International Lighting Magazine
ORGANIC LIGHT KAS OOSTERHUIS Use of the latest Technologies
A BRIEF HISTORY OF INSPIRATION
EDITORIAL Light enables human interaction. Without it we wouldn’t be able to read, work or socialise as much as we do. We need light for all kinds of practical activities, such as making our cities safe and more welcoming, but also to fuel our sense of wonder and bring a sense of beauty to the world we live in. This issue of Luminous captures how the use of organic lighting can touch our experiences in truly unique ways. Amazement and excitement were the reactions to the dynamic display that designer Jason Bruges created in Milan using OLEDs (organic LEDs). Our emotions are also touched by the natural phenomenon of bioluminescence, which Khah-Leang Choon explores in his research paper. An LED installation in Copenhagen that is as slender and variable as blades of grass evokes a sense of wonder, and also makes it a better space to occupy; as does the new Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg, which is visible from miles away, but also creates a safer environment for people who are walking across the bridge. Another landmark is the VIP Bridge in Dubai, which with its blue lights producing an effect reminiscent of a horse tossing its mane, helps build the sense of excitement among people on their way to the racecourse. Lighting is vital to all aspects of the real world, but the virtual world is becoming increasingly important as well. This is why we have launched a new feature, called Light Talk, which encapsulates some of the most interesting conversations between young designers on our website. Here they talk about the importance of shadow – without which, light would be far less exciting and inspirational. I invite you to enjoy and experience this issue of Luminous. Rudy Provoost CEO Philips Lighting
colophon published by | Philips Lighting BV – Mathildelaan 1, Eindhoven 5611 BD, The Netherlands – www.lighting.philips.com editor in chief | Vincent Laganier managing editor | Paulina Dudkiewicz editorial department | Augustina del Bao steering committee | Nils Hansen, Fernand Pereira copywriting & editing | Ruth Slavid translations | Lion Bridge graphic design concept | Philips Design, Bureau Kellerman dtp | Relate4u printing Print Competence Center more info | firstname.lastname@example.org T: +31 (0)40 - 2755928 ISSN nr | 1876-2972 12 NC | 3222 635 68365 Cover | Doudoune Club, Val d'lsere, France Lighting Design | Anne Bureau Printed on environmentally friendly, recycled paper.
LIGHT SOURCE Sunderland Station, Sunderland, United Kingdom
PLATFORM Kas Oosterhuis Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Development and trends in lighting BLUE SKY THINKING CLU - a brief history of inspiration
CONCEPT CORNER Cove lighting
SHOWROOM OLAC architectural scenario
GALLERY Lighting culture in Turkey
SPOTLIGHT Books Where to go
INTRODUCTION Organic light under the spotlight
PROJECT REPORT VIP Meydan Bridge, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
PROJECT REPORT Doudoune Club, Val d’Isère, France
PROJECT REPORT Mimosa Interactive Artwork, Milan, Italy
LIGHT TALK On the well-being of people, and on lighting design with or without shadows
PERCEPTIONS Lights in nature: bioluminescence PROJECT REPORT Christianshavns Torv, Copenhagen, Denmark
SNAPSHOT 16 Soccer City Stadium, South Africa Parliament Building, Egypt Replay Store, Italy Nelson Mandela Bridge, South Africa Ramada Hotel, Turkey Mestşká Estakáda Bridge, Slovakia Philipp Plein Store, Austria Santander Bank, Spain
Challenges in lighting design
SUNDERLAND STATION, SUNDERLAND, UNITED KINGDOM
GHOST PLATFORM By Ruth Slavid
A wall of glass blocks will be transformed into a constantly changing procession of ghostly passengers at a railway station in the north of England. One of the most interesting parts of travelling is watching the other passengers, and it is this that forms the basis of the installation that lighting designer Jason Bruges has designed for Sunderland station. Travellers on the refurbished station, waiting on a platform that faces a previously blank wall, are now able to watch ghostly figures behind the wall walking, meeting, sitting or just waiting. Bruges came up with this concept when he won a competition organised as part of the overall refurbishment of the station designed by Sadler Brown Architecture. The station had become increasingly important with the introduction of the Tyneside Metro alongside the main rail lines, but its condition, a dark underground space, did not reflect this. Sadler Brown was appointed to work with Nexus and Network Rail to make the station brighter and more pleasant to use. One part of its solution was to design a 144m-long wall of glass blocks behind one of the lines, in front of a disused platform. This became the subject of the competition, to look for a way that light could emanate from the wall, a reference in part to Sunderland’s football stadium, known as the “Stadium of Light”. Jason Bruges Studio was one of the entrants to the competition, and Bruges was intrigued by the idea of looking at the glass blocks as individual pixels on a digital display. “I liked the idea of the lost platform” he explained. “It would be like devising the characters for a low-resolution computer game.” He showed in simulation that although the wall was only 15 blocks (and so 15 “pixels”) high, this was enough to make it possible to recognise different types of figures, and to see them move. Having originally intended to use lit figures against a dark background, Bruges has reversed this idea to use shadows against a bright background – partly because this means that the overall level of lighting will be greater. Each pixel will be lit by an LED, which is adjustable to 255 levels of grey scale.
Jonathon Hodges, who is project manager for the project at Jason Bruges Studio, filmed 60 different local people over the course of two days, to create the characters for the animation. “I was quite surprised how many people took us up on the offer” he said. Everybody was asked to come along with a prop of their choice – a piece of luggage, a dog, a fold-up bike or even their partner. Then they were filmed and the filming was broken down into segments which were reassembled according to the syntax in the computer programme. This ensures, for example, that nobody can go directly from sitting to running. As each train comes into the platform, it “wipes clean” the scene behind it. Once the train has left the platform, characters start to enter again, and the scene builds up to an increasing level of complexity, until the next train comes in. It again wipes the scene – although some ghost passengers may make their way towards the train doors, for the entertainment of those travelling in the train. Although the existence of the wall of glass blocks was a given, Jason Bruges Studio was able to choose the finish of the blocks, which is a cross-reeded pattern, and of the grout between them, which is white. This was a relatively simple aesthetic decision, but other parts of the project were more technically challenging. The practice designed a frame that sits behind the wall, and supports all the LEDs and also the cables that connect them. These cables were one of the trickiest elements because they had to satisfy the strict requirements of Network Rail with regard to flammability and emission of any allergens. Kuldeep Vali, who is the business development manager at Philips working with Jason Bruges Studio, explained: “The cable had to be a special one known as an LSOH cable. We had never done a product with that cable, so we had to develop a special solution with those cables. It was a big challenge to find a cable that has the same electrical specification and fire performance.” Other technically demanding elements included the need for motion sensors to sense when the trains come in and how long they are, so that the animation can react accordingly, and the fact that the designer had to write a full maintenance schedule for the operator of the station. But none of this complexity is apparent to the passengers on the platform. They are simply seeing and enjoying the constantly changing scene in front of them. The only problem with which they have to contend is the danger of missing their train, if they become too fascinated by the goings on of those ghostly characters.
Client Nexus Architect Sadler Brown Architecture Engineer Arup Public art consultant Andrew Knight Glass blocks Glass Block Technology Lighting design Jason Bruges, Jonathon Hodges Jason Bruges Studio, London, United Kingdom Lighting solutions Kuldeep Vali, Philips Lighting Lee Shields, Architainment Electrical installer LX Engineering Ltd. Light sources Philips customized eW Flex SLX, warm white LEDs with LSOH cable 1W per node Lighting controls Philips Video System Manager VSM Pro Composite 103-000022-01 Websites www.nexus.org.uk/artontransport www.sadlerbrown.co.uk www.jasonbruges.com
Why does computer technology play such a major role in your work? We are living in a society in which technological developments are following each other in quick succession. It is actually quite logical for information and communication technologies to be used in architecture. All I am doing is actively applying the latest technology in this field to the design process. But you use this technology to a greater extent than many of your peers. Yes we do, and that is partly because we want to integrate technology and architecture, but also because we are constantly on the look-out for links between the visual arts and architecture. Back in 1994, Ilona Lénárd and I organized the “Sculpture City” event, the aim of which was to bring about a fusion of the visual arts and architecture on a digital platform. The relationship between the visual arts and architecture is most evident in our method of working. Whereas most architects still work from scale models, and in that sense are working to some extent in an abstract way, because we use the computer in the design process we are able at a much earlier stage to make models of buildings that approach the scale of reality. That's something a visual artist can do too − they create their own reality at full size. In the virtual world you create your own vision of the world, an environment about which you know all there is to know because you are the one who created it. Just like a visual artist, the architect is in control of everything: from initial assignment to management, finances, the production process and the final version. Because we have this control over the design and construction process we are able to tailor each building more precisely than ever before to suit the site and the client's and user's requirements.
KAS OOSTERHUIS Architect, ONL [Oosterhuis-Lénárd], Rotterdam, The Netherlands Inteview by Vibeke Gieskes
Luminous discussed the use of the latest technologies with Professor Kas Oosterhuis. He and his “Hyperbody” research group are working on the development of “non-standard architecture”.
And that probably requires a different form of production than is usual? In our projects, design and production are inextricably linked, right from the very start. Thanks to our “file to factory” production, we are able to deliver tailor-made industrial solutions; the great advantage is that each component in a building can be different. We actually deliver to the producer the script for the building using the techniques of complex geometry. The data for the building are sent in a table to the production department, which then produces the various components of the building. What very few people realize is that this is not necessarily any more expensive than production in series. The strange thing here is that the techniques used in this form of production have already been in existence for a long time: steel and glass manufacturers already had the machines – and they are only starting to use them now. Our work is not really futuristic or avant-garde at all. We are just using facilities that have already been available for a long time! Nevertheless, your work involves a high level of experimentation and research. In my “Hyperbody” research group at Delft University of Technology we are researching industrial customized solutions. Technology that originated in the gaming industry is being used to develop new design tools, which are then used in the design.
Light plays an important role in your buildings as a visual phenomenon. How do you do this? My virtual buildings are in effect organized clouds of dots, in which each individual dot can be activated separately. In the design for the 2007 Al Nasser Headquarters in Abu Dhabi, each window frame can be controlled and the façade is made up of LED pixels that can be controlled individually. This makes light ideal for using spaces in an interactive way: in the Zoutwaterpaviljoen (1997) [Salt Water Pavilion] we used sensors so that the movements of end-users triggered changes in the light in the various spaces. Now we are developing a similar system for a new “Cockpit” – a sound barrier with industrial space – along the freeway near Haarrijn. Intensive, continuous exchange of data can turn the real world into a dynamic world. By that I don't mean that everything has to be in motion, but that we incorporate flexibility and intelligent solutions into the buildings so as to create an environment that is more pleasant and offers greater comfort to users. Light forms a natural part of this and to a large degree can help to determine the impression a space or building creates.
One of our projects is the “interactive wall”. A direct application of this is to be found in the dynamic sound barrier we developed for use along a railroad track. Here sound is taken to be a set of signals to which the wall reacts. When a train approaches, the sensors in the wall detect the sound and cause the wall to rise.
This means that the landscape no longer has to be permanently hidden by a 'fence' and the moving wall creates an efficient barrier to the sound of the passing trains. In the future these kinds of customized solutions will no doubt give rise to worthwhile solutions and applications for complex problems.
DOUDOUNE CLUB,VAL D’ISÈRE, FRANCE
HARMONY OF Colour Interview by Isabelle Arnaud
Right at the bottom of the ski runs, one can rest or dance in this enchanted space designed by Patrick Jouin. Anne Bureau, the French lighting designer, explains how she made the light omnipresent and the luminaires invisible.
Designer Patrick Jouin and architect Sanjit Manku have collaborated on the design of the Doudoune Club in Val d’Isère to create an architecture in which light is always subtle, yet omnipresent. None of the luminaires are visible, except for one suspended installation which Patrick Jouin designed himself. What is the Doudoune Club? It’s a nightclub in one of the most famous ski resorts in the French Alps. The building covers 600 m² and is set at the foot of the ski runs. There is a dance floor at ground level, with a lounge upstairs overlooking the mountain. In winter, the whole building is surrounded by snow. The lounge opens at 5 pm to offer a comfortable space to rest and have a drink as the sun sets, and for people to meet before dinner. The dance floor opens much later. Both spaces needed artificial lighting. How did you approach the lighting design? I worked from the sketches provided by Patrick Jouin and also had many discussions with him and with the clients, Aurélie and Cyril Bonnevie. The lighting is based on the design of the furniture and the architecture, with the pink-violet colour that you can see in several places creating a strong element that links the two floors. Above all, the main idea was to show the lighting effects, but not the luminaires which are all integrated in the furniture or the architecture. I also had a limited budget, so I chose products that were simple but nevertheless efficient, in terms of their technology and their energy consumption. That’s why the principal sources are fluorescent tubes and LEDs, which allowed us to provide the light just where and when it was needed.
What kind of ambiance did you create in the discotheque area? I need first to describe the outdoor lighting at the entrance of the nightclub. From the street, you go down a straight flight of stairs that is illuminated by two metal halide projectors on the side walls and by LEDline set in the floor. The indoor lighting at the entrance, realized with downlights recessed in the ceiling and fitted with a violet filter, enhances the logo “Doudoune” on the door. Once you get inside, you see the ellipsoidal reception desk, lit from the inside by white electroluminescent diodes. On the right, recessed luminaires and wallwashers with halogen lamps offer a good level of lighting. Then you move into the discotheque area where I wanted dynamic lighting (which is different from the lighting of the dance floor) that could provide a comfortable ambiance as well as a festive one with colour changes. How did you create this lighting? Although one might have expected it to be done with LEDs, I used fluorescent tubes, hidden behind the seats of the VIP area, equipped with yellow, orange, warm white (2,700K) and cold white (6,500K) filters. The colour changes were limited deliberately, to create a warm ambiance and a soft effect, that harmonized with the dimmable halogen installation designed by Patrick Jouin, which hangs above the bar. On the same floor, there is a smoking room with transparent walls lightly tinted in pink, with pink light also coming from neon and from projectors with intensive beams that are oriented on the big ashtrays. All the luminous effects provide a warm ambiance in a harmony of different but soft colours. What were the main lighting design choices for the lounge on the upper floor? I tried to keep to the same shades, and I used the mezzanine like a vector of light. The wall is transparent with a violet filter and goes all the way down, enabling people to see the dance floor from upstairs. Fluorescent tubes with a violet filter are installed behind the long seat one can see from the outside. The general ambiance of the lounge is warm white (2,700 K), provided by the fluorescent luminaires hidden in the hollow angles of the walls, near the ceiling. Finally, I chose to integrate amber LED strings into the bar itself and the “sticks” designed by Patrick Jouin. The whole floor uses indirect lighting and the reflection of the colours offers a salmon light on the ceiling, creating a soft atmosphere and a sensation of cosiness. Client Aurélie et Cyril Bonnevie, Doudoune Club Interior architect Patrick Jouin, Agence Jouin Manku, Paris, France Architect of record ERM Construction, Chambery, France Lighting designer Anne Bureau, Agence Anne Bureau, Bordeaux, France Lighting solutions Guy Gauthier, Philips France Electrical installer INEO Light sources Philips MASTER TL5 HO 35W /827 /830, MASTER Colour CDM-TC 35W /830, Affinium LED string Amber and Cool white Luminaires Philips Ledline2 White, TMX204 1xTL5-35W HFP ACDC, Deltalight, Erco, Mole Richardson, Procédés Hallier, Thorn, Zumtobel. Lighting control Showtec Websites www.doudouneclub.com www.patrickjouin.com www.annebureau.fr
13 Agence Jouin Manku
Agence Jouin Manku
THE DARK SIDE OF LIGHT!?
On the well-being of people, and on lighting design with or without shadows Light talk is a new column that brings to readers some of the most interesting conversations that are taking part between young designers in the field of lighting. These conversations, which appear here in an entirely unmoderated form, originally took place on our Light Community website. It is an excellent place for young professionals to discuss the topics that interest them, unhindered by geographical distances and without the need to defend or justify their arguments to clients or employers.
1. July 21, 2010 3:08 PM in response to: Paulina Dudkiewicz I think shadow ought to be an essential part of the design of lighting, especially in reference to the well-being of people. chantelle.stewart 4 posts since July 19, 2010
The often-cited scientific research on the role of light in physiological processes such as the circadian system demonstrates that the changing relationship between light and dark throughout a day is vital in how the body functions.
This establishes the idea that the shift between light and dark is vital on a temporal basis, but I think it’s important for designers to consider that relationship on a spatial basis too. After all, people are rarely static: we lead our lives as we move through our environment.
2. July 21, 2010 7:55 PM in response to: Chantelle Stewart Well, it is an undisputable fact that shadow plays a central role in our visual perception. As Chantelle says we definitely ought to consider the relationship of light and dark and the shift between them on a spatial basis as well. Shadows reveal object attributes such as form, volume and texture and thus they can generate plasticity in the visual environment. At the level of lighting synthesis, shadow is to light, what a pause is to a music note or a comma to a sentence. Hence, designing with shadows or with their intended absence is essential, whether allusion or illusion is our design objective. Another important aspect of shadow is the psychological associations we make with it. For example, the play of moonlight and shadow on the subtly wavy surface of the Mediterranean Sea conveys a feeling of tranquility to us. In my opinion, this is another relationship that has to be considered in the design of the luminous environment. In fact, this idea is behind the winning entry in lighting design for the recent international architectural competition “The Reformation of the Piraeus Tower” in Greece. We developed this lighting concept, in which the façade reacts to the wind in real time and mimics the play of brilliance of the night sea.
adanilof 4 posts since July 16, 2010
3. July 21, 2010 3:08 PM in response to: Athanassios Danilof I’d suggest that darkness is more fundamental. Visually, the night is made of shadow and the lighting designer’s role is to sculpt selected elements of the night time environment out of it. Therefore the dark is the blank page, or the broken silence, rather than the grammar in Thanos’ metaphor. We must treat it carefully. chantelle.stewart 4 posts since July 19, 2010
We've been working on a church on the west coast of Ireland. The contractor is on site now. The building is part of the landscape, braced against the shore by the north Atlantic wind. The grey, rough-hewn local stone is punctured by very narrow windows. An historian wrote that the original architect designed for the local people ‘who tell beads and pray simply rather than desire garish lights to read bulky manuals of devotion’.
2. July 21, 2010 7:55 PM in response to: Chantelle Stewart I think at this point we have to draw a distinction between lighting interventions in the urban environment and in the countryside – landscape. In the urban context there is significant amount of ambient luminance rather than darkness, as well as a significant amount of visual information. More importantly, the urban environment has whole set of functions that are obviously not present in the countryside. Therefore our lighting articulation is considerably different in that context. Having said that, I do NOT argue by any means for over-illumination and ultra dynamic colour schemes. An approach of that kind will be catastrophic leading to chaotic urban nightscapes. On the contrary, I believe that we as lighting designers should strive to establish a visual hierarchy which always takes into consideration the particular characteristics of each setting and its inhabitants, including urban functions or surrounding fauna and flora. In order to communicate that, our lighting vocabulary often needs to change.
adanilof 4 posts since July 16, 2010
One of the projects I carried out a couple of years ago, was the lighting of an art gallery with a very large garden in a listed village in the Cycladic Island of Sifnos. My approach was to gently reveal the architecture by subtle white light and to add visual interest by creating shadow patterns that are familiar to the inhabitants of the Island due to their visual experience in daylight.
4. July 21, 2010 3:08 PM in response to: Athanassios Danilof Re:The dark side of light ?! I think you've misunderstood my point Thanos. chantelle.stewart 4 posts since July 19, 2010
No part of my post was intended as a criticism of your previous work or the scheme you cited. Not at all. Rather I was addressing the topic of light and darkness and the principles of our approaches. My focus was on agreement, not contention. There are several important differences between your tower block project and our church, not least that ours is internal and yours external. I took these to be self-evident. My intention was to draw attention to the broad compatibility of our processes, despite these differences. In your own posted commentary of your work, your inspiration for the lighting design is drawn from the moonlight, wind patterns and the sea: features of the landscape. As is ours. Your scheme is affected by those natural environmental influences, rather than imposing a set of artificial concepts and therefore you achieved a very subtle, sensitive design. Your response identifies a project that further illustrates those similarities in approach. I congratulate you on your success. I hope our scheme succeeds for those same reasons.
Follow this discussion and more on community.lighting.philips.com/message/2741#2741 15
REPLAY STORE, MILAN, ITALY This new flagship store, with a total area of about 800 square metres across three floors, opened in April in Corso Vittorio Emanuele, one of the best-known fashion streets in Milan. Architect Baccioni-Bianchi wanted the project to be in tune with the natural environment. It used natural materials such as wood and iron wherever possible, and looked for sustainable methods of designing plant. Reducing the heat emission and energy consumption of lamps was a primary concern, resolved by the use LED lighting.
The lighting concept makes it possible both to see the goods that are on display and to appreciate the space and dimensions of the store itself. Lighting of the goods, with LED luminaires in close proximity, contrasts with the background system, based on perimeter and surface lighting.
Client Replay Architect, lighting design Roberto Baccioni Simona Bianchi Studio 10, Firenze, Italy Lighting solutions Philips Italy Light sources Philips Affinium LED string high power, MASTER LEDbulb 7W Luminaires Philips Spot LED III, 10W, eW Profile Powercore Websites www.replay.it www.studio10.it
Stefan Mauritz, Mauritz Design
PHILIPP PLEIN STORE VIENNA, AUSTRIA With a floor space of 100 square meters, this mono brand store was opened in February in the fashion hotspot of Vienna's Bauernmarkt. It is fitted out in a minimalist style, with a cool, low-key approach that focuses customers' full attention on the merchandise on display. The shop floor is illuminated entirely by cool white LED lighting. This adds to the intentionally cool atmosphere, and its brilliance creates the ideal setting for the items on display. The layout of the semi-recessed Spot LED III projectors with 5 high-power LEDs reinforces the clean lines of the interior. Philips eW Profile Powercores are fitted directly into the shelves to cast a uniform light over the individual compartments. The only difference is in the fitting area. There, CDM 35W Elite lights with a good colour temperature are used. The energy efficient lighting technology used throughout this store shows that luxury does not have to be synonymous with waste.
Client Philipp Plein Architect Stefan Mauritz, Mauritz Design Munich, Germany Lighting solutions Ilka Schnelle, Philips Germany Luminaires Philips Spot LED III, 10W, eW Profile Powercore Fugato Mini 35W Websites www.philipp-plein.com www.mauritzdesign.com
SOCCER CITY STADIUM JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA The original stadium, built in 1986, was known as the FNB (First National Bank). Some significant changes were made to it for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The overall stadium design is inspired by the iconic African pot know as the calabash. In order to increase the seating capacity to 94,700, making this the largest stadium in Africa, the upper tier was extended around the entire perimeter. An encircling roof was built, plus a new changing room complex, and new floodlights have been installed.
The pitch is illuminated by 540 Philips ArenaVision floodlights mounted 45m from the field level around the edge of the stadium roof , creating a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ring of fireâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. This makes it possible to direct an average of more than 2400lux towards the main cameras. The lighting solution for the playing area has been designed to reach the highest standards of high-definition television coverage in order to enhance the experience of spectators, players and television-viewers.
Client City of Johannesburg Architects Boogertmann + Partners, Johannesburg, South Africa Populous, London, United Kingdom Electrical engineers Advoco Engineering Lighting solutions Murray Cronje, Philips South Africa Mathieu Sergent, Philips Lighting Light sources Philips MHN-SE 2000W, 5600K, Ra=90, MHN-LA 1000W, 5600K, Ra=90 Luminaires Philips ArenaVision MVF404, ArenaVision MVF403 Websites www.soccercity2010.co.za www.joburg.org.za www.boogertman.com www.populous.com
Javier Sancho, Photoframe
SANtANDER BANK, SPAIN Santander City is one of the most ambitious projects undertaken by a Spanish company, a huge headquarters campus with offices for 12,000 people, leisure facilities, a hotel and even a museum. Designed to be in harmony with the environment, it is heavily landscaped with buildings covering only 20% of the total area. Much of the open area has been reforested and repopulated with native trees. The main visitor entrance to the campus is a spectacular glass “cube” measuring 20 x 20m by 25m high. At night, it is fully illuminated with LED technology. Philips customized solutions that have been developed according to the ideas of the architect and lighting designer. Digital light controlled by RDM DMX simulates the bank’s logo in the corporate colours of white and red. Through light, it expresses the brand values of the Santander group: dynamism, strength, innovation, leadership, commercial focus and professional ethics.
Client Banco de Santander Architect Alfonso Millanes, Madrid, Spain Lighting design Mario Gentilli, Bahia Blanca, Argentina Engineer Miguel Gomez Aceves, TYPSA, Madrid, Spain Lighting solutions Marc Reignier, Philips Lighting Carlos Rayon, Rodrigo Garcia-Moreno, Fabio Fornasi, Philips Spain Installer INABENSA Light sources Philips Luxeon K2 red and cold white Luminaires Philips customized LED solutions for ambience, wall and guidance lighting Websites www.santander.com www.typsa.com
NELSON MANDELA BRIDGE JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA On 20 July 2003, Johannesburg opened the largest cable-stayed bridge in Southern Africa. The 284 metre long bridge crosses 42 operational railway lines linking Braamfontein, the old Johannesburg, to Newtown in the heart of the new cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s central business district.
The main span was designed to be as light as possible, using structural steel with a concrete composite deck, while the heavier back spans were built from reinforced concrete to counterbalance the long main span. The bridge is lit by Philips LED lights at night and stands out among the big buildings of the city. During the FIFA World Cup 2010 the pylons were illuminated in different colours every night to symbolise the teams that were playing as well as the colours of the South African flag. This brought excitement and joy to people walking or driving across the bridge. Nelson Mandela Bridge is now becoming a nightly symbol of communication and unity.
Client City of Johannesburg Architect Joint venture between BKS and ARQ Lighting solution Eddie Johnson, Philips South Africa Tomas Sandoval, Philips Color Kinetics Luminaires Philips eW Powercore, ColorReach Powercore Lighting controls Philips Ethernet; DMX controllers and iPlayer Websites www.joburg.org.za www.southafrica.info/business/economy/ infrastructure/mandelabridge.htm
Luis Pedro Costa Gomez
PARLIAMENT BUILDING, CAIRO, EGYPT The former Palace of Maglis El Shura, dating from 1878, which houses the Egyptian bicameral Parliament, was fully renovated following a fire in 2008. The newly restored building provides a contrast at night with the bright and busy surroundings of downtown Cairo. Lighting stresses the majestic design of the building and highlights the rich details with upward grazing light at the centre and on the edges, and flood lighting on the rest of the faรงade. A warm light colour enhances the texture and the roughness of the stone of the Palace, creating an impression of depth with the variation in the layered white stones.
Client Shura Council Lighting solutions Nadia Shaker, Mohamed Kamies Philips Egypt Electrical installer Arab Contractors Luminaires Philips eW Blast Powercore, eW Graze Powercore Website www.parliament.gov.eg
Philips linear eW Graze Powercore was used for the columns and pillars, with eW Blast Powercore floodlighting the rest of the faรงade to achieve a uniform balance. The use of LEDs gives the added value of a long product lifetime with very minimal maintenance needs - an important factor to clients in Egypt.
Client Antalya Karakaş Inşaat Architect Hakan Külahçı, ARTMIM Antalya, Turkey
RAMADA HOTEL, ANTALYA, TURKEY Antalya is a Turkish city that is gaining increasing popularity world-wide with tourists, thanks to its beautiful setting and climate. If you happen to visit Antalya, you will find an impressively designed hotel set at its centre, built on the cliffs that have become the symbol of the city. Ramada Hotel is the newest and arguably the most exclusive city hotel available. It has become a popular travel destination for both local and foreign tourists throughout the entire year.
The aim of the illumination was to complement the welcoming and restful ambience of the elegant modern architecture. As 95% of the light sources used on both the interior and the exterior of the hotel are LEDs, it also deserves to be described as a “Green Hotel”. For example, in the lobby, Philips eW Cove Powercore accents the balconies on each level. The façade lighting brings out the best of the hotel’s design, setting it apart from its neighbours.
Lighting solutions Onur Yiğit, Nevzat Çağlar Philips Turkey Electrical Installer Sinerji Proje Mühendislik Light sources Philips LED high power, Affinium LED string high power, PL-C lamps Luminaires Philips eW Cove Powercore, eW Graze Powercore, ColorGraze Powercore, ColorReach Powercore, Spot LED I, 4W, FBH146 Low-Depth downlight Websites www.antalyakaratasinsaat.com www.artmim.com.tr
MESTSKÁ ESTAKÁDA BRIDGE POVAŽSKÁ BYSTRICA, SLOVAKIA The final section of D1 highway between Bratislava and Zilina, in the north-west of Slovakia, opened at the end of May. It includes an elevated road bridge above the city of Povazska Bystrica. The Mestská Estakáda Bridge is a 968 meter long viaduct that rises in height from 42 to 53 meters above the city. Due to urban requirements for it to be as small as possible, both driving directions of the highway are placed on single pillars. Its pylons of reinforced concrete form a beautiful set-piece for both visitors and people living in its neighbourhood. The interesting shape of the bridge led to the idea of playing with contrast and shadows in predominantly green and grey colours. LED luminaires were used to highlight certain elements of the pillars, and this approach also made it possible to change the mood for different events by using colour scenes. A balanced combination of conventional metal halide lamps and LED lighting highlights the grandeur of this new landmark and beautifies the city at night.
Client NDS – National Highway Company Design engineer Miroslav Maťaščík ALFA 04, Bratislava, Slovakia Lighting solutions Juraj Zaťko, Philips Slovakia Electrical installers Vikon s.r.o, ZKF Elektro s.r.o. Light sources Philips CDM-TD 70W /942, CDM-T 70-150W /942 LED low power RGB Luminaires Philips Decoflood 606, 616, 619, iColor Accent Powercore Lighting controls Philips iPlayer3 Websites www.povazska-bystrica.sk www.alfa04.sk
However, the use of organic light is also very much a matter of shape and harmony. Its effect is governed by the site, its function and the society. The VIP Bridge at the Meydan Racecourse in Dubai is a perfect example of this balance at work. At night, the organic light emanating from the bridge turns a brilliant shade of blue, making it look like a wave rippling across an endless sea. Say the word 'organic' to any lighting designer, and they will immediately think 'light source'. An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) consists of a stack of several semiconductor layers positioned between two electrodes, one of which is transparent. They are used in flat-screen technology and also, increasingly, in lighting. The designer Jason Bruges was the first to use them interactively, in his work Mimosa on display in Milan.
'Blob architecture' is the name given to a style of architecture that gives buildings soft, rounded shapes inspired by nature. Two of the earliest prototypes are the Water Pavilion in the Netherlands, designed by the architects Lars Spuybroek and Kas Ooserhuis, and the Graz Art Museum in Austria, the brainchild of Peter Cook and Colin Fournier, the shapes of both structures drawing inspiration from the animal world. This blend of natural with artificial has been made possible by computer technology, 3D simulations and the adventurous spirit of these designers. By mimicking the curves of a blade of grass, the architect Christian Christensen has designed an original form of streetlight. It has a very natural shape, and casts a soft light via the light-emitting diode fitted at the top. The streetlight therefore forms a special bond with the people below, with its natural appearance making us feel closer to Mother Earth. Vincent Laganier
The term 'organic light' is something of an oxymoron. In essence, natural light is key to our health and well-being. It is the source of life, and determines how we go about our daily lives. Bioclimatic architecture is a viable and sustainable way of exploiting this vital natural resource.
VIP MEYDAN BRIDGE, DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
BLUE LIGHT FOR VIPS By Paul Haddlesey
The new VIP Bridge leading to the Meydan racecourse in Dubai uses blue LED lighting to create a stunning visual spectacle that enhances the bridge’s iconic architectural design. Dubai is renowned for its visually stunning landmarks, so it is quite a feat to create a structure that stands out from the rest. Yet that is exactly what has been achieved with the new VIP Bridge, which leads to the Meydan racecourse at Nad El Sheba. By day, the bridge is distinguished by its wave-like shape, representing the movement of a horse’s mane as it gallops. And at night this flowing design is visually reinforced by thousands of blue LED lights, creating an awesome spectacle visible across the city. The VIP Bridge forms part of the massive Meydan Roads and Bridges project by Dubai’s Road and Transport Authority (RTA) and Meydan City Corporation. In addition to the 1,315m long VIP Bridge, the project includes a further two 710m long bridges as well as the new eight-lane, 4.5km long Meydan Road. The VIP Bridge, designed by architects TAK and design engineers Aurecon Middle East, provides direct access to the racecourse’s grandstand and is for use by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai, and other guests. The Meydan project is one of the most significant developments that has been undertaken by the RTA, as evidenced by its sheer scale. Covering an area of more than 6 million square metres, it is home to the world’s largest horse-racing course as well as to stables, a five-star hotel, restaurants, the Meydan gallery and a number of canals. In the surrounding infrastructure, the VIP Bridge stands out from the crowd. “The design brief was to ensure that the VIP Bridge stood out visually from the other bridges and that any lighting on the bridge should be blue,” recalled Aurecon lighting designer Michael Twartz. “Given the requirement for blue light, and the fact that any fittings should be discreet and not detract from the daytime appearance, LEDs were the obvious solution.
27 Martin Pfeiffer
Africon - Al Burj - Lighting bridge elevation
“Colour consistency was particularly important as it was essential the same shade of blue was used throughout. We also carried out modelling exercises to arrive at an intensity that would provide the desired effect while minimising energy consumption. We tested samples from a number of manufacturers and Philips was able to meet all our criteria with its blue LEDs,” he added. The bridge incorporates three series of pipes, one running along the top, another at mid-level and the third at road level. The wave form of the bridge is formed by the top pipe and it is this that is emphasised by the lighting, so the ‘flowing mane’ effect is perceived from a distance. “At first we thought we could simply uplight the pipe from below but this would not have been very visible to motorists on the other roads, which are lower than the VIP Bridge,” explained Aurecon’s Technical Director for Bridges, Eric de Fleuriot. “To overcome this problem we welded two smaller-diameter tubular pipes to the underside of the top pipe, each at an angle of around 135 degrees to the top pipe so that they projected from either side. The electroluminescent diodes have been installed in these smaller pipes and shine upwards onto the under-surface of the top pipe, so the light is reflected downwards,” he continued. On the centre span, the side of the bridge has been clad with aluminium panels and these also had to be lit, without detracting from the other lighting. This has been achieved by mounting additional blue LEDs on the middle pipe of the bridge, throwing light down onto the cladding. Another challenge faced by the design team was to provide a high standard of road lighting without affecting the decorative lighting. “The ‘wave’ comes down to two meters at its lowest points so a conventional high-level street lighting arrangement would have spoiled the effect,” explained Michael Twartz. “We overcame this problem by using special bollards mounted in the guard rail, with the light at 0.9m high. This achieved the required illuminance levels on the road surface with no glare for drivers,” he added. There are several theories as to why blue was chosen for the lighting; the most plausible being that the Sheikh’s racing colours are also blue. Whatever the reason, though, there can be no doubt that the final effect has rewarded the efforts and imagination of its designers.
Client Roads and Transport Authority (RTA) Meydan City Corporation
Africon - Al Burj - Lighting overall bridge section
Architect Jennifer Tiong TAK Architects, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Design engineers Anton Bezuidenhout, Larno Meyer, Srivelan Kathirgaman Aurecon, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Lighting design Michael Twartz, Sunil D’Souza, Abigail Alzaga Aurecon, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Lighting solutions Kirshnan Iyer, Mahboobeh Rezazadeh, Philips UAE Electrical installer Dutco Luminaires Philips eColour Graze blue, eW Graze Websites www.tak.com.my www.aurecongroup.com
MIMOSA INTERACTIVE ARTWORK, MILAN, ITALY
MOVING FLOWERS By Ruth Slavid
During the Milan furniture fair this spring, there was one exhibit at Superstudio Piu in via Tortona that was constantly surrounded by visitors, three or four deep. This was the Mimosa installation, designed by Londonbased Jason Bruges Studio, to showcase the possibilities of Philips’ OLEDs (organic LEDs). The installation used this still relatively new technology to treat the 400 slender OLEDs as petals of a field of flowers. In their unperturbed state, they presented a flat, glowing surface, with just some simple variation in the intensity of the light. But when a visitor passed their hand above the surface, the OLEDs below reacted like the mimosa plant – closing themselves up defensively and, unlike their namesake, dimming in colour. Each “flower” consisted of five 50 x 55 mm petals in a cruciform arrangement, which tessellated with its neighbours when it opened flat, so that it was not possible to tell the individual flowers apart.
Bruges was keen both to exploit the properties of OLEDs that appealed to him, and to do something playful with them. “As a designer,” he said, “what strikes you first of all is that they are very thin. They are a very nice thin simple light-emitting system. And they are something that you can control – there are 255 levels of brightness, and the mirrored surface gives an intense white that can be either warm or cold.” Philips had appointed Bruges to create this installation for Milan, as it was keen to showcase the exciting potential of OLEDs, as a complement to other exhibits it had there, which used them in actual lighting products. It asked Bruges to create an interactive piece, partly because that would generate the most excitement and also, said Kristin Knappstein, head of business creation for OLEDs at Philips, “as scene setting for their beauty and interactivity”. When he was designing Mimosa, Bruges said, “What was interesting about the OLEDs being so lightweight was them being able to move.” Hence his idea for an installation that ‘shrank’ from the presence of people. “What was intriguing was the ability to deform the surface,” Bruges said, “to change the shape and the texture in response to people getting near.” The electromagnetic field of OLEDs is affected by the presence of people, so although this was not the technology used in the interactive behaviour of Mimosa, there was an analogous relationship. The entire installation was 900mm wide and 2.5m long. The OLEDs were held on stalks, with a miniature server controlling their movement. As with many adventurous projects, Mimosa threw up new technical issues. “A lot of the main questions we had were with fixing wires to the OLED surface – usually they are held stationary,” said Bruges.
Jason Bruges Studio
The display was contained within a Perspex box, as Bruges had experience with other installations that were damaged by too many curious hands – fortunate given the amount of interest that it generated. He enjoyed not just the experience but also the voyage of discovery. “It was pretty experimental,” he said. “It was definitely a working prototype. It has inspired a lot of people to look more closely at the product.” This is something that Bruges was already doing, and his first “live” OLED installation, for a client who wants to keep it under wraps, is nearing completion. It is impressive and takes full advantage of the technology – but it won’t have any moving parts! Mimosa is now at the new Lumiblade Creative Lab that Philips opened in July at Aachen in Germany, alongside its OLED manufacturing facility. Designed by a team from the Royal College of Art in London, it will provide visitors with opportunities both to see examples of the creative application of OLEDs and to work with them, both in isolation and in tandem with other materials, to gain a better understanding of their behaviour and potential. But Mimosa will not always be there. Philips has already received approaches from other bodies interested in displaying the piece. It is not yet certain where these will be – but one can be sure that it will attract plenty of attention.
Client Philips Lighting Lighting design Jason Bruges Studio, London, United Kingdom Lighting solutions Kristin Knappstein, Philips Germany Light sources Philips Lumiblade OLED Controls PC Controller Thermographic camera PWM Servo (DMX) controlled armature Bespoke Lasercut acrylic armature Bespoke Lumiblade OLED DMX driver Programming through bespoke graphical programming environment Website www.jasonbruges.com www.lumiblade.com
LIGHTS IN NATURE: BIOLUMINESCENCE By Khah-Leang Choon, lighting designer, Malaysia
Last PLDC 2009, an interesting paper was presented on the natural light that is emitted by living organisms: bioluminescence. Khah-Leang Choon has just finished his Masters in Architectural Lighting Design at Hochschule Wismar.
Humans can see the glow of bioluminescence in the forest when it is dark. The existence of light which exists in contrast to the darkness in the forest usually fascinates and mesmerizes viewers. Bioluminescence is the term we use for the light that is emitted by living organisms as part of their nature. Technically, it is a part of chemiluminescence â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a general term for production of light when the excited energy is the result of a chemical reaction. This is different in the case of fluorescence, where photons are absorbed and light is re-emitted. This is the principle behind the fluorescent lamp. Inside the light tube, the electron releases several wavelengths and ultraviolet energy.
The energy strikes the phosphor tube wall, becomes luminous and emits light. In comparison to fluorescence, the reaction of phosphorescence to energy is similar except that the excited product is more stable and energy is released over a longer time. Phosphorescence is basically a process in which the energy absorbed by a substance is released relatively slowly in the form of light. This results in the glow which can be seen after the light has been removed. This principle has been applied in the glow stick. HOW DOES BIOLUMINESCENCE WORK?
Light is produced by most bioluminescent organisms when a chemical called luciferin reacts with oxygen to produce light and oxyluciferin. The reaction between luciferin and oxygen is catalyzed by the enzyme luciferase. Luciferases, like luciferins, usually have different chemical structures in different organisms. A simplified formula of the bioluminescent reaction: ATP (energy) + Luciferin (substrate + Luciferase + O2 (oxidizer)) Co-factors are the other molecules which must be present for the bioluminescent reaction to proceed. It is required by the enzyme to perform its catalytic function. Common co-factors required for bioluminescent reactions are calcium and ATP, a molecule used to store and release energy that is found in all organisms. The intensity of the light depends on the quantity of luciferin and luciferase, the oxygen and co-factor concentrations. In fact, the reaction of bioluminescence is energetically very efficient because nearly all of the energy input into the reaction is transformed into light. BIOLUMINESCENT ORGANISMS
Bioluminescent organisms consist of marine bioluminescent organisms and terrestrial bioluminescent organisms. Marine bioluminescent organisms comprise a larger number of species and quantity compared to terrestrial bioluminescent organisms. Approximately 90 per cent of the organisms living in the ocean at a depth of between 200 and 1000 metres are bioluminescent due to the fact that sunlight cannot penetrate into this mesopelagic zone.
The color of the light produced by bioluminescent organisms is diverse due to chemical differences in the luciferin and luciferase. Terrestrial organisms tend to produce red, yellow, or green light. Marine organisms usually produce blue-green or green light that can be seen and travel well through the water without being absorbed. The reasons for the bioluminescence organism emitting light are mainly for attracting mates, hunting prey, distracting predators, self defence or communication. Bioluminescence is mostly found in invertebrate creatures, with the exception of certain fish. There is still no discovery up till now of mammals or higher plants emitting luminance naturally. THE FUTURE OF BIOLUMINESCENCE
Bioluminescent organisms have been threatened by extinction due to various forms of pollution brought about by rapid development. In fact, artificial light is one of their major threats. Preservation acts and suitable cultivation methods should be conducted in order to prolong their existence on earth. Their uniqueness enriches scientific research.Bioluminescent organisms can be used synthetically by scientists for further technological applications.
In addition, places where bioluminescent organisms or phenomena can be viewed, such as Mosquito Bay in Puerto Rico, Toyama Bay in Japan and Kampung Kuantan in Malaysia will attract or have attracted the development of tourism. It is not surprising that these places are at a high risk of contamination, and bioluminescence will cease to exist if our current way of dealing with the habitat of bioluminescent organisms continues. There are already too many unsuccessful examples of humans trying to create a balance between nature and their recreational needs. The damage that has been done to nature already may never be able to be repaired. In order to protect the natural environment from ecological light pollution and to conserve the existence of bioluminescence, a strategic approach involving cooperation among different professionals is necessary. More ecological findings and research into lighting need to be conducted in order to succeed in this conservation work. As it is the basic rule of nature that everything that happens is interrelated, so it is everybodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s responsibility to sustain nature. Accumulated thoughts and actions will lead to tremendous changes to light in nature in the future.
They can trace the ATP and calcium in a cell to illustrate the progression of infection, and to assist in AIDS research. The glow of bioluminescence is also used in the field of agriculture to indicate when the plants need to be watered.
Extract of the Convention Proceedings PLDC 2nd Global Lighting Design Convention 28-31 October 2009, Berlin, Germany Publisher VIA-Verlag Website www.via-verlag.com
Niels Peter Lorentsen, ELS A/S
CHRISTIANSHAVNS TORV, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK
GRASS IN THE CITY Interview by Isabelle Arnaud
“Grass” is a lighting concept for streets and town squares, the design of which is based on the innovative light technology of Light Emitting Diodes, otherwise known as LED. Christian Christensen, architect for the project, tells us all about this adventure. The Climate Summit in Copenhagen, which was held at the end of 2009, was a step of vital importance in the battle against climate change and global warming. Towns and cities can play a significant role in the fight against climate change since they account for 70% of overall energy consumption. Electricity for lighting guzzles up 19% of this. In this context, the city of Copenhagen renovated four squares incorporating the latest LED technology. One of those squares was Christianshavns Torv. What is the urban context of Christianshavns Torv? Christian Christensen: Christianshavns Torv is in the district of Christianshavn, to the east of the centre of Copenhagen. Once a working-class neighbourhood, today Christianshavn is a trendy part of the city with its own unique identity. Christianshavns Torv is a busy square with a library, shops, market, bus stops, a metro station – and many bikes and pedestrians. Apart from the adjacent street lighting and light from the Metro station, the square had been lit by traditional light fixtures. The municipality wanted to update the lighting installation to give the square an aesthetic lift and also better to support its needs. The square itself is paved with granite cobblestones and has two handsome sculptures with themes relating to Greenland. “Grass” is a lighting concept which focuses on our fragile environment and the need for a quality and durable product. How did the idea for a “blade of grass” come to you? Grass is, as the name suggests, inspired by a simple blade of grass. Nature has created a unique construction that is light, thin and simple in shape yet surprisingly strong. The lighting concept of Grass is based on the same construction, with a simple and minimalist outline. This is where the smaller dimensions of LEDs come into play and allow an elegant and compact design of undiminished strength. The design and the parallel to a blade of grass underline the environmental potential of Grass.
What are the proportions of Grass? It is built up geometrically around a rectangular base to support a strong yet simple construction. The high-tech production method allows us to vary the height and dimensions of the rectangular base. In this way “blades of Grass” can be positioned on streets and town squares in a way that combines a stylish sculptural effect with the desired illumination. How did you use sketches and models in the design process? The idea was to come up with a design that could provide light exactly where it was needed. First, I tried to imagine a shape that could meet this requirement and used the sketches to create models. Then I used the computer to put them together, next to each other and see how it could work. The second step was to develop, with the help of a team from Philips, an optical unit adapted to LED technology. The reflector is in aluminium and the bawl in acrylic; it was important to have a luminaire that was easy to produce and that used recyclable materials. Why did you choose to use LED? When I started the project, I didn’t know much about LEDs and when I discovered the technology, I realized that its potential was great, especially for this particular application. The municipality wanted to show how LEDs could save energy. In the previous installation, the luminaires used 89 W lamps and in the new one, only 19 W. Each LED can be swivelled into the precise position to maximize the illumination of streets, squares and even parks, fountains or statues. This also reduces light pollution in the surrounding homes and shops, not to mention for pedestrians and traffic. The Grass fixture can be fitted with between 6 and 15 diodes. Each diode can be adjusted for direction to create a range of atmospheric lighting scenarios, for example security, intimacy or effect. How did you and the public react when Grass was first installed on the square? On the night that we turned on the light, I was very anxious to see the reactions of the residents in the area, because the people in this part of town are said to be very involved with their local area. To my surprise, while we were adjusting the lights, people passing the square spontaneously made positive comments and were very interested in what we were doing. Someone said that we had succeeded in integrating a modern luminaire in an old part of Copenhagen. That, combined with the luminaires’ great energy savings, should be what Grass is all about.
Client Municipality of Copenhagen Architect Christian Christensen Models: Christian Christensen, Kristoffer Seidenfaden and Thomas Nielsen. Lighting solutions Lars Barthold Hansen, Philips Denmark Electrical installer Eltel Networks A/S Light sources Philips LUXEON Rebel Neutral White Luminaires Philips Grass custom solution Website www.kk.dk
39 Christian Christensen
CLU - A BRIEF HISTORY OF INSPIRATION By David Lepage
CLU “Concept Lumière Urbaine” is a French acronym meaning urban light concept. Developed as a collaboration between Philips Lumec and professionals from Quebec’s creative community, it grew quickly to become a significant source of inspiration and is now a foundation organizing an annual competition to encourage emerging designers to develop lighting projects. Through this initiative, hundreds of innovative concepts have been born…
Strange as it may seem, the CLU Foundation was initially set up to meet corporate needs. Back in 2002, the Lumec company was trying to think of ways to create new market opportunities and to enhance public spaces. First, it needed to understand the needs and aesthetic values of the architects and landscape architects that it wanted to specify its products. The company knew that it would only succeed if it listened to its clients and responded to their needs. What started as a fairly focused piece of research grew into a broader, more philosophical exercise. Management and its teams set out to answer a number of questions : What could be done to create the best architectural products on the market? What would delight their customers? How could they become more cost effective while still delivering the best results? How should they stimulate creativity? How could contribute to the greater good? And so forth.
Over the years, the Foundation grew and matured from the small circle of passionate friends that formed its heart. It became an organized and multidisciplinary collection of professionals from a variety of fields, including engineers, lighting experts, and other disciplines. The CLU Foundation set itself the goal of encouraging young designers to develop innovative lighting concepts for exterior public spaces. To help achieve this, the CLU Foundation launched a creative competition in 2004 that it holds annually, distributing grants to numerous projects based on their merit.
The Eureka moment came, when everyone suddenly realized that the best way to find out was by asking. Lumec set up a permanent group of specifiers with whom it could organize brainstorming sessions. By being in touch and speaking with its clients, the company would not only understand them better, but would also get them directly involved in the design of new products and communication tools. In late October 2002, the very first such focus group was held. A team was formed of twenty-four experts in the industry, among which figured architects, landscape architects, industrial designers, and graphic designers. Since their ideas would generate revenues, all convened to channel their royalties into a foundation that would encourage emerging designers. This satisfied everyone involved, while proving to be a unique way to promote education, foster a sense of community, and contribute to the overall advancement of the outdoor lighting field. And that is how the CLU Foundation was born.
Borne Augmentée Alexandre Guilbeault, Jean-Daniel Mercier Terrebonne, Canada
Nid’H2O Christopher Rudwal Outremont, Canada
Ribbon Robert Trempe Philadelphia, United States
Moving Lamp Hyunseok Moon Seoul, South Korea
Challenging the next generation in such a positive way and offering them a chance to be rewarded early in their careers has led to tremendous success. A multitude of captivating and impressive works have been submitted to the competition. Most interestingly, the 243 projects received for the 2009-2010 round came from individuals based in 34 different countries around the world. So far, the CLU Foundation has distributed $30,000 in grants and received nearly 400 entries. While some entrants concentrated on environmental aspects, others involved human interaction; some ideas embraced urban elements as opportunities to create and showcase light while others exhibited technological progress. But above all, the extraordinary quality of these proposals and the surprising variety of designs provided hope for a cleaner, more responsible, and brighter tomorrow.
This groundbreaking and ambitious initiative is a concrete step to rethink the role of manufacturing on a global scale and to give something back to the community, while also helping promote sustainable development that is based on a social agenda. We are proud to witness the CLU Foundation becoming a full-fledged entity, reinforcing our corporate values and showing the company’s deep commitment. Our involvement in the CLU Foundation is a perfect example of professional cooperation, combining the best of R&D, marketing, sales, and art. It contributes to the improvement of our visual environment and is an investment in the fertile minds that will design our future spaces, perpetuating the understanding and fascination of lighting.
COVE LIGHTING By Chia-Chun Liu
Cove lighting is frequently used to create the effect of glowing edges, indirect soft lighting, and surface illumination. What differentiates cove lighting from other decorative forms of illumination is that the light fixtures are hidden behind an architectural construction. So the physical property of the light itself becomes part of an architectural element that enhances the atmosphere of the space. Before the advent of LEDs, cove lighting was generally done with tubular fluorescent TL tubes. It wasn’t until ten years ago, with the introduction of the electronic ballast, that dynamic lighting became available. Even then, dynamic lighting was rarely used in coves because of its complexity and cost. In order to change colours, it was necessary to install more than one fluorescent fixture with different colour filters. This resulted in a larger and bulkier cove. Fixtures were usually bare battens without optical systems to direct the light, so a large proportion of the light was lost within the cove itself and through the use of coloured filters. Philips’ cove-LED lighting range makes it possible to design cove lighting much more easily and with greater flexibility. The ability to alter colours and colour temperatures gives designers the freedom to change the atmosphere of the space, from warm white to cool white, from saturated hues to pastel colours, with one single fixture. Not only are LEDs much more compact than fluorescent sources, but the smaller unit length of the fixtures makes it possible to design with curved surfaces as well as working linearly.
TWO APPROACHES TO COVE LIGHTING
Glowing wall effect
Inter-reflecting light in an alcove
concept corner GLOWING WALL EFFECT Distance from the wall
The surrounding horizontal illuminance (Eh) is 200 lux on these tests.
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 cm Directly against the wall iW Cove Powercore 20ºx30ºx160º
5 cm from the wall iW Cove Powercore 20ºx30ºx160º
10 cm from the wall iW Cove Powercore 20ºx30ºx160º
Directly against the wall iColor Cove MX Powercore 20ºx60º
5 cm from the wall iColor Cove MX Powercore 20ºx60º
10 cm from the wall iColor Cove MX Powercore 20ºx60º
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 cm
To achieve a smooth and uniform glow, place the luminaires 10 cm away from the walls. For colour solutions, iColor Cove MX products provide the strongest output, followed by iColor Cove QLX and iColor EC. For white solutions, iW Cove Powercore and eW Cove Powercore have a similar reach.
INTER-REFLECTING LIGHT IN A COVE
A test was conducted investigating how differences in the beam angle, the dimensions of the cove opening, and the direction of the beam influence the lighting effect in a cove. Surrounding horizontal illuminance (Eh) is 100 lux for these tests and the cove opening is 20 cm.
Different beam angle, similar cove lighting effect
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 cm
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 cm Narrow Beam
iColor Cove MX Powercore 20ºx60º
iColor Cove MX Powercore 70ºx70º
iW Cove Powercore 20ºx30ºx60º
iW Cove Powercore 50ºx50º
When placing a luminaire inside a cove, the difference in beam angles does not alter the lighting effect significantly, because of the inter-reflection in the cove itself.
Alcove 200 mm
Alcove 300 mm
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 cm
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 cm Smaller cove opening
iColor Cove QLX 100ºx40º Cove opening: 20cm
Larger cove opening
iColor Cove QLX 100ºx40º Cove opening: 30cm
Smaller cove opening
iW Cove Powercore 50ºx50º Cove opening: 20cm
Larger cove opening
iW Cove Powercore 50ºx50º Cove opening: 30cm
Cove aiming variations
For a smoother and larger glow, we recommend aiming the luminaire in such a way as indicated in illustration (c).
(d) Luminaires aiming at this direction generate harsh, limited sized glow.
10 20 30 40 50 60 cm iColor Cove MX Powercore 20°x60° Cove opening: 20cm Surrrounding: 500 Eh
Glow coverage in relation to surrounding lighting level RGB Luminaire Glow Glow Distance Distance
White Luminaire Glow Distance RGB Luminaire Glow Distance
Distance of of Glow Glow (cm) Distance
70 60 Distance of of Glow Glow (cm) Distance
80 E D B C
Rule of thumb for luminaire selection
Eh: horizontal illuminance White
Up to 350 Eh: iW Cove Powercore or eW Cove Powercore
Surrounding Lux Lux Level Level (Eh) (Eh) Surrounding
iColor Cove EC 120ºx120º iColor Cove QLX 100ºx40º iColor Cove QLX 120ºx120º iColor Cove MX Powercore 20ºx60º
A B C D
Surrounding Lux Lux Level Level (Eh) (Eh) Surrounding
E F G H
iColor Cove MX Powercore 70ºx70º iW Cove Powercore 50ºx50º iW Cove Powercore 20ºx30ºx160º eW Cove Powercore 120ºx120º
Up to 750 Eh: iColorCove MX Powercore Up to 450 Eh: iColorCove QLX Up to 75 Eh: iColorCove E 47
NEW OLAC ARCHITECTURAL SCENARIO By Maria Carolina Wichert As soon as night falls, the show must go on. At its Outdoor Lighting Application Centre (OLAC), Philips Lighting provides a fascinating trip through a range of dynamic lighting scenarios. In its three application areas – road, urban street and city centre – we reproduce, at life size, different environments of outdoor lighting. Whereas municipalities and end-users find all the scenarios valuable, architects, lighting designers and lighting engineers are more interested in architectural lighting. In response to this demand, Philips has developed a new scenario in its city centre area, called “Building with Light”. Now up and running, this is a fascinating tool with which to demonstrate concepts about architectural lighting, to exchange ideas and discuss proposals. It deals with the relationship between light and materials, with lighting effects and techniques, with brightness, contrast, colour temperature, time and context. Architects, landscape architects and engineers who want to learn more about architectural lighting will find it valuable. The lighting effects, sound and the specific architectural vocabulary set the scene for an experience of professional lighting design work.
The potential for working with LED lighting is shown in many ways: the integration of products in small spaces, adjusting the soft colour temperature to suit the material intelligent colour changes through the use of DMX protocol controls. Philips Lighting solutions such as LEDline2, LEDflood, LEDmodule and Amazon LED were installed prior to the opening in 2005. In summer 2010 Philips Color Kinetics solutions were added. Linear luminaires such as iW Graze, eW Graze and ColorGraze Powercore, and the ColorBlast Powercore floodlight allow lighting specifiers to see for themselves what this state-of-the-art technology can do. Every year more than 3,500 professionals from more than 35 countries visit OLAC. Please contact your local Philips office to arrange a visit to OLAC “Building with Light”. We hope to see you soon.
Architects JF Caminada, Philips Lighting, Marc Luciani, IRGI-DHV, Francis Poirson, Yann Pampouille, Espace Projet architecture Lighting solutions Vincent Laganier, Natacha Lameyre, Philips Lighting Electrical installation Casella Electricité, Philips France Light sources Philips high and low power LEDs Essential or intelligent white Red, blue and green colour mixing Mono colour red, amber, white, green, blue Luminaires Philips LEDline2, LEDflood, iW Graze Powercore , eW Graze Powercore ColorGraze Powercore, ColorBlast Powercore LEDmodule, Amazon LED Lighting Controls Martin Architectural Light Jockey 2
LIGHTING CULTURE IN TURKEY By Emre Güneş, PLD Turkey Editor
Five years ago in Turkey, if you called yourself a “lighting designer”, not many people would have understood what you meant. There still aren’t many lighting designers but we can easily see the progress that has been made by looking at the statistics. In those five years, we have moved from a base of zero to having six to eight lighting-design offices, four publications, one web portal, one public department in the city of Istanbul, and an average of three professional lighting design events per year... Pretty impressive, right? We always had manufacturers, distributors and academic conferences but this is new! We are in a new era in which professional lighting-design culture is coming together...
KORHAN ŞIŞMAN, PLANLUX, ISTANBUL
To get a clearer insight into this transformation, we have talked to three Turkish lighting designers from very different backgrounds - an architect, an interior designer and an electrical engineer. They all fell in love with light during their education and they all became independent lighting designers after working for distributors or manufacturers. They told us about their sources of inspiration.
“What inspires me? The answer is simple: architecture: In the end, we add another dimension to architecture with light. For example, Seljuk architecture excites me a lot. It’s not only the aesthetic of the building, but what the architect was thinking about while designing it. Within this perspective, inspiration can come from anywhere – from a smell or from a film, and most of the time it can come from nature itself.”
“When I was at university, studying building performance, lessons about light were a revelation to me. I saw how one could design a space with light, and use the light to improve our perceptions. I learned a great respect for light and for the emotions it can create. That greatly excited me, and it still does. Daily life gives me the inspiration to make people’s lives better, and as an interior designer I am always trying to get a better understanding of the behaviour of light. I generally focus on hidden emotional needs alongside the practical considerations. I feel that I still at the very beginning of my great dream of working with light.” MUSTAFA SEVEN, SEVEN LIGHTS, ISTANBUL
NERGIZ ARIFOĞLO, LIGHT STYLE, ISTANBUL
“Light as well as stone, wood, textiles and metal, is another magical element in architecture. My approach is to consider the physical components as being like the clothing of the building, whereas light is its soul. The movement of the sun throughout the day, the effects of light and shadow, the inter-relationship with colour and texture all have an effect on the building which can be similar to the effect of nature on the human spirit. This has always been my inspiration and the source of my affection for light - an affection that will never end and will renew itself as long as the sun and life exist.”
Seven Lights Mustafa Seven hwww.seven-lights.com
Planlux Korhan Şişman www.planlux.net
Nergiz Arifoğlu Light Style Nergiz Arifoğlu www.na-lightstyle.com PLD Turkey
51 Jรถrg Reinke
BOOKS The Function of Form Authors: Farshid Moussavi, Daniel Lopez, Garrick Ambrose, Ben Fortunato, Ryan Ludwig, Ahmadreza Schricker, Harvard Graduate School of Design Publishers: Actar, Barcelona (Spain), October 2009 ISBN-13: 978-84-96954-73-1 520 pages, duotone illustrations, hard plastic cover Language: English www.actar.com We need to move away from the definition of function as utility, Farshid Moussavi argues, to align it with how function is defined in mathematics, biology or music. Form, on the other hand, should be considered not only in the way buildings are produced, but also how they perform sensorially. This book provides a thought-provoking account of the challenges facing the 21st century built environment.
Extreme Architecture: Building for Challenging Environments Author: Ruth Slavid Publisher: Laurence King Publishers (September 2, 2009) ISBN-13: 978-1-85669-609-8 208 pages, colour illustrations, hardcover Languages: English www.laurenceking.com Architects face some of their most difficult tasks designing for extreme environments. Extreme Architecture showcases 45 recent buildings designed for challenging environments, giving valuable insights into the extremes of architectural thinking. Futhermore, in an increasingly unstable world, some of the lessons they teach about self-sufficiency may yet become more generally applicable. Projects range from a desert refuge in southern Arizona to a floating marine research centre, an underground seed vault in northern Norway and a research station at the South Pole.
The Structure of Light Richard Kelly and the Illumination of Modern Architecture Edited by: Dietrich Neumann With Contributions by: Michelle Addingon, Howard Brandston, Tim and Jan Edler, Sandy Isenstadt, Phyllis Lambert, Margaret Maile-Petty, Matthew Tanteri Publisher: Yale University Press, New Haven and London, October 2010. Published in association with the Yale School of Architecture. ISBN-13: 978-0300-16370-4 256 pages, colour illustrations, hardcover Language: English The potential of electric light as a new building ‘material’ was recognized in the 1920s and became a useful design tool by the mid-century. Skilful lighting allowed for theatricality, narrative, and a new emphasis on structure and space. Six historians, architects, and practitioners explore Richard Kelly’s unparalleled influence on modern architecture and his lighting designs for some of the 20th century’s most iconic buildings: Philip Johnson’s Glass House; Louis Kahn’s Kimbell Art Museum; Eero Saarinen’s GM Technical Center; and Mies van der Rohe’s Seagram Building, among many others.
Scénographie d'exposition Author: Philip Hughes Publisher: Eyrolles, Paris (France), March 2010 ISBN-13: 978-2-212-12584-9 224 pages, colour illustrations, softcover Language: French www.editions-eyrolles.com Reaching beyond the stage, scenography is a discipline that is used in the world of temporary or permanent exhibitions. This book provides information about the practical aspects of responsible conduct of business - safety, comfort, readability, usability, interactivity, integration of audiovisual elements, construction. The principles are also enriched with relevant cases study examples from contemporary practice.
WHERE TO GO Until 9 January
Exhibition Why Design Now? www.exhibitions.cooperhewitt.org/ Why-Design-Now/Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Triennal New York, United States
Concise Presentations PLDA Spark www.pld-a.org Cinespace Los Angeles, United States
27 - 31 January
Urban Light Festival Lichtfestival Gent www.visitgent.be/smartsite. dws?id=10750&ch=VGG Gent, Belgium
26 February 2 March
Retail Trade Fair EuroShop www.euroshop-tradefair.com Messe Düsseldorf Düsseldorf, Germany
14 –19 March
12 –17 April
Lighting Workshop PLDA workshop Activating Public Spaces www.lightsingoa.com Goa, India
5 – 6 and 26 - 27 May
Architect event Architect@work www.architectatwork.be Kortrijk, Belgium Liège, Belgium
15 – 19 May
Trade Show and Conferences Light Fair International (LFI) www.lightfair.com Pennsylvania Convention Center Philadelphia, United States
Museum Opening Museum aan de Stroom (MAS) For and about the city and the world www.mas.be Antwerpen, Belgium
10 – 15 July
Lighting Congress 27th Session of the CIE www.iessa.org.za/cie2011/ Sun City, South Africa
19 – 22 October
Congress and Exhibitions Professional Lighting Design Convention PLDC www.pld-c.com Madrid, Spain
Until 5 May 2013
Exhibition Denmark by Design www.ddc.dk Danish Design Centre Copenhagen, Denmark
Lighting Fair Festival Euroluce www.euroluce.it Milan Fairgrounds Milano, Italy
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Copyright © 2011 Koninklijke Philips Electronics B.V. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright owner. The information presented in this document does not form part of any quotation or contract, is believed to be accurate and reliable and may be changed without notice . No liability will be accepted by the publisher for any consequences of its use. Publication thereof does not convey nor imply any license under patent - or other industrial or intellectual property rights.
CITY.PEOPLE.LIGHT AWARD 1ST PRIZE 2010 LUCERNE, SWITZERLAND LIGHTING DESIGN
Ronald Koch (Senior project manager, City of Lucerne), Mario Rechsteiner (Lighting designer), Olivier Allemann (EWL Lucerne), Gerlinde Venschott, Niklaus Zeier, Stefan Herfort, Werner Hofman (all City of Lucerne). PLAN LUMIERE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A LIGHTING CONCEPT FOR THE CITY OF LUCERNE
The Plan Lumiere creates a unique evening gown for Lucerne. It emphasizes the strong points of the historically valuable city with its attractive environment, and boosts the quality of the location for locals and tourists alike. The lighting brings out the urban spaces and features as well as the characteristic buildings in Lucerne in their materiality and natural colouring. In general, the Plan Lumiere does not aim at increasing illumination, but at illuminating differently â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 'less is more'. This approach does not refer exclusively to energy efficiencies: Lucerne by night should never be an illusion and turn the night into day. The Plan Lumiere respects darkness. Artificial lighting is therefore used in an unobtrusive and sophisticated way. With reduced night lighting, the city will be given the opportunity to go to sleep in the late evening hours and get some rest which will increase the quality of living for its residents. More information: http://www.citypeoplelight.com/award