·knSenAP~MeBj.

«f© 13 Ð tamry: v^T´¬P~MeBj bu"l-Bt eFÃIkar \GMJvnavdl' rd½aPiVl nig ¨bCaCnevot

Nam [TTYlmit‘PaBd*rak'Tak'«n¨bCaCnkmõ¬Ca nwgedémºI[TMnak'TMng rvagrd½aPiVlTSgBIr Vnlí eLIgv^j|.

«f© 14 Ð saFarNCnenAyUehðasÂavé eXIj¨sukExµrelIpæSgTUrTs§n_ Ð TI¨kugEdls©at'Qwg

KµanCév^t nig bN¶aCn-G~keTas-KUlI k~¬gkard½an.

G~kkaEstsußyEGd niyayBIÓbºti‘ehturvagTahanyYn nigTahancin enA¨BMEdn yYn-cin. semÂg¨beTskmõ¬Ca Ð ¨ksYgsm©at'yYn CYlBYk¨sIeBs´a[mkesIubkarN_enA¨sukExµr.

¨bFanaFibtI karETr GMJvnavdl' \¨bCaCatiTSgGs'| [p¶næaeTasdl'karrMelaPsiTìimnus§

enAkmõ¬Ca.

«f© 23 Ð enA¨kug GUsÂè

¨beTsn&rEv"s_ maneFÃIeLIgnUv kars¶ab'skÅIPaBGMBI¨beTskmõ¬Ca.

Ggð¨bCu÷VnTTYlsðal'fa Exµr¨khmVneFÃI[sÂab'CnanuCnExµrknÂHlannak'.

CnCatiGaemrikSg 4 nak' Edlkan'lTìikumµ¬ynis¶em"Aniym Ts§nakmõ¬Ca.

G~kkaEstyUehðasÂavm~ak'

EdleTIbnwgmkBIkmõ¬Ca

kt'sMKal'fa

k~¬gäksarCapÂèvkarTSg

Lay Exµr¨khmniyayEtBIBYk \ksikr| \kmµkr| nig \G~keFÃIkaräeTot| bu"En‘²tmanniyayBIBYk \bJïav&n‘ eCOnelOn| eT (Intelligentsia progressiste) .

eb"kSg eFÃIkar¨BmanmYyeTAhaNUy GMBIkarmkdl'y"age¨cIn«nCnCaticin EdlFÂab'rs'enA

䫨BnKr e¨JHkarlb'bMVt'sh¨KasäkCn. ÓsPa :

kmõ¬Ca rkTajxÂçnecjBIPaBäekaGnafapÂèvTUt. eGog-sarI ¨Vb'BYkem"AniymGaemrikSg Ð \¨bCaCnkmõ¬Ca¨Vf~a cgsõanmanem¨tICamYy¨bCaCnGaemrikSg|.

eb"kSg cg'Vnsm¸ar:swkBI VrSg nig Gg'eKÂs.


138 k~¬gsarBtáman LWmu"g «f© 18 Ð Jk´bJØamYytamv^T´¬P~MeBj Ð \Exµrm~ak'@ ¨tèvsmÂab'yYn 30

nak'ùùùùù|.

karrt'ecjBI¨sukyYn «nCnedémkMeNItcineFÃI[xÂSgeLIg dl'sÄanPaBtantwgrvageb"kSg nig

haNUy.

tUk´è enAEtmin¨BmTTYl CnePosxÂçnBI²Nëècin [s~ak'enA¨beTsCbu"n.

mifuna :

«f© 2 Ð \kmõ¬Cae¨tomxÂçncSCECkCamYyevotNamk~¬g 7 ExeTot ebIk~¬gkML¬geBlenaH

haNUybJÎb'kar¨bTus¶ra"yTSgGs' Tl'nwgP~MeBj| eKeXIjk~¬g kMNt'ehturbs'

rd½aPiVlExµr cuH«f© 15 ÓsPa EdlVn¨tèvbJØèneTAevotNam edaysÄanTUtlavenA

P~MeBj. eKd·gd÷NwgenHtam¨bPBTUt.

GKðs~gkard½an Gùsùbù cMeJHCnePosxÂçn nigeFÃIsh¨btibti‘karCamYy rd½aPiVlevotNam

edémºIrkTIsMNak'Ga¨s&y[Exµr 150 Jn'nak' EdlVnePosxÂçneTAevotNamxagtºèg. eGog-sarI eFÃITs§nkicÍenA¨kugtUk´èBI«f© 11 eTA 13.

sÄankarN_kan'EttantwgeLIgrvag eb"kSg nig haNUy.

sarBtáman LWmu"g «f© 17 Ð GasIuPaKGeK~y_ ¨kBulmuxQWe¨JHCnePosxÂçnrbs'xÂçn.

eb"kSg VnbJØènkV"l'smu¨TBIr edémºId·kCnCaticin ecjBI¨sukyYn.

«f© 25 Ð v^T´¬P~MeBj ¨Vb'[d·gGMBIkarbu"nb"grMlMrd½aPiVlkmõ¬Ca EdleKkMcat'VnkalBIEx

ÓsPamun. v^T´¬fa karbu"nb"genHVn¨tèverobcMeLIgeday \bk§kumµ¬ynis¶ nig rd½aPiVlyYn eday

man¨kum esùGIuùGaù cUlrYmpg.

¨beTs²NëèensIu VnGeJØIj eGog-sarI [eFÃITs§nkicÍCapÂèvkar enA d´akarta.

kaEst LWmu"g «f© 29 Ð tam¨ksYgsm©at'GaemrikSgnig«f TahanyYn 50 Jn'nak' kMBug

vaylukcUlk~¬gTwkdéExµr. KWCakarvaylukFMmYy EdlskmµkicÍxÂHmanrhUtdl'k~¬gC÷erArab'sibKùmù

k~¬gTwkdéExµr. TSghaNUy TSgP~MeBj ²tVnbJØak'fa BtámanenH¨twm¨tèveT. bu"En‘ KWCab'rab'Exmk ehIy EdlExµrnigyYn ecaTK~aeTAv^jeTAmkfaVn \QÂanJn| nig \bJØènP~ak'gar| k~¬gTwkdéeK.

kkûda :

«f© 29 Ð haNUy ¨bkascUlrYmk~¬gGgðkar \kUemkun| (COMECON) p§arrYmrbs'b¬ksUevot. «f© 3 Ð eb"kSg ¨bkasbJÎb'C÷nYyTSgGs'dl'evotNam. haNUy

¨Vb'GasIuPaKGeK~y_[¨by&t~xÂçnTl'nwg

\rIkxÂçnniym|

cin.

tamry:

kaEst¨b¨ktITin¨bCaCn ¨beTscin¨Vb'smaKmGasßan[¨bugxÂçnTl'nwg \¨tçt¨ta

niym| yYn ehIyecaTevotNamfa cg'k¶ab'ykkmõ¬Cak~¬gshB&nì²Nëècin.

«f© 15 Ð e¨KOgsak' snænaCamYy eGog-sarI EdleFÃITs§nkicÍenAVgkk. TSgBIrnak'

sMerccat'v^Fankar edémºIsMrYlkarTak'Tgrvag¨beTsTSgBIr Ð karbu"nb"gebIkEx§TUrelxpæal' nigkar

b¶èrKN:¨btiPUJNiCØkmµ. eGog-sarI ecaTevotNamfacg' \¨tVk'elbkmõ¬Ca|.

«f© 25 Ð sn~isITBYkrd½mån¶IkarbreTs «n¨beTsmincUlbk§xagNa ebIkeLIgenA¨kug

Ebl¨hðad. kmõ¬Ca CasmaC^keBjsmtÄPaB. eGog-sarI cUlrYmk~¬gsn~isIT ehIysuM[eKedj evotNam ecjBIclna¨beTsmincUlbk§xagNa.


139 sIha :

kaEstVgkkbu"s¶i «f© 1 Ð kgT&B«fnwgTije¨KOgsBÃavuFfµé Gs't«m 1 000 lan

duLar mund÷Nac'q~SenH Ð rfe¨kaH 350 eFÃIenAGaemriknigGg'eKÂs yn‘ehaH¨bedj

nigyn‘ehaHBinit´karN_ nig kaNUtVj'kS¨CçcehaH 3.

kaEst LWmu"g «f© 3 Ð tam¨ksYgsm©at'GaemrikSg yn‘ehaHyYnTMlak'¨Kab'Ebky"age¨cIn

sMebIm edémºIbMVk'karTb'Tl' \y"agmanH| rbs'Exµr¨khm. karTMlak'enH xÂSgelIsBIeBlmun@

TSgGs'. yn‘ehaH KWrbs'GaemrikSgecalBIq~S 1975 Ð FuneGhÃ-5 ¨btikmµ nig FunGa-37. kar

TMlak'eFÃIeLIgrhUtdl'cm©ay 60 Kùmù k~¬gTwkdéExµr Ð kMBg'cam. manmnus§sÂab'Cae¨cIn. P~MeBj dkT&BBITisxaglicbJØèneTAsmrPUmi

CaehtuebIk[cMnYnG~kePosxÂçn

mankan'Ete¨cIneLIg.

ha

NUy Eknmnus§GayuBI 16 eTA 35q~S bJÍèlk~¬gkgT&B ehIyekaHehAmkv^jnUvTahanEdlQb'BI

q~S 1975.

ecjBIEblåhðad eGog-sarI eTAeb"kSg. sun esn Óbrd½mån‘ITImYyTTYlbnæ¬kxagkarJr

¨beTs mkdl'eb"kSgEdrCamYynwgKN:¨btiPUmYy¨kum. \Tg'C&y¨khm| kaEstp§aylTìi¨khm

rbs'bk§cin [eQµaHevotNamCakUnGuk (cheval de Troie) rbs'v^man¨kwmLSg nig ¨beTsKuyV rbs'GasuI.

evogcnæn_ dUcCakan'eCégxagevotNam.

tamTs§navd¶éesd½kicÍcugbUJá¨beTs emtsUßTl'nwgbu"l-Bt dUcCa sU-Pwm GtItGnu¨bFa-

naFibtI.

kmõ¬Ca nig ²NëèensIu sMercdak'cMNgTUtf~ak'rd½TUt cab'BIEf© 7 sIha eTA.

tammnæIrGaemrikSgxagCnePosxÂçn nigxagGen‘a¨bevsn_enAva"sIugetan k~¬gmYyEx@ yYnBI 5

eTA 6Jn'nak'ePosxÂçntamTUk BI 2 eTA 3Jn'nak'eTottam¨BMEdnpÂèveKak.

¨kugEbßn ¨bkasfa sÃßésnigkmõ¬Ca VnsMercdak'cMNgTUtrvag¨beTsTSgBIr. «f© 12 Ð cinnwgCbu"n cuHhtÄelxaelIsnìisJïasn‘iPaBnigmit‘PaB.

ExµrEdlePosxÂçnmkdl'¨beTs«f mancMnYnkan'Ete¨cIneLIg. tamGKðs~gkard½ancMeJHCn

ePosxÂçn \sÄankarN_kMBugEtE¨b¨bçlEmnETnehIy| ebIe¨bobeFobeTAnwgsÄanPaBkalBI 6 Exmun.

sarBtáman LWmu"g «f© 26 Ð tam¨bPByYn ExµrEdl¨bqSgnwgbu"l-Bt kan'kab'tMbn'¨BMEdn

EdlCYnkalCaTIC÷rkevotkugBIedém. BYkExµrTSgenH ¨bEhlCamanrd½karmYy kgT&BmYy nigTIbJØa karmYy. P~MeBj TTYlsðal'edaymincMeJH edayecaTevotNamfa VntMeLIg \rd½karGay"g| mYy

ehIyb"unb"grMlMrbbP~MeBjtamv^Tìg§na nigkarXubXwtkºt'. kJïa :

«f© 2 Ð KN:¨btiPUy"agFMrbs'Exµr —KN:TIBIrk~¬gry:eBlticCagmYyEx— mkdl' eb"kSg d·knSeday nYn-Ca ¨bFanrd½sPa. cMENkä pS ySugdug v^j k*erobecjeTA

Ts§na rd½FanIep§g@ «nGasIuPaKGeK~y_Edr.

«f© 2 dEdl Ð v^T´¬haNUyGMJvnav [ExµrTSgGs'bHeVreLIg k~¬gnam«n \kgkMlSges~ha

Cati nigbd^vt‘n_Bit¨Vkd«nrNsir§ 203|.


140 kaEst LWmu"g «f© 23 Ð sIhnu ²tcg'CYbKN:¨btiPUCbu"n EdleBlenaHeFÃITs§nkicÍenA

P~MeBj. tula :

sarBtáman LWmu"g «f© 2 Ð evotNamqÂgkat'sÄanPaBmYyEdlBiVkNas'. GaCÆaFr

bJØak'fa tSgBIedémExkJïa TwkC÷nn'eFÃI[rge¨KaHdl'mnus§Cag2lannak'. ¨sèv nig

stÃJhn: VnxUcbg'e¨cInNas'. mYycMENkeTot ¨beTsyYnEdlminTan'TSgegéb

putBImhn‘raysågðam 46-75 pg kMBugerobcMeFÃIsågðamCafµéeTot edayehtumanTMnas'BIr

CamYynwgcin nigCamYykmõ¬Ca. enAEp~kxagtºèg bN¶aCn²t \tam| eT. karGMJvnav[es~haCati

eFÃIeLIgeday²tQb'Qr.

enAtam¨BMEdnyYn-cin TahanyYn¨bdab'GavuFnigesº¿g CékreN¶A¨tg'es. enA¨beTslav eK¾fa kgT&Be¨bIÓsµ&nBul Tl'nwgG~k¨sukP~MCatimu"g.

«f© 25 Ð enAVgkk etg s´avBIg niyayenAmuxG~kp§ayBtáman Ð karykVnP~MeBjeday

BYkyYn nwgbgúajbMNgBit¨Vkdrbs'haNUy. v^cÏika :

CnePosxÂçntamsmu¨T kan'EteTACaerOgbcͬbºn~PaB erOgGn‘rCati.

F~è :

«f© 2 Ð tammNëlTUtenAVgkk evotNam ¨tçt¨taVnTWkdéExµrCae¨cInkEnÂgeTot

k~¬gkML¬gBIrGaTit´munenH. enAva"sIugetan ¨ksYgsm©at'GHGagfa T&BExµrVnTTYlkar bg'xatd*F©n'bMput k~¬gry:eBl 18 ExenH.

«f© 3 Ð v^T´¬haNUyp§ayfa enATIkEnÂgmYyk~¬gtMbn'rMedaHenAkmõ¬Ca rNsir§rYbrYme¨sac¨sg'

Cati VnekIteLIg. ehg-sMrin Ca¨bFan EtgtSgeLIgedaysmaCbegûétrNsir§.

kaEst LWm"ug «f© 11 Ð v^T´¬haNUy EdledértYCa¨bPB[d÷NwgBIkarbHeVrExµr p§ayBIkar

bHeVrfµéeTot

k~¬gext‘kMBg'camEdlelIkK~atMrg'mkTenÂemKgð.

k~¬geBlCamYyK~a

¨bPBep§g@enA

Vgkk niyayGMBIkarvayruj¨canrbs'yYn tMrg'mkTenÂemKgð edémºIbN¶ac'ecjBI P~MeBj nUvext‘ TSgLay«nTisøsan‘ ehIy[TIC÷rkmYyeTArNsir§ ehg-sMrin. tamG~keqÂIyqÂgm~ak'enAVgkk rbs'kaEst jèvy"kEfm BYkyYnenA¨twmEt 40 Kùmù BI¨kecHeT. kalBI«f© 9 v^T´¬P~MeBjecaTrN

sir§ ehg-sMrin CaGgðkaryYnEdlmaneQµaHExµr bu"En‘d·knSedayyYn ehIymanTIs~ak'karenA«¨B

nKr.

sarBtáman LWmu"g «f© 22 Ð e¨kABIkarecaTep§g@ dl'evotNam rd½aPiVlP~MeBjenAEt

p§ayBtámansuTid½^niym GMBIsÄanPaBk~¬g¨beTs. ebIeKeCOBtámanTSgenH kmõ¬Ca ksagVny"ag rh&snUv sgðm¨bCaFibety´mYy ehIyesd½kicÍxÂçnkMBugrIkcMerIn.

edaysMucUl¨sukExµrminVn G~keqÂIyqÂgenAVgkkrbs'kaEst LWmu"g enH EsÃgrkBtáman

BIkmõ¬Cak~¬gùùùù C÷rMG~kePosxÂçn.

«f© 23 eTA 25 Ð sÄankarN_kan'EttantwgeLIgenAtam¨BMEdncin-yYn.


141 «f© 27 Ð Exµr¨khmebIk¨VsaTGgðrvt‘[G~ksarBtámanbreTsemIl bnæab'BIsågðamnig

bd^vt‘n_Gs'eBl 9 q~S.

0

0

0

«f© 7 mkra 1979 ¨beTskmõ¬CaVnrbUtecjBIcgûèm Exµr¨khm ehIyFÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«d ¨beTsevotNam. Par:eFÃI[¨sukExµr nig¨bCaCnExµrmanesrIPaBeLIgv^j enAelIsµaeyIg

ral'K~aehIy.

Ex emsa 1982

ƶÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆ


142

TMB&rPØab' 3

EpnTI

BIrPaKbI«n«pædIevotNam mansuTìEt«¨BP~M¨kMfµEdleKBuMGacdSGÃIduH. yYnrs'y"agcegí¿tcgíl'enAelI dévalrab EdlxÂçnGaceFÃIE¨scMkarVn. mYyPaKbI«n«pædéEdlGacdS¨sèvVn KWval¨tIekaNBIrEdl

TenÂemKgð nig Ten¨khmhUrkat'. «pædéEdldSduHenHmanTMhMtUcCagkmõ¬CaeTAeTot ehIy¨tèvciJÍwm

bN¶aCn 50 lannak' (enAq~S 2000 bN¶aCnenHnwgekIneLIgdl' 75 lan!).


143

ebIeKemIl¨beTsenA²NëècinmYym¶g@ dac'BIK~a ¨beTsTSgenaHBuMsUvmaneT. bu"En¶ebIeKdak'bUkcUl

K~anUvFnFanxagEr" xagksikmµ nig xagTwk ¨beTsTSgbImansPaBCa \¨beTs| mYyEdlman ehIy cºas'CasÄitenAk~¬gcMeNam¨beTsEdlsMbUrCageKenAGasuIPaKGeK~y_.


144

KMeragkarelITenÂemKgðEp~kxage¨kam

PasaenA²Nëècin


145

snìisJïaq~S 1863 rvag ¨BHVTnerat¶m nig Ót¶mnavI d·La¨kg'ED´r, \KUEvn&r, ecAhÃay|

TImYy«n kUsSgsuIn, snìisJïaEdl ¨BHVTnerat¶m TTYlkarKSJr, \¨btiktUr"a| BIVrSg. snìisJïaq~S

1867

VneFÃIeLIgedaylYclak'rvagVrSgnigesom.

tamsnìisJïaenH

esomQb'TarsYyGakrBIExµr bu"En¶¨tèvdUrCamYynwgext‘Vt'd÷bg esomrab (Ggðrk*¨tèvVneTAesom

Edr) sIusupun TenÂreBA nigmÂ諨B ¨tèv[eTAesom. dl'eBlhÂçgnerat¶md·g, d·La¨kg'ED´r ccarVn

mkBIesomv^jEtma¨tabEnÄmmYybu"eNöaH Ð ExµrGaccab'¨tIk~¬gbwgTenÂsabVndUcesom!

kicÍsn´aq~S 1904 Ð kMBg'Ep¨tat ehIynigTwkdéenATisxagtºèg ¨BmTSgekaHTSgLay EdlenA

C^teq~rcab'BIe¨CayLSsuwgeTA Vn¨tèv¨bKl'mk[²Nëècinv^j. ext¶mÂ諨B nig TenÂreBA eTIbnwg

Vnmk²Nëècinv^jtamry:kicÍsn´aq~S 1902.


146

kicÍsn´aq~S 1907 Ð tamkicÍsn´aenH ext‘esomrab Vt'd÷bg nig suIsupun Vn¨tLb'mkExµrv^j edaydUrK~aCamYynwgTwkdéesom KWdan«s, ¨tat nigekaHTSgLayenAxagtºège¨CayLSswug.

kicͨBme¨Bogsn‘iPaBq~S 1941 rvagVrSg nig «f (esomVndUreQµaHeTACa«fcab'tSgBIq~S 1939

mk) VneFÃI[ExµrVt'bg'CaelIkTIBIr nUvext‘suIsupun Vt'd÷bg sæwgE¨tg kMBg'FM nig esomrab (elIk

ElgEtbrievNGgðr).


147

mhaNac¨kExµr enAd÷Nac'stvt§r_TI 12 raCFanIcas'@ «nGtIt:mhaNac¨kExµr


148

²NëècinenAk~¬gkML¬g Kùsù 960


149

D'après Foursereau, Le Siam ancien.

Carte de la péninsule indochinoise, par lés frères Van Langren, 1595. EpnTIenAk~¬gTMB&renH nigk~¬gTMB&rxage¨kay KWlTìpl«nkar¨sav¨Cav nigrukrk«nCnCatiGWr"ub rhUtmk

dl'stvt§r_TI 17. EpnTITSgenHe¨cInEtXÂatq©ayBIPaB¨twm¨tèvxagx~atPUmisa¨s¶. k*bu"En¶tamry:

äksarTSgenH eyIgGacTajykBtámanCae¨cIn dUcCakarv^vt¶n_«nTwkdéExµr ¨bPB«neQµaH \kUsSg suIn| Caedém.


150

Les Indes Orientales de Mercartor (Edition de 1607). enArvagKùsù 1280 G~krukrkCatiGIutalI m"arkU b"ULè Qb'sMctenAtugkwg ehIy[eQµaHval¨tI

ekaNEdlTen¨khmhUrkat'cak'cUleTAk~¬gsmu¨TenaHfa \ekACéhðè| (Caugigu). BYkedérsMeBACaticam CÃae¨bIkÂayCa \KutCé| rYcmkBYkCbu"nCa \kUQI|. e¨kaymkVrSge¨bICa \kUsSg| (Cochin) edaybEnÄm

Jk´ \sIun| (Chine) enAxagcug edémºIbJØak'fa kUsSg EdlenAxagcin (minEmnkMBg'EpenA²NëaeT)

eyIgGaceXIjcºas'enAelIEpnTIenHfa kUsSgsuIn enAxagelI¨beTscMV". VrSg¨cLMmYyCan'eTot

edaycgí¬lval¨tIekaNe¨kambgís' KWval¨tIekaN«nTenÂemKgðfaCa \kUsSgsIun|.


151

Carte du Tonkin et de l'Annam, par le Père de Rhodes, 1633.


152

Carte de la péninsule indochinois, par P. du Val, 1686.

Librairie Classique d'Eugène BELIN à Paris.


153

L'Inde transgangĂŠtique de l'Atlas de Leide (chez Pierre vander Aa.... 1695)


154

EpnTIbgúajeQµaHTI¨kug ext‘ PUmi ¨suk EdlyYnVnpÂas'

eTACayYntSgBIq~S 1838 (KWq~S 1838!) em"ÂH ÉmunenHpg.


155

EpnTI²NëècinEdleroberogeLIgedayG~ktMNagra¨s¶VrSg ¨hÃg'sÃ&r d·L¬gkÂi_ k~¬gq~S 1889 ehIy

EdlyklMnStamEpnTInana«nEp~k¨ksYgPUmisa¨s¶«nkgT&BVrSgenA²Nëècin

tamäksarCapÂèvkar

nana«n¨beTsGNöam PUma «f (eBlenaHeQµaHesomenAeLIy) nigcin ¨BmTSgtamkarrukrktam

d÷eNIr nigtamebskkmµnana EdlVneFÃIeLIgk~¬geBlcuge¨kaybMputenAC÷nan'enaH.


156

TMB&rPØab' 4

lMdab'eBl«nkarB¨gIkTwkdéyYn

CatiyYncab'ep¶ém¨bvti‘sa¨s¶xÂçnenAtugkwg ehIymaneQµaHfa Ð ya"v-Cé. CatiyYnCalTìpl

«nkarbgûat'sasn_²NëèeNsIuEyn nig mu"gehðal enAsm&ybuBèbvti‘sa¨s¶. karlaycUlK~aCa mYycin maneLIgenAeBle¨kaymkehIyeT.

enAq~S 232 mun¨Kis¶skraC GFiraC tan' «n¨beTscin VnbJØènT&BcMnYn 5Esnnak' Edl

bJØaedayemT&BeQµaH j"am-ga" nig e¨Tov-Ca mkcºSgdeNI¶myk¨suk y"av-Cé. eq¿t{kask~¬g eBlEdlmanclaclenA¨sukcin e¨Tov-Ca k*¨bkasxÂçnCaes¶c«nraCaNac¨k Nam-eyH (Nam

- evot k~¬gPasayYn) enAq~S 208 mun Kùsù. karkan'kab'Twkdé nig cinUbnIykmµ «nBYk y"av-Cé Edl BImuncincat'TukCaCatisasn_«¨B«p§ k*VneLIgzan:esµInwgcinEdr ehIyGaceFÃIkar ¨BmTSgGacTTYl


157 EpnTITMB&renH

bgúajBIkar

v^vt‘n_«nPUmisa¨s¶¨beTs

²NëècinBIstvt§r_TI 2 dl'

TI 19.


158 zann‘rsk¶iesµInwgcin cab'tSgBIedémstvt§r_TI 3 EdlenAe¨kamrCØkales¶ccin suIv-vYg mk. bu"En¶

suIv-vYg bJØa[BYk y"av-Cé eron ¨BmTSge¨bIGk§rnigPasacin. KWtamrebobenHehIy EdlBYk

y"av-Cé TTYl²TìiBl«nvbºFám nig rebobKit ¨BmTSgreboberobcMsgðmeTAtam kug-hìys´¬s (Confucius) nig tavGIu (Taoïsme) ehIyEdl«f©e¨kaymk nwge¨bIGavuFenHsMrab'rMedaHxÂçnecjBIcinv^j.

enAq~S 263 (e¨kay Kùsù) eQµaH \Gan-Ng'| Vn¨tèveKe¨bICaelIkTI1 edémºIsMKal'Twkdé

enAxagtºèg (¨sukcin) EdlVnTTYlsn¶iPaB.

enAq~S 353 BYk y"av-Cé (ÉyYn) tbeTAnwgkarvaylukelITwkdéxÂçnBI cam k*vaynKrcMV"Ca

elIkTI1.

Casasn_²NëèeNsIuEyn, CaticamVnmkrs'enAtSgBIyUrmkehIy enAelITwkdéEdlCa evot

Nam kN¶alsBëf© cab'tSgBI \TÃarGNöam| rhUtdl'e¨Cay va"ErlLa. enAq~S 137 cineQµaH CU

elon sMLab'mÍas'¨suk lin Cé (EdlenAe¨kamGMNaccinEdr) ehIy¨bkasxÂçnCaes¶c«n¨suk lin Cé (Lam-Gab k~¬gPasayYn). KWdUec~HägEdlnKrcMV"ekIteLIg ehIysÃahab'Nas'.

enAstvt§r_TI2 nig TI3 k~¬geBlEdlxÂçnlatsnìwgTwkdé nKrcMV"kMBugTTYl²TìiBly"agxÂSg

BI²Nëa. KW¨bEhlCatamQUgsmu¨T j"a ¨tag EdlBYk²NëabJÍèlxÂçneTAk~¬gnKrcMV" ehIynScUl

eTA[camnUv¨BhµJïsasna nigGk§r. xÂçnTTYl²TìiBlBI²NëaEmn bu"En‘edaymkBIbuBÃehtuxagyuTì-

sa¨s¶ cMV"cgsmõnìK~aCamYycin edémºIvayGNöam. eKBuMd·gfamkBIehtuGÃIBit¨Vkd EdlbN¶al

[camvay¨sukGNöameT. k*bu"En‘eKBuM¨tèvePÂceTfa cinVnPØab'¨sukrbs'BYk y"av-Cé eTAnwg¨suk cin. ¨bEhlk~¬geBleFÃId÷eNIreqõaHmkTisxagtºègenHehIy EdlcinCan'b"HelITwkdérbs'CatiEdl manedémkMeNItCasasn_²NëèeNsIuEyn.

edaysarsågðamminQb'QrrvagraCvg§cinTSgLay

GaNac¨kcink*¨tèvbgÅ÷xÂçnbnÄy²Tìi

BlmkelI¨sukGNöam. enAstvt§r_TI10 GFiraCcinQb'manGMNacGÃIBit¨Vkd eTAelIGNöam ehIy. enAq~S 939 karbHeVrmYyVneFÃI[GNöamVnTTYläkraC´ecjBIcin.

bnæab'BIVnsðal'GnaFibety´ Gs'ry:mYystvt§r_ raCvg§ lI VnB¨g·gC÷hrnKrGNöam

EdllatsnìwgxÂçnmkTisxagtºèg edayelbykTwkdénKrcMV". es¶ccMV" k*elIkraCFanI ²ånæbUr:

(dugdYg sBëf©) eTAenAä v^C&y (bß^jDij sBëf©).

sågðamex§aHQamCamYyyYn BIxageCég VnbgÅ÷camEdlxMrkTwkdéfµésMrab'enA nigciJÍwmCév^t

C÷rujd÷eNIrmkTisxagtºèg ehIyk*b"HnwgExµr. sågðamrvagExµrnigcammanry:eBlrab'ryq~S. eq¿t {kasEdlExµrnigExµreQÂaHEbkVk'K~a camTSg¨kum@ saklºgmktSgTIenAelIvalrab«ndgTenÂem

Kgð. camvayykeq~rsmu¨T cUlbÂn'¨sukPUmiExµr ¨BmTSgcab'ykExµreFÃICaTaskrpg. luHmkq~S 1123

k~¬grCØkal¨BHVTsuriyavrµ&nTI2

eTIbExµrGacedjkMcat'cameTAv^j

rhUtdl'¨BMEdnnKr

GNöam. Etes¶cyYn lI j¬"g tug (1072-1128) CYyKSJrcamEdlVk'T&Brt'cUleTAk~¬gnKr GNöam. suriyavrµ&nTI2 k*¨bkassågðamCamYyyYn. es¶cExµrnST&BBIrmWunnak' nigkgnavacrEdlman

TUk 700 eTAvayyYn. CaelIkTI1 EdlsmõnìPaBExµr-cin-cam ekIteLIgedémºIvayyYn. bu"En‘²tVn

Q~HeT. enAq~S 1136 es¶ccamC&y²ånævrµ&nTI3 k*dkxÂçnecjBIsmõnìPaBenH ehIyyknKrxÂçneTAdak'

e¨kamTasPaBes¶cGNöam lI fan' tug (1128-1139). suriyavrµ&nTI2 sºffanwgsgswkcam


159 v^j. q~S 1145 ExµrvaycMV" deN¶ImykraCFanI v^C&y Vn ehIykan'kab'nKrcamTSgmUlGs'ry:

eBl 5 q~S. eBl¨BHVTsuriyavrµ&nTI2 suKt camk*erIbMrHxÂçnrYcv^j. Frniånævrµ&nTI2 (1150-1160)

bíènCédUnmYy«n¨BHVTsuriyavrµ&nTI2 EdlesayraC´bn‘ k*ecHEtcºSgreb"HreV"HteTAeTotCamYynwg

cam.

GnaKt¨BHVTC&yvrµ&nTI7

kUnrbs'¨BHVTFrniånævr&µnTI2

nST&BeTAvaycamenAcMV"

Ep~k

kN¶alGs'ry:eBldb'q~S. kMBugEtvayraCFanIv^C&y (q~S1160) C&yvrµ&nTI7 TTYld÷NwgfabitaxÂçn

cUlTIvgðt ehIy yesavrµ&nTI2 (1160-1165) eLIgesayraC´bn‘. xkcit‘ C&yvrµ&nTI7 k*¨tLb'

mk¨sukv^j ehIyQb'eFÃIskmµPaBGÃITSgGs'. esayraC´Vn 5 q~S yesavrµ&nTI2 k*¨tèv buvN-

Tityvrµ&n eFÃIKtehIyeLIgesayraC´bn‘. KWk~¬graC´es¶cenHehIy EdlcamvayykGgðrm¶geTot (q~S1177) ehIykan'kab'¨sukExµrGs'ry:eBl 5 q~S.

eBlcamkan'kab'¨suk C&yvrµ&nTI7 egébeLIgbegûétT&B ehIyrMedaHkmõ¬CaecjBInwmcamv^jVn

ehIyk*eLIgesayraC´ (1182-1201). edaycamenAEtrukKYnExµreTot ¨BHVTC&yvrµ&nTI7 k*vay

kMeTccam ehIyykcMV"CacMNuHm¶geTot. BIq~S 1203 dl'q~S 1220 cMV"kÂayeTACaext‘mYyrbs'

ExµreTAehIy. enAq~S 1201 C&yvrµ&nTI7 es¶cExµrd*BUEklºIlºajcuge¨kaybgís' cUlTIvgðt ehIy ²ånævrµ&nTI2 CakUn eLIgesayraC´bn‘ (1201- 1243).

CaG~kkan'¨BHBuTìsasnamhayan y"agxØab'xØçndUcbitaxÂçnEdr ²ånævrµ&nTI2 ¨bkan'Ghwg§aFám

edaycg'bgúajemt‘aFám k*¨sab'EtbJØaCaäketaPaKI [dkkgT&BecjBI¨sukcMV" (1226) kay

v^karEdleKBuMsUvEdlVneXIjeLIy enAk~¬g¨bvti‘saås‘«n¨bCaCatiNak*eday. mhn‘raynwgFÂak' mkdl'¨bCaCatiExµredaykayv^karenH. BitdUcenHEmn edayeFÃI[Vt'rd½mYyCa¨Tnab' (Etat tampon)

kayv^karenHebIkpÂèv[yYnk~¬gd÷eNIrmkTisxagtºèg. k~¬geBlEdl Exµr nig cam cºSgK~arab'ryq~S GNöamBuMGac É BMucg'cUlmklUklan'k~¬gsågðameLIy. e¨JHe¨kayraC´es¶c lI Gaj'tug (1139-

1176) mk GNöamqÂgkat'GnaFibety´eBjTI edaymkBIcMVMgdeN¶ImraC´K~a. eBleXIjGNöam

cuHTn'ex§ay nigeXIjCemÂaHminecHcb'minecHehIy rvages¶cTSgLay«nraCvg§ lI, cameq¿t{kas

suM[GNöam¨bKl'TwkdéEdlyYnVnPØab'eTAGNöammk[xÂçnv^j.

kar¨bTUs¶r"ayrvagcamnigyYnk*

cab'ep¶émeLIgv^j. sågðambÂn'lukluyya"gyUr (Cag30q~S) «nBYkmu"gehðalmkelIGNöampg mk

elIcMV"pg ¨Kan'EtmkpíakmYyeBlbu"eNöaH nUvd÷eNIrrbs'yYnmkTisxagtºèg. karlatsnìwgTwkdé

rbs'yYnk*cab'bn‘eTAeTot enAeBlcb'sågðamCamYyBYkmu"gehðal. es¶cyYn ¨tan' Gaj'tug (1293

-1314) elIkbu¨tIxÂçn (ehon ¨tan') [erobkarCamYyes¶ccam ec m"an EdlelIkext‘ev" eTA[yYn!. Dan' jèhay raCTUtyYn¨bcSnKrcMV" d·knSehIycak'ruk[ecAhÃayext‘camm~ak' eFÃIrd½¨bhar ehIy

cab'es¶ccam (Ec Cé)(R) eTA haNUy (kalenaHeQµaH Ek eCa). es¶ccam ec Nag xMsaklºg rMedaHext‘ev"BIyYnmkv^jEdr EtBuMVnsMerc.

k~¬geBlEdlxÂçnlatsnìwgTwkdéeTATisxagtºèg

GaNac¨kGNöamk*BMuePÂcvatTIeTATisxag

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ

(R) eKBMuVnd·g[VnBit¨VkdfaeBlNaeT EdlsasnaGuIsÂamVncUleTAnKrcMV" bu"En‘ebIeKBinit´emIltameQµaHes¶ccam TSgLay

eKGacnwgd·gfa¨bhak'¨bEhlBIeBlEdlmankarpÂas'b¶èrenH BIcMV"Edlkan'¨BhµJïsasna eTA cMV"Edlkan'

sasnaGIusÂam.


160 licEdr. enAe¨kamraC´ ¨tan' ehontug (1330-1342) T&ByYnEdld·knSeday Dan' jèhay cab'

lukluy¨beTslav («G Lav k~¬gPasayYn) Et¨tèvlav vayruj¨canecjmkv^j ehIysmÂab'em

T&BenH EdlmanKMnitcg'vaydeN¶Imyklav[Vnsin ehIybnæab'mkcuHmktamdgTenÂemKgð edémºI

vaydeN¶ImykTwkdérbs'BYkm"Uy

deN¶Imyk kmõ¬Ca !.

(k~¬gPasayYnJk´enHmann&yfa

\BYk«¨B«p§|)

nigTIbMputvay

enAcugstvt§r_TI14 es¶ccam ec b"UNahða (1360-1390) eq¿t{kasEdlmanTurPik§enA

tug kwg bJØènT&BeTAlukluyGNöam k~¬gq~S 1361 ehIydkxÂçnmkv^j edaynSTSgeQÂIysågðam

yYnCae¨cInmkCamYypg. CaG~kcMVMgm~ak'y"agBUEk vérburs«ncMV" es¶cb"UNahða das'cMV"[e¨kak

egébeLIg vayGNöamkan'EtxÂSg esæIrEtsågðb'ykGNöamVn. Cae¨cInelIkCae¨cInsa es¶cb"UNa

hða vayQ~HyYn rhUtdl'eBlmYyEdlmancamm~ak'kºt'es¶cxÂçn cgí¬lTUkEdles¶cxÂçnC^H¨Vb'yYn

k~¬geBlkMBug¨byuTìK~aCamYyyYnenAelITen «h e¨tov.

raCvg§ ¨tan' Vn¨tèvbJÍb'edaynamWunm~ak' EdlmanedémkMeNItCacineQµaH eL KI lI. eL KI

lI eLIgesayraC´ ehIyykeQµaHedémxÂçn hU KI lI v^j. dak'raC´enAq~S 1402 hU KI lI ¨bKl'

raC´eTA[kUncºgrbs'xÂçn hU han' FYg (1402-1407) Edl¨bkassågðamCamYycMV". es¶ccam

C&y suImhavrµ&n edayxÂacyYnvay k*bJØènmarbs'xÂçneQµaH bU edon eTAsuMesck¶IsuxBIyYn eday¨b

Kl'ext‘ GmvrTI (kÃagNam sBëf©) eTA[yYn. Etcamxkcit‘²t¨bmaN yYnenAEtlukluycMV" eTot.

ä¨beTscin«nes¶c mij (raCvg§EdlVnkMcat'BYkmu"gehðal) k*eFÃIGn‘raKmn_CYyxagcMV").

q~S 1406 cinykGNöamVnCacMNuH. hU han'FYg ¨tèvcincab'CaeQÂIyehIyk*smÂab'xÂçnägeTA. cindak'mån‘IBIrnak'[¨tçt¨taGNöam. e¨kayq~S 1412 cinbgÅ÷yYn[¨bkan'ykTMenomTMlab'rbs'xÂçn

Ð Tuksk'Evg hammin[yYnsak'xÂçn .l. EtyYnBMu¨BmcuHj"meLIy. d·knSeday eL Ly yYn

cab'cºSgrMedaH erIxÂçnBIq~S 1418. enAq~S 1422 lavcUl«dCamYycin ehIybJØènT&B 30 000 nak'

eTAcºSgTl'nwg eL Ly Et¨tèvyYnruj¨can[fymkv^j. q~S 1428 eL Ly rMedaHyYnecjputBI

nwmcin ehIy¨bkasxÂçneLIgesayraC´enA Ek eCa (haNUy) ehIyb¶èreQµaH GNöam eTACa day evot. eL Ly EdlbegûétraCvg§mYyeTot KWraCvg§ eL k*edaHElgeQÂIysågðamcin[eTA¨sukv^j ehIy¨bkassn‘iPaB Qb'¨bTUs‘r"ayK~aCamYycin.

enAe¨kamraC´ eL j¬"g tug (1443-1460) (ecArbs' eL Ly) GNöamvayykVnraCFanI

v^C&y cab'es¶ccam mhav^C&y nig raCvg§anuvg§TSgGs'eTAtugkwg ehIycUllukluynKrcMV". yYn bn‘¬bcamm~ak'Edlkºt'elIraCblÂ&gûnKrcMV". eBlevlaVnxitmkdl'Twkbegúéy EdlyYn¨tèvelb

¨tVk'yknKrcMV"[Gs'. es¶cyYn eL faj' tug (bíènrbs' j¬"n tug) (1460-1498) edayyk elsfacamvayrukKYnyYnenAext‘ havcav EknT&B 260 000nak' edémºIkMeTccMV". q~S 1471 eL

faj'tug vayykraCFanI v^C&y Vn. es¶ccam bnLa¨taTan' ¨tèvyYncab'Vn ehIycam 6 mWunnak'

¨tèvyYnsmÂab' 3 muWnnak'eTotcab'CaeQÂIy. KWCaGvsankalrbs'nKrcMV". GNöamkan'kab'nKr

cMV"TSgmUlrhUtdl'eKatr: (e¨Cayva"ErlLa) ehIydak'TwkdéxagtºègCaTwkdécMNuH edaybn‘¬bes¶c

camlíitelíacnana[d·knSrd½aPiVl. e¨kaymkes¶c¨taj'xagtºèg (Ex§egÿg) B¨gékGaNac¨kxÂçn


161 rhUtdl'E¨Bk pan'ruSg k~¬gq~S 1653 ehIycUlkan'kab' pan'rI k~¬gq~S 1692. enAq~S 1822 GFiraC

yYn mij ma"g bJØa[bMVt'BUCes¶ccam pan'Durgða. KWrebobenHägehIy EdlnKrcMV"¨tèvyYnelb

ehIylubbMVt'ecjBIEpnTIBiPBelak.

bnæab'BIVnedjcinecj smÂab'bMputBUCcam nig kan'kab'TwkdémYyEp~krbs'lavmk (q~S

1480) nKr day evot TTYlsðal'ekalahld*yUr Ð cMVMgk~¬g¨sukdeN¶ImraC´K~a TurPik§ ¨BmTSg

sågðamsIuv^l EdlmYystvt§r_e¨kaymkbMEbkGNöamCaBIr s¨tèvnwgK~asuIsac' KW GNöamxageCég

nig GNöamxagtºèg. KWk~¬gsm&yenH«n¨bvti‘sa¨s¶yYn Edlem¨kumnanaekIteLIg ehIyesayraC´ dUces¶c (k~¬gPasayYnehAfa \CY (Chua)|). es¶c vY (Vua) mankiti‘ysFMbMputk~¬graCaNac¨k. edémºI

¨Kan'EtCanimit‘rUb kicÍkard½aPiVlTSgGs' suTìEteFÃIeLIgk~¬gnam«nes¶c eTaHbIxÂçnminVncUlrYm É

minVnd·gk*eday. bEnÄmBIelIenH es¶ck*CaG~kmansmºti‘s¶¬ks¶m¸eTot. äes¶c¨taj' (CY) v^j Ca

G~kkan'kab'T&B dkhUtBnìdarGakr EckcaybuN´sk¶i KWfaCaG~kcat'Ecg ¨Kb¨Kg kicÍkarrd½.

enAxageCég es¶c«nraCvg§ EL EdlesayraC´CamYynwges¶c¨taj'«n¨tkUl ¨Tij rvl'

Cab'«dEtnwgbågûabkarbHeVr. CagmYystvt§r_ raCvg§ EL edayman¨Kçsar¨TijCYypg enAEtBMu

GacbågûabkarbHeVrVn bu"En‘[Etman{kasTMenr«d k*xMeq¿tmkvayes¶c¨taj'¨tkUl egÿg enA GNöamxagtºèg.

eq¿t{kasEdlmansågðamsuIv^lenAGNöamxageCég es¶c¨taj'¨tkUl egÿg enAGNöamxag

tºèg B¨gékraCaNac¨krbs'xÂçn mund÷bUgenAelITwkdéEdlykVnmkBIcam bnæab'mk VnmkBIExµr. KW

BUC \egÿg| dEdl EdlxS¨tVk'ykkmõ¬Cae¨kam TwkdédUntaeyIg EdlsBëf©kÂayeTACaevotNam

xagtºèg. KWBUC \egÿg| enHeTot EdlsmÂab'bMputBUCcam CnCatiPaKticenAelIxõg'rab«nevotNam

kN¶al ¨BmTSgExµrpg. BUCegÿgenHVntSgraCFanIenA \ev"|. KWes¶c y"a-L¬g (1779-1820)

EdlVnb¨gçbb¨gçmyYnTSgBIr[cUlK~a ehIy[eQµaHfµéfa evot-Nam EdlsresrkÂaymksBÃ

«f©Ca evotNam .

ÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆÄÆ

cb'


162

mUlb&Nö - PasaExµr karsaklºgBinit´edayrkehtupl eday eGov-ekIs bNöaKar mit¶esrI P~MeBj 1967.

- Histoire du Cambodge, par A. Dauphin Meunier, Que sais-je, 1960. - Histoire du Vietnam, par André Masson, Que sais-je, 1972. - L'Indochine,par Henri Gourdon, Larousse Copyright, 1931. - The Far East, par Nathaniel Tesser, Claude A. Buss Copyright, 1968. - Histoire de l'Extrême-Orient, par R. Gousset, Librairie Orientaliste Paul Gauthier, 1929. - L'Indochine française, par Paul Doumer, Vuibert et Nony, 1905. - L'Indo-chine, par E. Bonhoure, Editeur Augustin Challamel, 1900. - Moeurs et coutumes des Khmers, par Guy Porée et Eveline Maspero, Payot, Paris, 1938. - Histoire du Laos, par Paul Lévy, Que sais-je, 1974. - Cambodia – The widening war in Indochina, Jonathan S. Grant, Laurence A.G. Moss et Jonathan Viager Copyright, 1971. - Les races humaines, par Henri V. Vallois, Que sais-je, 1971. - Les Etats Hindouisés d'Indochine et d'Indonésie, par G. Coedès, E. de Boccard Editeur, Paris, 1948. - L'Indochine française, Encyclopédie par l'image, Librairie Hachette, 1931. - Les peuples de la péninsule Indochinoise, par G. Coedès, Dunod. - Indochine, Documents officiels, Paris, Sociétés d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales, tome I et II, 1931. - French Indochina, par Virginia Thompson, Georges Allen and Unwin Ltd, Londres, 1937. - Un Empire Colonial Français, par Georges Maspero, Les Editions G. Van Oest, Paris et Bruxelles, 1929. - Guides Madrolle, Indochine du Sud, Librairie Hachette, 1926. - Cambodge et Cambodgiens, par Paul Marie Alexandre Collard, Société d' Editions Géographiques, maritimes et coloniales, 1925. - Le Développement économique de l'Indochine française, par Auguste Grandel, Imprimerie C. Ardin, Saigon, 1936. - Merveilleux Cambodge, par Claude Fillieux, Société continentale d' éditions modernes illustrées, 1962. - Histoire de l'Indochine, par André Masson, Que sais-je, 1950. - Institutions constitutionnelles et politiques du Cambodge, par Claude Gilles Gour, Librairie Dalloz, Paris, 1965. - Cambodia's Forreign Policy, par Roger M. Smith, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, Copyright, 1965. - Sihanouk, la fin des illusions, par André Tong, Editions de la Table Ronde, 1972. - Politics and Powers in Cambodia, Milton Osborne, Edition Longman, 1973. - Cambodia, its people, its society, its culture, par David J. Steinberg, Editions Fitzsimmons Copyright, 1959. - Southeast Asia's Chinese minority, par Mary F. Somers Heidhues, Edition Longman, 1974.


163 - La situation internationale de la Thaïlande en Asie du Sud-Est, Thèse de Paturaya Boonyanant, Université de Montpellier, 1971. - ¨seNaH¨BlwgExµr eday Giut sarin P~MeBj. - d÷eNIreqõaHeTATisxaglic nig ²Nëècinq~S 2000 eday nYn eXOn.

- Khmer, par l'Association pour le maintien de la Culture Khmère, Paris, 1978. - Histoire du XXème siècle, L'Asie du Sud-Est, par Philippe Devillers, Pièrre Fistié, Lê Thanh Khoi, Sirey, 22 rue Soufflot, Paris 1971. - Conflict and Stability in Southeast Asia, par Mark W. Zacher and R. Stephen Milne, Anchor books, 1974. - The Dimensions of Conflict in Southeast Asia, par Bernard K. Gordon, Prentice-Hall Inc., Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey Copyright, 1966. - Geneva 1954, par Robert F. Randle, Princeton University Press, 1969. - Tradition et Révolution au Vietnam, par Georges Boudarel et Daniel Hemery, sous la direction de Jean Chesneaux, Editions Anthropos, Paris. - La Chine et le Tiers Monde (1949-1969), par Philippe Richer, Payot, 1971. - Our President Ho Chi Minh, Foreign Languagues Publishing House, Hanoi, 1970. - Area Handbook Thailand, co-auteurs: Harvey H. Smith, Donald W. Bernier, Frederica M. Bunge, Frances Chadwick Rintz, Rinn-Sup Shinn, Suzanne Teleki, Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, September 1968. - Vietnam and China 1938-1954, par King C. Chen, Princeton University Press, 1969. - Vietnam 45-72, par Jacques Suant, Editions Arthaud 1972. - Communism in North Vietnam, its role in the sino-soviet dispute, par P. J. Honey, Greenwood Press Publishers, copyright 1963. - De sang et de larmes, par Bernard Hamel, Editions Albin Michel, 1977. - Témoignages sur le Génocide du Cambodge, par Bernard Hamel et Soth Polin, Série ITEM, S.P.L., Paris, 1976. - Journal Le Monde à partir de 1945. - Revues: Historia, National Geographic, Science et Vie, etc.

* *

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vayGk§rsaeLIgv^j: Xun-BImU"c EknigGnuJïatp§ay:

Eb"n narvé

kaNada, shrd½Gaemrik, 2004

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