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第1章

英文基本句型 1

第1章 英文基本句型 重點 1 主詞+不及物動詞(S + Vi) 動詞(如:rise, ring, come, fall 等)本身就可表達完整 的意念,不需受詞及補語,但可用副詞修飾。 〔副詞包括簡單副詞、副詞片語、副詞子句〕 句型:S + Vi +(Adv)

說 明

海倫總是面帶微笑。 Helen always smiles . 2. 那位可愛的女孩歌聲甜美。 The lovely girl sings sweetly . 3. 昨晚下了大雨。 It rained heavily last night. 4. 鳥可以在空中飛翔。 句 Birds can fly in the sky . 例

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主詞+不及物動詞 主詞+不及物動詞 +主詞補語 主詞+及物動詞 +受詞 主詞+及物動詞 +間接受詞(人) +直接受詞(事物) 主詞+及物動詞 +受詞+受詞補語

副 詞(片 語、子 句)常用來修飾 動詞,不是句子 的主要結構,所 以可增可減。換 言之,在例句中 的副詞如果省 略,整個句意還 是完整的。 Flowers bloom. →Whenspringcomes, many beautiful flowers bloom in the garden.

開竅要訣 1 不及物動詞沒有受詞,但加了介詞之後,也可接受詞。

2

【例】艾瑪總是對我微笑。 Emma always smiles at me. There + be(Vi)+ S(有……) 【例】桌上有一隻花瓶。 There is a vase on the table. 【例】這次的聚會有五十位客人。 There are fifty guests at the party.

2

本句型是表示「某 人」或「某物」的 「存在」。在句首 的 there 不 是 主 詞,真正的主詞是 be 動詞後面的名 詞。 N.O.T.E


第1章

英文基本句型 2

TEST YOURSELF

山姆經常在上課講話。 Sam often talks in class. 2. 日出於東,而落於西。 The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 3. 昨天約翰在圖書館用功讀書。 John worked hard in the library yesterday. 1.

Vi: Intransitive Verbs

這類動詞若沒有 主詞補語,整句 意義就會不完 整。 連綴動詞,可記 成 2/5/8 動詞: 2 個「似乎」 5 個「感覺」 8 個「變成」

重點2 主詞+不及物動詞+主詞補語(S+Vi+SC) 動詞(如:is, become, taste, turn 等)本身不能表達完 整的意義,需要主詞補語,使句意完整。 句型:S + Vi + SC 例 1. 這碗湯味道鮮美。 The soup tastes delicious . 2. 我父親看起來很年輕。 句 My father looks very young .

說 明

開竅要訣

此句型的動詞為「連綴動詞( Linking Verb )」,其後常接形 容詞作主詞補語: 「似乎」:seem, appear 「感覺」:look, taste, sound, smell, feel 「變成」:become, come, go, get, grow, run, fall, turn 「保持」:remain, keep, continue TEST YOURSELF

那老人似乎不高興。 The old man seems unhappy . 2. 你的夢想有朝一日將會實現。 Your dream will come true some day. 3. 許多樹的樹葉在秋天會變黃。 The leaves of many trees turn yellow in autumn. 1.

N.O.T.E


第1章

英文基本句型 3

重點 3 主詞+及物動詞+受詞(S + Vt + O) 動詞(如:love, have, enjoy, decide 等)本身需要一個 受詞,即可使句意完整。 句型:S + Vt + O 例 1. 今天早上,傑克到達台北。 Jack reached Taipei this morning. 2. Smith 先生認識我,因為他教我們英文。 句 Mr. Smith knows me because he teaches us English.

Vt: Transitive Verbs

說 明

有些動詞一定要 涉 及 其 他 人、 事、物,這 些 動 詞就稱為及物動 詞。所 涉 及 的 人、事、物 稱 為 受詞:受詞可以 是 名 詞、代 名 詞、動 名 詞、名 詞片語或名詞子 句等。

開竅要訣

1 英文有許多動詞同時可作及物動詞和不及物動詞,應由句意 及結構來判斷: The child grows rapidly .(這小孩長得很快。) Vi She grows flowers in the garden.(她在花園裡種花。) Vt 2 下列動詞之後要接動名詞為受詞: miss (錯過) mind (介意) escape (逃避) enjoy (喜歡) consider (考慮) avoid (避免) risk (冒險) finish (完成) imagine (想像) practice (練習) suggest (建議) quit (停止) appreciate(感激) 【例】你應該避免一再地犯錯。 You should avoid making mistakes again and again.

的 grows 之後沒 受詞,所以是不 及物動詞。 的 grows 之後有 flowers 當 其 受 詞,所以是及物 動詞。 2 請參考 p.91。 1

TEST YOURSELF

在週末他喜歡去看電影。 He enjoys seeing a movie on weekends. 2. 大多數的學生都不曉得如何使用圖書館。 Most students dont know how to use the library. 3. 沒有人知道王先生是百萬富翁。 Nobody knows that Mr. Wang is a millionaire.

1.

1. 動

名 詞,當 受 詞。 2. 名詞片語,當受 詞。 3. 名詞子句,當受 詞。 N.O.T.E


第1章

英文基本句型 4

本句型亦可改為 S + Vt + DO + 介系詞 + IO 原句 = His girlfriend

wrote him a letter.

重點 4 主詞+及物動詞+間接受詞(人)+ 直接受詞(事物)(S+Vt+IO+DO) 動詞(如:give, bring, send, show 等)本身需要兩個受 詞,句意才能完整。 句型:S + Vt + IO + DO 例 1. 她說了一個有趣的故事給她的孩子聽。 She told her children an interesting story. 2. 他的女朋友寫了一封信給他。 句 His girlfriend wrote a letter to him.

說 明

開竅要訣

1 此類動詞大多和「授與」有關,所以稱為「授與動詞」。 2 間接受詞(IO)與直接受詞(DO)對調時: 可接 to 者如下: give, bring, send, show, lend, teach, write, sell, etc. 【例】The sun gives us light and heat. = The sun gives light and heat to us. 可接 for 者如下: make, buy, get, leave, choose, etc. 【例】The kind man bought the poor boy a book. = The kind man bought a book for the poor boy. TEST YOURSELF

好老師會仔細地為他的學生挑選教科書。 A good teacher carefully chooses textbooks for his students. 2. 父親送我一支手機當生日禮物。 Father gave me a cellphone as a birthday present. 3. what is right 與 3. 這故事教導我們什麼是對的和什麼是錯的。 The story teaches us what is right and what is wrong . what is wrong 都是 名詞子句,當teach 的直接受詞(DO)。 1.

N.O.T.E


第1章

英文基本句型

重點 5 主詞+及物動詞+受詞+受詞補語 (S + Vt + O + OC)

動詞(如:make, find, keep, see 等)本身除了一個受詞 之外,還需要一個受詞補語,句意才能完整。 句型:S + Vt + O + OC 例 1. 這消息使他很高興。 The news made him happy . 2. 陽光使我們溫暖。 句 The sun keeps us warm .

說 明

開竅要訣

1 常以「名詞」為受詞補語的動詞有: call (稱呼) name (取名) elect (選舉) choose(選擇) appoint (指定) make(使成為) 【例】他們把這艘船命名為「鐵達尼號」。 They named the ship . 2 常以「動詞原形或分詞」為受詞補語的動詞有: S +[have, make]+ O + VP.P. 【例】我叫湯姆修理我的車子。 I had Tom fix my car. 【例】什麼東西把湖汙染了? Whats making the lake polluted ? V hear, see S + watch, feel + O + V-ing P.P. 【例】我看到她走出房間。 I watched her walking out of the room. 【例】我聽到有人叫我的名字。 I heard my name called . 3 常以「形容詞或分詞」為受詞補語的動詞有: find Adj S + keep + O + V-ing leave P.P.

5

請參閱 p.122。 比較下列用法:

I found the book easy. (S + V + O + OC) I found the book easily. (S + V + O) I found an empty box. (S + V + O)

2 - 為使役動詞 I had my car fixed. He made me go there alone.

2 - 為感官動詞 I saw him cross the street.(我看見他

橫越過馬路。) I felt the house shaking.(我感覺 到房子在搖晃。) N.O.T.E


第1章

英文基本句型 6

【例】我們應隨時保持教室清潔。 We should always keep the classroom clean . 【例】我覺得這本書相當有趣。 I find the book very interesting . 【例】工作不要半途而廢。 Dont leave your work half done . TEST YOURSELF

昨天在回家的路上,我看到一個小女孩在路邊哭泣。 On my way home yesterday, I saw a girl crying on the roadside. 2. 你最好把那顆壞牙拔掉。 You had better have the bad tooth pulled out. 3. 請把電視關掉,我覺得這節目很無聊。 Please turn the TV off; I find the program very boring . 4. 她發現她的皮包被偷了。 She found her purse stolen . 5. 很抱歉,讓你久等了。 Im sorry to have kept you waiting so long. 1.

2. had better + 原 V

N.O.T.E It s your turn!

實力診斷 一 觀念題 共 20 題,每題 5 分。

1. It s getting dark.

(天色漸暗。)

2. seeing a movie

(看電影)是主詞, 其後需接動詞。 3. 狗兒被輾過, 所以用被動。 run ran run

N.O.T.E

YOUR SCORE

D 1. You look very tired and its dark. Lets go home.  making  letting  having  getting C 2. For a lot of teenagers, seeing a movie .  their favorite  both exciting and happy  is a good pastime  feels pleasant B 3. On my way home, I found a dog by a car on the road.  to run over  run over  ran over  running over A 4. The news of his success made his parents .  happy  happily  laughing  laughed


第1章

英文基本句型

D 5. Are you going to leave ?  the open windows  the windows opened  open the windows  the windows open C 6. When I returned to my apartment, .  my watch was losing  I found my watch lose  I found my watch missing  the watch was missed D 7. Yesterday was my birthday and my mother .  made a cake to me  made a cake me  made for me a cake  made me a cake A 8. Canned foods do not sour easily.  go  come  smell  run B 9. Everyone in the class was .  silence  silent  silently  more silently D 10. She found her money .  steal  to steal  stealing  stolen B 11. Getting up early keeps us .  health  healthy  healthful  healthfully A 12. I found Tom video games until midnight.  playing  play  played  to play C 13. I saw an old woman the street.  across  crossed  cross  to cross D 14. I have never seen him by his parents.  scold  scolding  to scold  scolded A 15. The naughty boy played a trick me.  on  for  of  to D 16. I showed the picture a classmate of mine.  for  with  of  to A 17. At last, my dream has true.  come  become  turned  got

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5. leave the windows open(讓 窗 戶 開

著) 6.  lose 改為 lost 才 正確。 7. made me a cake = made a cake for me 8.

罐頭食品不易 變酸。 “ go + 形容詞” 時,go 解 釋 為 「變成」。 與 go 連用的 有:go mad / bad / crazy / sour / wrong

13. cross (vt.) across (prep.)

我從未看過他 被父母責備。 scold=calldown 15. play a trick on 人 (開某人的玩笑)

14.

17. come-came-come come true

N.O.T.E


第1章

英文基本句型 8

18.

feel sleepy

(想睡) .feel felt felt fall asleep (睡著了) .fall fell fallen 20. A: 我可以問個私 人問題嗎? B: 視情況而定。

B 18. As he sleepy, he asleep soon.  felt...felt  felt...fell  fell...fall  felled...fell C 19. I gave a dictionary as a birthday present.  he  his  him  their C 20. A: May I ask a personal question you? B: It depends.  for  to  of  on

二 研究題

Practice makes makes perfect. Practice perfect.

填充題 1. 前院的那棵樹讓房間很暗。我們應該把它修剪一下。 The tree in the front yard makes the room dark . We should get it cut . 〔101 統測〕 2. 派屈克剛得到一部喜劇片下禮拜的試鏡,現在他看起來很開心。 Patrick has just got a next-week audition for a comedy movie and he looks very happy right now. 〔101 統測〕 3. 有些公車司機在開車時也許會想睡覺,而這可能會危害到車上的 乘客。 〔99 統測〕 Some bus drivers might feel sleepy while driving, which can endanger passengers on the bus. 4. 因為下大雨,所以強森先生慢慢地而且小心地把車開下山。 Because of the heavy rain, Mr. Johnson drove down the hill very slowly and carefully . 〔97 統測〕 5. 梅的房間乾淨又整齊;相反地,他弟弟的房間則是一團亂。 May s room is clean and tidy. In contrast, her brother s room is a mess. 〔98 統測〕

N.O.T.E

突破 英文文法複習講義  
突破 英文文法複習講義  

1. 循序漸進:由淺入深,系統性介紹文法 2. 完整練習:充足習題,基礎進階都適用 3. 貼心配套:測驗卷搭題庫,驗收好幫手

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