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1

critExµr rbs'

bußNöcnæ-mu"l

¨bFanBuTiìksmaKmmCÎmNëlsaFarNrd½Exµr tMNagra¨s¶ mNëldUneBj ¨bFanKN:kmµkarvbºFmá nigFmµkar «nsPaCati p§ayecjBI eKhd½anelx 75 v^fé Ehm ecov -P~MeBj-

Bùsù 2517

eVHBumõelIkTI 1

rk§asiTiì

Kùsù 1973


2

Garm¸kfa enHCas~a«dTI 2 rbs'xƬMbnæab'BIerOg KukneyaVy(R) . KMnit«nkarniBnìerOgKukneya-

Vy y"agNaenaH Gs'elakG~kswgVn¨CabsBèKb'ehIy enAk~¬gesovePAenaH.

ÇcritExµrÈ s~a«dfµéenH k*manKMnitBuMxusq©aybu"nµan GMBIKukneyaVyEdr. xƬMmanbMNgFM

cg'[exmrCn

mansµartIPÆak'rlwkPÂWfÂa[kan'Etcºas'eLIg

¨beyaCn_rYm, yl'cMeNaTksagCati Tan'eBlevla.

yl'bJúasgðmCati,

yl'pl

ÇcritExµrÈ s¶ab'eTAdUcCaG~kniBnìmanKMnitriHKn' bn¶¬Hbgíab'EtExµrK~aäg bu"En¶tamkarBit

KWniyay[eXIjnUvTid½^manH

erIseGIgrbs'ExµrmYyEp~k

EdlbN¶al[ekItplGa¨kk'dl'

sgðmnigbk§. eyIg¨tèvEt¨by&t~nigGb'rMkuM[manTid^½rebobenaHeTot. eJlmYyEbbeTot KWfa eqûIHykKnÂgGa¨kk'mklat¨tdagedémºI[eyIgsíb'exõIm ehIyecosvagBIKnÂgenaH rYc¨bkan' yknUvKnÂgNaEdllí¨besIrmkv^j. niyay[xÂIeTAKWfa ÇcritExµrÈ CarUbmn¶ s¨mab'bgúaj

KuNv^bti¶EdlbN¶aleLIgedaymnus§mYyC÷BUk EdlKµanlkÅN:cit‘Camnus§esaH. KWBYk

TSgenaHägehIy exÂacp§aenaH.

EdlnS[bk§BYknigsgðmCatiGs'famBl

ehIydl'nUvPaBhinehac

xƬMKµanbMNgesaH k~¬gkarriHKn' Gs'elakvérCnbuBÃbursCatiExµr EdlelakVnbMeBj

ehIynUvBlikmµedémºICati

xÂHdl'eTAhßanlHbg'Cév^tenaH.

cMeJHGs'elakTSgenaH

xƬMVn

eKarBnamnigskmµPaBrbs'elakCa¨b¨ktI ehIyEtgykCabTerons¨mab'Cév^teTotpg. xƬMsuMriHKn'

cMeJHEtBYkmnus§NaEdlmanxÂçndUcCastÃ

KµanÓt¶mKti

Kµanv^carN-

JïaNesaHenaHEtbu"eNöaH, ehIyedayKit karriHKn'enaHäg¨tèvEtsresrTuk ¨tèvEtniyay[

d·g e¨JHxÂçnxƬMVnsegûtpæal' ¨BmTSgVneFÃIskmµPaBCamYypg dUcCaGMeBIrbs'BYk²s§r:Ca

edém EdleFÃI[xƬMxUccit¶Gs'mYyCév^t bnæab'BIVnemIleXIjskmµPaB«¨B«p§«nBYkenaHk~¬g¨Ka

EdlxƬMrs'enACamYy.

dUec~HehIy xƬMVTsUmGP&yeTasCamunGMBIsMNak'Gs'mit¶G~kGan E¨kgelamanJk´

¨tg'NaBuMsmrm´ b"HJl'dl'rUbnamGs'elak sUmGs'elakemt¶axn¶IGP&yeTas BIe¨JHkar

BiBNánaenAk~¬genH manPaBTUeTAeBk. bMNgrbs'xƬM

KWcg'Et[manKMnitriHKn'sÄabnaekIteLIg

lkÅN_Gk§redémºICYyrMlwkK~a[yl'

nUvmaKáalíGa¨kk'¨Kb'y"ag

p§ayCaesovePACalay

mincUlcit¶niyayEcb"E¨b

lblak'bUjmat'bt'du÷«d G~kenHGuIecH G~kenaHGIucuHesaHeLIy. xƬMVnKiteXIjdl'cas'@brm

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (R) elakG~kcg'GanerOg KukneyaVy

enH sUmemt¶acUleTA

amekhmer.free.fr

rYccuc¨tg'

Khmerbooks


3 buraNrbs'eyIg

EdlelakmanKMnit¨bEd¨bedAkUnecA[Vnsðal'esck¶IsuxcMerInk~¬gCév^t

m~ak'@ rhUtdl'sgðmCati edayelakB´ayamcg¨kgJk´TUnµanCae¨cIn ekIteTACabTsik§a

Gk§rsaås¶ExµrsBëf©enH dUcCacºab'ekrkal, Jk´cas', Caedém. eyIgcas'sm&yenH yl' ehtuply"agNak~¬gd÷eNIrCév^t EdleyIgVnluyqÂgkat'mkehIy KYrEtnSd÷eNIrenaHmkd÷-

Nalpg

[ekµg¨skre¨kayK~ad·g

K~a¨bugsµartIecosvagGMeBIGa¨kk'Camun

kuM[tamKnÂg

cas'. enATIbJÍb' xƬMsUm¨bkaseb¶CÆaCaÓLarikfa: KMnitxƬM suMekItCaExµr rs'CaExµr sÂab'CaExµr xƬMsUmbUCaCév^tcMeJHEtbuKðlNaEdlesµaHnwgCatiExµr,

xƬMsMueb¶CÆacit¶faBuM¨BmbMerIbuKðlNa

EdlKµancit¶esµaH¨tg'nwgCati, ¨bkan'Gatµaniym bk§BYkniym p¶ac'karniym nigmanKMnitj¬H jg'bMEbkbMVk'samKðICati edémºIBYk¨kum¨tçt¨taenaHesaHeLIy.

¨bkarmYyeTot tamC÷enO¨BHBuTìsasna zansYKá zan¨BHniJÃn manEmnsMrab'buKðl

G~ksagkuslVrmIGs'GEgÃgkbºklº man¨BHBuTìCaedém CaTIEdlKYr¨CHfÂa ¨Vf~aeTAekIt

Nas' bu"En¶xƬMBuMmansMNUmsm¨Vf~afanwgeTAekItTIenaHesaH eTaHbIÓbmafa xƬMmankuslfanwg

VneTAekItTIenaHdUc¨Vf~ak¶I.

drabNa

¨beTsExµrenAEtmanlMVkevTnaEhlk~¬gf¬kQam

EdlekItmkGMBIkarkab'cak'K~adUcsBëf© xƬMsÂab'eTA sUmkuslplbuN´bJØènxƬM[mkekItCa

ExµrenHeTotelITwkdéenH Gs'kbºklºGEgÃgCati kuM[xƬMXÂatxÍat'¨Jt'vegÃgeTAekItTINaep§g eLIy edémºICYyCatiExµr CYy¨beTsExµr CalMdab'CatierograbdrabeTA! enHCascÍvaTrbs'xƬM! - sUm[¨beTsExµr sÄitenAEtCarbs'ExµrCanicÍ!

- sUmBiPBelak manyuti¶FmácMeJHmnus§CatiTUeTA!

- sUm¨bCaBlelak VncMerInk~¬gpÂèvsn¶iPaB!

eFÃIenAP~MeBj«f©TI 28 emsa 2517/1973

bußNöcnæ-mu"l


4

esck¶Iep¶ém eyIgTSgGs'K~a

EdlmaneQµaHfaCaG~ktsUß

ehIyEdleTIbEtrYcecjmkGMBIKuk

¨cvak' k*VnmkenACYbCu÷K~aenAnwgP~MeBjenH. Cb"unEdlCaG~kÓbtÄm¸nUvneyaVy eyIgk*enAEt

CYuyp¶l'nUvKMnitdl'¨kumbd^vt¶n_eyIgdEdl. Cbu"nBuMTan'caj'kmÂSg¨kumsmõnìmit¶enAeLIyeT fÃé

tºitEt¨kugP~MeBj¨tèvrg¨Kab'Ebkrbs'kgT&Bsmõnìmit¶ (kalBI«f©TI 5 kum¸: 1945) k*eday.

minEtbu"eNöaH enA«f©TI 9 mIna 1945 Cbu"n EfmTSgVneLamB&Tìcab'VrSgenAP~MeBjTSgGs'

eTotpg.

elak sWg g"ukfaj' Edlrt'eTAkan'¨beTsCbu"n tSgBIVrSgcab'elakGacar´ Ehm

ecov enaH k*Vn¨tèvCbu"nCYy[mkv^j enAExÓsPa1945. BIra¨tITI 8 eTATI 9 ExsIha 1945 yuvCnExµr nigTahan k*eFÃIbd^vt¶n_rMlMrd½aPiVlelak Gwug GIu EdlenAe¨kamGaNaB´aVl

VrSg rYcenA«f©TI 14 ExsIha q~SdEdl elak sWg gu"kfaj' k*¨tèvVncat'tSgCanaykrd½aPi VleLIg.

k~¬gsÄanPaBenH eyIgral'K~aCaG~kneyaVy ehIyEdlmanCbu"nCYyÓbtÄm¸enaH KYr

Nas'EtVnsbºayePÂItePÂInk~¬gcit¶ bu"En¶pæ¬uyeTAv^j eyIgBuMVnnwkKitdUec~aHeLIy eyIgral'

K~anwkeXIjfa kmÂSgBYksmõnìmit¶¨bEhlCanwgbEnÄmeLIg edémºIp¶çllMnwgeyIgenHeTAv^jVn

enA«f©NamYy e¨JHeKkMBugerobcMsMebImNas' edémºIbnæc'GanuPaBCbu"n ÉfaeK¨tèvkar¨tçt¨ta ²Nëècindac'mux.

kalebIKiteXIjdUec~aH

eyIgral'K~ak*KitrkpÂèvCae¨scfa

nwgeKc[putBIkN¶ab'«d

VrSg ebIVrSgQ~HCbu"nv^jenaH eyIg¨tèvecj[puteTAe¨kA edémºIriHrkmeF´aVyrMedaH¨suk

teTAeTot.

«f©mYyCYbCuMK~a k*Bie¨KaH¨Bme¨BogK~afa ebIVrSgQ~HCbu"n eyIg¨tèvecjeTA¨sukesom

nig¨sukyYn.

dUcEdleyIgVnpðg¨BçyenaHEmn «f©TI 16 tula 1945 BYkVrSgk*lºçgcab'elak

nayk sWg gu"kfaj' eTA ehIy¨BmTSgrkcab'CnCa«deCégeTot (manBYkeyIgG~ktsUßenHäg).

dUcEdlVn¨JgTuk BYkG~ktsUßEckbMEbkK~aecjCaBIr¨kum. mYy¨kummanelak V"c

QWn, elak ecA EsnkuslQuM (kaleNaHCaecAhÃayext¶kMBg'cam), elak¨sI sWg gu"k faj' namedém LS FIGßuk nigCnCae¨cIneTot VneTAenAVsak' (kmõ¬Cae¨kam). äcMENkxƬM


5 bußNöcnæ-mu"l xƬMmanmam~ak'eQµaH bu"k KuN ehA ¨tLac enAext¶Vt'd÷bg EdlkaleNaH esom¨tçt¨taCarbs'esom. ¨BM¨bTl'Exµr-esomkaleNaHenA¨tg'sÃaydUnEkv.

teTAmux Gs'elakG~knwgVn¨CabGMBId÷eNIrrbs'xƬMpæal'eTAkan'ext¶Vt'd÷bg nigGMBI

kMeNItExµr²s§r:¨BmTSgskmµPaBGÃIxÂH«n¨kumenaH. skmµPaBBYkenaH eXIjfapæ¬yBIeKal

bMNgrbs'eyIgG~kneyaVyrMedaHCati,

pæ¬yBIKMnitrbs'eyIgEdlCaG~kbegûétBYkenaH.

skmµPaBBYkenaH KWCaKuNv^bti¶m´a"gEdlp¶l'[xƬMkMhkcit¶y"agFMdrabsBëf©. äg.

ehtuenaHehIy eTIbxƬMniyayriHKn'GÃI@ xƬMcUlcit¶fa ÇenHehIycritExµrÈ ral'dgdUec~H v&ycas'bu"eNöHehIy xƬMsUmcg«dGnuCnC÷nan'e¨kaynUvs~a«denH edémºICabTBicarNa

riHrkpl¨beyaCn_CUnbgbíènrYmCatik~¬gsaFarNrd½ExµrteTAeTotpg

eXareXA kab'smÂab'K~aägeday«¨B«p§enaHteTAeTot.

edayecosvagnUvGMeBI

sUm[manyuti¶Fmák~¬gsgðm edémºIvDónPaBnigsuPmgðlrbs'saFarNrd½Exµr. P~MeBj«f©TI 20 kum¸: 1973

bußNöcnæ-mu"l


6

karePosxÂçnrbs'xƬM enA«f©TI 16 tula 1945 evlaem"ag 11 knÂH«f© BYksmõnìmit¶Vnmk¨beLamcab'

elaknayk sWg gu"kfaj' enAv^manrd½aPiVlykeTA. Vnd÷NwgenHPÂam xƬMCaG~kmanxÂçn¨sab' k*¨tèvEtePoscen¿sxÂçnecjeTAe¨kAdUcVn¨JgTuk. xƬMC÷nuMnwg¨KçsareXIjfa¨tèvePoseTAenA

nwgma¨tLacrbs'xƬMäVt'd÷bg EdlkaleNaH ext¶Vt'd÷bgesomenA¨tçt¨taCarbs'esom.

äkarEdleFÃId÷eNIr KW¨tèvBgÃagpÂèvkuM[eKtamcab'Vn. KWfamin¨tèvecjeTAtampÂèvxageCégP~M-

eBj¨tg'eTAEtm¶geT e¨JHBYkb"UlIsnigKijVrSge¨tob¨taenApÂèvenH cScab'BYkG~kePosxÂçn

ecjeTAesom. xƬM¨tèvbEgÃgpÂèv eTAxagTenÂFMkMBg'cam rYcswmbkmkE¨Bkk¶amv^j vagBYkKij

enAm¶¬MKILèelx 6 P~MeBjpg nigbMVt'danpg. m´a"geTot karecjd÷eNIrtamdgTenÂFMenH xƬMk* nwgGacVnCYbnwgmit¶Pki¶G~kbd^vt¶n_e¨cInK~aeTot enAtamdgTenÂFM xƬMnwgVnC¨mabmit¶TSgenaH

[¨CabBI¨Bwt¶ikarN_fµé@ rYcnwglaeKeTAe¨kA¨sukpg. ¨KçsarxƬMVn¨Bme¨BogtamenH eday

Nat'K~aeTotfa xƬMeTAdl'TenÂbiT[sMNak'enAnwgpæHbg¨busxƬMeQµaH bußNöcnæ-fat' eFÃIkarenA

hagsSgEsúlTenÂbiT äeKenAäP~MeBjäeNH nwgykLanmYyecjeTAkMBg'cam cSTTYlxƬM EdlmkBITenÂbiT nSykmkE¨Bkk¶amv^j rYcswmbn¶d÷eNIreTAVt'd÷bg.

VnNat'K~ae¨scVc'dUec~aHehIy l©acenaHxƬMykmasBIrdu÷Carbs'pæal'xÂçn mUrnwgcegûH

exaTuksMrab'dUrcayenA¨sukeKeBlNaKµan¨Vk' rYcykkSePÂIgxÂItUcmYyesotcegûH rYceLIg


7 kg'¨bNSg (course)

(1)

rbs'xƬM¨bjab'¨bjal'eTAkan'cMkarcºarGMeBA xƬMBYnenATIenaHeTA. sUm

C÷rabfa m¶ayÒBukxƬMmancMkarFMmYyenAcºarGMeBAenH. xƬMsMrakenATIenaHmYyyb' ¨BwkeLIgm~Im~a

Fak'kg'tampÂèvP~MeBj«¨BnKr kat'valsºèvE¨BkägeTAdl'¨sukKKIr eTIbcuHBIpÂèvCati kat'eTA

eCég rYcqÂgTUkeTAeLIge¨tIylÃaäm. mkdl'e¨tIyenH xƬMeLIgkg'eFÃId÷eNIrtammat'Ten eqõaH eTAkan'E¨BkhÂçg. dl'E¨BkhÂçgem"ag 13 Cag xƬMk*Qb'sMrakrkGaharTTYlTan. bnæab'mkxƬM k*eTArkpæHmit¶m~ak'eQµaHxan'

mit¶xan'¨bjab'¨bjal'sYrxƬMGMBI¨Bwti¶karN_enAP~MeBj

Edlfa

VrSgcab'elak sWg-gu"kfaj'. KiteTAmit¶xan' Camnus§tamdanerOg¨sukeTsxÂSgNas'Edr

KYrsresIr. xƬMeqÂIy¨Vb'hUrEheTAv^jfa: BitEmnehIy, elak sWg-g"ukfaj' ¨tèvVrSgcab'

ehIy, ehIyG~käeTotCabk§BYkk*¨tèvVrSgrkcab'Edr, äxƬMenHk*¨tèvePosxÂçn edémºIrkpÂèvtsUß

eTAmuxeTot xƬM¨tèveTAkan'Vt'd÷bg Et¨tèvbEgÃgmktampÂèvenH rYceTAsMNak'enAnwgTenÂbiT eTIb bkmkE¨Bkk¶amv^j. mit¶xan'yl'erOgKat'gk'kºal rYcXat'xƬMfa: ²LèvbíènägeTAtamkV"l'

vijeTA¨sYlCag e¨JHC^Hkg'tampÂèveKakBiVkNas', yb'enHsMrakenApæHxƬMehIy, ¨BwkEsík

em"ag 6 knÂHswmcuHkV"l'! xƬMk*yl'¨Bm. yb'enaHxƬMsMNak'enAnwgpæHmit¶xan'edaysux¨sçl. (2)

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. kV"l'mkdl' mit¶xan'Vn[Br

xƬMy"age¨cInsuM[eTAenA¨sukeKVnsuxsbºay edémºIeFÃIkarrMedaH¨beTsCatiteTAeTot. xƬMelIk

«dTTYlBrmit¶xan'edayesµaH kV"l'ecjBIEp eXIj.

rYck*elIkkg'dak'elIsµa

XÂatq©aymkeTIbxƬMGgð¬ycuH

lamit¶xan'cuHkV"l'TSgGal&y.

EtxƬMenAEtsmÂwgmit¶xan'Tal'Etq©ayemIlElg

kV"l'dutÓsEm"¨t rlak'xÂçntic@ dUceKG¨gçn emIleTAe¨kayEKmrlkxÍayrt'eTA

e¨kay, yUr@ m¶g va[sIuepÂcUlEp¨BH¨bsb' rkaekag E¨BkeJFi_, JmCékg .l. rYcem"ag

¨bmaNCa 13 eTIbVnmkdl'TenÂbiT. xƬMelIkkg'cuHBIkV"l' rYcrUtrH¨bjab'eLIgeKak xƬMC^H kg'eTArkpæHbg

bßuNöcnæ-fat'

rbs'xƬM.

xƬMniyayrayrab'¨Vb'bgxƬMtamd÷eNIrerOg.

bg

bußNöcnæ-fat' k*TTYl[xƬMs~ak'enAeday¨bug¨by&t~. xƬMs~ak'enAnwgpæHbgxƬMVnmYyyb' ¨Bwk

eLIg

k*¨tèvbgenHCUnd÷eNIrqÂgmk¨kugkMBg'cam

edémºICYbnwgbgbíènEdlNat'K~aBIP~MeBj.

eBlmkdl'¨kugkMBg'cam xƬMk*VnCYbnwgbgbíèn¨BmTSgkµçy@ xƬMCae¨cInnak'EdlmkBIP~MeBj

KWbíèn b"ugga" (¨sI), bíèn lU (¨bus) kµçy CYn-eCOn, CYn-mu"m, CYn-¨bsiTì Edlykrfyn¶sIu¨tè

eGn 15 esHrbs'bg¨sIxƬMenAP~MeBjmkTTYlxƬMtamNat'. xƬMykkg'eTATuknwgk¶itLan. xƬMnig G~kTSgGs'K~alabg bßuNöcnæ-fat' eLIgLanbt'kºalmkTisxaglicv^j. enAk~¬gLan TSg

Gs'K~aniyay¨Vb'xƬMfa: l©acmijBYk¨ksYgsm©at' 3-4 nak' VneTArkxƬMenAäpæHmuxvt¶ ÓNöa ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (1)-

kg'EdlxƬMe¨bI¨Vs'k~¬geBlenaH

xƬMrk§aTukrhUtsBëf©CaGnus§avrIy_[kUnxƬMVneXIjekr¶i_dMENlÒBuktsUßk~¬g

sm&yenaH. (2)- Jk´e¨bIsMrab'd÷eNIrtamTenÂemKgð kV"l'eLIg KWkV"l'EdlebIkeLIgBIP~MeBjeTAkMBg'cam ¨kecH, kV"l'cuH KW kV"l'EdlebIkcuHBIenaHeTAP~MeBjv^j. niyaytamd÷eNIrTwkhUr EdlhUrBI¨kecHeTAkMBg'camcuHeTAP~MeBj.


8 elam EtbgbíènxƬMeqÂIyfa minVneXIjxƬMmkpæHeT enaHBYkenaHk*¨tLb'eTAv^jeTA. xƬMnwkeXIj

faEmn BYkVrSgtamrUbxƬMEmn ebIminVneKcmkeT ¨bEhlCaxƬMmane¨KaHFM

Cab'eTaseTAekaH

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Q~HCbu"nnwgGal¨Vb'VrSg[cab'BYkxƬM BYkGacar´ Ehm ecov dak'KukCafµéeTot. Jk´enHeK

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KYrnwgCatieK ehIysuxcit¶smÂab'ExµrK~aägy"agh~wg etInwg[¨sukeTsedéreTAmuxem"cnwgrYc?

enAeBlEdlrfyn¶C^tnwgdl'E¨Bkk¶am xƬM[rfyn¶Qb'dak'xƬMcuH [G~kTSgGs'K~aqÂg

saLageTAcuH ehIy[ebIkeTAcSenAPUmimYyC^tkMBg'hÂçg xƬMnwgqÂgeTACYb¨tg'TIenaH. eyIg¨tèv

vag¨tg'kMBg'cmÂgE¨Bkk¶amenH tºitxÂacmanKijb"UlIsEqkeqreTot. Nat'K~adUec~aHe¨sc bg bíènxƬMk*ebIkLaneTAqÂgsaLag

äxƬMk*C^Hkg'xƬMtampÂèvmat'Ten¨tg'eTAeCég.

luHTnæwmnwgPUmimYy

EdlVnNat'enaH xƬMk*Qb' rYck*rkTUkeKqÂg. Cakusllí manTUkmYyeKTTYlcmÂgeTA xƬMVn

dl'e¨tIydUc¨Vf~a ehIyQrcSrfyn¶bgbíènxƬM. e¨kaymkrfyn¶mkdl'xƬMk*VneLIgC^HteTA eTot. KiteTAdMeNIrePosxÂçnenH kkickkucNas'.

rfyn¶VneFÃId÷eNIreTAmuxq©ayKµanQb'Qr

eTAdl'ext¶eJFisat'.

sUmC¨mabfa

kaleNaHext¶Vt'd÷bg, ¨tèvesom¨tçt¨taCarbs'esom ehIyman¨BM¨bTl'nwgExµr ¨tg'sÃay

dUnEkv. rfyn¶VnnSxƬMdl'sala¨suk¨tJMgCg, hYsBIsala¨suk¨tJMgCg¨bEhl 7

KILèEm"¨t dl'kEnÂgs©at'k*Qb'. TSgGs'K~acuHBIrfyn¶ xƬMk*ebIkKMrbk¶itLanykeTac¨kyanxƬM ecjmk. Ca{kasEdlxƬM¨tèvEbkBIbgbíènkµçyCaTI¨sLaj'ehIy. xƬM¨tèveFÃIdMeNIreTAEtm~ak' ägk~¬geBlenHehIy. xƬMk*niyaylabíèn¨busbíèn¨sInigkµçyxƬMfa sUmbíèn@ nigkµçy@ emIlEfTS

¨Kçsarpg e¨JHxƬMeTAenHBuMmankMNt'fa«f©NanwgVnv^lmkCYbCu÷¨Kçsarv^jeT, kartsUßmanEt

sÂab'ehIynigrs'CaKUK~a. CaBiessxƬMVnp¶SkµçyxƬM CYn-eCOn, CYn-mu"m, CYn-¨bsiTì [xMeron

EmnETnedémºICYyExµrteTApg. kµçy@ TSgenHk*fa xƬMnwgeKarBtamJk´ma¨BmTSgeFÃItamKnÂg

ma²trMlg. ehIybíèn@ nigkµçy@ xƬMk*[BrxƬMsUmeTA[Vnsuxsbºay eFÃIkarbMerICatiVn

eCaKC&yteTAGnaKt. xƬMTTYlBrenHedayjjwm Etk~¬gcit¶eJreBjedaye¨kom¨kM¨seNaH. xƬMnig¨KçsarenAniyayK~aEtJk´dEdl p¶SepÆInig[BrK~aeTAv^jeTAmk. TMrSEtdac'cit¶EbkBIK~a eyIgcMNayeBlGs' 20 naTI. xƬMeLIgC^Hkg'ecjeTA Fak'Vn 4-10 C÷han gakemIleTAbg

bíèneXIjeKQremIlmkxƬM xƬMFak'teTAeTot ehIygakemIleTAeTotelIk«deLIgla eKelIktb

mkv^j. karEbkK~aenHKYrkt'sMKal'Nas' e¨JHxƬMeTAkan'¨sukesomenH mingayVn¨tLb' mkCan'déExµrv^jeT EtmkBIxMkat'cit¶lHbg'¨Kçsar¨Kb'ya"g edémºItsUßksagCati eTIb¨tèvEt

XÂateTAenH. enHCaelIkd÷bUg«nCév^txƬMEdlePosxÂçneTAkan'breTs.

xƬMFak'kg'Vn¨bEhl 2 em"ag k*eTAdl'pÂèvbt'cUlvt¶sÃaydUnEkv xƬMcUleTAkan'vt¶

sÃaydUnEkvehIysMedAeTArkTUkqÂgeTAkan'e¨tIymÅag. k~¬gkarqÂgTUkenH manGnus§avrIy_mYy EdlxƬMBuMePÂc KWxƬMkMBugEtC^HTUkqÂg Vn¾sMdéBIk~¬gpæHmYyenAC^tmÅagdIesomniyayeLIg: eyI,

reTHkg'enaHlíNas'evéyùùù! xƬMnwkP&yb"pí¬k «Gy"a ¨kumecaresomTl'EdnehIyetI! xƬMsæabkS-


9 ePÂIgEdlenAnwgcegûHB¨g·gsµartIeLIgv^j!

xƬMemIlkg'xƬM

nigemIleTAmuxG~kGuMTUk

EtG~kGuMTUk

niyayfa: minGIeT, ehIyecHEtGuMeTAeFÃI¨BegIy luH¨taEtdl'e¨tIy. bnæab'BI[esahußydl'

TUkdrYcehIy xƬMeLIgkg'tamf~l'EdleqõaHeTAVt'd÷bgEtm¶g. tamf~l'xƬMC^HenAxageqÃg«d e¨JH

¨sukesomebIkbrxageqÃg. enAevlaem"ag 18 edaykmÂSgxMrbs'xƬM xƬMVneTAdl'¨sukemag

òs§I. xƬMeTArkp§aremagedémºIrktam~ak'eQµaH taTwg Edlsðal'nwgGalsuMs~ak'. elaktaTwg

CaCagmasm~ak'enAp§arsIuEjkBIedém EteBlEdlmanclaclKat'k*mkenA¨sukemag. xƬMsYr

eKhUrEheTAk*Vnsðal'CYbnwgtaTwgdUcbMNg. taTwgrak'Tak'TTYlxƬM [xƬMsMNak'enAmYyyb' edaysuvtiÄPaB. luH¨BwkeLIgxƬMVnlataTwg bn¶d÷eNIrtameTac¨kyanxƬMeqõaHeTAkan'ext¶Vt'd÷

bg edémºIsuMs~ak'enAnwgma bu"k-KuN ehA ¨tLac. enAem"ag 11 «f©¨tg' xƬMk*VneTAdl'pæHmaxƬM dUcbMNg.

pæHmaxƬMsÄitenAcugsõanEdkEp~kxagekIt

pæHenHCarbs'm¶ayekµkKat'eQµaH

m"m-

rma"y. maxƬMVnTTYlxƬMedayrak'Tak'CaTIbMput ehIysYrxƬMfa: etImanCYbnwgelak V"n-yin

nigkµçy bußNöcnæ-FYn eT? xƬMeqÂIyfa minVnCYbeT. eTIbmaxƬMEbrCa¨Vb'xƬMfa: elak V"n-yin elakeTAEt¨twmeJFi_sat'eT elakBuMhßancUleTAP~MeBjeT xÂaceKcab' elak¨tèv¨tLb'cUl

eTAVgkkv^j e¨JHelakmankUn¨busm~ak'eQµaH V"n-ekÂm"g' eFÃIkarCanaykk~¬g¨kumhußn Guk

sIuEh§n enA¨kugVgkk CaTIBwgGa¨s&yEdr. äkµçy bußNöcnæ-FYn GaccUleTA¨sukExµrv^jVn

tºitGagelIcMNat'kar

Edle¨bI[¨twmEtCaG~kbkE¨bPasaCUnelak

V"n-yin

bu"eNöaH.

ehIymaxƬMsresIrxƬMfavag«vEmn ecHedaHxÂçnrYcmkdl'kEnÂgenHVn. Kat'niyaynwgxƬMfaminGIeT eyIg¨tèvbegûét¨kumExµrG~ktsUßmYy¨kumeLIg

eFÃIkarrMedaH¨sukBI¨kjSVrSg.

Nas' edaymaxƬMmanKMnit¨sbnwgxƬMtSgBId÷bUg«ddUec~H.

xƬMsbºaycit¶


10

karbegûétExµr²s§r: xƬMVnmks~ak'enAnwgmaxƬM bu"k-KuN ehAta¨tLac ehIyVnp§ayKMnitGMJvnavsuM[

G~ksµ&¨Kcit¶cUlrYbrYmpgk~¬gkarbegûét¨kumExµrtsUßmYy¨kum [eQµaHfa ÇExµr²s§r:È. Jk´fa

Dzs§r:È enHCaPasaVlIEdl[n&yfa ÇFM, minkJØHeK, CaG~kCaùùùÈ dUec~H ÇExµr²s§r:È

KW¨kumExµrEdlCamÍas'elIxÂçnäg KµanenAe¨kamGMNacG~kNa, CaExµrmanäkraC´, manesrIPaB

mansiTìi¨Kb'¨Kan'CaExµr.

enATIenaHminCayUr

k*VnTYlmit¶Pk¶inigGs'elakCae¨cInrUb

EdlmanKMnittsUßEdr

ehIyEdleTIbEtePosecjBIP~MeBjmk Vnsµ&¨Kcit¶mkrYbrYmnwgxƬM¨BmTSgmaxƬM. xƬMsUmrMlwk

namrbs'Gs'elakTSgenaHxÂHEdlxƬMVncS KWeQµaH ; Ehm sag

fan say

sarU

hßU

Ehm savat mIu pUr

¨Tg' cnærg§I eQog

cnæ- etae¨ts

rs yWn

Gußk san xan'

BuM

ePaK nI

nigmanGs'elake¨cIneTot EdlxƬMePÂcnamBuMVnrab'k~¬gTIenH (sUmGP&yeTas).


11 maxƬMVnCYlpæHeKmYyenAm¶¬Mvt¶sEgû CUn¨kumTSgGs'enA ¨BmTSgVncMNay¨Vk'ciJÍwm

VyTwkrhUtmk.

cit¶nigsm¸ar:.

ehIymaxƬMVneTAVgkkKitKUrnwgrd½aPiVl«f

mYyExe¨kaymk

karTak'TgenaH[pleLIg

sUm[eKCYyeyIgTSgpÂèv

KWrd½aPiVl«fVnGnuJïat[ebIkkEnÂg

mYyenAXuMGnÂg'v^lcm©ay¨bmaN 5 Kùmù BI¨kugVt'd÷bg. eyIgk*manlTìPaBnwgbegûét ÇExµr ²s§r:È enAq~S 1946. mund÷bUgeXIjrYbrYmK~alíNas' ¨bmUlG~ksµ&¨Kcit¶äeTotCaG~k¨suk

[mkhat'eronVn¨bEhl 100 nak'. Vn¨bEhl 2-3 Exe¨kaymk Vnbegûét[man¨kum

esIubkarN_karJr¨kum²s§r: tºiteBlenaHraCkarVrSg-Exµr Vn¨bugcUlkan'kab'ext¶Vt'd÷-

bgv^jehIy. raCkarVrSg-Exµrcat'[esIubkarN_rk²s§r: dUec~HeyIg¨tèvbegûét¨kumesIubt Tl'eTAv^j. karbegûétenHehIy EdlnS[lík'kkrKe¨magkarN_xÂH BIe¨JH¨kumesIubenH xÂH

manerOgpæal'xÂçnnwgG~kd«T k*tSgbgûac'bgÅèceK nSkarN_enaHmkC÷rab CaehtunS[G~keFÃIkar

xagelIse¨mckarGÃIKµan¨bsiTìPaBeLIy. karTUlBitbgûac'¨tkUl cgí¬leTasK~aenaHmanCa

¨b¨ktI dUcy"agem¨kumxÂHEdlcat'[eTAbgúat'bg÷kBlTahansµ&¨Kcit¶enaHCaedém. embgúat'

nimYy@ bgúat'minVnyUreT ecHEtmanerOgxus¨Kb'y"ag xÂHkUnTahanmineBjcit¶e¨JHtºiteFÃI

tamv^n&yeBk, xÂHdUec~H xÂHdUec~aH ¾EtJk´riHKn'ninæax§wbex§¿vK~aCaerOy@. m´"ageTot Tahan

ExµrEdlrt'mkBIP~MeBjTSgbu"nµan suTìswgEtBYk¨kum«hhUTahanCbu"n. rebobhat'«nTahan

Cbu"nC÷nan'enaHKW¨Bwkem"ag 5 hat'rt' 3-4 Kùmù y"agtic rYcehIyhat'lut¨kabrebobyuTì

sa¨s¶CagmYyem"ageTIbQb' nSK~aeTATTYlTanbbreBl¨Bwk. eFÃIy"agenHVn¨bmaN 15«f© 20«f© k*eTACaerOgEdr edaysarnayTahanrgecHEtrGßUrTSfa hat'rebobenHminVnyUreT rt'

lUnral'¨BwkKµanVn¨beyaCn_eT nSEtxateBl ehIyKµankSePÂIgmYyedémpg manEtkSePÂIg

eQImind·gCanwgcºSgnwgnrNaekIteT! Jk´TSgenH em¨kummin¨twmEtniyayCamYyem¨kumK~a

ägeT

KWEfmTSgeJlenAeBlEdlkUnTahankMBughat'Gs'kmÂSgEfmeTot

TahaneCOtamGs'Twkcit¶tsUßeTAv^j.

CaehtunS[kUn

enHägCa ÇcritÈ rbs'ExµrEdlKµanKitmuxe¨kayGÃIesaH ecHEteJlpÂèc@ [EtrYcBI

mat'edaysarEtht'enOybn¶icbn¶çcenaH mind·gfaBMenalenaHnS[xUckmÂSgsamKðIGÃIeT.

m´"ageTotsm&yenaH raCkar«feKebIkGMNac[¨bmUlkUnTahanedaysm©at' mincg'

[xÍrxÍay, eyIgminVnrk§akarsm©at'enaHesaH ecHEtbeJÍj[eKägd·g¾. ÇcritÈ eyIgKW dUec~Häg C÷nuMK~asuTìEtfakarsm©at' KµannrNad·g¾eT luHdl'eBlecjBIC÷nuMmkv^j k*¨sab'Et

karsm©at'enaHd·g¾eLIgenAe¨kAkar¨bCu÷Etm¶g. cMENkraCkar«fv^j

luHd·gfaraCkarVrSg-ExµrmuxCaTajykEx¨tVt'd÷bgeTAv^j

enaH k*tSgcab'ep¶émp¶l'GavuF[Exµr²s§r:enH. Cad÷bUgraCkaresom[mk¨kumExµr²s§r: man

kSePÂIgyn¶<mI¨TIeyI>bYnedém nigkSePÂIg<mUsWûtug>¨bEhl 25 edém ehIymankSePÂIgxÂI 2-4 edémEfmeTot.


12 ehtuGÃIVnCaesomsuxcit¶p¶l'GavuF[Exµr²s§r:

enAeBlEdlEx¨tVt'd÷bgnwg¨tèv

VnmkExµrv^jenaH? ¨tg'enHCaerOgmYyEdleyIg¨tèvKit! KWmkBIeKcg'e¨bIExµr[Ebrmux mint

Tl'cMeJHEtVrSgeT KW[tTl'nwgExµrK~aägenaHEfmeTot. bu"En¶eyIgBuMVneqatl©g' dl'eTA

ykGavuFmksmÂab'ExµrK~aägeT bu"En¶eyIg¨tèvEtTTYlyk, ykmkbe¨mIeKalbMNgrbs'eyIg

KWQmmuxTl'nwgBYkVrSgEtmYybk§bu"eNöaH. cMENkkUnTahanExµr²s§r:

kalebIVnGavuFxÂH

k*ekItce¨mIncit¶Kitcg'cºSgnwgT&B

VrSgPÂam@ eTaHbIhat'eronv^CØayuTìsa¨s¶minsUvsæat'sæajk*eday. mYy«f©@ xƬMTTYlBYkG~k mksuMecjcºSgenaHy"agFuj xƬMEtgXat'eKfa kuMGalsin cS[eyIgmanGavuFe¨cInbgðçrsin

ehIycShat'[sæat'CagenHbn¶iceTotsin.

äcMENkmaxƬM bu"k-KuN ehA ta¨tLac enaHv^j k*eLIgcuH¨kugVgkkjwkjab' raCkar

xagesomeXIjägeTAegac@ eBk k*[kSePÂIghasibedémmkeTot.

suM[G~kGanyl'fa esom¨bugEt[eT BIe¨JHeK¨tèvkar[ExµrcºSgnwgExµr bu"En¶eday

eK¨tèvlak'KMniteKenaHpg

eK¨tèvkar[¨kum²s§r:eyIgd·gKuNeKpg

dUec~HeK¨tèvEttwgEtg

dUec~Häg. [mkFUreBk dUcCacg'[eBk. enHCaKMnitesom! ehIysm&yenaH (1946) mkdl' sm&yenH (EdlExµreyIgkMBugTwkcUl¨cmuH) etIeXIjesommanp¶l'GÃI[eyIgsMrab'rs'eT?

GMBIeQµaH dab-QYn kalBIedém dab-QYn enH Canay¨kum«nTahanrbs'raCkarExµr-VrSg EdlcºSgnwg

esom. kaleNaHraCkaresomecHe¨bIneyaVylYgelameXasnafa [EtemTahanrg nig

nay¨kumNaxagExµrrt'eTAcUlnwgesom esomnwgtemÂIgsk¶i[FMelIsBIenAExµreTAeTot.eQµaH dab-QYn kalebIVns¶ab'eXasnaenH edaycg'Vnsk¶iysxõs'CagenH k*tSgdSkºalrt'

eTAcUlnwgTahanesomEtm¶g. xagTahanesomTTYlrak'Tak' ehIysn´anwg dab-QYn fa

minGIeT nwgbMJk'ski¶[FMCagenACamYyTahanExµr KW[VnJk'sk¶i 1 . dab-QYn manGMNr Nas' nwksgôwmehIyrg'cSTTYlzan:enaH rhUtcb'sågðamExµr-«feTA. «f©e¨kaymk raCkar

esome¨bI dab-QYn [mkrk§aPUmimYy¨tg'm¶¬MsÃayeckEdlkaleNaHCaTl'EdnExµr-esom. dab-QYn rg'cSsk¶iEdlesombMJk'enaHGs'kald*yUr KµaneXIjnayTahanesomNamk

CYbniyayBIerOgski¶ysGÃIesaH eTIbPÆak'xÂçnfa: { Gjcaj'eVkesomeTetI! bu"En¶ dab-QYn KµanpÂèvnwgeKcecjeTANarYceT rt'cUlmkxagraCkarExµrv^j ¨tèveKVj'ecal, emÂ"aHehIysux cit¶xM¨TSbe¨mIesomteTA, EtB´ayamfa¨tèvEtrt'«f©NamYy. niyayBIxagT&BExµr²s§r:eyIgäeNHv^j

kMBugEtekorKrrkK~a[Vne¨cIn

luHesIub

dwgfa dab-QYn äeNaHmanesck¶ItUccit¶nwgesomkMBugEtrk¨ckecjBIT&Besom k*cat'K~a[ eTATak'Tgnwg dab-QYn [ dab-QYn cUlmkrYbrYmnwgExµr²s§r:v^jm¶g. dab-QYn man


13 GMNrNas' e¨JHenACamYyesomenaH dab-QYn manesck¶IGt'XÂanlMVkevTnaCaTIbMput

ehIyk~¬gcit¶k*QWcab'ral'«f©pg luHdl'mk¨tèveyIgehA[mkrYbrYmdUec~H dab-QYn k*dUcCa (1)

VnrbUtBIex~aHX~ag. Kat'k*nS¨bBnìKat'nigkUn¨busmYy

ePosecjBIsÃayeck Kat'mkrk

¨kumeyIgenAGnÂg'v^lEtm¶g.

xƬMminBenÂIseT edayKat'¨tèvkar[xƬMseågðaHxÂSgeBk Kat'lUnsMBHxƬMGMBIcm©ay e¨JH

Kat'd·gfa KWxƬMenHehIyCaemekaym~ak'rbs'¨kum²s§r: Kat'mkC^tk*niyayGgÃredayelIk«d

¨bNm´Cab'fa:

sUmelakmÍas'emt¶aGnuJïat[xƬMVTVnmkenA¨Ckekan

bMerIbk§BYkelak

mÍas'pg! xƬMVTsUmsn´afa nwgbMerIbk§elakmÍas'edayesck¶IesµaH¨tg'CaTIbMput, [xƬMVT

sºfCUnelakmÍas'k*sºfEdr xƬMVTminkºt'elakmÍas'eT!

Jk´enH dab-QYn dak'xÂçnTabeBkNas' EdlxƬMmincg'¾Jk´enHpgeT. xƬM¨bjab'[

Kat'egébeLIgQr[¨tg'xÂçnFmµta xƬMniyayfa: sUmelak kuMTukxƬMCamnus§FMxõs'GI sUmelak

TukCamit¶m~ak'eTAcuH, elakmkenH xƬMGreBkehIy e¨JHeyIgnwgVnrYmK~aeFÃIkartsßUteTAeTot!

äfakaresµaH¨tg'enaH xƬMrwtEtGrNas' e¨JH¨kumeyIg¨tèvkarnUvcit¶EbbenH! eyIgGt'XÂanman ¨ky"agNadUcem¶c dUc@ K~a! elakfyeTAenAnwgK~IK~axƬMcuH! dab-QYn bnæn'xÂçnsMBHxƬMswgVk'x~gfyeTAv^j.

bu"En¶GnaKt dab-QYn VneFÃIy"agNacMeJHxƬMv^jenaH Gs'elaknwgVneXIj Vn

¨CabenAeBle¨kay. KWGMeBIrbs'Kat'enaHehIy EdlxƬMcgcSGs'mYyCév^t ehIyEdlEtgf©èr

rhwuHfa : enHehIycritExµrùùù.

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (1)- kUn¨busenaH sBëf©enA¨beTs²Nëa .


14

GMeBI«¨B«p§«nBYk²s§r: xƬM¨tèvEtniyayedayBitnUvkarEdlxÂçnxƬMVneXIjVnd·g k~¬g¨KaEdlxƬMsÄitenACamYy

BYk²s§r: EdlxƬMpͬgep¶émbegûét ehIyEbrCa²tsN¶ab'F~ab' Kµanreboberobry e¨JHEtBYkenaH cg'FM B¨gékGanuPaBvaykMBs'esµIes¶c¨taj'm~ak'@. edayBiteTA BYkenH edaycg'temûIgxÂçn

xÂSgeBk

KW¨tèvEtePÂcsIlFmámnus§FmáGs'BIxÂçn

QamK~aeday«¨B«p§eTAv^j.

EbrCa¨sLaj'karkab'smÂab'sIusac'hut

BIrbIerOgteTAenHKWCaÓTahrN_cºas' bgúajnUvPaB«¨B«p§nigGmnus§Fmá«nBYkenH Ð

karsmÂab'KijVrSgm~ak'eQµaH bußn can' karesuIbrkKijVrSg Vncat'eLIg. cMNat'enHVnhuclTìplxÂHEdr nS[KijVrSg

xÂacrGaCaxÂSg. KijVrSgEdl¨tèvcab'Vn bnæab'BIVnvayeFÃITaruNkmµehIy EtgykeTA Vj'ecalÉsmÂab'edayd÷bg.

k~¬gbN¶aKijVrSgEdlBYk²s§r:cab'VnehIyykmksmÂab'enaH xƬMVnsegûteXIj

KijVrSgm~ak'CatiExµreQµaH bßun can' mansµartIrwg²ttk's¬tnwgesck¶IsÂab'esaH. eKcab'

Ps¶¬tagVn sðal'xÂçnvafaCaKijcºas'ehIyeKykmkvaysYrcemÂIy vaenAEteqÂéyfaBuMd·g fa

BuMEmnCaKijnrNaTSgGs' vaeqÂIyenaHEbb¨Begéy. eKKMramsYrfa: ägeqÂIy[¨tg'mk ebIenA


15 rwg¨bEkkeToteyIgnwgVj'smÂab'! vaenAeqÂIyEbb¨Begéyfa: smÂab' @ eTA! xƬMmind·gGÃITSg Gs', xÆM¬minEmnCaKijnrNaTSgGs'! bu"En¶ebIGs'elaksðal'cºas'faKijVrSg enAk~¬gkN¶ab'

«delakehIy elaksmÂab'eTA! EtluHeKykeTA[QrenAC^treN¶A ehIy[vaPavnaFmá eTIb

vadUcCaPÆak'xÂçn nwkP&ybn¶icniyayfa: xƬMKµand·gGÃITSgGs'! yIem"cykxƬMmksmÂab'? KWfavaman

cit¶kÂahanmansµartIrwgNas' Tal'EteXIjreN¶AsMrab'kb'vaEtm¶geTIbvaP&y. eBlenaHBYk (1)

²s§r:CaeBCÎXatd÷bg

sMBgPUs@ kJÍwgk G~keTasvadYlcuH¨bkac'dac'x´l' eTIb¨can

TmÂak'eTAk~¬greN¶A.

karsmÂab'eQµaH bußn can' enH CaGMeBIkacsahavmF´meT BIe¨JHeBCÎXat¨bjab'

bMVt'Cév^tG~keTas[puteTAPÂam@ minevTnaEP~keBk. enAmankarsmÂab'G~keTasEbbep§gBI enH

EdlemIleTAKYr[evTnarkJk´niyayminVn

ehIyEdlnS[xƬMminsbºayEtgEtedér

ecj eBlNaBYkem@ äeTotcat'[eFÃIEbbenaHEdleK[eQµaHfa karsmÂab'Ebb¨sEgeBn.

sUm¨Cabfa xƬMKWem²s§r:Emn EtVnbMEbknaTIxagKij xagcab'cg xagsYrcemÂIy nig

smÂab'enHeTA[eKep§g

eKmannaTI¨Kb'¨Kan'

äxƬM

cMeJHerOgenHKW¨Kan'CaTI¨bwk§aeKbu"eNöaH.

dUec~aH eTIbxƬMBMuGacGarkat'erOgNamYy[eKyl'¨BmtamVneLIy.

karsmÂab'Ebb¨sEgeBn xƬMsUmC¨mabfa: karsmÂab'Ebb¨sEgeBn CakarsmÂab'mYyevTnaEP~kNas' G~kEdl

¨tèveKsmÂab'enaH b"pã¶tb"p¶k'CaTIbMputmunnwgsÂab'. KWmund÷bUg BYk²s§r:ykmnus§EdlCaKij

carbursenaHmkvayd÷¨cMFak'Gs'cit¶ rYccgsÂabesknSykeTA[Ggð¬ylutCgðg'Tl'muxreN¶A

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16 Etm¶geTA?

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VTeT xƬMVTBuMEmnCaKijeTTan!

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d·gGIeT! -

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17 eJlminTan'cb'pg

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Vbva?


18 -

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GaeBCÎXatniyaykat'xƬMeLIg: -

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emm~ak'sYrkat'eLIg: -

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dl'kEnÂgeTAeTot! -

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bu"En¶


19 -

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20 ¨tèvBYk²s§r:Caempæal'ecaT¨bkan'fa CaKijykkarN_BI²s§r:eTA[VrSg rYck*cat'[K~IK~a

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21 «Gya"! xÂSgBUEkEmneTd·g? bu"En¶ xƬMrlak'¨Kab'enaHecj dak'¨Kab'fµécuc«kkÂwk! pSg! huyEp§g

¨Telam! xƬMlan'mat'fa: En± eXIjeT? min¨sçleT kuMlelgp¶as[esaH, ¨Kab'munsí¬y ¨Kab'e¨kaylíVj'ecj, suMkuMGalfaVj'minecjenaH!

mind·g

bu"En¶elak¨KèenaH ¨bEhlCaxµas'xƬMem"cmind·g Ék*eCOmn¶GaKmelakesµaHeTAehIyk* elakE¨sk¨Vb'eTATahan²s§r:fa:

ÇEn±Gs'elakkuMeTAlGInwgTIGasn:rbs'²t

v^JïaNenaH, [lmnus§v^jeTIbd·g¨Vkd Gs'elakVj'mkGatµacuH! ebI¨Kab'ecjmk¨tèv

sÂab'Gatµa k*sÂab'eTAcuH!

xƬMk*VnXat'elakv^jfa: ÇsUm¨BHetCKuNkuM[eKlelg@ enaH rbs's&ki¶siTìieKEtg

EtminleT,

xƬMkruNayl'faKYrkuMsaklºgeFÃIGI!

tamBit¨tèvEtBn´l'kUnTahan[ecHlut

¨kabtamrebobyuTìsaås¶bcͬbºn~eTIb¨tèv BIe¨JHsm&y²LèvenH ¨Kab'kSePÂIgxusBIsm&ydUn

taeyIgq©ayNas' ¨Kab'kSePÂIgBIedém¨ckBImat'E¨t eyIgykePÂIgdut Ék*dutBIKl'eTAeTIbpæ¬H

sæ¬HeTAmux, ä²Lèv ¨Kab'ecjmYyv^naTIrab'minGs', Fanaem¶cnwgekIt? [kUnTahanrgem¶cVn?

elaksgôenaHeFÃImin¾ ehIyEbrCaniyaynwgTahan²s§r:fa, ÇGs'elak vas'BI

kEnÂgGatµaQrenHeTAcMnYn 7 kSePÂIgrYcVj'mkcuH!È

BImuxkEnÂgbYgsYgenaHmanE¨KtUcmYy elaksgôenaHKg'elIE¨KenAEkºrenaH sU¨tPav-

na rYcE¨skfa [Vj'mkcuH!

Tahanm~ak'EdlkMBugcg'lºg k*tSgykkSePÂIgeTAvas'BIkEnÂgelakQr fymk¨Kb'

cMnYn 7 kSePÂIg k*tSgt¨mg'kSePÂIgeTAelaksgôenaH elaksgôenaHenAeFÃI¨Begéy ¨sab'Et pSg! dYl¨Kwb! elakmaneTAs&k¶isiTìäNa elakdkcgûaman'BIrbIg·uk k*putx´l'lµmùùù TSg

Gs'K~aP&ybHsk' Elg¨bkbBiFI¨twmenaH nSK~aEsgexµacelakenaH ykeTAkb'ecalbMVt'dan xÂacesomd·g vaecaTägfaykelaksgômkVj'elg ÉdUec~H dUec~aH. xƬMniyayfa: Çem"c,

eXIjeT? C÷enOecalem§¿t! eronlut¨kablUntamBiFIcºSgminKiteT mkrvl'nwgerOgGUmGam

QrVj' ²Lèvem"ceTA? ral'K~aes©¿m.

bu"En‘enAEtdEdl erOgmn¶GaKmGUmGamenaH. dUcCaelakem²s§r:m~ak' Kat'erIsVnGM-

Ebg«dEkvburaNmYy EdlEbkecjBItYEkv Kat'¨bkan'faCaKC'BiessNas' xMykmke¨sab

mas Jk'enAk. xƬM¨Vb'Kat'fa: BuMEmnKC'eT, KWCabMENk«dEkvburaNeT, Kat'enAEtfa: eT, KC' ¨VkdNas', Kat'erIsVnmk edaysareTvtabgúajKat'[eXIj! tamBitKWCabMENk«dEkv

esaH KYr[esIc!

sUmC¨mabfa VnCaxƬMsðal'faCa«dEkvburaN tºitpæHxƬMFÂab'manEkvFunenaHEdr.

eXIjeT, C÷enOGkusl, KµanBicarNa minsðal'KC'enaHy"agem"c, Ekvy"agem"c ¾EteK

¨Vb'ragerA tSgeCOPÂam ykmktMekIgPÂam. G~kEdleKd·g eKlbesIcmaneTAticGI.

¨tg'eNH xƬMyl'fa KMnitBYkeyIgenHenATabNas', enAl©g'Nas' esæIrEtfarkelx

dak'BuMVn. xƬM, xƬMeCOEdr KWeCO¨BHBuTì ¨BHFmá ¨BHsgô nigkmµpl kusl Gkusl eFÃIlíVnlí

eFÃIGa¨kk'VnGa¨kk'. äfaeTAeCOelImn¶GaKm Ex§cegûHx~aytan' KC' kuy Eckac' nagBYnsíI@


22 enaH mineCOeT. GMeBIlí kuslplbuN´eT EdlnS[xƬMVnrYcBIsÂab'rYcBIe¨KaHf~ak' BuMEmn

mkBIe¨KOge¨KAmn¶GaKmGUmGamenaHeT.

x enH sUmGs'elakG~kFM G~ktUcEdlmanC÷enOy"agNa@ enaH emt¶aGP&yeTas[

pg ebIyl'faeyabl'xƬMenHmin¨sbnwgGs'elak. R R

R


23

karvay¨bhar¨kugesomrab enAeBlEdl¨kumExµr²s§r:ecHEtTTUce¨cIndgeBk

ehIyEdleyIgmanGavuFlµm

ehIy xƬM bußNöcnæ-mu"l k*ebIksm&y¨bCu÷Bie¨KaHnwgGs'elakem@ äeTotfa etIeyIgcUrGnuJïat

[K~aeyIgeTAvayVrSgÉeT? ehIyebIfaGnuJïat etIeyIgeTAvaykEnÂgNaCamun? e¨kayEdlVnBiPak§aK~ad*yUrmk

Ggð¨bC÷uk*se¨mcfa¨tèvGnuJïat[eTAvayext‘

esomrab ehIymunnwgcUlvay¨kugesomrab ¨tèvvaysala¨sukBYk[VnCamunsin ykpÂèv eTA¨kugesomrab.

e¨kayesck¶IsMercenH G~kemcat'k*beN¶aHkUnT&B[eFÃId÷eNIrtampÂèv«¨BxÂH tampÂèvrf-

yn¶xÂH eTAkan'¨suksirIesaP&N EdlkalenaH«f¨tçt¨taCarbs'«f ehA¨sukenaHfa sIusupun

ehIyEdlraCkar«fVnelIk¨sukenaHCaext‘ [eQµaHfa ext¶BibUßnsug¨kam (Bibulsågðam) pg.

karecjd÷eNIrenaH minticmintYc edérC^t 5 «f©eTIbVndl'TIedACYbCu÷K~a. CYbCu÷K~aehIy

elak Ehm-savag nigelak sarU tSgbJØa[Qb'enAk~¬gmNël«nsirIesaP&N q©ayBI

¨suk¨kLaj'¨bEhlCa 5 Kùm sõanenaHCa¨BM¨bTl'Exµrnwgesomsm&yenaH.

VnQb'enA¨tg'PUmivarin elak Ehm-savag nigelak sarU tSgykEpnTImkBinit´

[vaysala¨sukBYk nigTI¨kugesomrab. mYy¨kum[cSvaysalaBYk mYy¨kumeTotmanK~a ¨bEhl 200 nak' [eTAkan'¨kugesomrab.


24 ¨kumExµr²s§r: minVnGt'KMniteT eKcat'K~IK~a[eTAesIubcMnYnTahanVrSgenA¨kugesom

rab d·geTotfamanVrSgenA¨kugesomrab¨bEhl 25 nak'CanayTahan edkenAnwgsN½aKar

ext¶.

elak Ehm-savag nigelak sarU Vn[bJØaeTAG~kEdl¨tèveTAkan'¨kugesomrab

[eFÃId÷eNIreTAtampÂèvVrayN_ ehIy[EckK~aCa 5 ¨kumsMrab'vaydUceTAenH Ð -

¨kumTI 1 [vaysN½aKarext¶ (EdlmanVrSg) ¨kumTI 2 [vaybnæayTahaneCégexµA

¨kumTI 3 [vaybu"s¶iEx§lYsp¶ac'karTak'Tg ¨kumTI 4 [vayBnìnaKarrMedaHG~keTas

¨kumTI 5 [vaypæHKijt¨mçtext¶nigpæHKy

¨kumTSgenH ¨tèvcab'vaymYy¨Bwbk~¬geBlyb'[¨BmK~aEtm¶g kuM[mYymunmYye¨kay

nSex§aykmÂSg.

edémºIecosvagkuM[e¨KaHf~ak'

t¨mèv[kUnBlTSgGs'kuMVj'elgep¶sp¶as

²tsN¶ab'F~ab'. ehobnwgcUlvayenaHeTot k*kuM[Vj'V"tNaV"tNI [s¶ab'bJØaem¨kumTI

1 ebIem¨kumTI1 Vj' swmVj'¨BmK~acUllukEtm¶geTA. Vncat'TSg

5

¨kume¨scehIy

bJØak'ehIybJØak'eTotfaelIkenHCad÷bUgehIy

eyIg[manreboberobryehIynwgmanesck¶IkÂahan

eTIbGacnwgmanC&yC÷nH.

TSgGs'K~a

suTìEtTTYlVT@ eKarBTSgGs' e¨JHsuTìEtcg'ykeCaKC&y ykeQµaHlºIerogxÂçn. bnæab'BI

VnTTYlbJØacºas'las' BYkEdlmanebskmµvayesomrabenaH k*eFÃId÷eNIrmktampÂèvV-

rayN_. enAeBlyb' TSgGs'K~albcUlmkkan'¨kugesomrab ehIybMEbkK~aCa¨kumcS¨bti-

bt¶ikartamcMNat'rbs'nayecAhÃayEdlVn[mkehIyenaH. bnæab'BIbJØabMEbkehIy ¨kum

TImYyVncUltampÂèvGgðrvt¶sn§wm@ eTArksN½aKarext¶.

eBlenaHem"agBIrGa¨Fa¨t«n«f©TI 7 ExsIha 1946 TSgGs'K~albbn¶icm¶g@ cUleTA

kan'sN½aKarext¶

enA¨bmaNCaBIrKILèEm"¨tnwgdl'

k*¾sUrsnìwkreTHGeN¶Ik

(Auto-blindé)

ke¨kIkdéecjmkBI¨kug KWBYkTahanyamtºatrk§a¨kug. reTHGeN¶Ikecjmkdl'eFÂa eBlenaH

elakem¨kumTImYyVnbJØa[kneyIg¨kabcuH hammin[Vj'dac'xat. bu"En¶man²s§r:m~ak'

eQµaH Em"n ¨bEhlCaP~ak'garsm©at'rbs'VrSgk*mind·g e¨JHeyIgeFÃs¨bEhsminsegût[ Cak'lak' Kat'mans¶ab'äNa reTHGeNI¶kmkC^tk*Vj'¨VveTAEtm¶g dUcCa[sJïaeTAreTH GeNI¶kenaH. reTHGeN¶IkenaHVj'e¨sacmkv^jPÂam rYc¨tLb'cUlbnæayv^j ¨bkasPaBGa-

sn~mYyrMeBc.

äcMENkTSgbYn¨kumeTotedayVnsJïa¨byuTìehIy

k*VnvaylukeTA¨Kb'TIedA

K¨KwkKe¨Kg. BYkTahanenArk§a¨kugTSgbu"nµan vegÃg¨cçl¨cbl'rcl'CaxÂSg. rIä¨kumTImYy

Edl¨Cul«dVj'nS[reTHGeN¶Ikd·gxÂçnehIyebIkcUleTA¨kugv^jenaH

k*tSgrt'tamLanenaH

eTAeTotrhUtdl'sN½aKarext¶. enHkuMEtmanesck¶IkÂahan kuMGIBuMGaccUlmkdl'VneT e¨JH

VrSgVnVj'Tb'xÂSgNas'

mkBIvad·gxÂçnmun.

ehIyenHebIkuMEtmanemekay¨Kan'ebI

kuMGIk*


25 rtat'rtaye¨sceTAehIy. BYk¨kumTImYyenHVncUlC^tdl'sN½aKar k*tSgVj'sMedAeTArk

bnæb'VrSg. cMENkVrSgnayTahanVrSgmantSgBIsk¶iBIreTAdl'sk¶i¨VM VnVj'mkv^j

y"agxÂSgkÂa.

enAmat'CeN¶Ir

VrSgVnTajtuTUXSgpÂèvmin[eyIgcUlVn.

nay¨kumeyIg

E¨skbJØa[cUl EtcUlmincuH ¨Kan'EtVnKb'¨Kab'EbkeTAe¨Jg¨Jt eFÃI[VrSgTIenaHdYlcuH

xÂHbu"eNöaH e¨kABIenaHvaVj'Tb'eyIgCab'. sUmGs'elakG~kBicarNacuHfa

Exµr²s§r:eBlenaHecjedérBI¨kLaj'tSgBI¨Blb'

mkdl'¨kugesomrabem"ag 2 eTAehIy etIGs'kmÂSgbu"Nöa. Edlmkdl'ehIycab'eFÃIkarvay

lukPÂamenH KWeFÃIedaycit¶cg'qab'Etm¶gKµanKitmuxe¨kayGÃIeT. enHehIyCacritrbs'eyIgmYy EbbEdr EdleFÃIkarGÃIminsUvsæg'kmÂSgGatµaägesaH.

äcMENkkEnÂgTSgbYneTot Edlman¨kumTSg 4 CaG~k¨btibti¶karenaH swgmaneCaK

C&ydUc¨Vf~a KWeyIgvaybnæayeCégexµAVn VnkSePÂIg 40 edém enAKukk*vayFÂay enAkEnÂgBIr

eTotk*FÂay srubeTAVnGavuFC^t 100 edém. GavuFTSgenaH nSK~am~Im~aelIkdak'elILan ¨bug

nSecjeTAtampÂèvGgðrvt¶. EtKYr[esIceTAcuH eBlEdldak'GavuFelILanehIy tSge¨bIK~aäg

[ebIkLan, KµannrNam~ak'ecHesaH tSgnSK~aerIykGavuFenaHBILanmkv^jkan'm~ak'mYy@ eTA

v^j sl'bu"nµanTukelILandEdl. KiteTAcMNayeBlGt'¨beyaCn_ e¨JHEtminVnsaksYr

K~a[d·gmun. NamYyxÂacVrSgmksågðb'v^jpg maneTA¨sçlGI mkcMNayeBlelIkdak' dUec~H.

äcMENk¨kumTI1 EdlminGacTmÂaysN½aKarVn mkBIm´"agVrSgenABIelI m´"ageTot

eyIgePÂccab'PÂwkBIerOgsUrs&Bæ

eBlenaHyb'gg·tEmnehIy

EdlecjBIxÂçneyIgnS[VrSgd·gVn

ehIyVj't¨mg'mk.

Etdl'VrSgva¾sUrEr"ker"akrbs'EdleyIgsõay

vad·gvaVj'

¨VvmkEtm¶g eFÃI[eyIgruleTAmuxBuMrYcesaH. sUrEr"ker"akenaH KWsUrsÂab¨Jnigq~SgEdleyIg

sõayenaHTgð^cK~a. edérFmµta ²tTgð^cK~a¾sUrGÃIeT luHmkdl'rt' k*Tgð^cK~aer"akr"ak@ Etm¶g.

eyIgrt'eTANak*¾sUr dUcCasJïa[VrSgd·gEtm¶g dUec~HeTaHbIVj'eyIgmin¨tèvk¶I k*

Vj'e¨sacmkEdr bß^HxÂçn. ehtuenHeTIbeyIgcUlBuMVn.

karenHCabTeronmYyEdr famunnwgeFÃIGÃI@ ¨tèvEtKit[Vnlíitlín'swmeFÃI. cMENk¨kum

TI 5 EdlVneTAvaypæHKijnigpæHKyenaH VncUleTAVj'emKyCatiVrSgm~ak'sÂab'enATIenaH Etm¶g emKyCatiVrSgman¨bBnìCatilav.

eBlenaHem"ag 6 ¨Bwklµm BYk²s§r:eyIgxÂHkMBuge¨tg¨tagedérerIskSePÂIgEdlTahan

VrSgTukecal ¨sab'Et¨keLkeTAPUmiCay¨kug k*eXIjT&BVrSgkMBugsgŬjcUlmkv^j. eTIb d·gfa «Gya" BYkGaenHePosxÂçnBIyb' eTAe¨kAbeN¶ay[ägGukL¬kbnæayvacuH vacS¨kesab

ägBIe¨kAmkv^jeTetI! minekIteT! kuMenAe¨tg¨tagdl'NaeTot. em¨kumTSgGs' E¨skbJØa[

fytamkºçnyuTìsaås¶eqõaHeTATisxageCég tampÂèvGgðrvt¶. TSgGs'K~afyeTAKµanbgíg' BYkTa

hanVrSg KWVj'e¨Jg¨Jtmk rYcedjtameyIgrhUtnKrvt¶. TSgGs'K~abMEbkK~abMVt'dan

rYck*tSgeFÃId÷eNIreqõaHeTAkMBg'fûèvEtm¶g.


26 karvay¨kugesomrabenH minsnµtfaeCaKC&yÉbraC&yGÃIeT bu"En¶Ca¨semaltsUßmYy

EdleFÃI[BYkGaNaniKmVrSg P&yEpímmat'mYy¨Kad*FMeTAEdr ehIyvaGacbN¶¬HTwkcit¶Exµrä

eTot[PÆak'rlwkeLIgpg.

Btámane¨kaykarvay¨bhar manGMeBIKYr[QWcab'mYyEdlKYrnSykmkC¨mab.

BYk²s§r:munnwgdkfyecjBIlan¨byuTìVnnSK~anSG~krbYs¨sal@ mktam äG~k

rbYsF©n'ykmkBuMrYc k*nSK~a¨Kah_ykeTAdak'enAnwgmuxKiland½an¨kug. edayKiteXIjfa:

BYkbuKðlikeBT´Kg'mancit¶FmáCYyB´aVlEdr.

bu"En¶mandUceyIg

KitäNa? e¨kayEdlVncUlmkkan'kab'¨kugv^j PÂamenaHBYkVrSgVnbJØa[elIk²s§r:

G~krbYsTSgbu"nµandak'elILanTahand·kecjBITI¨kug dl'«¨BehIyk*[Qb' rYcelIkG~krbYs TSgenaHeVHmkdéVj'ecalmYym¶g@ smÂab'TSgGs' tacºab'skl

(1)

. KiteTACaGMeBI«¨B«p§Emn. tamFmµ-

erOgsågðameKminEdlsmÂab'eQÂIysågðameT

²s§r:CaeQÂIy EdlKµanGavuFenA«dEfmTSgmanrbYseTotpg. cMENkenAsala¨sukBYkäeNaH

ehIyäeNHVrSgsmÂab'Exµr

e¨kaykarvay¨bharrbs'BYk²s§r:

BYkVrSgk*

cab'BYkbuKðliksik§amanelak sMeGO CaG~kkILaVl'Tat'eCégäkxagcSTIC÷nan'enaHvaysÂab'

nigP~ak'garsala¨sukykeTAcgvaysmÂab'Gs'Cae¨cInK~a

edayvaecaTfaBYkTSgenHcUl«d

nwgBYk²s§r: k~¬gkarvay¨bharenH. BIe¨JHkalBIkºall©ac BYkbuKðliksik§anigbuKðliksa

la¨suke¨cInK~a CYbCu÷K~asIuelog. dl'kN¶alGa¨Fa¨t BYk²s§r:k*vay¨VvmkEtm¶g VrSg vaecaTfaBYkenH[«deTABYk²s§r:

(2)

tamBitBuMmanesaH bu"En¶VrSgEdlvarkEt{kaseFÃIVb

Exµr k*ecHEtecaTy"agh~wgeTA.

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (1)

erOgenHd·gedaysarelak

s-sug

rd½mån¶I¨ksYgksikmµ,

kaleNaHelakCakUnsis§salaext¶

esomrab . (2)

d·gerOgenHedaysarelak Nub- quM tMNagraås¶sBëf©, kaleNaHelakCa¨Kèbe¨gonenAext¶esomrab.


27

karbMEbkK~a«nBYk²s§r: bnæab'BIkardkfyGMBI¨kugesomrab, BYk²s§r:VneFÃId÷eNIrmktampÂèvkMBg'fûèv ehIy

mkQb'enACYrP~MdgErk.

edémºI[Vnrs'¨sYl BYk²s§r:VnbMEbkK~aCabI¨kum. ¨kumTI 1 man dab-QYn Caem,

¨kumTI 2 manelak Ehm-savag nigelak sarU Caem, ¨kumTI 3 maneQµaHEdlxƬMePÂceQµaH ¨kumenHVnmkenAnwgsÃayeck.

cMnYnT&BkaleNaH mYy¨kum@ man 35 É 40 É 50 nak'. meF´aVyciJÍwmkgT&B Ca

Par:enAelIem¨kumEdlkaleNaHeKe¨bIkUnecArbs'eK

[edér«rGgðasGgûr¨tIsac'Caesº¿g

GMBI¨bCaraås¶. edaytMbn'enaHCatMbn'BMusUvman¨bCaCne¨cIn kar«rGgðas¨bEm¨bmUlesº¿g s¨mab'ciJÍwmCév^tenaH VnedaytictYcs¶çces¶IgNas'.

cMENkxƬM bußNöcnæ-mu"l manmYy¨kumep§g mancMnYnticK~aeT VnhYseTAenAVgkkEt

m¶g CamYymaxƬM bu"k-KuN ehA ¨tLac EdlKat'manpæHmYyeTotenA¨kugVgkk napÂèv¨ckEsg

cnæ tMbn'¨BHx~èg. VnCamaxƬMnigxƬMnSK~aecalVt'd÷bgnigGnÂg'v^l BIe¨JHkaleNaHKWCaeBl

EdlraCkarVrSg-Exµr VnTarykEx¨tVt'd÷bgBIesomVnmkv^jehIy ehIykan'kab'Ex¨t enH EdleFÃI[BYkxƬMBMuGacsÄitenAekIt.

¨tg'eNH xƬMsUmebIkvg'¨kck C¨mabGs'elakG~kbMVt'karsg§&ybn¶icfa ehtuGÃIVn

CaxƬMBuM¨BmcUlmkrYbrYmnigrd½aPiVlVrSg-Exµrv^j

ebIEx¨tVt'd÷bg¨tèvVnmkExµrv^jehIy

enaH? ebIxƬM¨sLaj'Cati kaleXIj¨sukeTsVnTamTarEx¨tBIG~kEkºrxagVnehIy KYrEt

sbºaycit¶ ehIycUlmkrYbrYmnwgrd½aPiVlv^j. enHmindUec~aH EbrCaeVlcUleTA¨sukEdl


28 Cas¨tèvrbs'CatieTAv^jqû¬y! etIxƬMminsbºaycit¶nwgext¶Vt'd÷bg¨tèvVnmkExµrÉ? ebIminEmn eT etIxƬMenAEtsíb'VrSgEdlK~axMTamTarVt'd÷bg[Exµrv^jÉ? ¨tg'eNH xƬMsUmC¨mab[cºas'las'dUcteTA:

TI 1- Exµr²s§r: VnciJÍwmcit¶KiteXIjfa ¨beTsExµrTSgmUlBuMTan'VnäkraC´enA

eLIyeT ¨tèvEttsUßrMedaH¨sukTSgmUl[putBInwmVrSgEss, äerOgext¶Vt'd÷bgenaH k*Cakmµ vtĬ«nkarTamTarrbs'Exµr²s§r:Edr KWfa Exµr²s§r:tSgcit¶fa nwgTamTarEx¨tenHBIesomEdr enA«f©NamYy.

²LèvebIraCkarVrSg-ExµrTamTarEx¨tenHVnmkmun

k*BYk²s§r:CYyGrEdr

bu"En¶minsUvsbºaycit¶¨tg'EdlfaEx¨tenH vaeTAenAk~¬g«dVrSgdEdl vaBuMenAelI«dExµresaH.

TI 2- erOgpæal'xÂçn, rUbxƬMBuMGaccUl¨sukExµrekIteT tºitxƬMecjBIKukekaH¨tLacenaH min

Tan'dl'q~SecjäNa? xƬMecjBIKukenaH mYyq~Smunsal¨kmse¨mc[ecj. dUec~HxƬMenAC÷Jk' KukekaH¨tLac 1 q~SeTotäeNaH. G~kdak'KukxƬMKWVrSg G~kedaHxƬMKWCbu"n

(1)

. ²LèvBYkVrSg

cab'TSgelak sWug-gu"kfaj' Caembk§rbs'xƬMeTAehIy ebIxƬMcUleTA¨sukv^j etIVrSgva¨bNI xƬMÉ? ¨VkdNas' vamuxCabJØènxƬM[eTAekaH¨tLacCafµé Ék*y"agNay"agNIeTotminxan.

TI 3- Exµr²s§r: kMBugmanlTìPaB nwgB¨gék²TìiBl BIe¨JHeBlenaHclnatsUßrMedaH

¨sukrbs'yYn k*VnpuspuleLIgEdr EdleyIgehAfa ¨kumeyokmijenAkalenH. ExµrtsUß

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29 eday¨bkarep§geTA. enHCaKMniteKedérelIeyIg. eyIgd·g. ehtuenHeTIbeyIgecHEt¨by&t~

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30

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d·gkn¬kken¿t nigelak

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31 eFÃIkarekItenaH min¨besIreT. ebIecHENnSK~a[rYbrYmK~a kicÍkarGacedéreTAVn¨sçlCaCagEbk

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mYyKt' EdlsBëf©enH ¨tèvVnCaPriyaelak hg§-Funhak'.

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32 eT.

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cM! äBYk²s§r:kaleNaHk*rebobh~wgEdr! critExµrmanEtmYyGIucwg!

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33

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kkKµanrbrGÃInwg¨bkb enAq~S 1948 xƬMk*VnmkenAGarJï. munnwgniyayBId÷eNIrcUleTA¨suk v^j xƬMsuMrMlwkerOgmYy Edls[eXIjcit¶minesµaHrbs'esomcMeJHeyIg. kaleNaHmanem

eQµaH epAplit GP&yvg§ CaecAelak kfafn (kTaFr) (G~kVt'd÷bgehAfaelakmÍas'@)

manExµrm~ak'eQµaH QYn EdrCaemrg. eQµaH QYn Vnlbcab'BYkExµr²s§r:enAe¨kam{vaT

elak ta¨tLac maxƬMBIrnak'eQµaH¨Kè rs-yWn mUy, eQµaH mIu-PUrinæ mYy. ¨Kè rs-yWn nig muI-PUrinæ

(1)

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rs-yWn nig muI-PUrinæ eTAsmÂab'enAnwgXuMtabB´"aTSgBIrnak'. VnbI«f©eTAbYn«f© eTIbVnd÷Nwg

enHeTAdl'maxƬMäVgkk

nak'eTot

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xƬMVnykTSg¨bdab'ft

rUbeTApg Tukftexµac. p~èrG~kTSgBIrenAXÂatBIK~a¨bEhl 5 Em"¨t. xƬMsuMGnuJïatKas'kayp~èr

mit¶emIl[cºas'. KµannrNaCYyKas'kayeT xƬMkayKas'edayxÂçnägp~èrelak¨Kè rs-yWn.

exµac 5-6 «f©ehImrsaykiÂnGesac_^eBjbnæ¬k dgûèvbu"n@ kUn«d xƬMk*tSgftykPinPaKVnsBÃ

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exµacmanBIr ¨tèvEtmansMNuMerOgBIrEdr ftEtmYyxÃHmYyVnGÃIbMeBjsMNuMerOg! [xƬMsuMGnu-

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ (1)- elakPUrinæ ¨tèvCabg«fÂrbs'elak Nub-quM.


34 JïatKas'mYyeTotcuH!

t¨mçtenaHk*niyaydac'xatfa:

manbJØaBIemmkfa[¨Kan'EtnSK~amk

emIlbu"eNöaH KµanGnuJïat[ft[GIeT! bu"En¶²LèvebIftmYyk*fteTAcuH! rYct¨mçtenaHniyay

fa: ²LèvenH[xƬMsuM¨bdab'ftrUbnighÃIlm_k~¬genHykeTAp¶^tmkCUnelak! rYcbgÅ÷edaHhÃIlm_enaH

eTA. eKb÷Vt'erOgenaHrhUteTA. xƬMk*cab'yl'fa {! GaenHelgElºgfõ^nEP~keTetI vaj¬Hjg'[ ExµrnigExµrsmÂab'K~a vaeFÃICaCYyQWqíal! hWu !

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ce¨mInbu"nµaneT enA¨Kan'EtrkpÂèvcUlmk¨beTskmõ¬Cav^jbu"eNöaH e¨JHeBlenaHrd½aPiVlExµr

cab'ep¶émGMJvnav[BYk²s§r:cuHcUlehIy. äxƬMVnCaBiVkcUl e¨JHdUcGs'elakG~k¨Cab ¨sab' xƬMenAC÷Jk'Tak'TinnwgerOgneyaVyFM@ ¨BmTSgCaG~keTasekaH¨tLacecjBIekaHmunkM

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pg [s¨mçlkarenH. luHVn¨sçl

ehIy enA«f©TI 29 kkûda 1949 xƬMk*VncUlmk¨beTsExµrv^j.

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35 bnæab'BIrbrsßysßavenH

xƬMEbkKMnitKitrksuICaG~kedérftrUbv^jm¶g

e¨JHkaleNaH

raCkarbegûét[manGt¶sJïaNb&NömanbiTrUbftCasMKal' cMeJH¨bCaCnTUeTA. xƬMxÍIrfyn¶

h§IbmYyrbs'bgbußNöcnæ-fat'enATenÂbiT ebIkbrftrUb[eKenA¨Kb'¨cklúk tSgBIext¶kMBg' cam-kN¶al- Vt'd÷bg nigesomrab. ext¶TSgBIrxage¨kay (KWVt'd÷bgnigesomrab) enHxÆuM¬

¨tèvekItmanerOgFM@ EdlxƬMKYrykmkC÷rabEdr.

ext¶Vt'd÷bg xƬMcUleTA¨bkbrbrftrUbenHCamYybíèn¨buseBAxƬMeQµaH bußNöcnæ-faNa

rit minVnyUrbu"nµan ¨sab'Etmanem²s§r:EdleTIbekItfµém~ak'eQµaH hußlvg§GanuPaB Vn

¨Vb'kUnecA«deCégeKfa

ebIeXIjeQµaHxƬMÉk*bíèn¨busxƬMcUleTAk~¬gtMbn'eK

¨tèv[kab'smÂab'

ecalkuM¨bNI. bíènxƬMVnd·gd÷NwgenH rt'mk¨Vb'xƬM. xƬMnwkq©l'e¨JHmind·gCaeQµaH hußlvg§

GanuPaB enaHsíb'xƬMBIerOgGI. Kit@ eTAyl'fa¨bEhlCaelakenaHsíb'xƬMe¨JHxƬMFÂab'eFÃICaem

²s§r: ehIyBYk²s§r:knxƬMenaHlºIeQµaHsemºIm kaleTAvay¨kugesomrabenaHk*mind·g. BI

e¨JH sUm¨Cabfa sm&yenaH¨kumxƬMekItmuneKbgís'k~¬g¨sukExµr. kMeNItenaHehIyEdlGac

sayPay nS[ekItExµr²s§r:t@ mkeTote¨Jg¨Jt. TSgBYkFÂab'eFÃIecar k*mantSgxÂçnCa

²s§r:Edr Edlsm&yenaHG~k¨suk[eQµaHKnÂas'fa ÇGuiser"acak', ²s§r:ecarÈ KWBYkenH

ehIyEdlbÂn'Lan bÂn'kV"l' cab'mnus§bgðab'yk¨Vk' .l. kkUr¨suk[ekItclacl G~k

¨sukPitP&y¨Cçl¨cbl'¨Kb'kEnÂg. G~kxÂHBIedémeKehAGacar´ luHeLIgeCarsíb'FmáesovePA k*

eq¿tcUl²s§r:ecar KitEtBIedérdutbMpÂajKmõérdékak~¬gvt¶Gs' manem²s§r:eQµaHGacar´ yI Ca

edém G~kTenÂFMsðal'ehIy. ²s§r:duHdUcp§it Etmind·gCamanÓt¶mKti¨tg'NaeT Edlbgúaj

[eXIjfaes~haCatienaH ebImansuTìEtBYkbÂn' BYkdutKmõérdékaecal edaysíb'FmáesovePA

ecaTBYkFmáesovePAfaFmáfµéy"agenH. BYkenaHKµanKitBIrMedaH¨sukeTsGÃIeT. Gs'elakekµg@ ¨skre¨kayEdlekItminTan'erOgclacl bgûeLIgedayBYkGiuser"acak'enHeT, emIldl'¨tg'

eNHsUm¨bjab'gakeTAsYrbJØak'cas'@ EdlenAEkºr@ xÂçnenHemIlebImineC¯. G~kenAP~MeBj

enH xÂHk*VnmkenAedaysarBYkenaHGukL¬kxÂSgnasm&yenaHEdr sUmesIubemIlcuHebImineC¯.

cMENkem²s§r:eQµaH hußlvg§GanuPaB EdlcSbMVt'rUbxƬMenaH ¨bEhlCamkBIE¨kg

xÂçnxƬMcUleTAtMbn'Kat' xÂçnKat'mankarGab'muxGab'mat'k*mind·g e¨JHxƬMCaem²s§r:tSgBId÷bUgTI

ehIyFÂab'lºIk~¬gerOgvayVrSgenA¨kugesomrabenaH.

Ety"agNak*eday xƬMFÂab'sðal'critExµrxÂHEdr ehIyxØilcg'Q~Hcg'caj' suxcit¶Qb'

cUleTAk~¬gtMbn'enaHeTA.

bnæab'BIenaH xƬMcUleTAkan'esomrab. KWTIenHehIy EdlnS[xƬMeXIj dab-QYn sg

KuNxƬMrebobNaenaH.

¨tg'eNHehIyEdlxƬMsresrBIxagedémenaHfa:

dab-QYny"agNaCamYyxƬMenaH.

[Gs'elakcSemIl

sUmrMlwkeLIgv^jfa dab-QYnVncuHcUlnwgsem¶csIhnu enA«f©TI 1 tula 1949

ehIysem¶csIhnuVntemûIg dab-QYn CaemT&B¨tçt¨taext¶esomrab nigkMBg'FM.


36 xƬMcUleTArksIuenAext¶esomrab VncUleTAC÷rabsuMelakdab-QYntampÂèvkar tºiteK

Ca¨bFanenAext¶enaH. dab-QYn VnTTYledayrIkray niyayfaminGIeT GeJØIjrksIutam

s¨mçlcuH xƬMnwg[eKCYyemIlpg kuM¨BYy.

xƬMnwkGrKuNdab-QYnsnìwk. bu"En¶xƬMkMBug¨bkbrbrenHminTan'Vnbu"nµanpg ¨sab'Et

es¶c¨taj'enH rkerOgedaypÂèvsm©at' [eKcab'xƬMykeTAsmÂab'Etm¶g. xƬMd·gBtámanenHeday

sarsk¶ibIm~ak'enAk~¬gkgT&Bdab-QYnEdl¨sLaj'xƬMesµaH

e¨JHeKBIedémeKCakUnecArbs'xƬM

Edr eKVn¨Vb'xƬMfa [¨bjab'fyeTA tºitdab-QYnkMBugcat'kar[eKlbcab'xƬMehIy. xƬMnwk

hYscit¶Etm¶g

erOgenHminxusBIerOge¨BgExµrEdlniyayBIerOg²sICbqµa[eTACaxÂaenaHeT.

erOgenaHEcgfa: ta²sIciJÍwmqµamYy eday¨sLaj'qµaenaH k*Cbva[kÂayeTACaxÂa. xÂaenHKit

eXIjfa GtItkalrbs'GjCaqµa elakta²sICbGj teTAebIeKd·gfaGjmanedémkMeNItCa qµa Gjmin¨besIreT. edémºIkuM[eKd·gfaGjBIedémCaqµa Gj¨tèvEtsmÂab'²sIenaHecal e¨JH

ebITukKat'[enA smKat'niyayerOgedémkMeNItGj nS[GjefakTab. KitehIyk*¨bug¨b

har²sI Et²sId·gTan'k*eFÃI[xÂaenaHkÂayeTACaqµav^jeTA. dab-QYn¨bEhlCacg'bMVt'GtIt

kalrbs'Kat'CamYyxƬM eTIb¨tèvEtkMcat'xƬMenaHäg. Ék*mkBI¨KaenaHxƬMBuMVn[k«¨mGÃIesaHdl'

rUbKat'k*mind·g VnCaKat'cgGaXatB´aVTdl'f~ak'enH e¨JHsm&yenaHKat'¨tèvkarsYysar Gakrsnìwksnìab'Nas' efAEkcin¨Bin¨Kb'@ K~a¨tèvEtEsne¨BnKat'Kµansl'kºalmYy. xƬMminGacenAVnk*nSK~IK~acakecjBIext¶esomrab¨bjab'¨bjal'.

enHehIyerOgxƬMCa

mYyelakdab-QYn Edle¨kaymkeKsðal'eQµaHfa dab-QYnmجleB¨C enaH.

xƬMmkenAP~MeBjv^j ehIyKitfarkrbrNa[Vn¨sçl kuM[c¨mègc¨masdUcenHeTot.

ehIyerOg ÇneyaVyÈ xƬMBuMePÂceT dUceKej¿nnwgGaePondUec~aHEdr. xƬMVncUlbe¨mIKNbk§

neyaVyenAedémq~S

1950

rhUt

1951

EdlxƬMnwgsresrC¨mabteTAeTotenAC÷BUkxag

e¨kay. xƬMsUmbJØak'enATIenH[ehIyfa tSgBIenA«¨BrhUtcUl¨sukv^j xƬMVnsMKal'eXIjfa

BYkenA¨sukKMnitemniym p¶ac'karniym kab'smÂab'K~a mandUcK~a dUcCaBYkenAk~¬g«¨BEdr dEdl

CadEdl. enHehIycritExµr!

R

R R


37

xƬMcUlKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ k~¬geBlEdlxƬMVncUlmk¨sukv^jenH ExµreyIgmanKNbk§neyaVy tamlkÅN:

¨bCaFibety´EdrehIy tamrd½FmµnuJïEdl¨Tg'sIusuvtiÄ yuti¶vg§ nig elak eGov-ekIs Vn

ksageLIg. q~SEdlxƬMcUlmkenaH KNbk§EdlxƬMGacrMlwkVnenAeBlenaHKW: -

KNbk§¨bCaFibety´

elak eGov-ekIs

-

KNbk§esrIPaB

nrinæedt -

rUb¨VsaTkMBUlbICasJïalkÅN_,

KNbk§exmrbu"n~kar

ln'-nl' -

KNbk§tMekIg¨bCaCati elakEy"m-sMbUr

-

rUbkºald÷rIkan'pûaQUkbICasJïalkÅN_,

d·knSeday

d·knSeday¨Tg'

rUbnagKgúég¨BHFrNICasJïalkÅN_

nerat¶m

d·knSedayelak

rUbhnuman¨TEpnTI¨sukExµrCasJïalkÅN_d·knSeday

KNbk§cMerInCati rUb¨BçjTm¬HkgbYn rbs'elak Ca C^nkuk

KNbk§øsanmanC&y rUbTg'CatiBIrExÃgK~a¨Tmû¬d CasJïalkÅN_rbs'elak em"A

cy -

KNbk§rYbrYmCati

KNbk§¨bCaCn rUbngð&lCasJïalkÅN_

KNbk§ rUbsMbukXµ¬Mrbs'elak m"m suTì (minEmn m"m suTì Tutiymºi²LèvenHeT)

KNbk§ rUbkeNë¿v

KNbk§rUbkN¶ab'¨sèv- sM ej¿n Caem .


38 FmµtaG~kneyaVy Etgej¿nnwgerOgneyaVy y"agNamij rUbxƬMEdlFÂab'Cab'Kuk

e¨JHerOgneyaVyk*enAEtcg'¨bLèkk~¬gElºgenHEdr.

xagKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ manK~IK~axƬMCae¨cInVncUlbMerI manelak V"c-QWn, Cu÷-

mYg CaedémEdlFÂab'EtrYmskmµPaBneyaVytSgBIq~S 1936 mkenaH. xƬMmkdl'PÂam elak

miuj-Na¨KI nigelak Cu÷-mYg VnmkCYbxƬM ehAxƬM[cUlKNbk§¨bCaFiety´. manxagKN

bk§äeTotEdr EdlmkTak'Tg EtxƬMBuMVncUl xƬMTTYlcUlxagKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ Edl manK~axƬMe¨cIn¨sab'. xƬMk*VnCYbpæal'nigelak eGov-ekIs bMerIKNbk§¨bCaFibety´tmk.

sUmrMlwkfa nItikalTI 1 «nsPaCatiEdlebIksm&yBI«f© 21 Ex mkra 1948 sma

C^kPaKe¨cInCaKNbk§¨bCaFiety´ (kºald÷rI). sPaCatiEdlmankrNIykicÍkarJrrd½Fmµ-

nuJï karJrlTiì¨bCaFiety´ EtgEt¨tèvrgGMeBIC^HCan'rbs'hÂçgsIhnuCanicÍ. rd½FmµnuJïEdl

Vn¨bkase¨bIBIq~S 1947 rhUtmkEtgrGak'rGYlCanicÍ bN¶almkBIes¶csIhnuEdlKµan

TsBiFraCFmáesaH ecHEtEkrd½FmµnuJï¨tLb'¨tLinkarJrEt¨beyaCn_nigzan:k§¨t.

ehIyd·gy"agNaeT? edayminsbºaycit¶nwgKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ Edlman¨bCa

¨biyPaBCagxÂçn ¨BmTSgeFÃIkarminsUv¨sbnwgbMNgxÂçnenaH, enA«f©TI 17 kJïa 1949 es¶c

sIhnuVn¨bkasrMlaysPaCatinItikalTI 1 enaHeTA.

karenaHeFÃI[¨bCaCnExµr Vt'mat'Vt'kElghßankík¨KEhm¨twmeNaH xÂacsÂab'eday

sar¨BHkruNaCaGmÍas'Cév^telItºèg.

ehIyeKd·gfa

emIleTA¨Bwti¶karN_¨sukeTsmuxCamin

sUvE¨b¨bçl¨cbUk¨cbl'GÃIteTAeToteT. bu"En¶mans©b'äNa enA«f©esAr_ 14 mkra 1950

¨sab'Et¨Bwti¶karN_mYyekIteLIgdUcrnæH eFÃI[G~kP~MeBjPÆak'epíél rhUtdl'¨sukE¨scMkarniKm

CnbT KWd÷NwgmrNPaB«nelak eGov-ekIs GtIt¨bFansPaCati bcͬbºn~GKðelxaFikar

KNbk§¨bCaFibety´ Edl¨tèvCnm~ak'eVH¨Kab'EbkeFÃIXatelak enATIs~ak'karKNbk§¨b

CaFibety´ elx 67 pÂèvÓkj"ap¬g C^tkac'¨C¬gv^fé 9 tulasBëf©enH.

sUmC¨mabfa q~SEdlelak eGov-ekIs TTYlmrNPaBenaH elak Ey"m-sMbUr

Canaykrd½mån¶I, elak ecA-Esnkusl Card½mån¶I¨ksYgyuti¶Fmá, nigmanelak tan'-Kimtwk

CaemKij, elak esg-TiB Caemb"UlIsenAtMbn'p§arfµé EdlmannaTIemIleTAdl'pÂèvÓkj"ap¬g enaHpg.

eKG~k¨kugP~MeBjTSgmUl kaleNaHswgEtyl'faelak eGov-ekIs sÂab'enHKWeday

Ke¨magÓbXatrbs'es¶csIhnuEtm¶g.

e¨JH¨BHGgðnigBYkbrivarelak

BuMEmncg'eXIjCév^t

elak eGov-ekIs rs'enAkarJrrd½FmµnuJï karJrlTiì¨bCaFiety´enaHkalNa.

¨KaEdlsmÂab'elak eGov-ekIs sÂab'ehIy eKEbrCaeTAcab'smaC^kKNbk§esrI-

PaBm~ak' eQµaH nUy"a enAbwg¨byabykmkvaysYrcemÂIy vaybgÅ÷[eqÂIyfaxÂçnBitCaXatkr

eFÃIXatelak eGov-ekIs. kaleNaHG~kP~MeBjx§wbex§¿vK~afa: ÇneyaVyenaHeqItNas'

Tat'mYyVnBIrEtm¶gÈ

Vnesck¶IfaeKsmÂab'em¨bCaFiety´ehIy

eKdEdlh~wgeFÃI[xag

KNbk§esrIPaBenaH Cab'erOgra"veTAEdr. G~kP~MeBjyl'fa erOgh~wgf·õnEP~ksuTìsaF e¨JH


39 xagKNbk§rge¨KaHKµannwkeXIjfaKNbk§esrIPaBCaKU¨bqSgmksgswkEbbenHpgeT. xƬM

mkCYbehtukarN_d*semºImenH k*PÆak'xÂçndUceKkån¶ak' nwkfa {! neyaVyBYkk~¬g¨suk minxus

BIneyaVyBYkk~¬g«¨BEdlxƬMFÂab'rs'enACamYyenaHbu"nµaneT.

kab'smÂab'K~a²tGaNit

dUcxƬM

VnniyayTukmkehIy enHehIycritExµr! ebIrvl'Et¨bkab'¨bcak' bMVt'Cév^tK~ay"agenH man

eBläNanwgksag¨sukeTs? ksag¨beyaCn_rYmekIt? hWu Gkusl!

xƬMEdleTIbEtVncUlk~¬gKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ k*dUcCaVnmkTTYlmrNsJïa nig

CYyEhsBelakGtIt¨bFan eGov-ekIs Etm¶g. sBelak eGov-ekIs ¨tèvVndEgúykeTA

tMkl'enAeKhd½anelak enApÂèvPatrPaB (GtItsIusuvtiÄ) mat'Ten pæHelx 233 xagtºègvt¶Ekv ¨BHePÂIg eFÃIbuN´TkÅiNanubºTanGs' 7 yb' 7 «f©. ehIyenA«f©TI 22 mkra 1950 sBrbs'

elak¨tèvdEgúCakºçny"agmehaLarik

eqõaHeTAbUCaenAvt¶bTumvt¶I .

kºçndEgúenaHK¨KwkKe¨Kg

(rUbft 1 : mQUssBäkÓt¶m eGov-ekIs Vn¨buge¨bobdEgúecj) (minmanlTìPaBdak'CUn)

semºImNas' xƬM¨tèvKN:kmµkarbuN´ cat'[nSmuxkºçnEdldEgúbt'EbntampÂèvCae¨cInna¨kug

P~MeBj KWecjBIeKhd½ansBpÂèvPatrPaB (GtItpÂèvsuIsuvtiÄ) ¨tg'eTAxagtºèg bt'eTAlic dl' (rUbft 2 : kºçndEgúsB äkÓt¶m eGov-ekIs «f©TI 22 mkra q~S1950) (minmanlTìPaBdak'CUn)

(rUbft 3 : BiFIbg§¬kUl enAmuxmnæIrsPaCatism&yenaH) (minmanlTìPaBdak'CUn)

pÂèv 9 tulasBëf© k*edértampÂèvenHmkxageCég mkdl'pÂèvsWnKuysBëf© k*edértamenHrhUtdl'

mat'Ten pÂèvPatrPaBv^j. rYckºçnk*td÷eNIrsn§wm@tampÂèvenH rhUtdl'pÂèvÓkj"aQun eTIb bt'cUlmklicv^j mkdl'muxmnæIrsPaCati kºçnVnQb' ehIynimn¶¨BHsgôbg§¬kUlCUnsB

enATIenaHeday¨sgUt¨sgat'. bnæab'mkeTIbkºçntd÷eNIrtampÂèvÓkj"aQunmkliceTot eTIb cUleTAtºègtampÂèvvt¶buTmvtIeTAQb'enAQabnd½anvt¶buTmvtIenaH edémºIbUCa. G~kenAP~MeBj

cUlrYbrYmk~¬gkºçnenHCae¨cIn¨kumCae¨cInBYk ¨bkbedayTwkmuxe¨kom¨kMCaTIbMput. karmYyeTot

EdlTukdUcCaGsÍar´bn¶icEdr KWeBldEgúsBenaH tMkl'elIV"qaVnbn¶ic ¨BHPiruNbgí¬rcuHmk

rYcemX¨sTuM¨sTn'dUcCaecHkan'TukÅ cMeJHmrNPaBrd½bursExµrenHEdr. Gs'elakenAP~MeBj

cas'@ GacnwgniyayerOgenHeLIgv^jVn sUmbíèn@ ¨skrenHsaksYrelakpgcuH.

sm&yenaH, elak eGov-ekIs Vt'bg'Cév^teTA, etIsµartI¨sLaj'lTiì¨bCaFiety´

rbs'raås¶ExµrcuHfyÉ? etIKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ (kºald÷rI) cuHfykmÂSgÉ? minEmneT! pæ¬y BIvtĬbMNgrbs'BBYkraCniym p¶ac'karniym GaNaniKmniym Edlcg'bMVt'lTiì¨bCaFib-


40

(rUbft 4 : BiFIbUCasB äkÓt¶m eGov-ekIs) (minmanlTìPaBdak'CUn)

ety´ nigKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ raås¶ExµrrwtEtmansµartIPÂWfÂaeLIgmYykMriteTot ¨sLaj'

lTiìenHxÂSgeLIg e¨JHeKyl'fa {! lTiìenHmant«mÂNas'etI s¨mab'GjCaraås¶enaH! dUec~H

eTIbeKsmÂab'elak

eGov-ekIs

ecalkuM[elakCYykarJrGjekIt

gg·t K fÂg'eTArab'stvt§eTot kuM[egébPÂWsÃagekIt. kalebIraås¶Exµryl'y"agh~wgehIy

Edlraås¶¨sLaj'y"agelIslub.

KNbk§¨bCaFibety´

R

R R

eKcg'TukGjCaraås¶

k*kÂayeTACaKNbk§


41

xƬMnigKukneyaVym¶geTot cUlmkk~¬gq~S 1951 KNbk§neyaVyVnmanskmµPaBCafµé eday¨bCaCatiExµr¨tèv

kar[manGgðkarnItibJïti¶eLIgv^j. KNbk§¨bCaFibety´

CaKNbk§EdlQrCYrmuxKNbk§äeTot

edayraås¶FÂab'

sðal'nig¨sLaj'. cMeJHrUbxƬMBuMmanBenÂIseT kareXasnaeVHeq~at dUcCakarkMsan¶buN´Tan (rUbft 5 : kareXasnarbs'KNbk§¨bCaFibety´sm&yenaH) (minmanlTìPaBdak'CUn)

suTìsaF tºitxƬMniyayeXasnam¶g@ kEnÂgNak*edayeKTH«dGbGrsaTrBuMEdlxan. m´a"g

eTot eKFÂab'lºIfa xƬM bußNöcnæ-mu"l FÂab'Cab'KukekaH¨tLac FÂab'ksagkMeNIt²s§r:. emÂ"aH

ehIyeKrab'GanxÂSgNas'cMeJHraås¶.

sPaCatinItikalTI 2 k*¨tèvVnekAGImkxagKNbk§¨bCaFibety´y"age¨cIn Edl

manrUbxƬMk~¬genaHm~ak'Edr. nItikalsPaCatiTI2 enHVnebIksm&y¨bCu÷enA«f©TI 4 tula 1951 . ehIyenA«f©TI 12 tula 1951 KN:rd½mån¶Ifµé EdlPaKe¨cInxag¨bCaFibety´ ehIy

Edld·knSedayelak hußy Knì¬l CanaykenaH VnnSsmaC^kmkbgúajxÂçncMeJHsPapg.

(rUbft 6 : ebIksm&y¨bCu÷sPaCatiTI 2 sm&yenaH. rUbBIeqÃgeTAs¶S : CYrxagmux elak sWn-san, ¨Tg' ²ånæavg§ . CYrxage¨kay : elak Cu÷-mYg, xƬM bußNöcnæ-mu"l .) (minmanlTìPaBdak'CUn)

sPaCatieFÃIkarbe¨mIEtÓt¶mKtiCatidEdl karJrEtlTiì¨bCaFibety´dEdl k*minVn

sux¨sYlesaH

ecHEtTTYlkarsgût'sgû^nrbs'es¶csIhnudrab.

ehIyVnEtCagmYyq~S


42 bu"eNöaH edayeyIgecHEtcecsrwgTTwgnwg¨BHGgðxÂSgeBk enA«f©TI 13 mkra 1953 ¨BHGgð

e¨bIGMNacp¶ac'karrMlaysPaCatinItikalTI 2 enaHeTA. xƬM bußNöcnæ-mu"l nigG~k¨bqSgecj

muxe¨cInK~a ¨tèv«deCég¨BHGgðcab'GUskºalbJÍèlKukk~¬geBlenaHeTA. Cév^txƬM, Cab'KukelIkTI2

nwgelIkenHehIy!. {! GnicÍakmµKuk, GIk*G~k¨sLaj'xƬMemÂ"H? Vt'muxxƬMyUrminVnÉ? kalBIq~S

1942 xƬMVnmkCYbnwgG~km¶gehIy ehIyhYsrhUteTAekaH¨tLac, ²Lèvq~S 1953 xƬMmkenH

m¶geTot ehIymind·gCanwgeTANaeToteT?

xƬMcUlKukelIkTI 2 enH Vnsegûtk~¬gKukFMrbs'ExµrKµanxusBIC÷nan'q~S 1942 eT rebob

EbbbTeFÃITaruNkmµmnus§enAdEdl. ehIyxƬMsegûteXIjeKpÍalmnus§edayv^FIEbÂk@ dUcCa

eKykG~keTaseTAcgepíabnwgKl'sÃay[GågûgecamxS E¨skrkBueTìa!

enHCacritG~kd·knSrd½Exµr KµanEkE¨brebobesaH enAEtcas'K¨mwl«¨B«p§dEdl. xƬM¨TS

rs'enAk~¬gKukGkuslGs'eBl 8Ex 20«f© eTIbmanvasnarMedaHrYcmkv^j.

xƬMsUmrMlwkerOgmYy. muneBlrYcBIkarXuMXSg xƬM¨BmTSgmit¶Cae¨cIn VnTTYlesck¶I

ek¶A¨khaytUccit¶

cMeJHemneyaVyKNbk§¨bCaFiety´dUcK~a

EdleKmanvasnalímin

Cab'Kuk eKcUleTA¨V¨s&ynwgBYkxƬMenAk~¬gKuk eKeJlbenæasBYkxƬMfa: Gs'elakeXIjeT?

Gs'elakmineCOxƬM, xƬMVnrMlwke¨cInelIke¨cIn¨KaehIyfa kuM¨bqSgnig¨BHkruNaCaGmÍas'Cév^t elItºèg[esaH, BYkelakmins¶ab'xƬMeT ²LèvTal'EtGIcwgeTA! bu"En¶minGIeT Gs'elaknwgVnrYc

xÂçnk~¬geBlqab'@ enHehIy!

En! vaeTACaGIcwg, KYrNas'EtmklYgelamelIkTwkcit¶K~a mindUec~aHEbrCamkbenæas

dUceKykePÂIgmkcak'elI¨Tèg! enHcritExµrvaGIcwg!

tSgBIecjBIKukkalNa xƬMnwktUccit¶cMeJHxÂçnägy"agxÂSgEdlBIenaHmkenH KµanVn

sux¨sçlesaH Cév^txƬMCaCév^tmansuTìEtbnÂa¨cèg¨cagc¨mègc¨masCanicÍ Kuk¨cvak'Cab'EkgKYr

[sÆb'EsÆg. xƬMdUcCaGs'kmÂSgnwgbe¨mICév^tneyaVy¨twmeNH. xƬMehvht'Nas'ehIy. xƬM k*VndkxÂçnBICév^tenHmYy¨Ka

ehIyEbrCamkxitxM¨bkbrbrTTYlTanciJÍwmCév^tnwg¨Kçsarv^j

m¶g eday¨bkbrbrJNiCØkmµy"agsÃitsÃaj¨bLèkbU"kV"kCamYycineBjTMhwg drabVnman

CévPaBsmrm´Camnus§nwgeKluHsBëf©. bu"En¶eTaHbIlak'xÂçnElgeFÃIneyaVy KitEtrksIuk* eday k*xƬMecHEttamkt'sMKal'sÄankarN_¨sukExµrCadEdlEdr e¨JHdUcVn¨CabehIy G~k

cUlvg'neyaVy eTaHbIXÂatBIvg'eTAehIyk*eday EtgEtlbemIleKG~kfµé EdlkMBugEtkan'

karrd½enaHCadrab. karsMxan'@ EdlxƬMkt'sMKal' ehIyEdlxƬMecHEt¨s«mfarbbrbs'es¶c sIhnu muxCanwgmanehtuGa¨kk'enA«f©NamYy edayeyIgCaraås¶¨TSenAElgVn ¨tèvEtruHerI enaHKWÐ

-

es¶csIhnuyktMENgnaykrd½månI¶mkkan' bnæab'BIrMlaysPaCatinItikalTI 2

q~S 1953 . -

mkBIelakelµaPGMNac

Nak*Vn.

vatykGMNacrd½¨Kb'ya"gmkkan'

edémºIjak'ejaceTA


43 -

es¶csIhnudak'tMENgraC´[es¶cÒBukesayraC´CYsteTA 1955, elakcUl¨b

Lèkk~¬gneyaVy[Vnkb'«d; Gs' edayGanuPaBelak.

KNbk§EdleFÃI¨sbtamrd½FmµnuJï¨tèvrlay@

¨tg'eNHmkBIelakxÂacrlayraCblÂ&gûpg

m~ak'ägpg.

mYyeTotsem¶csIhnueXareXANas'

cg'B¨gékmuxmat'[man¨bCa¨biyPaBEt

cit¶min¨tg'bg'scÍ:eFÃIVbBYkKNbk§¨bCa

Fiety´semºIm. enA«f©TI 11 sIha 1957 sem¶csIhnuVn¨bkas[KN:kmµkarkN¶al«n

KNbk§¨bCaFibety´ cUleTAk~¬g¨BHbrmraCvSgC÷nMuenA¨BHTInSgePaCnIy edémºecaTeqÂIyGMBI vtĬbMNgrbs'KNbk§¨bCaFibety´.

pæal'

eBlenaHmanmnus§e¨cInJn'nak'

äv^T´¬Catik*manp§aybn¶[G~ks¶ab'äeTot¾pg.

VncUleTAs¶ab'

xagKNbk§¨bCaFibety´manrUb

elak sÃay-sUr Ca¨bFan, elak tan'-KImhYn, ¨Tg'nerat¶m-PUris§ra, elak Ekv-mu"g¨KI,

elak KS-er"t CasmaCik. k~¬g{kasebIksm&y¨bCu÷rYc sem¶csIhnu¨bkasy"agmWugm"at'fa

suM[Gs'elakxagKNbk§ kuMbIPitP&yɨBYyVrm¸[esaHk~¬gerOgeKeFÃIVbep§g@, xƬMsuMFana

TSgGs'faKµannrNab"HJl'elakeT elakniyayGÃIniyay[¨tg'@ eTAcuH kuM¨BYy!

eBl¨bCu÷enaH cab'BIem"ag 9 rhUtdl'em"ag 13:40 eTIbcb' KNbk§¨bCaFibety´

VnbgúajnUveKalbMNgEdlrk§alTiì¨bCaFiety´¨sbtamrd½FmµnuJïBit¨Vkd eFÃI[sem¶c

sIhnuminsbºaycit¶esaHeLIy. äBYkEqûCabrivarsIhnuv^j qab'yl'¨BHT&ysIhnuCamÍas'

Nas'eTAeTot BYkenaHcS[Etcb'eBl¨bCu÷nwgeramxSBYkGs'elakKNbk§¨bCaFibety´[ k§&yEtm¶g. Emn, sIhnuCamÍas'rbs'vahamEtmat'eT k~¬gcit¶KWBn´¬HvaCaEqû[cS¨tVk'kºal eKCae¨sc. ¨Kan'EtC÷nuMcb'PÂam elak sÃay-sUr, elak Ekv-m"ug¨KI, ¨Tg'nerat¶m-PUris§ra

ecjtamTÃarxageCégk*¨tèvBYkenaH E¨skeCrm¶aytay{BukdUcCaBYkVtp§arGavaEs ¨BmTSg B&TìKb'du÷fµe¨Jg¨Jt eTAelIelak sÃay-sUr d÷NMCageK tSgBIk~¬gvSgrhUte¨kAvSgEbkmux

Ebkmat'Gs'. elak tan'-KimhYn nigelak KS-er"t ecjeTATÃarxagekItrYcxÂçn bu"En¶VnP&y¨B

lwgcugsk'mintic. enHCalkÅN:e¨TIsX~grbs'sem¶csIhnu EdlcUlcit¶eVkbeJÏateK[

sÂab'tamKMnitefakTab.

- es¶csIhnueLIgeCar edayecHEts¶ab'Jk´beJØarrbs' cin-yYn kumµ¬ynis¶ k*síb'

GaemrikSgcak'[VtukrvayTUtGaemrikSg

1962

ehIykat'TUtBIGaemrik,

GB´a¨kitcak'

EfveTAxagkumµ¬ynis¶ edayxMykcit¶kumµ¬ynis¶ kuM[kumµ¬ynis¶bMVt'raC´ ebIkalNakumµ¬y-

nis¶cUlmkdl'.

raås¶yl'fa

erOgenHmkBIelakxÂackumµ¬ynis¶EdlCas¨tèvnwges¶c

smÂab'elak eTIbelakelgpÂèvlYgykcit¶[ehIy.

cUlmkkab'

cugcb' Gs'smtÄPaBnwgs¶ar¨sukeTsEdlman{nPaB fv^kaFÂak'¨sutdl'Vtdal

bN¶almkBIkar¨Kb'¨Kgrbs'xÂçnEdlecHEtcayBuMecHrk, sIhnuk*tSgxMeFÃIkun eFÃIelÅan begûét emdaylk'«rykluy rhUtdl'ebIkkasIuNUq~S 1969 nS[raås¶Gn¶rayhinehacmintic.


44 edaysÄankarN_¨sukkan'Etliclg's¨swmenH ehIyEdlmanyYneyokkugecar¨keBI¨bvti¶-

saås¶¨bcSCati kMBugEthamat'¨bug¨tVk'elbykeTApgenH sIhnucM¨bb'EmnETn cg'edaH«d

BITMnYlxus¨tèv k*tSgehAelak ln'-nl' sirImt: [mkCYys¶arnavakmõ¬CaenH eday[nam

rd½aPiVlelak ln'-nl' fa rd½aPiVle¨sac¨sg'Cati (Gouvernement de Sauvetage) ehIy [TTYlxus¨tèvcMeJHmux¨bvti¶saås¶ (ExsIha 1969).

kt'sMKal'CalMdab'mkbu"eNöH xƬMecHEtnwkm«mfa minyUreT ¨sukExµrmuxCanwgPan'E¨b

minxaneT. kMBugKit ¨sab'Etkëèg! «f©TI 18 mIna 1970 ¨Bwti¶karN_¨bvti¶saås¶pæ¬HeLIg sPa

CatiEdlCatMNag¨bCaCatiExµrTSgmUl

EdlCasParbs'es¶csIhnurbs'sgðmraås¶niym

VneVHeq~atCaäkcÏnæTMlak'sem¶csIhnuBI¨bmuxrd½Exµr!

Emn! esck¶I¨s«mrbs'xƬMVnedérdl'PaBBitehIy. xƬMmanGMNrrkJk´niyayBuMVn!

¨BWxÂçncMeJHsµartIPÆak'rlwk«nGs'elakvrCneyIg bJïvn¶eyIg ¨BHsgôeyIg ¨bCaBlrd½

eyIg EdlrYmK~akMcat'sIhnu emp¶ac'kartMNagrbbraCniymcuge¨kayenH[xÍat'eTAVn. Et

bu"eNöH sIhnuGs'lkÅN_ehIy ehIyebIGac¨tLb'cUlmk¨sukv^jVn sIhnuGs'manPaB

CaxÂa CaraCsIh_eTotehIy EtKWCaqµamYybu"eNöaH. xƬMyl'Cae¨sc.

edayxwgeXarnwgeKTmÂak'xÂçn es¶cken¶¯enHEdlsÄitenAäeb"kSg¨sab'pg manlTìPaB

¨Kb'¨Kan'nwgeFÃIkarsgswkmkelIExµr

k*Bn´¬HyYneyokkugeyokNamxageCégEdlman¨sab'

enAelIdéExµr [vayExµrK¨KwkKe¨KgEtm¶g nacugExmIna 1970 nigt@ mk.

Tl'nwgsÄankarN_¨bfucj¬"cenH elakesna¨bmux ln'-nl' VnEfÂgsarhaehAExµr

[CYy¨byuTì ehIyelak¨bmUlG~kneyaVy¨Kb'nin~akarTSgGs' [cUlCYysÄabnaCatiCa mYynwgelak. ¨KaenaHTwkcit¶Exµr QamExµrG~kcmºSg mankareBjcit¶cMeJHelakesna¨bmux

ln'-nl' y"agxÂSg Tahan 24 em"agekIteLIge¨Jg¨JtCYy¨suk. erOgenHGs'elakPaK e¨cInNas'Vnd·gVncSTukEdr.

ärUbxƬM¨tèvelakesna¨bmux ln'-nl' naykrd½mån¶I nigCanayGKðesnaFikarkgeyaF

BlexmrCati haehAeTAbMJk'sk¶izan:Cavresniy¨tI bMerIkgT&BteTA. KWxƬMeBjcit¶Nas'eTAehIy

e¨sac¨sg'Catiy"ageBjTMhwg.

enaH eBlenH¨tèvEtpuseLIgv^j. -

edayxƬMVnman{kasnwgbMerIneyaVyfµérbs'rd½aPiVl

xƬMEdllak'xÂçnBYnGatµaGs'kalC^t«m¸q~Sk~¬grbbraCniym

ExÓsPa 1971 xƬMVn¨tèvEtgtSgCaGnurd½elxaFikar¨ksYgFmµkar

«f© 28 mIna 1972 xƬMVn¨tèvEtgtSgCaÓbkarI«nelakesna¨bmux ln'-nl' ¨bFanaFibtI

-

ehIyExkJïa 1972 xƬMVncUlrYmk~¬gKNbk§sgðmsaFarNrd½ drabCab'eq~atCa

smaC^ksPaCatinItikalTImYysBëf©enH.

erOgcUlKNbk§enH maneKdN¶wgsYrfaehtuGÃIVnCaxƬMcUl ecaläKNbk§¨bCaFib

ety´rbs'xƬMBImun?


45 xƬMsUmC÷rabk~¬gvg'¨kckfa edayxƬMsegûteXIjeKalbMNg«nKNbk§enHsmrm´lµm

[rYbrYmCamYyekItenHm´a"g m´a"geTot cg'cUleTACYytE¨mt¨mg'ExµrK~aeyIg[eqõaHeTATisEt

mYypg. xƬMminyl'esaH cMeJHG~kxÂHEdlecHEtmanH minCYyK~aesaH edayKitEtBICYyKN

bk§eTAv^j cg'Catiliclg'dl'Nadl'NIk*eday. G~kkan'karrd½enaHCaK~aeK Gjminrvl'eTA

eboteT cSKNbk§Gj K~aGjeLIgkan'karswmGjrvl'CamYy. xƬMminEdlKitdUec~HeT

ehIycMeJHmit¶xƬMxagKNbk§¨bCaFibety´

k*xƬMminEdlecal

Edr minEdlsíb'eT enAEttamrab'Gan enAEt¨sLaj' ÓTahrN_cºas'sBelak V"c-QWn

(«f©16tula1971) sBelak Cu÷-mYg (BI«f©11mIna1973) KWmanrUbxƬMCaG~kcat'EcgelIkdak' erobcMedaypæal'@

Edr.

eyIgEbkBIKNbk§¨Kan'EtCakarpÂas'briyakas

ExÃgeyabl'K~a

bu"eNöaH Tid½PaBneyaVyeyIg ¨bkan'ykdEdldUcK~ak~¬gerOg¨beTsCati enA¨sukGaemrik

manG~kxÂHecjBIKNbk§¨bCaFibety´ eTAcUlKNbk§saFarNrd½ GIcwgEdr. xƬMyl'fa vadUcCaTuTid^½niymeBk ebIeyIg¨bkan'EtKNbk§mYy@.

²LèvxƬMsUmv^lEbrmkeJlGMBIcritExµr e¨kay 18 mIna 1970 tmkeTotenH etIman

xusEbÂkbu"nµanBIrbbraCniymeT? pÂas'Etrbb bu"En¶mnus§manpÂas'TSgGs'K~aäNa? xYrkºal Exµr critExµr manpÂas'äNa? KMnitcg'FMdac'Etäg, KMnitriHKn'Q~anIsK~a, KMnitkab'smÂab'bMVt'

Cév^tK~a, KMnit¨bTUsr"ayK~aKµanQb'Qr, KMnitbk§BYkniym Gjniym, emIlgayeK GaenaH minekIt GaenHminepH GaenHGIecH GaenaHGIcuHùùù mindl'BYkeyIgeT, .l. nig .l. enAman

dEdlk~¬gsgðmExµr.

R

R R


46

etIrbbfµéenH ExµrmanpÂas' xƬMsUmrMlwkeLIgv^j

eT

?

nUvehtukarN_TSgLayEdls[eXIjfa

¨bqSgK~adUcEdlniyaymkehIyenHdUcteTA Ð

eyIgecHEtmancrit

k~¬gq~S 1970 mund÷bUgvrCneyIg ¨bCaBlrd½eyIgrYbrYmK~alíNas'. TSgelak sWg-

g"ukfaj' ¨bmuxclnaExµresrIk*VncUlrYbrYmnwgGs'elakvrCn 18 mInaEdr ¨BmTSgbJØènkg

T&BelIkd÷bUg bImWunnak'mkCYye¨sac¨sg'kmõ¬Capg [qÂgputBIe¨KaHf~ak'Cad÷bUg«d. TSgGs'

K~aeFÃIGÃIeFÃICamYyK~a Kµanr{szanesaHeLIy drabdl'¨bkas¨beTsExµrCasaFarNrd½ kalBI

«f© 9 tula 1970 eTot. äs¨tèvecamvayeyIge¨Jg¨Jt bu"En¶sµartIeyIgKµanejacj&r cMeJHxµSgbu"nµaneT

eyIgsgô·mfa

Nas' TSgvrCn TSg¨bCaBlrd½.

GacnwgkMcat's¨tèèveTAv^jVn.

eyIgmansamKðImutmS

bu"En¶CaGkuslrbs'eyIgExµr cUlmkq~S 1971 Exkum¸: elak ln'-nl' ¨tèvmanCm©·

xUc«deqÃgeCégeqÃg ehIy¨tèvecjeTAB´aVlenAbreTs rhUtdl'«f©TI 12 emsa eTIb¨tLb'

mkv^j. sÄankarN_k~¬g¨sukdUcCalík'xÃl'e¨JHenA«f©TI 20 emsa 1971 elak ln'-nl' dak'Jk´suMlaElgBId÷ENgnaykrd½mån¶I cMeJHelak ecg-ehg ¨bmuxrd½. «f© 21 emsa


47 elak ecg-ehg GnuJïattamJk´suMrbs'elak ln'-nl' EtelaksuM[elak ln'-nl'

erobcMKN:rd½mån¶I. -

«f© 23 emsa enAv^manrd½cMkarmn elak¨bmuxrd½ edaymansPaTSgBIr nigrd½mån¶I eXasnakarcUlrYmpg

bl'erOgv^bti¶KN:rd½mån¶I.

-

VnCYbsnænaCamYyGgðkarsarBtámanCatiedémºIb¶èreya

«f© 28 emsa elak ln'-nl' CUnd÷NwgeTAelak ecg-ehg v^jfa elakBuMGac

erobcMKN:rd½mån¶IVneT. -

«f© 29 emsa edayelak nl'-nl' BuMGacEtgtSgKN:rd½mån¶IVn elak¨bmuxrd½

e¨kayBIVnBie¨KaHCamYy¨bFanrd½sPa nig¨bFan¨kum¨bwk§asaFarNrd½ (kal

eNaHehAdUec~aH) k*Vnes~Ielak suIsuvtÄi sirimt: [erobcMKN:rd½mån¶I. elak sirimt: fa cSKitemIlsin.

-

«f©TI 30 emsa elak sirimt:tbeTAelak ecg-ehg v^jfa elaks¶ayNas'

edayBMuGacEtgtSgKN:rd½mån¶IfµéVn BIe¨JH Ð TI 1 elakCard½mån¶Icas'cg'[

G~kfµékan'karm¶g, TI 2 ¨sukkMBugekItsågðamrvl'eFÃIsågðam. elak ecg-ehg

Gs'pÂèvk*es~IeTAelak CYb-Ehßl GtIt¨bFanrd½sPa [EtgtSgKN:rd½mån¶I.

-

«f©TI 1 ÓsPa elak CYb-Ehßl eqÂIytbeTAv^jfaelakBuMGace¨CéserIsKN:rd½

mån¶IVneT. elak ecg-ehg k*cat'[elak Giun-tS ¨bFansPaCatie¨CéstSg KN:rd½mån¶I.

-

«f© 3 ÓsPa elak Giun-tS VneqÂIytbfaelakBuMGace¨CéstSgKNrd½mån¶IVn eT.

eTAäeNHBuMGaceTAäeNaHBuMGac

k*tSg¨bCu÷TSgGs'K~aEtm¶g

KWelak

ecg-ehg,

elak ln'-nl', elak suIsuvtiÄ sirimt:, elak Giun-tS, elak Gußg-swum. TSgGs'K~at¨mèv [elak ln'-nl' e¨CéstSgKN:rd½mån¶I. TMrSEtniyay¨tèvK~a

elgTeT. -

¨BmeFÃIkarCamYyK~a

eyIgmanv^bti¶KN:rd½mån¶IGs'eBlknÂHEx

«f©TI 5 ÓsPa smaC^k«nKN:rd½mån¶I VncUleTAbgúajxÂçnenATIs¶Ikarnaykrd½

mån¶I. smaC^ksMxan' KWelak ln'-nl' Canaykrd½mån¶I, elak sirimt: Canayk

¨btiPU, elak Giun-tS CaÓbnaykrd½mån¶ITI 1, elak sux-qug CaÓbnayk rd½mån¶ITI 2, elak hg§-Funhak' Óbnaykrd½mån¶ITI 3.

Gs'elakG~kenAkt'sMKal'eXIjfa Gs'elakvrCnTSgGs'enH enArYbrYmK~aKYrsresIr.

k~¬gExmifuna-kkûda bJúaxÃHGgûrVnecaTeLIgKYr[¨BWkºalrhUtdl'FÂak'elak Xwg-

«flI BId÷ENgrd½mån¶I¨ksYgÓs§ahkmµ nig p¶l'Ps¶¬Par.


48 ¨kwt´ 468/71bùrù cuH«f© 29-5-71

tSgKN:kmµkarcMruHTUlMTUlay TTYlbnæ¬kerob

cMesck¶I¨Jgedémrd½FmµnuJï«nsaFarNrd½ExµrmansmaC^k 3 nak' tMNagGgðkarrd½nimYy@ nig

smaKmnimYy@. ry:eBleFÃIrd½FmµnuJï : 3 Ex.

«f© 16 mifuna 1971 em"ag 9 ¨Bwk elak sirimt: VnebIkBiFI (¨bkasnaykelx

1111-71) [KN:kmµkarcab'eFÃIkarrbs'xÂçn. KN:kmµkarcMruHmansmaC^kTSgGs' 231 nak' EdlmanxƬM bußNöcnæ-mu"l m~ak'pgtMNagBuTìiksmaKmmCÎmNëlsaFarNrd½. KN:kmµ

karcMruHedaymanelak mas-saäm Ca¨BwTì¨bFanbeN¶aHGasn~ VneVHeq~ate¨CéserIs¨b

Fan Gnu¨bFanTSgBIrnigKN:kmµkarEtgesck¶I 15 nak'. lTìpl«nkareVHeq~at KW ¨bFan

elak sU-ENm, Gnu¨bFanTI1 elak Duk-r"asuI, Gnu¨bFanTI 2 elak ¨Tij-va"j. KN:kmµkarcMruHenHVneFÃIkary"agskmµmk.

-

«f© 6 sIha 1971 elak sirimt: eTAshrd½Gaemrik rhUtdl'«f© 30 sIha eTIb

¨tLb'mkv^j VneCaKC&y¨tcH¨tcg'. -

«f©esAr_ TI 4 kJïa elak sirimt: VneFÃIsn~isITmYyraykarN_GMBIlTìplEdl

elakVneTATak'Tgnwgshrd½Gaemrik ehIyelakfa [EteyIgrYbrYmK~ay"aglí

teTAeTot eKnwgkan'EtCYyeyIgeTÃreLIgeTot. s¶ab'elak sirimt: nS[sbºay

cit¶Nas'. KW¨tèvEtsamKðI bu"En¶TnæwmnwgeBlenaH mind·gehtudUcem¶c ¨sab'EtenA

rd½sPaäeNaH tMNagraås¶ 36 nak' eFÃIjti¶suMdkelak Ey"m-sMbUr ecjBI

tMENg¨bFan. -

«f© 16 ExkJïa 1971, e¨kayBIeBlCECkK~aEbkEp§gmk k~¬gerOgTmÂak'elak

Ey"m-sMbUr rd½sPaeVHeq~atsm©at'man 24 semÂg[TmÂak'tamjti¶ man 31

semÂg[Tuk. dUec~Helak Ey"m-sMbUr enAteTAeTot. CECkK~aenaHnS[mnus§Ebk

samKðImintic. bnæab'enaH enAes©¿m@ ¨sab'Et«f© 24 kJïa elak Giun-tS EdlCa

Óbnaykrd½mån¶ITI 1 nigCaÓt¶mesniy¨tIenaH ¨tèvdkecjBIt÷ENgTSgGs' b¶èr tMENgenHCUneTAelak Twm-gYn qûy. ¨bCaCnExµrEbbesµ¯k edayq©l'. yI! Gs' elakFM@ em"ck*edjK~aecalFUremÂ"H?

-

¨kwt´elx 570/71bùrù cuH«f© 4-10-71 KN:kmµkarc¨muHEtgrd½FmµnuJï ¨tèvVn

Bn´aeBl 2 Ex teTAeTot bu"En¶mind·gehtudUcem¶c ¨sab'Etman¨kwt´elx 609/

71bùrù cuH«f© 16-10-71 begûétsPaFmµnuJï edaybJÍèlsPaTSgBIr cab'tSgBI «f© 18 tula 1971 teTA.

-

KN:rd½mån¶Ie¨CéserIsEfmfµé KWelak Twm-gYn Óbnaykrd½mån¶ITI 1 TTYlbnæ¬kTIs¶I

karnaykrd½mån¶I

nigkars¨mbs¨mçlxagmha«pæ

saFarNkar nigeTBekasl´CnbT. -

sn¶isuxCati

elak qn-suxum eTsrd½mån¶I¨ksYgÓs§ahkmµnigsbºiykmµ.

Fmµkaryut¶iFmá

elakÓt¶mesniy¨tI zabºNag^n~ rd½mån¶I¨ksYgmha«pæ sn¶isuxCati nigkmµkar.


49 -

elak m"aLay-exm rd½mån¶I¨ksYgJNiCØkmµ nigp¶l'Ps¶¬Par.

«f©TI 20 tula ¨BHsgôenAP~MeBjVneFÃIVtukmµs©b's©at'enAmuxvt¶Garam TamTar[

elak ln'-nl' eFÃI¨bmuxrd½ ¨BmTSgbiTJk´esÂak suM[t¨mwmt¨mg'nUvkicÍkarrd½TSgLay

Edlelí¿geX¿gXÂat. -

«f©TI 8 v^cÏika 1971 elak ecg-ehg ebIkBiFI¨bkasCapÂèvkarnUvsPaFmµnuJï.

eBlenaHsPaFmµnuJïeVHeq~ate¨CéstSg¨bFannigGnu¨bFan VnlTìpl elak

Giun-tS Ca¨bFan, elak Bin-yWn CaGnu¨bFanTI 1, elak ekIt-KIhßag Gnu ¨bFanTI 2.

eyIgeXIjfa elak Guin-tS EdleKhUtgarenaH ¨tèvmanmuxecjmkeTottamry:sPa

FmµnuJïenH.

sUmC¨mabfa

sÄankarN_swkeBlenaH

eyIgvayeTAkan'ext¶kMBg'FM

VneTAdl'P~M

snæ¬k ¨sab'Etfymkv^j¨kak@ Gs'rlIg ehIysÄankarN_xaglicP~MeBj (TYlelob) k* ke¨mIky"agF©n'F©r¨BYyVrm¸ EtVnFUreTAv^jenAcugExF~è 1971 enaH.

sgô·mfa q~S 1972 EbbVn¨sçl bu"En¶mindUec~aH EbrCamanerOgt@ eTot :

- «f©TI 8 mina 1972 ¨sab'Etmanjti¶rbs'nis§itmhav^T´al&ynItisaås¶ nig

v^T´asaås¶esd½kicÍ CUnsPaFmµnuJï sUmes~ImuWgma"t' min[dak'k~¬gkal:eTs:NaEdl

kareVHeq~atBuMGac¨b¨Bwt¶eTAVnenaH

buKðlNamanQamC&rCaes¶c[kan'tMENgFM@

rbs'saFarNrd½Exµr dUcmanEcgxage¨kamenH 1- ¨bFanaFibtI

2- Gnu¨bFanaFibtI

3- naykrd½mån¶I É rd½mån¶I

4- nayGKðesnaFikarkgeyaFBlexmrCati

-

«f© 9 miIna nis§it¨bCu÷y"agFMenAsalsn~isITctumux ehAfasmaCyuvCn manbiT

bdae¨Jg¨JtsuTìEtJk´esÂakfa : kuMPryuvCn, GF´a¨s&ymnus§BukrlYyKW

kºt'Cati, kuMEckGMNacdUcEcknMK~asIu .l.

enATIbJÍb' smaCse¨mcfa :

ÇeyIgCayuvCnElgTukcit¶rd½aPiVlelakÓt¶mesniy sirimt: ehIyÈ

EsíkeLIg«f© 10 mIna 1972 enAkMEBgvt¶ekaH vt¶lgûa manbdaKS¨Tesck¶IsMerccit¶

rbs'smaCyuvCn. k~¬gl©acenaH elak ecg-ehg EfÂgtamv^T´¬fa elakGs'lTìPaBnwgbMerI

¨beTsk~¬gzan:Ca¨bmuxrd½teTAeTotehIy elaksuMepærzan:enHeTAelak ln'-nl' v^j.

minEtbu"eNöaH em"ag 21 yb' elak ln'-nl' k~¬gsarrbs'elak EdlTTYlzan:

¨bmuxrd½BIelak ecg-ehg elakk*Vn[sPaFmµnuJïQb'cb'skmµPaBeTAEdr.


50 En±! vaeTACaGIcwg nis§itminTukcit¶elak sirimt: vaeTACaGs'manelak ecg-ehg

ehIymkrlIgäsPaFmµnuJï! sµ¬KsµajsemºIm! -

«f© 12 mIna elak¨bmuxrd½ ln'-nl' VnEfÂgsarEkE¨bzan:¨bmuxrd½ [eTACaman

¨bFanaFibtI edayEcgfa :

1- ¨bmuxrd½Exµr

nwgmaneQµaHCa¨bFanaFibtI«nsaFarNrd½BI¨twmeNHeTA.

2- ¨bFanaFibtI«nsaFarNrd½Exµr

CaGKðembJØakar«nkgeyaFBlexmr Cati.

3- ¨bFanaFibtI«nsaFarNrd½Exµr

TTYlxÂçnägnUvmuxgarCanaykrd½mån¶I.

¨bFanaFibtImanrd½mån¶ITI

1

m~ak'CaC÷nYy

skmµPaBnigkicÍkar«nsmaC^kTSgLay manTI¨bwk§anig

ÓbkarIGmpg.

k~¬g

kicÍkarenH

edémºIs¨mbs¨mçl «nKN:rd½mån¶I.

manxuTækal&ynIti¨btibti¶mYy

nig¨kum¨bwk§aCatixagsn¶i suxCaC÷nYypg.

elak ln'-nl' eFÃIbuN´sem¸aFzan:rbs'elakenA«f©TI 14 mIna 1972 edayman

¨BHsgô 108 Ggð Ót¶mesniy vresniy nig[¨bCaBlrd½¨sI¨buscUlrYm.

karenHExµrsgô·mfaVnsux¨sçlehIy mind·gCay"agem"c ¨sab'Etmanv^bti¶KN:rd½

mån¶IeTot vévrrvl'nwgrkvrCnm~ak'[mke¨CéserIsKN:rd½mån¶Ifµé. rkäeNHBuMVn äeNaHBuMekIt k*eTAehAelak sWg-gu"kfaj' BI«¨BnKr[mkerobcMKN:rd½mån¶I.

eyIgrvl'nwgerOgenH k*¨sab'EtxµSge¨sac¨Kab'ru"EkûtcUl¨kugBIra¨tITI 20 eTA 21 mIna

y"agsemºIm sÂab'Gs'mnus§ 112 nak' KYr[QWcab'Nas'. exæcv^T´¬sæwgmanC&y. elak¨bFanaFibtI ln'-nl' EfÂgsarerOgenHfa¨VkdCamanG~kk~¬g[«d.

äcMENkelak sWg-g"ukfaj' k*VnerobcMKN:rd½mån¶Itam{vaTrbs'elak ln'-nl'

eTAtamrebob Régime Présidentiel .

¨sab'Et«f© 24 mIna eKeXIjxitb&Nö¨bqSgnwgelak¨Kè exov-Cu÷ EdlecHEtc¨cb'

Gar"beTAC÷nuMCamYysis§ nS[manbriyakasminlí.

ehIysem¶c¨BHsgôraCKN:mhanikayk*¨tèvbgÅ÷¨BHT&y[EfÂgsarmYy

elak¨Kè exov-Cu÷ Edr.

«f© 28 mIna manbdae¨Jg¨JtenAtammhav^T´al&ynanafa:

-

kuMekNëraås¶[E¨sk Ceya!

kuMecaTyuvCnfabegûétGanaFibety´ ! kMeTcecal[Gs'kMEGlsk¶iPUmi ! eTAehIy mkv^jEqû !

benæas


51 ehIyenA«f© 29 mIna enAsaklv^T´al&yP~MeBj mansmaCyuvCnmYy karJrelak

ta V"g-xat' nig exov-Cu÷ EdlecHEtÓs§ah_mkcUlrYm¨bCu÷CamYysis§ tamesck¶Inimn¶rbs'

sis§.

sÄankarN_v^lvl'rbs'sis§enH VnlatEvgGnÂayrhUtdl'«f© 23 emsa 1972

mhav^T´al&ycºab'¨tèvGaCÆaFrGavuFhtÄB&TìCu÷v^j. enAk~¬genaH manelak Ekv-Gn nignisi§t

kuy-biuc.

äelak sWg-gu"kfaj' ¨bkask~¬g«f©enaH[sis§enA[es©¿m kuMrMeCébrMCYl.

«f© 26 emsa sÄankarN_Gab'GYVnekIteLIg ¨kumVtukrrab'Jn'nak' EdlVnTmÂay

rnSghamXat'kalBI¨BwkenaH VnsÄitenAmuxmhav^T´al&ycºab' manmI¨kèE¨skedomdam[ rd½aPiVl. ehIyem"ag 17 k*nSK~aecaldu÷fµmkelIGavuFhtÄ GavuFhtÄk*ecal¨Kab'EbkEp§g

¨BmTSgs~èrkSePÂIgGs' 5 naTI Vtukrrt'Can'K~a. VtukrE¨skeCrBYkGavuFhtÄy"agxÂSg. Esík

eLIgeTotGFikrN_manteTAeTot Vj'K~a¨cgab'¨cg^lenATIenaH.

enHCaelIkTI 1 ehIy EdlGFikrN_ekIteLIgrvagsis§ nigGaCÆaFr.

elak fac'-Ca rd½mån¶I¨ksYgGb'rMCati sU¨ttamv^T´¬GMJvnav[sis§dak'GavuFcuHenA

em"ag 14 «f©TI 27 emsa.

«f© 28 emsa Vtukmµy"agFMenAv^manäkraC´ sis§Jk'kMNat'exµAenAGav nigCYtkºal

kMNat's

manTmÂak'CaybIdUckan'TukÅexµaccin-yYn

EteKkan'TukÅexµacK~aeKEdlfaGavuFhtÄ

Vj'smÂab'enaH. manbdaeCrrd½aPiVly"agsemºIm : Vj'yuvCnKWCaTmiL ! braC&yrd½aPiVlp¶ac'kar sWg-gu"kfaj' smÂab'yuvCn manEtrd½aPiVlExµreT EdlsmÂab'yuvCn !

ehIyeKeXasnaK¨KwkKe¨Kg Vn¨Vk'kassnìwk. eBlenaHnisi§t kuy-buic Edl

Caem«nerOg EbrCamk¨bkastamv^T´¬suMeTasrd½aPiVlqû¬y. -

elak ln'-nl' EfÂgsarsuM[sis§EdleFÃIbuN´enAv^manäkraC´enaH Qb'eFÃI buN´EdlKµanexµacenaHteTAeTot

edémºI[manreboberobryk~¬gsgðm.

xµSgkMBugrarSgeyIgkuM[eVHeq~atVnenA«f©

30

emsa

elakfa

elaksuM[sis§s©b'cS

eVHeq~atGnumtielIKe¨magrd½FmµnuJïsin. Etsis§Elgs¶ab' eKenAEteTA enAedk

Cu÷v^jv^manäkraC´bn¶buN´dEdl.

suMrMlwkfa eBlenaHcM«f©BisaxbUCapg buN´BisaxbUCa eKeFÃI¨Kvés¨Kvas[rYcEtBI

«d e¨JHrvl'nwgerOgclaclsis§enAv^manäkraC´enaH.

«f© 30 emsa 1973 Ca«f©eVHeq~atbeJÍjmtielIKe¨magrd½FmµnuJïfµé. TahannigsIu

v^lk*VneTAeVHeq~at

eTaHbIxµSgekobsgût'nigK¨mamkMEhgy"agNak*eday.

rd½FmµnuJïenH

G~kxÂHfaminlí minekIt G~kxÂHfadUec~H xÂHfadUec~aH KWfaeyIgKµanäkPaBGÃIeT. bu"En¶eday¨beTs

nimYy@ ¨tèvEtmanrd½FmµnuJïenaH rd½aPiVl¨tèvEtbgÅ÷[ecjcºab'enaHxanBuMVn líGa¨kk'cSEk

kun«f©e¨kay.


52 -

rd½FmµnuJïsaFarNrd½Exµr ¨tèvelak¨bFanaFitI ln'-nl' ¨bkas[e¨bIenA«f©TI

12 ÓsPa 1972 tmk.

cb'erOgenH k*elcerOgrbs'buKðliksik§aeFÃIkUdkmµcMeJHerOgEdlrd½aPiVlbJͬH¨kb

x&NëbuKðliksik§a BI¨bePT ÇxÈ mkenA¨bePT ÇKÈ v^j. -

kUdkmµbuKðlikenA¨ksYgmha«pæTSgBIr¨bePT KWelxaFikar-elxharI TamTar¨kb

x&Në[esµénig¨kbx&Në¨Kèbzmsik§a nig¨kbx&NëP~ak'garnKrVlCati.

-

kUdkmµbuKðlikBnìnaKarGnurk§ cMnYn¨bEhl 200 nak' TSg¨sITSg¨busTamTar ¨kbx&Nërbs'xÂçn[esµInwg¨kbx&NëbU"lIsEdr (¨kbx&Në K). rd½aPiVllÃIgmuxral'«f©.

eBlenaHdUcCaKµanemKµanekaymind·gCas¶ab'nr-

Na. bu"En¶y"agNak*eday ¨beTsExµr¨tèvEteVHeq~ate¨CéserIs¨bFanaFibtI. -

«f©TI 21 ÓsPa ¨ksYgmha«pæVn¨bkasnamebkÅCn¨bFanaFibtI KWman : elak Ekv-Gn Gayu 41 q~S

elak ln'-nl' Gayu 59 q~S elak Giun-tS Gayu 50 q~S

elak Giun-tS nig ln'-nl' man«deCégeXasnaK¨KwkKe¨KgsemºImNas'

cugcb'elak ln'-nl' k*VnCab'eq~ateTA.

«f© 21 mifuna elak ln'-nl' EfÂgsar[¨bCaBlrd½rYbrYmK~aTSgGs' edémºIsMerc

eKalkar KW : -

rd½aPiVlCYy

¨bCaBlrd½EdlmanesrIPaB CaG~kksagCévPaBxÂçnäg

G~kbecÍkeTsCYyÓbtÄm¸ CYybgúat'be¨g¿nnigCYyd·knS.

GgðkarrYbrYmK~aenaHelak[eQµaHfa: ÇGgðkarCatib¨gçbb¨gçmExµrG~kCatiniymÈ VrSg

ehAfa: ÇRassemblement National de l'Union Nationaliste.È bu"En¶hak'KµannrNaeGIeBInwgelakesaH.

bu"En¶y"agNak*eday «f©TI 3 nigTI 4 kkûda 1972, elak ln'-nl' k*¨tèvEtVnEtg

tSgCa¨bFanaFibtI«nsaFarNrd½Exµry"aghwukhßak'Edr. BIenaHmkenH

Gs'elakG~kGackt'sMKal'Vnfa

vrCneyIgcab'ep¶émEbkVk'K~aEmn

ETnehIy. cUlmkk~¬gExsIha 1972 KNbk§bI¨kumk*ekIteLIg ehIymankmÂSgsemºIm@ KW KNbk§sgðmsaFarNrd½

e¨kamkarÓbtÄm¸rbs'elak

ln'-nl',

KNbk§saFarNrd½

rbs'elak sirimt:, KNbk§¨bCaFibety´ rbs'elak Giun-tS. KNbk§nimYy@ suTìEt

mansarBtámanp§ayerog@ xÂçn. ehIyeKd·gfa kaEstd÷NwgeBl¨Bwk nigkaEstexmraFibtI

Edlsresr¨T¨Tg'KNbk§saFarNrd½ nigriHKn'rd½aPiVl¨tg'@ enaH KWCakaEstbk§BYk rbs'saFarNrd½Edr. ¨bCaraås¶ExµrLb'sµartI mind·gCas¶ab'xagNa eC¯xagNaeT.


53 erOgeVHeq~aterIstMNagraås¶ sPaCati ¨tèv¨b¨Bwt¶eTAenA«f©TI 3 kJïa 1972; eVH

eq~ate¨CéserIs¨BwTìsPaCati ¨tèv¨b¨Bwt¶eTA enA«f©TI 17 kJïa 1972.

bu"En¶eGIyep¶émeLIg ¨sab'KNbk§saFarNrd½rbs'elak sirimt: VnepÆélixiteTACUn

elak ln'-nl' mancMNuc 5 x suMtva"GMBIbJïti¶eVHeq~at elx 45-72 bsx cuH«f©TI 127-72 ehIy¨ksYgmha«pæEbrCaeqÂéyCYsVnEt 1 x bu"eNöaH KNbk§enHk*se¨mcfa: 1- mincUlrYmk~¬gkareVHeq~atenaHeT,

2- sUmdkesck¶ITukcit¶TSg¨sugBIrd½aPiVlbcͬbºn~,

3- KNbk§enAEtrk§asiTiìCaKNbk§neyaVyskmµ .

ehIykaEstrbs'KNbk§enH Vnsresry"agxÂSg@semºIm dUcCasresrelIkºal

kaEstk~¬g«f©TI 11 sIha 1972 fa: mnus§«¨BFÂab'e¨bIcºab'«¨B luHdl'cUlmkk~¬g¨suk k*enA

Ete¨bIcºab'«¨BdEdl, karecHfyedémºIedaH¨saybJúaCati BuMEmnCakarkMsakeT KWCaesck¶IkÂa hank~¬gkicÍCatirs' !

bnæab'BIKNbk§saFarNrd½dkfymincUl¨bkYteVHeq~atenaH KNbk§¨bCaFiety´

kºald÷rIrbs'elak Giun-tS rYm¨bCu÷l©ac«f©TI 5 sIha k*tSgse¨mcEdrfa : 1- dkxÂçnmincUl¨bLèkk~¬gkareVHeq~ateT,

2- efûalkMhuscMeJHkarrMelaPCaGci«ån¶y_ BIsMNak'rd½aPiVleTAelIeKalsMxan'@ «nlTiì¨bCaFibety´ nigrd½FmµnuJï,

3- se¨mcminTTYlsðal'lTìpl«nkareVHeq~atxagmux ehIyTuklTìplenaHfaKµan PaBtMNagCatiTal'EtesaH.

Gs'elakG~keXIjehIy

vas'TMhMenaHVneT?

nUvG~kd·knSbd^vt¶n_eyIgEbkVk'K~abu"Nöa?

eyIgGacnwg

äBYkKNbk§sgðmsaFarNrd½ EdlVnmkelak hg§-Funhak' kan'garCaGKðel-

xaFikarenaH k*ecHEtT¨Twb@ eTA muxEqûE¨sCe¨mA (mux¨kas') edérGgÃrraås¶[yl'erOgsÄab&n

Cati¨Kb'kEnÂg e¨JHKNbk§enHyl'fa Cati¨tèvmanGgðkarCasÄab&n¨Kb'sBÃs¨mab'niyay kark~¬gGgðkarsh¨bCaCati.

¨KaenH vrCneromcºgTSgGs' emIlmuxK~aElgcMEmnETnehIy rIäkUnecA«deCégm~ak'@

enaH k*kan'eCégecAhÃaynay E¨skekakkak@ efûaleTasK~aeTAv^jeTAmkKµan¨bNI.

xƬMnwkeXIjdl'kaleXasnaKNbk§ kalBI«m¸VÂyq~SknÂgeTAehIy sm&yenaHeK

eCrK~aCaElºg dUcCafa kuMeC¯¨bCaFibety´BIe¨JH Ç«t-k-vak'È KWTak'k«v" BYkenHsahav Nas'; kuMeC¯esrIPaB BIe¨JHBYkenH ÇPabrUtÈ KWPUtrab PrrhUt; kuMeTAykd÷rIkMbutk man

kºal²txÂçnc«¨gNas'; kuMeTAkan'rUb¨VsaTdak'Gacm_¨beC¿v; kuMeTAeC¯hnumanEdlkMBuglI

EpndéeTAlk' .l. xÂH¨btis½erOgGasGaPasep§g@ dUcCafa hnumanshaynwgnagKgúég

.l. KWeKecaTK~aesIcelg KµanKitdl'eKalKMnit «nKNbk§esaHeLIy. eKKµanykeKal neyaVyd·knS¨sukeTs

Edlfa¨tèveFÃIy"agNa@

eTIbVncMerInenaHmkeJlesaHeLIy.


54 ¨bCaraås¶Exµrv^lvl'vegÃg l©g'enAEtl©g'Kµansðal'maKáacºas'erOgneyaVy¨suk drabsBÃ «f©. sm&yenaHvadUec~aH dl'mksm&yenHehIy k*vaenAEtdUec~aHeTot KYrs¶ay !

karTas'ETgExÃgKMnitK~aenH KµannrNaGacrMgab'VneT. xƬMk*ecHEtnwkfa {! eBlenH

¨bsinebIman¨BH²næ ¨BH¨Bhµ ymyk§Namke¨Vs h~± , ¨bEhlCaVn¨tèvr"UvK~axÂH. ehIy

Gs'elakG~kk*¨bEhlCaVnKitdUcxƬMEdr minGIucwgÉ? eyIgBiVkcit¶dUc@ K~a. bu"En¶manrsµI

mYyEdlnS[PÂWk~¬gerOgenH.

k~¬geBlEdlxƬMkMBugnwkp§genaH

¨sab'Etsem¶c¨BHsgôraC

hYt-tat elakVnehAxƬMeTABie¨KaHniwgelak. elakman¨BHbnæèlsYrfa sÄankarN_sBëf©

clacleBjTMhwg ävrCneyIgTas'K~aeBjlº¬g etIelak m"ul ägyl'y"agNaEdr? xƬMnwk eXIjfamanEtsem¶ceT eTIbBYkenaHs¶ab'xÂH eTIbxƬMTUleTA¨BHGgðfa : -

sUm¨Tg'emt¶ae¨Vs,

TUlbgð÷yl'fa manEtsem¶ceT Edl¨bEhlCaBYkvrCn

eyIgenAeKarBs¶ab'xÂH sUmsem¶csresrlixiteTAes~IBYkenaH [rYmK~aeLIgv^jeTA ¨bEhlCa

manlTìpl¨besIr. elaksYrmkxƬMv^jfa : GatµaKitfanwgsresreTAehIy bu"En¶vaKµanG~kkan'

sMbu¨tenaH ykeTACUnGs'elakTSgenaHedaypæal'@ «d. xƬMk*TUlelakv^j¨bjab'fa : TUl

bgð÷FanaykeTACUnvrCnTSgenaHedaypæal'«d suMsem¶ceFÃIsMbu¨tenaHmkcuH. sem¶c¨BHsgô

raCk*eFÃIsMbu¨tTSgbICasm©at' [xƬMnSeTACUnelakTSgGs'[rYbrYmK~a xƬMk*VnnSsMbu¨tenaHeTA

CUnelak ln'-nl', elak sirimt:, elak ecg-ehg dl'TIlMenA. äelak Guin-tS sem¶c

elake¨bIesµ¿nelak[ykeTACUn. «f©e¨kaymkk*eXIjelak sirimt:, elak ecg-ehg nig

elak Giun-tS eFÃIlixitrYmK~aepÆéfÃaysem¶cv^jfa Gs'elakGr¨BHKuNsem¶cNas' ehIyfa ¨bugnwgrYbrYmK~aEdr BuMcg'EbkVk'eT.

sem¶c¨BHsgôraCk*elakmanGMNr.

xƬMEdlCaG~knSkarN_k*VnsbºayEdr

bu"En¶

eBlEdlKNbk§sgðmsaFarNrd½kMBugcat'ebkÅCneXasna¨Twb@ Etäg munnwgdl'«f©eVH

eq~atcMnYn 13 «f© KW«f© 21 sIha 1972 eBl¨Bwk ¨sab'EtùùkëSg ! ¨Kab'EbkVÂsæikmYypæ¬H eLIg sMedAeTA¨bugp¶ac'Cév^telak sWg-gu"kfaj' rd½mån¶ITI 1 nigCard½mån¶IkarbreTsExµr! bHsk'! Gs'G~k¨kugP~MeBj nigG~k¨bvti¶saås¶ebIkEP~kFM@ .

En! G~kneyaVyExµr elgeLIgsuTìEtGIcwg. elak sWg-g"ukfaj' ¨Vb'BYkkaEstfa

G~kEdl¨Vf~aCév^telak CaG~kFÂab'eFÃITahan minEmns¨tève¨kAeT KWs¨tèvk~¬gEtm¶g elakfa

elak²txÂacsÂab'eT

e¨JHCév^telak

elakykmk[Exµre¨bIehIy

ebImaneKBuMeBjcit¶nwg

elak eKcg'bMVt'elak k*mind·gCanwgKiteFÃIem¶c. p§g@ eTAcuH sÂab'k*sÂab'eTA !

Emn, elak sWg-gu"kfaj' Camnus§neyaVytSgBIq~S 1930 FÂab'ecal¨suk ecal

E¨s ecalEm" ecalÒ FÂab'Cab'Kuk¨cvak' FÂab'enA«¨BsIuGt'sIuXÂan, FÂab'¨tèveKeCrtamv^T´¬ya"g cas'«dkalBIq~S 1963 fakºt'Cati elakeTIbEtVneGItkºalmkCan'¨sukExµr e¨kay¨Bwti¶-

karN_ 18 mIna k*¨sab'Etrge¨KaHGa¨kk'eTot mkrgfµVk' ¨tèvkUnsis§eCreBjemX kalBI

Exemsa ehIyminTan'Vns©b'pg k*¨sab'Etmkbß^HsÂab'EbbFUrlú¬yy"agenHeTAeTot. KiteTA dUcCaGasUrelakEdr. enHsMdéG~k¨tiHriHeKeJl.


55 cMENkxƬM xƬMPÆak'FÂak'Twkcit¶fa {! G~kneyaVyExµr! ebIelgeLIg suTìEt¨Vf~abMVt'

¨semalK~aGIcwg etI«f©NaeLIynwgVnfû¬÷efûég! {! ebIminVnfû¬÷efûégeTk*hIeTAcuH GaNitEtkuM[

rwtEt{nfyeTAeTotenaH. karkab'smÂab'K~aenH muxKYr[s¶ayNas'. rab'eQµaHemIl G~kecH

d·gExµreyIgmanbu"nµannak'? ebIrvl'Etlbkab'smÂab'K~aGIcwg cugcb'vaenAsl'GÃI? mannrNa d·knSnrNa? ebIeyIgmineBjcit¶nwgelak sWg-gu"kfaj'eT elak sWg-g"ukfaj'ecHExµrEdretI em"cminniyay¨Vb'[¨tg'eTA? m´a"geTotelak sWg-gu"kfaj'enH Kat'mkedémºIbågðb'kicÍEdl

fa¨tèvbegûét[mansÄab&nCati¨Kb'sBÃeTetI cb'ehIyKat'Qb' Kat'man¨kajcg'd·knSäNa? em"ck*mincSemIlKat'sin?

bu"En¶! critExµreyIg!!! eGIeFÃIem"cebIvaGIcwgBIkMeNItmkehIyenaH!!! EkBuMVn! xƬMmind·gCa

eQµaHNaenAk~¬g¨kumNaeT Edl¨bugsmÂab'elak sWg-g"ukfaj'enaH bu"En¶xƬMeC¯fa G~kenaHk*KW CaExµrEdr. -

«f©TI 3 kJïa 1972 eVHeq~ate¨CéserIssPaCati

«f©TI 17 kJïa 1972 eVHeq~ate¨CéserIs¨BWTìsPa : eBlTSgenaHVn¨b¨Bwti¶eTAeday¨sçl .

luHdl'cUlmkExtula 1972 mankarkt'sMKal'mYyeTot KW«f©TI 14 tula 1972

KN:mån¶Irbs'elak sWg-gu"kfaj' tSgeLIgeday¨kwt´elx 187/72 PRK «f©21mIna1972 Vndak'Jk´suMlaElg cMeJHelakesna¨bmux ln'-nl' .

elakesna¨bmux¨bFanaFibtIVncat'[elak hg§-Funhak' GKðelxaFikarKNbk§

sgðmsaFarNrd½[erobcMKN:rd½mån¶Ifµé. KN:rd½mån¶IfµéekIteLIgeday¨kwt´elx 785/72 PRK cuH«f© 15 tula 1972 maneTsrd½mån¶I 4 rUb, rd½mån¶Ifµé 11 rUb nigrd½elxaFikar 5 rUb . -

«f© 17 tula KN:rd½mån¶Ifµé VnbgúajxÂçncMeJHshsPa.

ehIyTSgGs'K~a cab'eFÃIkarteTA edaymansgô·mfaVnce¨mIn¨sukeTs.

srubk~¬gq~S 1972 eyIgEbkVk'K~ay"agxÂSg ehIypèÂvCatielx 1 BIG~kelOgeTAsÃay

erog eyIgeTAElgrYc TIext¶ TI¨kugrYjcUlk~¬gbn¶icm¶g . eyIgcUlmkk~¬gq~S 1973.

eyIgral'K~aeC¯fa ¨bEhlCaeyIgEqítqín'nwgerOg¨bTUsr"ay eCrK~a Vtukmµ kUdkmµ síI

eTotehIy. bu"En¶cSemIl? tºèg.

«f©TI 27 mkra 1973 GaemrikSgnigyYnxageCégcuHhtÄelxaQb'cºSgenAyYnxag elakesna¨bmuxExµr

¨sçl@ ecjeTAv^j.

bJØa[TahanenAk~¬gbnæayTuk{kas[yYnxageCégdkT&BeTA

eyIgmanBnÂWsgô·m! bu"En¶¨sab'Et¨Bwb@ BYk«¨BkånæwbT&Brd½aPiVlesæIr¨Kb'kEnÂg eFÃI[

sÂab'Exµrekµgcas'eTÃelIsedém! xageNH¨Kab'Ebk xageNaHp¶k'cUl ! bUkK~aeTAm"d½@ TSgPUmi !

nrNacaj'? nrNaQ~H? eqÂIyfa Exµrcaj'TSgGs'K~a ! enHerOgcºSg. äerOgkicÍkarrd½v^j

elakkug§Iy_kicÍkaresd½kicÍnighirJïvtĬ t¨mèv[eLIg«fÂe¨bg²nìn: k*dUcCadas'GaKmcintemÂIg


56 «fÂGIva"n'¨Kb'C÷BUk¨Bwb@ dUcTwkcal'TMnb'. buKðliksik§aExµrGt'¨TSBuMVn k*ep¶émeFÃIkUdkmµ («f©

10-2-73) K¨KwkeLIg ¨Kèbe¨g¿nQb'be¨g¿nsis§ e¨JHbJúa¨bkYtnwgTMnijeLIg«fÂ. k~¬g«f©

TI 23 kum¸: em"ag 8 knÂH¨Bwk enAmhav^T´al&yKruekasl´, KN:kmµkarc¨muHtMNag¨Kb'¨kb

x&NëbuKðliksik§aExµrEdlmanelak esg-bßunfn Ca¨bFan nigman¨Kèbe¨g¿n¨bmaN 400

nak'rYmpg

sik§aExµr.

VneFÃIsn~isITsarBtámans¶IGMBIeKalbMNgd*Bit¨Vkd

«nkUdkmµrbs'buKðlik

elak esg-bußnfn buKðliksik§aeFÃIkUdkmµenH edaysar¨kBHEdl¨bTSg¨beTIsnwg

erOgeLIg«fÂTMnij¨Kb'sareBI. ebIrd½aPiVlminedaH¨sayeT kUdkmµnwgbn¶eTAeTot!

erOgkUdkmµVnlatEvgteTA G~kxÂHkan'eCégfa¨KèeFÃIenH¨tèv e¨JHfa¨beyaCn_rYm ¨tèvEt

TamTar. G~kxÂHfa BYkelak¨Kè G~k¨KèeFÃIenHminsm e¨JHebITamTarpg be¨g¿nsis§pgeTAva

em"c? elgTmÂak'karecal Tuk[kUnExµrKµanv^CØae¨JHerOgTamTarenaH vaminsÂab'ehIy? kUnExµr

eP¿sBI«¨B, kUnG~k¨krehmrham kUneKkUnägEdlKµan¨Vk'kasnwgCYlsalaeronenaH vamin

enAEtxÃak'BeBImeTAehIy? CamYyK~anwgkUneyIgral'K~aenApæH, enA Lycée Descartes eKbe¨g¿n

K¨Kwk rYckUnecAefAEkcinFM@ G~kFM@ eKman¨Kèbe¨g¿ndl'pæH xÂHsuMeTAeronrhUtbreTs. BYk

Gs'enaHecHd·g¨tLb'mkv^j ecAhÃayeyIgeTot ! eTANavaElºg!

enA«f©GaTit´ TI4 mIna 1973, enAsalmeha¨sbTenÂVsak' manebIksm&y¨bCu÷mYy

BiPak§as¶IBIbJúaTMnijeLIg«fÂenaH

eqÂIytbnwgkUdkmµbuKðliksik§a.

Gs'elakG~kFM

man

elak ln'-Nun, Giut-Fuy, sapun-sar"asIu, fac'-Ca, Ekv-mu"g¨KI, L¬g-but¶a, sußm-QMu. niyayeTAniyaymkKµand÷eNaH¨sayGÃInS[kk'ek¶AesaHeLIy. ehIyEdlnS[elak ln'-

Nun ek¶A¨khmmuxenaH KWman¨Kèbe¨g¿nm~ak'ecaTelakfa elakman 92 landulÂar U.S. epÆéenA

VMgsÃIs Banque Suisse !

huW s¶ab'eTAQWkºal .

erOgenHminTan'cb'pg elcerOgelakpûay1 Gußg-j"c ecAhÃayext¶kMBt THkMep¿g

elak¨Kè Kg'-lIm, mkeTot ¨Kè@ k*rMCUleLIgeTot. elakGPiVl¨kugeyIgyl'faEbbmin ¨sçl k*eFÃIdéka¨kug«f© 14 mIna 1973 ham¨Vmmin[eFÃIVtukmµep¶sp¶as !

bu"En¶man¨bsiTìPaBäNa? «f©TI 17 mIna 1973 manmITIg¨Kèbe¨g¿nK¨KwkKe¨Kg enA

mhav^T´al&yKruekasl´, manbdaCae¨cIn¨bqSgnwgrd½aPiVl dUcCafa : G~kd·knSelµaPGM Nac + xÃHsmtÄPaB = kb'xÂçnäg, Caedém .

em"ag 11 C^tQb'¨bCu÷eTAehIy k*¨sab'Et këSg! sÂab' 2 nak' rbYse¨cInnak' ! pæ¬H

¨Kab'Ebk !

- ehIy¨Bwti¶karN_FMbMput esæIr¨kLab'Epndék~¬g«f©dEdlenaH KWevlaem"ag 1 knÂH «f©

¨tg' ¨sab'Et këSg! këSg! BIr¨Kab'Ekºrrbgv^mansaFarNrd½cMkarmn! yn¶ehaH T 28 ebIkbr edayeQµaH s-Pu¨ta Edlfa¨tèvCaGtItsÃamInagbTumbuV¹ VnTMlak'¨Kab'EbkenH sMedA

elak¨bFanaFibtI ln'-nl' EdlevlaenaHk*man¨bCu÷KN:rd½mån¶Ipg.


57 k~¬g«f©enaHmankarbnæan'@ Cab'@ K~a. bnæab'BITMlak'¨Kab'EbkenHPÂam elak¨bFanaFibtI

ln'-nl' EfÂgsar¨Vb'raås¶[rYbrYmK~a rYcelakEfÂg¨bkasPaBGasn~ ¨beTsCatisÄitenA k~¬gPyn¶ray, elak KS-er"t rd½mån¶IeXasnakar EfÂgGMBIv^FankarkarJr ehIy[raås¶enA[ es©¿mkuMPÆak'epíél,

21 dl'em"ag 5 PÂW.

elak efag-lwmhYg eFÃIsn~isITkaEst, ehIybMrameKacr¨bkasBIem"ag

¨Bwti¶karN_e¨cInesíksûH rkkt'minTan'. bnæab'mkmankarcab'BBYkes¶cXMumYykEnÂg.

bnæab'mk ExµreyIgk*ehAkV"l'ehaHGaemrikSg [cUlmkCYyTmÂak'¨Kab'EbkenACu÷v^jrd½FanIP~M

eBjEtm¶g

e¨JHeBlenaHyYnnigExµrxagmÅageTotenaH

Nas'eTAehIy dUcenAGriyk§¨tenHCaedém.

cUlmkkan'Etekoknwg¨kugP~MeBj

bu"En¶EbbFUrbn¶icmkv^j.

«f©TI 17 emsa 1973 elak nl'-nl' EfÂgsarC÷rabraås¶GMBIcMNg'nigbMNgrbs'

elakk~¬gkarbegûét¨kum¨bwk§aCan'xõs'xagneyaVymYy ( Un Haut Conseil Politique ) s¨mab'kan'

kab'kard·knSrYmK~a cMeJHbJúaFM@ rbs'Cati.

s¶ab'Jk´enH shsPaeBl¨bCu÷eBjGgðCasmaCsPak~¬gsm&y¨bCu÷v^samJïenA«f©

cnæ TI 23 emsa 1973 sMerccit¶KS¨TmuWgma"t'nUvKMnitB¨gékmUld½anneyaVyenH ehIyedémºI Gnuvt¶nUvkmµv^FIenH rd½aPiVlBiess ¨tèvVnGnuJïat[cat'v^FankartambJïti¶k~¬gry: 3 Ex.

«f© 24 emsa 1973 elak ln'-nl' EfÂgsarC÷rabExµrGMBIsmasPaBÓt¶m¨kum¨bwk§a

neyaVy.

1- píaksm&y¨bCu÷«nsPaCatinig¨BwTìsPas¨mab'ry:eBl 6 Ex.

2- begûétKN:kmµaFikarmYymaneQµaHfa

Ót¶m¨kum¨bwk§aneyaVy

CYyelak¨bFanaFibtI«nsaFarNrd½ k~¬gkicÍkard·knS¨beTsCati. R

R

EdlmanPar:

R

k~¬gry:eBlC^t 6 ExenH Ót¶m¨kum¨bwk§aneyaVy Ga¨s&yedaysemÂg«nelak¨b

FanaFibtIsaFarNrd½Exµr nwgeFÃIesck¶Ise¨mcep§g@ Edlnwg¨tèv[rd½aPiVlBiessGnuvt¶. karcat'tSgnigkar¨b¨Bwt¶eTA

«nelak¨bFanaFibtIsaFarNrd½.

«nÓt¶m¨kum¨bwk§aneyaVy

nwg¨tèvkMNt'edaybJïti¶

mkdl'¨tg'enH eyIgdUcCaVnsbºay tºitVneXIjGs'elakvrCnTSgGs' VnrYb

rYmK~aeLIgv^jdUc¨Vf~a.

bu"En¶mknwkq©l'¨tg'eNHbn¶ic KW«f©TI 2 ÓsPa 1973 KN:rd½mån¶Ielak hg§-Fun

hak' VnlaElg ehIy«f©TI 16 ÓsPa 1973 elak Giun-tS EdlCasmaC^kÓt¶m¨kum¨bwk§a

neyaVyenaH ¨sab'Ets¨mutxÂçncuHmkerobcMKN:rd½mån¶Ibn¶BIelak hg§-Funhak' ehIy


58 cMeJHerOgenH

xƬMsUmrMlwkeLIgv^jbn¶icfa

KN:rd½mån¶I¨sukExµreyIgdUcCapÂas'b¶èrjwkjab'

eBk rkEtnwgTTYlxus¨tèvcMeJH¨bvti¶saås¶[VnCak'cºas'¨Vkd¨bCaBuMTan'. KitemIlcuH

tamEdlxƬMkt'¨ta : BIExkum¸: 1958 dl'ExmIna 1970 eyIgmanKN:rd½mån¶I 45 elIk Edl

k~¬genH manKN:rd½mån¶IKNbk§ 20 elIk KN:rd½mån¶Isgðmraås¶niym 25 elIk. ehIy naykrd½mån¶IeXIjEtmnus§dEdl@ e¨cInelIkdUcCaj"amej¿nEtzan:enHy"agem"cmind·g Et

kar mineXIjce¨mIneTAmuxesaH pÂas'cuHpÂas'eLIg mnus§dEdl@ edér¨C÷ueCégelIdancas' dEdl@ mineXIjQaneTAmuxesaH. tSgBIq~S 1948 dl'q~S 1970 maneQµaHmnus§Edl

manvasnaeFÃInaykenaH 17 nak' dUcCasIhnu 15 elIkm~ak'äg sem¶c Eb"n-nut 6 elIkm~ak' äg. Gußm-eQogsußn nig nerat¶m-kn¶¬l 3 elIkm~ak'. ehIykalnItikalTI 1 «nsPaCati

enaH naykrd½mån¶Imanelak Qan-v"m, Eb"n-nut, Ey"m-sMbUr, eGov-ekIs. nItikalTI 2 manelak hußy-knì¬l.

eXIjfa vrCnExµrTSgenaH layc¨muHK~aTSgG~kelµaPGMNac Gjniym ekAGIniym

p¶ac'karniym ¨BmTSgG~kCatiniymxÂHpg.

karpÂas'b¶èrehIyv^leTAv^lmk FÂak'eTAelIEtbuKðlm~ak'@ nigBYk¨kumm~ak'@ enHehIy

EdlTukdUcCaTmÂab'm´"agrbs'G~kkan'GMNac¨sukExµr

rbs'eKeTot.

ehIymkdl'¨tg'enH

ehIyEdleK¨bkan'faCaTmÂab'

xƬMsUmbJÍab'kMNt'rbs'xƬMeBlenHcuH

ÇlíÈ

EtsUm[Gs'elakG~k

GanBicarNaeLIgv^j tSgBIe¨kay¨Bwti��karN_ 18 mIna 1970 rhUtmkdl'enH etIeyIgbMpÂaj

eBl[xUcTeT@ eTAbu"Nöa? eyIg¨beQÂaHK~a¨bxSK~a Kµanem Kµanekay Gs'eBlbu"nµan? etI

eyIgGacnwgriHKn'karEbkVk'd*Ga¨sèvenHVnEdreT?

sUmGs'elakG~kemt¶aKit ehIyeqÂIycMeJHerOgenHpgcuH. etI critExµr eyIgGacpÂas'

xÂHVneT? edémºIksagsaFarNrd½teTAeTotenaH?

R R

R


59

Gnusasn_


60

KMnit ÇmanEtGjÈ manvrCnxÂH EdleFÃICa¨bFanGgð¨bCu÷NamYy sbºayNas'nwgniyayEbkCaGUrhUr

Casæwg rhUtdl'eTA¨C¬lerOgxusrebobvar:eTAk*man. beJÍjeyabl'mksuTìEtbJØak'fa Kit

enaH¨twm¨tèvehIy eyabl'enaHlíehIy [smaC^kGgð¨bCu÷Gnum&ttamcuH. kalebImansma

C^kNaC÷Tas' ÉsuMCUneyabl'xÂHenaH rEmgEtgminsbºaycit¶esaHeLIy e¨JHTMlab'Gatµa

ägenaHecHEtemIlgayeK faeKminekIteT eKmindl'xÂçneT eKl©g', äxÂçnv^jKWCaG~kecHe¨CA¨CH CabJïv&n¶ Camnus§kMBUl KMnitrbs'xÂçnCaKMniteB¨C KMnitrbs'G~kd«TCaKMnitkak minVnkar min¨tèvmkbeJÍjGÃIeT.

KMnitÇGjniymÈenH CaKMnitp¶ashYsehtu BIe¨JHeKäeTotk*Camnus§manv^carN-

JïaNEdr FÂab'¨tiHriHrkehtuplk~¬gerOgNamYyEdr eKecHd·gmYyEbb eyIgecHd·gmYyEbb

¨tèvbeJÍjeyabl'pg edémºIrklTìpllí[Ggð¨bCu÷ ÉsmaKm. BIe¨JHtamFmµta sUmºIG~k

silº:dUcK~a k*minGacTTYlPar:eFÃIkar[VnsBèKb'Etm~ak'ägVneT va¨tèvEtG~krVMBUEkxag

rS G~kKUrBUEkxagKUr G~kePÂgBUEkxagePÂg mYymux@ Biess@ edayxÂçn vaminEmnG~krVMecHrS

ehIyecHKUr ecHelgePÂgsBèKb'enaHeT Ék*G~kePÂgecHTSgKUrTSgrSErkenaHeT. m~ak'@ man

v^CØaCév:Bit¨Vkdeday@ xÂçn. y"agNamij eyIg¨bFan eyIgecHd·gtamsmtÄPaBeyIg äeK

äeTot eKk*mancMeNHGÃIep§g s¨mab'niyay[eyIgs¶ab'Edr KYrEteyIg[eKniyaypg s¶ab' eKpg e¨JHtamsegûtmk Fmµta¨bFanGgð¨bCu÷e¨cInEtyl'elIkarTUeTA äkarkMbuikkMbu"k kMeTc

kMTIrayrgenaH eKsmaC^keKyl'eKd·g.

enA¨beTsExµreyIg e¨cInEtG~kmant¨miHecHd·g mansJïab&¨tFM@ ecjmkBIbreTs

mknS[xUcreboberobryk~¬gsgðmExµr BIe¨JHEtelakniyayenAk~¬geBl¨bCu÷m¶g@ e¨cInEtGYt

fa enAGWru"bÉenAGasIuTÃIb eKe¨cInEte¨bIrebobdUcelakBn´l'CUnenHäg ¨tg'BitÉminBit e¨sc Etelakd*mhimaenaH GFibºayerobrab'eTAtamkaryl'rbs'buKðlenaHeT minEmnCav^CØaEdl

VneronenaHykmkBn´l'enaHeT KWCaeyabl'm~ak'@ eTetI. bu"En¶K~aEdlmant¨miHtictYcs¶çc

es¶Ig minhßanCUneyabl' edayxÂacG~kmant¨miHenaHemIlgayxÂçn ! enHehIycritExµrsm&y

stvt§r_TI 20 enH sMKal'emIlcuH G~kEdlVnd·knSmun@ knÂgmkenH e¨cInEtGatµaniym

manEtGjeTIbd·knS¨beTsCatieTAVn KµanbN¶¬Hcit¶rYbrYmCYyBn´l'CUneyabl' eXIj¨tèv

ehIynSK~aeFÃItamenaHeT manticNas' e¨cInEt¨bCu÷rYccb'Etm¶g ¨tg'Gnuvt¶eTAtamenaH sUn´

Etm¶g. enHehIy¨bCu÷e¨cInVnkartic ¨beTscMerInlUtlas' eK¨bCu÷ticeFÃIkarVne¨cIn eTIb

eTAmuxVn xƬMsMKal'emIlmkeXIjEbbenHe¨cIn.


61 ehtuenH

GjniymeBk.

eyIgKYrGnuelams¶ab'semÂg

s¶ab'eyabl'rbs'smaC^käeTotxÂHpg.

kuM

KMnitlYcykeyabl'eK manCnCatieyIgxÂH cUlcit¶ykeyabl'G~kd«TmkeFÃICaeyabl'ägpæal' CaehtunS[

G~kbeJÍjeyabl'Elgcg'beJÍjeyabl'xÂçnteTAeTot. beJÍjeFÃIGÃI ebI¨bFan ebImit¶enaH

ykeyabl'xÂçneTAeFÃICaeyabl'eKeTAehIy. dUcy"ageQµaH muI VnCUneyabl'enAeBl¨bCu÷ FM ehIyGgð¨bCu÷Vnyl'¨sbTSg¨sug. dl'eBlse¨mc ¨sab'EtVt'eQµaH muI eTAecj

eQµaH su¨k-esAr_ äNaäeNaHeTAv^j. kalBIC÷nan'cas'

sem¶csIhnuEtgsæg'eyabl'enAGgð¨bCu÷ral'eBl

ehIyc¨maj'

ykeyabl'Na 4-5 Edllí@ mk E¨skfa : ebItameyabl'xƬM KYrEteFÃIy"agenHy"agenaH.

¨tg'fa ebIeFIÃtamelakenH elakenaH ÉeFÃItameyabl'elakenHelakenaH EdlKat'sresr k~¬gesovePAenHenaH

CaehtunS[mÍas'eyabl'enaHK~aeBjcit¶pgenaH

²tfaeT

KMnitäg eyabl'äg. ebIrvl'dUec~H etInrNanwgCYy[eyabl'lí@ eTot?

fasuTìEtCa

KMnitlYceyabl'eKenH lµmGs'elakxÂHpÂas'ecjehIy.

KYrEtBie¨KaHsaksYr manvrCnxÂHVneFÃIFMehIy enAminTan'ecHrebobedkedérQrGgð¬y tamEbbbTCaExµrenA

eLIyeT e¨cInEte¨bIGakbºkiriya ²riyabfqðg@ minsm. TSg¨bBnìTSgb¶I enAEbbCaCn samJïFmµtatyg"yeTA.

edémºIsmrm´nwgzan:eyIg EdlCaG~kCYyd·knS¨beTsCati KbºIeyIgBie¨KaHsaksYr

Gs'elakcas'TuM kan'TMenomTMlab'CatiqíineqíA [elakCYyENnSBn´l'pg eTIblí. BIe¨JH

eyIgG~kFM KWCatMNagCatimYyEp~k kuMeyIg¨cegg¨cgagqðg@ enaH etagEtKitmunnwgeFÃIGÃI@ fa

GatµaGjCatMNagCatiExµrTSgmUl TSgmUlEtm¶g.

m´a"geTot

ebIGatµaGjeFÃIxus

KWnS[CatibreTsemIlgayCatiExµr

breTsk*dUcCaBiVkyl'sPaBTn'PÂn'rbs'CatiExµrxÂSgNas'.

FMehIyKbºIykcas'TuMCaTI¨bwk§axÂHeTIblí.

eyIgVneFÃIFMedayt¨miHv^CØa

BuMEmnedayecHd·g

TMenomTMlab'¨b«BNIeT dUec~HeyIgkuMGYtfaeyIgecH eyIgyl'TMenomTMlab'¨b«BNIExµrenaH.


62

KMnitxÂacneyaVy manvrCneyIgxÂH xÂacneyaVyTSgxÂçnägkMBugsÄitenAk~¬ugrgÃg'neyaVy. rd½karcat'

[eTAkan'karneyaVyedémºICYy¨beTsCatixÂçn EtEbrCaeTAniyaynwgCnbreTsenaHfa : xƬM síb'neyaVyNas' xƬMsuMEtrs'eT xƬMminecHeFÃIneyaVyeT ! .

s¶ab'cuH ! ebImanmnus§rebobh~wge¨cInnak' ¨beTsCatimuxCanwgBiVkBuMxan. KYrq©l' !

ebIfaxÂacneyaVyehIy

em¶ceLIyk*eTAsµ&¨KsuMeK

eTAenAeFÃIkar¨tg'kEnÂgEdleKkMBugeFÃI

neyaVy? enHehIycritExµr! Edlcg'EtFM EtminecHd·gmuxgarrbs'ägfa¨tèveFÃIGÃI. ÉmYy yl'fakEnÂgenaHCakEnÂgxÂaj'¨sçlGj¨bmUldulÂarykmkeFÃImanVn? {! ebIKitEbbenH xƬM

sUmGgÃr ! e¨JHrbrrksuIs¨mab'manVnenaHmanKreKak ecjeTArksIueTA kuMelgykkEnÂg

EdleK¨tèveFÃIneyaVy mkeFÃICakEnÂgC÷nYjenaH min¨sçleT ! ¨by&t~kÂayeTACacmº"a rsat'

dUcck kUnecArk¨sukenAnwgeKKµan. ¨tèvEteyIgbN¶¬HsµartICaG~kneyaVy¨Kb'@ K~a [KMrU

dl'kUnecAeyIgt@ eTAeTot kuM[xÂacneyaVy [¨sLaj'neyaVy ¨sLaj'¨sukeTs ksag¨sukeTsedayxÂçnäg. kuMVc'BwgnrNa[mkedérneyaVyCYs ksag¨sukCYsenaH !

KµanbreTsNaeKmancit¶lí cg'CYyedérneyaVyCYsExµr ksag¨sukExµrCYsExµreT ! ebIfa

cg'ykpl¨beyaCn_BIExµrenaH vaEmn !

erOgbreTsenH cas'TuMbrmburaNeyIgVncgCasuPasitfa : kuMTukcit¶breTs kMuTuk

cit¶GPienås¶m_ kMuTukcit¶GPi¨Vy. BIrXÂaxage¨kayTak'TgnwgerOgep§g@ äXÂaTI 1 xagedém KW elak¨bedAeyIgy"agcºas'fa

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eyIgnigeKva¨sbK~a eK¨tèvEtrYmnwgeyIgeTA.

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63 bu¨tIes¶cmÅageTot[v^nassUn´eTAeTot.

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vt§r_TI 20 enH k*enAeXIjmandEdl. G~kkan'GMNacenH kalebI[eKcab'ykrUbbuKðlNa

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sgswkGs'mYyBUC.

KMnitEbbenHBuMEmnCaKMnitkILaeT CaKMnitkMsakefakTab.

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saFarNCnes¶aHTwkmat'dak'[edaysíb'exõImBuMxan !

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65 s~a«dxÂH[K~aG~ke¨kayVneXIjpg ebIKµans~a«dTukeTk*hIeTAcuH cuHEtxÂçneTAvaVnehIy kuM elgminVnTuks~a«d[eK ehIyEfmTSg¨bmUlexæctSgBIeck d÷Lèg dUg sÂa rbs'rd½eTA

eTotenaH minlíeT !

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minsMelog[ehIyeT cSdl'«¨B¨tg'manrUbfµenaH tSgykrUbfµenaHCafµsMelogEtm¶g. CYn

kalenAäpæHenaHKµanfµsMelogpgeT GagEtfµenA䫨B cSeTAsMelog䫨BenaHEtm¶g. mkBI kMC^lF©n'eBkNas' eTIbVnCaminrvl'rksBÃebIfµmYydu÷s¨mab'sMelogkSbitenaH. ehIyebI

lyCayk elgykssrfµcmÂak' rUbeKa nigsilacarwkeTATuksMelogEtm¶g.

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68 eT ! bgminFÂab'enAeT ! xÂHeFÃICaeBIsYr¨bBnìfaGUnägEdlÓs§ah_cUlvt¶EdrÉ? bgFujNas'

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sukm"mu"k gakeTAVyTwkEsßt¨tElt hWuùùù [bgenA bgminecHenAeT!!! En±! ecHhamat'ed¿l

tµHsMbukedémrbs'xÂçneTAekIt ! xÂçnFÂab'edér¨Tak'@ yYrcan¨sak'bbresog ¨tIeg¿t ¨tIeqíIrCamYy elaksgô eTACaGIcwgeTAekIt!

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eFÃIFM k*eKcElg[CYbmuxmit¶enaH Ék*VnCYbEdrEt¨BegéyeTAElgsðal'K~aEtm¶g. niyayfa sðal'nSefakxÂçne¨JHxÂçn²LèvFMdu÷. Edr?

mnus§bu"nµanC÷BUk

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ninæa esIctµHtiHed¿lxÂçneBjTMhwg. e¨JHmnus§TSgGs'K~asuTìEtman¨bvti¶Bit@ rbs'xÂçn G~k d«TeKtamsðal'hUrEhmk G~kenHd·g¨tg'eNH G~kenaHd·g¨tg'eNaH xÂçnmkeKcEklubs~am danrbs'xÂçnEt¨twmeBlbcͬbºn~enH lubem"cnwgVn. emÂa"HehIyekr¶i_eQµaHxÂçnenaHvaenAEtsí¬y rhußmGIcwgeTA.

ehtuh~wgehIy VnCaxƬMsuMp¶Sbíèn@ yuvCnExµrfa emt¶akuMykt¨mab'tamBYkemGMe× Edl

ePÂcxÂçnfaxÂçnBIedémCadgûèvenaH.

y"agem"cVnCaxƬMcg'[ecos?

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elakmin

sðal'Em"Òelak mit¶Pki¶elak ¨KèVGacar´elak vaCasiTiìrbs'elakeTetI? xƬMenHmkGHGag e¨C¿tE¨CkGI? man¨beyaCn_síI?

xƬMsUmC¨mabfa mkBIsegûteXIjfa :

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BYkGs'elakTSgenH ¨tèveKlbesIceBb¨Cay ehIyCamnus§xÃHmit¶Edlsucrit

BYkGs'elakTSgenH ebImane¨KaHf~ak'efÂaHyssk¶iFÂak'xÂçndUec~HdUec~aH eKral'K~aTH «dbnærfa[¨sLHsaFueTAcuH

-

BYkGs'elakTSgenaH ¨tèvEm"Òbgbíènmit¶Pk¶i¨beTcp¶asadak'TMnay [rlayrlt' ¨Kb'@ K~a.

xƬMsegûteXIjy"agh~wg,

xƬMcg'[yuvCneyIgEdlCassr¨T¨Tg'¨beTsExµrBIenHerog

eTA VneTACabuKðllí¨Kb'@ K~a maneKrab'GanesµaHdUc@ K~a Kµanmit¶Pk¶icSesIceBb¨Cay, Kµan BYkma"kcSp¶næa[liclg', KµanEm"Òdak'bN¶asa eTIbxƬMsuM[ecosrebobCévPaBemGMe×enaH.

m´a"gv^jeTot Ca¨beyaCn_dl'sgðm¨bCaFibety´ eyIg¨tèvEtecosvagrebobenaH BI

e¨JHeyIg¨tèvsagsmPaB edérKnÂgPatrPaB edémºévDónPaBnigsuPmgðlsgðm. BIe¨JHEt

erOgvDónPaBnigsuPmgðl«nsgðmeyIgenHehIy eTIbxƬMnSykerOgemGMe×mkeJlk~¬gTIenH.


69

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EtkalNa

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dEdl.

enAEtminkan'òkzan:CaG~kmanmû¬dJk'esaH

G~kFMeyIgxÂH

EdleTIbnwgVnyssk¶ixõg'xõs'k*dUec~aHEdr

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FmáxagpÂèvTUteTotpg e¨cIn¨b¨Bwt¶CamYyePÆ¿vbreTsGMeBIep¶sp¶asnS[xµaseK minxµasEtxÂçn

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eyIgxÂH

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Etm¶g elak²thßanTTYlTanGÃIenApæHeT xÂaceTApæHeKTTYlTanminekIt tºitminXÂan elakTuk eJH[TeTsíat cSeTAvat'[NaNIenApæHeK. manGI! XÂanBIpæHmk¨sab' elakbriePaKGahar

nigBisa¨saVny"age¨cInKYrsresIr!!! ¨sab'EthYskMrit k*ePIPaymkv^j rYck*tSgkíçtcegíar ¨Chit¨ChmmYyrMeBc

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70 CatiCaExµr etag¨by&t~cMeJHExµr karJr¨beyaCn_Exµr eTIb¨beTsCatieyIgfû¬÷efûégeTArYc m~ak'@

CYyelIkbn¶icbn¶çceTIbnKrcMerIneTArYc. xƬMnSerOgenHmkniyay

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rhUtdl' 10 É 15 äeNaH KYr[s¶ayNas' e¨JHnS[xusBtámanBitGs'rlIg.

dUcy"agbcͬbºn~enH Edl¨sukkMBugmanclaclsågðam mrNP&y¨Kb'kEnÂg bgbíèn

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P&yenAk~¬g¨kugäeNH. bgbíèneyIgcUlcit¶Nas' erOg¾eKfaehIyniyayGHGagdUcCacºas'

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TSgPUmiminxan !

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eyIgCaG~kFM G~kecHd·grlayGs'rlIg.


71 dUcy"ag¨KçsarraCniymC÷nan'edém Gs'elakC÷nan'cas'@ Kg'nwg¨CabxÂHminxan. ebI

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cit¶e¨cIn. pæ¬yeTAv^j ¨Kçsares¶cNaminkan'TMenomTMlab' ¨kwt´v^n&y cºab'brmburaNeT Kµan

raås¶NaeKarBeT. eKarBy"agem"c ebIBYkenaHk*CaBYkGava"Es ¨sI ¨sa ebo eV" ¨BHGgðmÅas'

k§¨taman¨bBnìrab'minGs' Gag¨TB´¨BHraC¨TB´cayvayxØHxØay dUceKCH¨kdas¨Vk'tam

bgíçcecal,

ä¨BHGgðmÍas'k§¨tIk*Edr

b¶Ie¨cInb¶èrpÂas'kt'eQµaHminGs'minTan'

mnus§mYy¨kumEdl[KMrUdl'eKsuTìEtGa¨kk'TSgGs'. Gs'.

lkÅN:GasGaPasGa¨kk'Ga¨kIenHehIy

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G~kmF´mk*eday

vaeTACaBYk

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Cati. ebIeyIgCYbCu÷K~aehIyrvl'EtCECkkíakkíayEtBIerOg¨sI ¨sa GaePonkJÏa eboeV"enaH maneBläNanigBIe¨KaHerOg¨suk.

eyIgKYrnSK~aEbrmkrkKMnitlí. Gb'rMkUnecAExµrmit¶Pk¶iExµr, [Vnrs'CaExµr sÂab'eTACa

Exµr, ekItv^jCaExµr [ExµrmanC÷hrnigkmÂSgmSmYnteTAGnaKt !

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e¨TaleTABuMrYck*tSgkac'Bt'ekµgenaHmkv^j. eBlBt'enHehIyEdlEm"Ò 100 PaKryf©èrrhuwH ¨Kvékºalttat' dkdegúémFM¨Vb'eK¨Vb'ägfa : hWuùùù GakUnxƬM emkUnxƬMvaeFÃI[xƬMlMVkdl'ehIy TarenH TarenaHminecHGs'minecHehIy ehIyeronsU¨tGÃI@ KµanekItesaH eXIjEtBYkm"akeTA eNHeTAeNaH ¨BècuH¨BèeLIg ! . ehIyKat'cg'[eKCYyedaH¨sayKat'pg etIeFÃIy"agNa[kUn enaHVns¶ab'Kat'xÂH? manv^FIGÃI?

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72 d·glíGa¨kk' efakTabäeNaHeT. ekµgdUcCatYxÂçnmnus§m~ak'Edr eyIg¨tèvkarJreraKva ¨besIr CagcSB´aVleraK. eyIg¨tèvGb'rMekµg[lí CaCagcSEttE¨mt¨mg'va k~¬g¨KaEdlvaFMehIy enaH. eraKmksÄitk~¬gxÂçneTAehIy f~SxÂHdak'eTAdl' G~kCm©Wk*rs'eLIg f~SxÂHdak'mindl' G~kCm©W

k*sÂab'eTA.

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e¨cIn yuvCnEdlEkElgeLIg KWmkBIm¶ayÒBukbEN¶tbeN¶ay¨Cul [vaGava"Es rSErk suI

p·kKb'mit¶Pki¶suTìEtBYkJl. xƬMsegûteXIjfa sm&yenHekµg@ Qamrav cUlcit¶begûéteK ehAfa esor¨BI ( Surpris ) tamrebobGWr"ub. xÂHEbbcg'Gava"EsEdr. Em"ÒkUn¨sIxÂHmund÷bUgEbb sresIrkUn¨sIxÂçnfa kUnGjecHrebobbreTs, dl'yUr@ eTAeXIjplmin¨sçl edaykUn¨sI

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Nas'. BYklím~ak'BIr muxCadYlereTAtamBYkGa¨kk'e¨cInK~aenaHBuMxan.


73

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xƬMcg'eJlBIerOgsMelokbMJk'.

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dl'mk²LèvenH eKes¿kJk'tamGMeBIcit¶

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esaH.

tamlí KYrEteyIgm~ak'@ enAk~¬gsgðmCYys©çn¨KgnUvlkÅN:GÃIEdlCaExµrenaH [enAEt

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cit¶bMEbkejIsrebobenaH EtxƬMyl'fa ebIeyIges¿kJk'[sðal'rebobrgaek¶AenaH Gs'elak G~knwgVn¨sçlxÂçn ehIyVnsmrm´pg.

GMBIerOgTuksk'esH sBëf©enH enA¨beTsxÂHenACu÷v^jeyIgenH maneyokNam «fLg'd_ hÃIlIBÃIn eKkMBugEt

¨by&t~erOgyuvCnTuksk'esH EdleKyl'faeFÃIxUcTMenomTMlab'lírbs'¨sukeK ¨BmTSgeK

mincg'[suIv^l&yxusTMngenaH qÂgmklb'elIvbºFmárbs'eKpg. kEnÂgxÂH eKcat'P~ak'gar[ cScab'yuvCnTuksk'Evgykmkkat'sk'enaHecal. ehIy¨sukxÂH enAcMNtyn¶ehaHpæal'Et

m¶g eKsuMGeJØIjePÆ¿vbreTsTuksk'Evg[cUleTAkat'sk'enAkEnÂgmYysmrm´ EdleKbMrug

TukCae¨sc munnwg[breTsenaHcUleTAkan'¨kugrbs'eK.


74 eyIgäeNHv^j eyIgmancat'karGÃIEdrelIerOgCnTuksk'EvgenH?

eXIjmanEtmYyeBlKt' KWelak¨bFanaFibtI ln'-nl' ¨bkas[yuvCnTuksk'Evg

kat'sk'Evgrbs'xÂçnecal kalBIExmIna 1972, bu"En¶manyuvCnNas¶ab'¨bsasn_elak¨bFa

naFibtI ln'-nl' eT? Gt'eT ! sUmGP&yeTas

E¨kgxƬMyl'¨cLM

xƬMsegûteXIjfa

yuvCnsgúaTuksk'esH

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eyIgKYrep¶émBn´l'yuvCneyIg[ecosvagerOgTuksk'EvgenHpgehIy e¨JHminCakar

líemIlesaH ¨bus¨cLM¨sI ¨sI¨cLM¨bus xusBIEbbbTExµr. eyIgKYremIl¨beTseKEkºrxag eyIgenaHpg eKeFÃIy"agNa eKkarJry"agNa.

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enA¨beTsNak*edayk~¬gelakenH

eKEtgEtpÂas'tam

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Ca¨KYsareyIgnimYy@

Tal'Etem¨KçsarenaHBUEkmuWgma"t'

eTIb¨KçsarenaHVn¨twm¨tèveTAtam

KnÂglí minEmnrg'cSEtsmaC^k¨KçsarenH eKarBtamEt{vaTxÂçnCaemenaHeT. y"agNamij

¨beTsCatinimYy@ k*dUcenaHEdr KYrNas'EtG~krk§aGMNac sÄitenAk~¬gKnÂgcºab'enaHeTogTat'

muWgma"t'eTIb¨bCaBlrd½Vnsuxsan¶eTAekIt

EtkalNamineKarBcºab'

eFÃItamEttNúarbs'

xÂçnenaH ¨beTsenaHeTAmuxBuMrYceT enAEtv^lvl'dUcEbbcas'dEdlCadEdl. m´a"geTot ebI

eyIgtwgeyIgmuWgma"t'BId÷bUgy"agNa qab rYcFUrEsõtenaH.

eyIg¨tèvtwg¨tèvmWugma"t'[rhUteTA

kuMtwgmuWgma"t'EtmYy

dUceyIgVneXIj¨sab'«f©TI 9 tula 1970 eyIg¨bkas¨beTsCasaFarNrd½ KW

snµtfab¶èrpÂas'Gs'rebobrab'cUlTSgElºgJlapg,

eboeV"

enAmuxsk´munIectiypg

sis§anusis§VnTSgdutrUbsMNak

CasJïafaeyIg¨tèvQb'elgeboGaeV"geTotehIy.

enA

eBlenaHdUcCas©b'bn¶ic bu"En¶minyUrb"unµan ElºgJlak*rs'revékeLIgv^j mkBIGÃI? mkBIcºab'

eyIgbnìèrbnÄyqin«q rYcG~kxagelIEbbxØilbn¶icpg k*beN¶ay@ Tal'EtGIcwgeTA. ExµreyIg mancrittwgrwugmuWgma"t'Etmund÷bUg yUreTAFUrEsõt.

niyayerOgeyIgqab'bnìèrenH xƬMenAnwkeXIjbn¶icfa enAq~S 1940 kaleyIg, raCkar

VrSg-Exµr,

VntTl''cmºSgesomK¨KwkKe¨Kg

EtminEmnTan'CasahavdUcsBëf©enHpgeT

raCkarVrSgVneFÃIsMbu¨tcuH«f©TI 17 mifuna 1940 ham¨VmTSgGs'min[ebIkvg'rSe¨cog ¨sukekItsågðam. kaleNaHs©at'Gs' ehIys©at'rhUtrab'q~S. äeyIgsBëf©enHmindUec~aHeT


75 hambiTEtmYyEPÂtebIkv^j eragkunk*eday rgðsalk*eday dUcCacºab'sÄitenAEtelI¨kdas

esaHEtm¶g hamGÃIKµan¨bsiTiìPaBdUcC÷nan'VrSgeT. niyayenHminsresIrcºab'VrSgeT Et sresIrfaKMnitVrSgvamuWgma"t'EmnETn.

e¨JHEtvamWugma"t'EmnETnGIcwgehIy

VnCava¨tçt

kºalägekIt. ExµreyIge¨JHEtFUrEsõtEsßt¨BEltGIcwgehIy VnCaBiVkeKcputBIkJØHeK TSgraås¶TSgnamuWnenaH.

xƬMniyayenHdUcCaq©l' bu"En¶nis§&yxƬM xƬMVnscÍafaxƬMsuMrs'enACaExµr sÂab'eTAk*CaExµr

ehIyrs'k~¬gkMeNItfµév^jk*CaExµrEdr. xƬMmincg'[CnCatiNaka«LxƬMCaCatiep§gesaHeLIy.

m´a"geTot eyIgcUlcit¶EteFÃscSC^tswmeFÃIEtm¶g. nwkemIl enAeBlksagGÃImYyenA

tamext¶tam¨kug Gs'elake¨cInminsUv¨bjab'eFÃIeT luHEtdl'eBlC^tsem¸aFEtm¶g k*tSg

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eTA. sYncºarKµanpûa kac'pûamkedatbeJÏateTA, GN¶ègKµanTwkdgTwkBIrbILanykmkcak'[ eBjeTA s¨mab' ǨBHGgðTtsresIrÈ eBlebIksem¸aFsmiTìirukÅpl ekNëykeckm~as'lí@

mkdak'KreJrJsbgúaj, ehIy¨Tugman'mYyk*ecHEtedérehIrehaHtam¨BHGgðesIær¨Kb'ext¶ Pr

bJØak'GMBIkarcMerInxagciJÍwmman'. GagEt ÇÒÈ xÃak' K fÂg', ÇkUnecAÈ KitEtBIPrvk'vé ykem-

day. En ! sm&yenaH !

²LèvenH sm&yenH xƬMsUmeFÃIsMNUmBrkuM[Ehltamd÷eNIrmunenaH[esaH. rYmK~aeFÃI

GÃI eFÃI[esµaHmWugma"t'[rhUtkuMbnìèr.

karsnæiHsg§&y G~kd·knSExµr tSgEtBIedémmkcUlcit¶Etsg§&yK~aeTAv^jeTAmk. karsg§&yenH ecj

plCakarkab'smÂab'K~a²t¨bNI.

G~kEdlkMBugkan'GMNac rEmgEtgEtminTukcit¶cMeJHG~kEdlFÂab'rYmkarCamYy eday

ecHEtE¨kgfa ticelaGaenHvadeN¶ImGMNacGjeTA, ticelaGaenHvalbsmÂab'GjedémºIyk tMENgGjeTA ! ticelaGIecH ticelaGIcuH ! e¨cIn¨bkar. kalebInwkreGIldUec~aHehIy

k*tSgElgTukcit¶

rYcebICYnmanGamIuGaefagcak'rukbn¶ic

pgenaH k*tSgeC¯Cak'EmnETn fashkarIÉmit¶BIedémenaHkºt'xÂçnEmnETnEtm¶g. dl'mk¨tg'

eNH k*tSgrkelsecaT¨bkan'shkarIenaHÉmit¶enaH [K~aeTACaGa¨kk' edémºIykeTAsmÂab' ecalTeTeTA.

plv^VkEdlekIteLIg

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edaykarecHEtsg§&yK~aenH

CYnkalnS[ekItsågðamk~¬g

xƬMsuMrMlwkerOgmYy: es¶csuKnìbT (rvagstvt§r_TI 15 «n Kùsù) ¨sLaj'Kab'¨BHT&y

nwgbíèn«fÂeQµaH kn enaHNas' EfmTSg¨bTangarCa ÇXunhÂçg¨BHes¶cÈ ¨tçt¨taelI¨ksYg


76 sgôkarIEfmeTAeTot.

e¨kaymk

k*¨sab'Etsg§&yfa

XunhÂçg¨BHes¶ckn¨bugdeN¶Im

GMNac. luHs¶ab'Jk´cak'rukBYkmån¶IEdlsíb'XunhÂçg¨BHes¶cknenaHEfmeToteTA k*yl'fa

XunhÂçg¨BHes¶ckn¨bugkºt'EmnETn eTIb[eKtamcab'XunhÂçg¨BHes¶cknykmksmÂab'. ä

XunhÂçg¨BHes¶cknd·gxÂçn k*ePosxÂçneTAekNëraås¶kºt'EmnETnEtm¶g ecjmuxcºSgnwges¶c

EpndéeBjTMhwg. ¨bCaraås¶ekItv^nashinehacexÂacp§aGn¶rkbº smÂab'K~adUcstÃFatu. Xun

hÂçg¨BHes¶ckneFÃIKt'¨BHsuKnìbTeTAv^j ehIyykraC´mkesay tSgxÂçnCamÍas'Epndéqû¬y

ehIyk*tSgsbºayrSErktamKnÂges¶cEpndé¨Begéy ! . enHraås¶sÂab'mYyelIk. es¶ckn enHkMBugEte¨tk¨tGal k*¨sab'Etes¶cGgðcnæ (GgðcnæTI 1) ecjBIesommkv^j elIkT&B K¨KwkKe¨Kgmkedjes¶cknenaHeTAv^j.

karkab'smÂab'K~aäg

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eLIgm¶geTot ¨bCaraås¶v^nasCév^trab'BuMGs'. TMrSEtp¶çles¶cknVn cMNayesæIrGs'BUCExµr

EdlxÂSgBUEk.

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XunhÂçg¨BHes¶ckn rhUtdl'manerOgnS[raås¶sÂab'JsvalJskal.

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emExµresrI k*edaysares¶csIhnuminTukcit¶Kat'. rMlwkerOgenHeLIgv^j G~kP~MeBjnwkeXIj

PÂam. kaleNaHelak sWg-gu"kfaj' ¨tèvrd½aPiVlVrSgedaHElgmkv^j. «f©30tula1951

elak sWg-g"ukfaj' mkP~MeBj raås¶Exµrrab'mWunnak'TTYlKat'. sIhnuk*¨sab'EtE¨kgrEGgfa: «Gy"a, Gaem§¿enHmanraås¶rab'GanxÂSgNas'etI, min¨sYleT «f©e¨kayem§¿enHman¨bCa¨biy

PaBsemºImehIy GjGs'manmuxmanmat'ehIy dUec~H ¨tèvcat'karykGaenHecjeTIbVn.

sWg-gu"kfaj' minEmnman¨tecokdUc¨tecokJg manEP~kdUcEP~kòs§IäNa Kat'man¨tecok nigEP~kCamnus§Edr d·gxÂçnk*ePoscUl«¨BVt'.

erOgmYyeTot nrNamind·g CYn-mu"m CaG~kecHd·glºIBI¨sukVrSgmk. ¨Kan'Etehob

Etnwgdak'eCégcuHCan'elIdéeJF−cintug

k*¨sab'Et¨tèvdkeCégeLIgyn¶ehaHv^j¨bjab'.

cuHä

NaVn? ebIBYkEqûsIhnuenAe¨tome¨tob¨tacSxSJMykeTA[sIhnuenaH. eKfa CYn-mu"m Ca

mnus§¨khm.

mYyeTot, 4-5 q~SmunenHnrNaeTAePÂc? hUß-yn', hUß-nwm, exov-sMpn VnVt'xÂçn etI

edaysarnrNa? KWmkBIBYkniymes¶c BYkBukrlYybrivares¶cJlsIhnu BYk«cvSg .l.

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nS[vrCnbJïvn¶XÂatq©ayBIsIhnurhUtdl'sBëf©enH

man

bk§manBYksuIsac'hutQamK~aKµanBicarNa e¨JHEtkarkan'eCégBYk¨khm BYkexov minKitBI


77 rYmrs'CaExµr edaysuxsan¶esaH. xƬMniyaymkbu"eNöH etIGs'elaksegûteXIjEbbenHeT?

suMCYyBicarNapg.

ehtuGÃIVnCaeyIg{nfy xƬMyl'fa ExµreyIgsm&ystvt§r_TI 13 ksagnKrvt¶rYc k*cab'cuHfy²TìiBlbn¶ic

m¶g@ drabdl'erovrYcrYjdl'sBëf©enH. ehtuem¶ck*dUec~aH? edayehtufa C÷nan'enaH eKp¶ac'kar

Bn'eBke¨bIkmÂSgmnus§dUceKa-¨kbI [d·kfµFM@ manTm©n'hYskmÂSgykmkeFÃI¨VsaT ehIy

bgÅ÷[eFÃIKµaneBls¨mak. ¨VsaTTSgLayenAGgðrBitCamrtkGnus§avrIy_rbs'dUntaeyIg

¨VkdNas'. enAeBlksag¨VsaTTSgLayenAGgðrrYc eyIgkt'sMKal'eXIj¨bCaBlrd½

xUcTwkcit¶Gs'

rhUtdl's¨tèvcUlmkvay¨beTsCati

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nwgkarlMVkBn'eBk k*ekItcit¶enOyNayElgmancit¶karJr¨beTsCatieTA. ehIyrhUtmk

ecHEtcuHfy²TiìBlCalMdab' ²tmanvrCnNaCYybN¶¬HTwkcit¶¨bCaBlrd½ [PÆak'rlwkeLIg

v^jeT ecHEtbeN¶ayyUrCayUreTA ¨bCaraås¶k*eTACaGs'sgô·mcMeJHeCaKvasnaxÂçn nS[ xUcTwkcit¶rwtEtxÂSgeLIg. NamYy¨tèvBYkes¶cC^HCan'pg NamYyCévPaBlMVkpg k*edkp§g

cSEtvasnabu"eNöaH.

enAeBlEdlvacUlluk¨beTsenHm¶g@

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KYrkt'

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cab'cuHEmnETn dl'mkstvt§r_TI 18 ExµrkÂayCaCatimYyVk'sºat Gs'manKMnitGÃIehAfatsUß

enaHrlIg KitEtBITUlkeJØIrt' rt'CaTmÂab'Cab'mkdl'sBëf©enHEtm¶g.

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eCégcUlmkvay¨beTsExµr dutbMpÂajGs'pæHsEmºgG~k¨suk ehIymanes¶csIhnuVnCYy

E¨skBYkenaHeTot CaehtunS[¨bCaBlrd½eyIg eTAtamKnÂgstvt§r_mun@ Etm¶g. xƬMsuMrMlwk edayesµaH¨tg'fa e¨JHEtKnÂgVk'sºatvegÃgcUlnwgs¨tèvral'@ C÷nan'enHehIy eTIbnKr

kmõ¬CaFibtI enArYmrYjtUcbu"nVt«dsBëf©enH ehIyebIkuMEtVrSgcUlmkeFÃICaecAhÃayTan' kuMGI

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ehIyvasnakmõ¬CaeyIgEdl¨tèvEtmanecAhÃay¨tçt¨taenaH.

enH

cMeJHkar{nfyòTìanuPaB xƬMsUme¨bobeFobeTAnwgmha¨beTsxÂHBIsm&yburaN dUc

y"agmha¨beTscin¨bCamanit CamhaGMNacenAGasuIEdr kalC÷nan'es¶ccineQµaH C^n-sIu


78 (1)

hYgTI Chin Shih Huongti

xÂacBYkmu"gehðalcUlvay ¨beTscines¶cenaHk*cab'sagkMEBgd*FM

stvt§r_TI 3 mun¨Kis¶skraC (Grande Muraille) ehIyEvgrhUtdl'¨VMJn'KILèEm"¨t nS[¨bCa CncinlMVkevTnaCaGsÍar´

sg'rYckalNa

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KµankmÂSgeFÃI

sågðamesaH. TTYleBlenaHBYkmu"gehðalk*cUlmkvayeTot ehIyeXasnafamkCYy¨bCa Blrd½cin[putBITasPaB ¨bCaCncink*eC¯mYycMnYnFM ElgCYykgT&Brd½aPiVl nS[kgT&B

rd½aPiVlTn'ex§ay beN¶ays¨tèvvayFÂaymhakMEBgenaHeTA ehIymha¨beTscinsm&y

enaH k*FÂak'cuHk~¬ghaynPaBeBlenaHeTA. enAeGh§Ibk*dUec~aHEdr

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es¶ceGh§IbeQµaH

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mk eGh§Ibk*cuHfybn¶icm¶g@ drabmk.

karcuHfy²TiìBlTSgeyIgTSgeKenH KWbN¶almkBIkarG~k¨Kb'¨Kg¨sva¨bTajEtnwg

erOgkiti¶ys cg'¨bkYtnwgGaTieTBCak'cºas'Nas'.

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xÂH? dUcy"ag¨beTsCbu"n kalBIstvt§r_TI 19 es¶crbs'eKeQµaHGFiraC emGiC^ (Meiji) Bùsù

2410 Kùsù 1866 VnPÆak'rlwkeQÃgyl'fa : ¨beTsCbu"n¨tèvEtmanG~kecHd·ge¨cInteTA GnaKteTIbVnce¨mIn ehIyKµannrNa¨bmafVn. KitdUec~aHk*cat'bJØènkUnsis§[ecjeTA

eronenAbreTsCae¨cIn¨beTs.

minyUrbu"nµankUnsis§enaHecHd·g

be¨mI¨beTsCbu"nv^j Vnce¨mInCalMdab'drabdl'sBëf©.

nScMeNHecHd·gmkeFÃIkar

(2)

ä¨beTs«fk*dUec~aHEdr es¶ceQµaH¨BHVTsem¶ccuLacmekÂA

kalBIq~SBùsù 2411

Kùsù 1867 Vncat'kUnecAeK[eTAeronenAbreTsCae¨cInK~adUcy"agelak XYg GP&yvg§,

hÂçg¨bDIP~Myu"gùùù Caedém eKecHd·g¨tLb'mkv^j mancMeNH¨Kb'v^s&ys¨mab'eFÃIkar[¨beTs «f. äeyIgExµräeNHv^j manes¶cNacat'kUnsis§Na [eTAerondUcCbu"n dUcesomeT?

enAsm&y Bùsù 2411 Kùsù 1867 enaH es¶cExµrkMBugEtdeN¶ImGMNacK~a bg

smÂab'bíèn bíènsmÂab'bg deN¶ImK~aesayraC´smºti¶. ¨bCaBlrd½sÂab'KreCégelIK~a. tmk

manEdr

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edayCYyp¶l'GaharUbkrN_

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ebI¨BHGgðminsBèBHT&y k*tSg[rd½aPiVlp¶ac'GaharUbkrN_BIsis§enaHCa¨bjab'. sis§

enaHK~aEtletalvegÃgv^lvl' Elgcg'enACaExµr cg'EtsuMb¶èreQµaHcUlsJØatibreTsEtm¶g

edémºIrs'ranmanCév^t. es¶cExµreyIgvaGIcwg ! KMnitenH KWKMnitmincg'[nrNaecHCagxÂçnCaBYk

es¶c bu"En¶minyl'fa KMnitxæb'K~aägmin[ecje¨kAenH CaKMnits¨mab'eFÃIxƬMeKenaHeT. es¶cenH

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jèg esOg


84

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tSgBITMB&rTI 1 erogmkdl'enH xƬMsresr xƬMeJl KWekIteLIgedaysuTìcit¶rbs'xƬM Edl

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Exµr ekItedémºIExµr nigrs'edémºIExµrÈ . erogral'Cati xƬMsUm[VnekItCaExµr rs'CaExµr sÂab'Ca Exµr kuM[XÂateTAäNaq©ayBITwkdékmõ¬CaenH[esaH .

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saFarNrd½

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«f©TI 20 kkûda 1973

bußNöcnæ-m"ul


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CharetKhmer