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DE SIG N H ISTORY ST Y LE G U I DE


FIFTH E D ITI O N P H I LI P B . M E G G S A L S TO N W. P U RV I S

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC .


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VICTORIAN ER A + ARTS AND CR AF TS UKIYO - E + ART NOUVEAU VIENNA SECESSION CUBISM + FUTURISM DADA + EXPRESSIONISM SURREALISM + PHOTOGR APHY AND THE MODERN MOVEMENT PL AK ATSTIL + ART DECO SUPREMATISM/CONSTRUCTIVISM + DE STIJL BAUHAUS + THE NEW T YPOGR APHY MODERN MOVEMENT IN AMERICA + THE INTERNATIONAL T YPOGR APHIC ST YLE NEW YORK SCHOOL + CORPOR ATE ID AND VISUAL SYMBOL S CONCEPTUAL IMAGE + DIGITAL REVOLUTION POSTMODERN DESIGN


01. Victorian decorative arts refers to the style of decorative arts during the Victorian era. Victorian design is widely viewed as having indulged in a grand excess of ornament. The Victorian era is known for its interpretation and eclectic revival of historic styles mixed with the introduction of middle east and Asian influences in furniture, fittings, and interior decoration. The Arts and Crafts movement, the aesthetic movement, AngloJapanese style, and Art Nouveau style have their beginnings in the late Victorian era. The Ar t s and Craf t s M ovement was an international design movement that flourished between 1860 and 1910, especially in the second half of that period, continuing its influence until the 1930s. It was led by the artist and writer William Morris (1834–1896) during the 1860s, and was inspired by the writings of John Ruskin (1819–1900) and Augustus Pugin (1812–1852), although the term “Arts and Crafts” was not coined until 1 8 87, when it was first used by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson at a preliminary meeting of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. The movement developed first and most fully in the British Isles, but spread across the British Empire and to the rest of Europe and North America. It was largely a reaction against the perceived impoverished state of the decorative arts at the time and the conditions in which they were produced. It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms and often applied medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration. It advocated economic and social reform and has been said to be essentially anti-industrial.

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Chromolithography Naturalistic renderings D e c o r a t i ve t y p e Lots of ornament Ephemera

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VICTORIAN ERA

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ARTS & CRAFTS

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_ 05 . Ar thur_ H . _ Mackmurdo _


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Stylized natural forms Horror vacuii Historicism Private press movement leaves, flowers crowdind of design elements in the field use of past styles, especially medieval figures books 06.

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02. Ukiyo-e, or ukiyo-ye , is a genre of woodblock prints and paintings that flourished in Japan from the 17th through 19th centuries. Aimed at the prosperous merchant class in the urbanizing Edo period (1603– 1867), depictions of beautiful women; kabuki actors and sumo wrestlers; scenes from history and folk tales; travel scenes and landscapes; flora and fauna; and erotica were amongst the popular themes. Art Nouveau or Jugendstil is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that was most popular during 1890–1910. English uses the French name Art nouveau (“new art”), but the style has many different names in other countries. A reaction to academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in flowers and plants, but also in curved lines. Architects tried to harmonize with the natural environment. Art Nouveau is considered a “total” art style, embracing architecture, graphic art, interior design, and most of the decorative arts including jewellery, furniture, textiles, household silver and other utensils and lighting, as well as the fine arts. According to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. For many well-off Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired house with art nouveau furniture, silverware, fabrics, ceramics including tableware, jewellery, cigarette cases, etc. Artists desired to combine the fine arts and applied arts, even for utilitarian objects.

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UKIYO-E Floating objects in a floating world Sense that we are frozen in time Japanese themes Woodcuts

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such as geisha girls/kabuki theatre/nature: result of isolation

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ART NOUVEAU Stylized natural forms Whiplash curve Exotic females

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flowers, birds himorphic lines, curvilinear removed from contemporary time and place

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03. The Vienna Secession (German: Wiener Secession; also known as the Union of Austrian Artists, or Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs) was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects. The first president of the Secession was Gustav Klimt, and Rudolf von Alt was made honorary president. Its official magazine was called Ver Sacrum. Unlike other movements, there is not one style that unites the work of all artists who were part of the Vienna Secession. The Secession building could be considered the icon of the movement. Above its entrance was placed the phrase “Der Zeit ihre Kunst. Der Kunst ihre Freiheit.” (“To every age its art. To art its freedom.”). Secession artists were concerned, above all else, with exploring the possibilities of art outside the confines of academic tradition. They hoped to create a new style that owed nothing to historical influence. In this way they were very much in keeping with the iconoclastic spirit of turn-of-the-century Vienna (the time and place that also saw the publication of Freud’s first writings). The Secessionist style was exhibited in a magazine that the group produced, called Ver Sacrum, it featured highly decorative works representative of the period.

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0 1 .T h e _ G l a s g o w _ S c h o o l : M a r g a r e t _ a n d _ F r a n c e s /_ M a c d o n a l d _ C h a r l e s _ R e n n i e _ M a c k i n t o s h /_ J . _ H e r b e r t _ M c N a i


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VIENNA SECESSION

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Elongated figures and typography Ta l l , t h i n c o m p o s i t i o n s H a n d - d r a w, s t y l i z e d t y p e

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ALFRED ROLLER Roller at first studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna under Christian Griepenkerl and Eduard Peithner von Lichtenfels, but eventually became disenchanted with the Academy's traditionalism. In 1897 he co-founded the Viennese Secession with Koloman Moser, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Josef Hoffmann, Gustav Klimt, and other artists who rejected the prevalent academic style of art. He became a professor of drawing at the University of Applied Arts Vienna in 1899, and president of the Secession in 1902.

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04. Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand LĂŠger and Juan Gris that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse and Puteaux) during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s. Futurism (Italian: Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the aeroplane and the industrial city. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere. The Futurists practised in every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture and even gastronomy.

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CUBISM

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Monochromatic palette Faceting of surfaces Geometric shapes Simultaneity

01.Pablo_ Picasso_

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analytical cubism the subject is viewed from several angles at once, the subject remains stationary and the viewer moves

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02 . Fernand _ LĂŠger_


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PABLO PICASSO Picasso is probably the most important figure of 20th century, in term of art, and art movements that occurred over this period. To say that Pablo Picasso conquered western art is, by today, the merest usual place. Before the age of 50, the Spanish born artist had become the most well known name in modern art, with the most distinct style and eye for artistic creation. There had been no other artists, prior to Picasso, who had such an impact on the art world, or had a mass following of fans and critics alike, as he did. 03.

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FUTURISM POETRY Free typography Onomatopoeia Simultaneity In graphic works, letters suggest sounds from different sources heard at once. In figurative works, the viewer remains stationary and the subject moves, the subject is represented in multiple positions at once GR APHIC ILLUSTR ATIONS Such as the work of Depero Geometric patterns Onomatopoeia Machine aesthetic

FORTUNATO DEPERO Depero, was born in Fondo (Trento) in 1892. After his studies at the Scuola Reale Elisabettiana in Rovereto, in 1913 he settled in Rome, where he became an active member of the Futurist movement and met Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and Giacomo Balla, with whom he published the manifesto Futurist Reconstruction of the Universe in 1915.

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0 6 . F o r tunato _ D e p e ro _


05. Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Many claim Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter but the height of New York Dada was the year before in 1915. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. In addition to being anti-war, Dada was also anti-bourgeois and had political affinities with the radical left. Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War. It remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, painting, literature, theatre, dance, film and music.

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DADA Rea dy m a d e m ateria l s Ph oto m o nt ag e Abs u rd it y, h u m o r & socia l crit icis m

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EXPRESSIONISM Bold contour drawing Woodcuts Deep sense of social crisis Empathy for the poor Thick paint Exaggerated distorted color, drawing and proportions

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06. Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to “resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality.” Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself and/or an idea/ concept. Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. It was inevitable that the new visual language of the modern movements, with its concern for point, line, plane, shape, and texture, and for the relationships between these visual elements, would begin to influence photography, just as it had affected typography in the futurist and Dadaist approaches to graphic design. American photographer Francis Bruguière (1880–1945) began to explore multiple exposures in 1912, pioneering the potential of light recorded on film as a medium for poetic expression. explored multiple exposure, and used prisms to split images into fragments. The concepts, images, and methods of visual organization from cubism, futurism, Dada, surrealism, and expressionism have provided valuable insights and processes for graphic designers. The innovators of these movements, who dared to walk into a no-man’s-land of unexplored artistic possibilities, continue to influence artists, designers, and illustrators to this day.

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SURREALISM

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D rea m i m ag e r y Perso n a l sym b olis m Illog ic a l j ux t a p os it io n s of ele m e nt s

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SALVADOR DALI Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in Au03.

gust 1931. Dalí’s expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí was highly imaginative, and also enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior.

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PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE MODERN MOVEMENT Concern for point , line, plane, shape and texture Multiple exposures, pure form and distortion Solarization and experimental techniques

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07. Plakatstil (“poster style� in German), also known as sachplakat, was an early poster style of art that began in the 1900s and originated out of Germany. It was started by Berliner Lucian Bernhard in 1906. The traits of this style of art are usually bold eye-catching fonts with flat colors. Shapes and objects are simplified while there is a central image which is the focus of the poster. Plakatstil shied away from the complexity of Art Nouveau and helped emphasize a more modern outlook on poster art. Famous Plakatstil artists include Ludwig Hohlwein, Edmund Edel, Ernst Deutsch-Dryden, Hans Lindenstadt, Julius Klinger, Julius Gipkens, Paul Scheurich, Karl Schulpig and Hans Rudi Erdt. Art Deco, or Deco, is an influential visual arts design style which first appeared in France after World War I, flourishing internationally in the 1930s and 1940s before its popularity waned after World War II. It is an eclectic style that combines traditional craft motifs with Machine Age imagery and materials. The style is often characterized by rich colors, bold geometric shapes, and lavish ornamentation. Deco emerged from the Interwar period when rapid industrialization was transforming culture. One of its major attributes is an embrace of technology. This distinguishes Deco from the organic motifs favored by its predecessor Art Nouveau.

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PLAKATSTIL

KNOWN AS PICTORIAL MODERNISM N a m e of p ro d u c t Flat backg rou n d colo r Do m in a nt st ylized im ag e

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ART DECO

Zig-zag line Geometric shapes Machine aesthetic Eclecticism, international motifs streamline, converging lines Assyrian , American Indian , Greek

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08. Suprematism was an art movement, focused on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors. It was founded by Kazimir Malevich in Russia, around 1913, and announced in Malevich’s 1915 exhibition in St. Petersburg where he exhibited 36 works in a similar style. The term suprematism refers to an abstract art based upon “the supremacy of pure artistic feeling” rather than on visual depiction of objects. Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. The movement was in favour of art as a practice for social purposes. Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends such as Bauhaus and De Stijl movement. Its influence was pervasive, with major impacts upon architecture, graphic and industrial design, theatre, film, dance, fashion and to some extent music. De Stijl, Dutch for “The Style”, also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917 in Amsterdam. In a narrower sense, the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands. From the flurry of new art movements that followed the Impressionist revolutionary new perception of painting, Cubism arose in the early 20th century as an important and influential new direction. In the Netherlands, too, there was interest in this “new art”.

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SUPREMATISM

Non-representational Pure colors Basic geometric shapes Lettering looks Soviet influenced

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CONSTRUCTIVISM

Geometric shapes Asymmetry Diagonal lines Lettering looks Soviet influenced Often uses red and black on a beige colored background

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EL LISSIRZKY L aza r M a r kovic h L i s sit zk y b et te r k n own a s El L i s sit zk y, wa s a R u s sia n a r ti s t , d e sig n e r, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect. H e wa s a n i m p o r ta nt f ig u r e of the Russian avant garde , h e l p i ng d eve lo p su p r e m ati s m with h i s m e nto r, Kazi m i r M a levic h , and designing numerous exhibition displays and propagan04.

da works for the Soviet Union. His work greatly influenced the B a u h a u s a n d c o n s tr u cti vi s t movements.

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PIET MONDRIAN Pieter Cornelis “Piet� Mondriaan, was a Dutch painter. He was an important contributor to the De Stijl art movement and group, which was founded by Theo van Doesburg. He evolved a nonrepresentational form which he termed neoplasticism. This consisted of white ground, upon which was painted a grid of vertical and horizontal black lines

Asymmetry Primary colors with neutrals black, white and gray Perpendicular lines

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and the three primary colors.

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09. The Bauhaus was founded in 1919 in the city of Weimar by German architect Walter Gropius. Its core objective was a radical concept: to reimagine the material world to reflect the unity of all the arts. Gropius explained this vision for a union of art and design in the Proclamation of the Bauhaus, which described a utopian craft guild

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painting into a single creative expression. Gropius developed a craft-based curriculum that would turn out artisans and designers capable of creating useful and beautiful objects appropriate to this new system of living. The Bauhaus combined elements of both fine arts and design education. The curriculum commenced with a preliminary course that immersed the students, who came from a diverse range of social and educational backgrounds, in the study of materials, color theory, and formal relationships in preparation for more specialized studies. This preliminary course was often taught by visual artists, including Paul Klee, Vasily Kandinsky, and Josef Albers, among others. In the 1920s and 1930s, the so-called New Typography movement brought graphics and information design to the forefront of the artistic avant-garde in Central Europe. Rejecting traditional arrangement of type in symmetrical columns, modernist designers organized the printed page or poster as a blank field in which blockas of type and illustration (frequently photomontage) could be arranged in harmonious, strikingly asymmetrical compositions.

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BAUHAUS

Sans serif asymmetrical type - New Typography Deliver message and communicate Function not decoration Purity, clarity, simplicity New approaches to photography Montage E x tre m e sc a l e co ntr a s t s / b ird ’s eye/wo r m’s eye

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NEW TYPOGRAPHY A sym m et ric a l , f l u s h lef t rag g ed rig ht Prio rit y a ssig n ed to tex t ba sed o n weig ht a n d size Pu rp ose of co m m u n ic at io n is to f u n c t io n n ot d eco rate Typ e u sed in sim p le fo rm wit h ou t em b ellis h m ent R u les s h oul d b e u sed fo r e m p h a s is

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10. The modern movement did not gain an early foothold in the United States. When the fabled 1913 Armory Show introduced modernism to America, it generated a storm of protest and provoked public rejection of modern art and design. Modernist European design did not become a significant influence in America until the 1930s. As the billboards in a Walker Evans (1903–75) photograph demonstrate (Fig. 17–1), American graphic design during the 1920s and 1930s was dominated by traditional illustration. However, the modern approach slowly gained ground on several fronts: book design, editorial design for fashion and business magazines catering to affluent audiences, and promotional and corporate graphics.. In the 1920s and 1930s, the so-called New Typography

movement brought graphics and

information design to the forefront of the artistic avant-garde in Central Europe. Rejecting traditional arrangement of type in symmetrical columns, modernist designers organized the printed page or poster as a blank field in which blocks of type and illustration (frequently photomontage) could be arranged in harmonious, strikingly asymmetrical compositions. The International Typographic Style, also known as the Swiss Style, is a graphic design style developed in Switzerland in the 1950s that emphasizes cleanliness, readability and objectivity. [1] Hallmarks of the style are asymmetric layouts, use of a grid, sans-serif typefaces like Akzidenz Grotesk, and flush left, ragged right text. The style is also associated with a preference for photography in place of illustrations or drawings. Many of the early International Typographic Style works featured typography as a primary design element in addition to its use in text, and it is for this that the style is named.

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MODERN MOVEMENT IN AMERICA Bauhaus influence American content WPA typography for social programs

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THE INTERNATIONAL TYPOGRAPHIC STYLE A sym m et r y Fl u s h lef t /rag g ed rig ht layou t s S a n s seri f let ters wit h b old wo rd s fo r em p h a sis Red u c t ive, o bjec t ivit y, n o s u p er f l u ou s d eco rat io n G rid system s

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RUDOLPH DE HARAK If Modernism imposes coldness and sterility, as some critics have argued, then Rudolph de Harak must be doing something wrong. A devout Modernist, his work for public and private institutions is uncompromisingly human. Ram shree Ram Rudolph de Harak, also Rudy de Harak, was an American graphic designer. De Harak was notable 06.

as a designer who covered a broad spectrum of applications with a distinctly modernist aesthetic. He was also influential as a professor of design.

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11. The New York School (synonymous with abstract expressionist painting) was an informal group of American poets, painters, dancers, and musicians active in the 1950s, 1960s in New York City. The poets, painters, composers, dancers, and musicians often drew inspiration from Surrealism and the contemporary avant-garde art movements, in particular action painting, abstract expressionism, Jazz, improvisational theater, experimental music, and the interaction of friends in the New York City art world’s vanguard circle. The technological advances made during World War II were immense. After the war, productive capacity turned toward consumer goods, and many believed that the outlook for the capitalist economic structure could be unending economic expansion and prosperity. With this bright view of the future in mind, “Good design is good business” became a rallying cry in the graphic design community during the 1950s. Prosperity and technological development appeared closely linked to the era’s increasingly important corporations, and the more perceptive corporate leaders comprehended the need to develop a corporate image and identity for diverse audiences. Design was seen as a major way to shape a reputation for quality and reliability. Visual marks had been used for identification for centuries. In medieval times, proprietary marks were compulsory and enabled the guilds to control trade. By the 1700s virtually every trader and dealer had a trademark or stamp. The Industrial Revolution, with its mass manufacturing and marketing, increased the value and importance of trademarks for visual identification. But the visual identification systems that began during the 1950s went far beyond trademarks or symbols. The national and multinational scope of many corporations made it difficult for them to maintain a cohesive image, but by unifying all communications from a given organization into a consistent design system, such an image could be projected, and the design system enlisted to help accomplish specific corporate goals.

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NEW YORK SCHOOL Uniquely American approach with origins in European modernism Playful, visually dynamic and unexpected Analyze communications content-reduce to symbolic essence Use of shape Asymmetrical balance

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CORPORATE IDENTITY & VISUAL SYMBOLS Logotypes and identities Pictograph signage for Olympics and transportation

LANCE W YMAN L a n c e W ym a n i s a h ig h l y r e g a r d e d A m e ri c a n g r a p h i c d e sig n e r. B o r n i n N ewa r k , New Jersey in 1937, his work for the 19 6 8 Summer Olympic Games is of ten r ate d among 05.

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the most famous a n d r e c o g n iza b le lo g o s eve r c r e ate d . His father was a commercial fisherman and a typist. W ym a n h a d to wo r k i n th e f a cto rie s d u ri ng su m m e r s to a r r a ng e h i s c o lle g e f e e . H e a c q u i r e d a d e g re e i n i n d u s tria l d e sig n from the Pratt Institute in 1960.

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12. Sensing that traditional narrative illustration did not address the needs of the times, post– World War I graphic designers reinvented the communicative image to express the machine age and advanced visual ideas. In a similar quest for new imagery, the decades after World War II saw the development of the conceptual image in graphic design. Images conveyed not merely narrative information but ideas and concepts. Mental content joined perceived content as motif. The illustrator interpreting a writer’s text yielded to the graphic imagist making a statement. A new breed of image maker was concerned with the total design of the space and the integration of word and image. In the exploding information culture of the second half of the twentieth century, the entire history of visual arts was available to the graphic artist as a library of potential forms and images. In particular, inspiration was gained from the advances of twentieth-century art movements: the spatial configurations of cubism; the juxtapositions, dislocations, and scale changes of surrealism; the pure color loosened from natural reference by expressionism and fauvism; and the recycling of mass-media images by pop art. In the decades following World War II, graphic artists had greater opportunity for self-expression, created more personal images, and pioneered individual styles and techniques. The traditional boundaries between the fine arts and public visual communications became blurred. The creation of conceptual images became a significant design approach in Poland, the United States, Germany, and even Cuba. It also cropped up around the world in the work of individuals whose search for relevant and effective images in the post–World War II era led them toward the conceptual image.

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CONCEPTUAL IDENTITY Narrative information communicated with ideas and concepts Familiar in an unfamiliar setting Scale changes, substitution, visual puns and play

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DIGITAL REVOLUTION Computer generated imagery Internet , interactive design and worldwide web

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13. Since the surfacing of the term ‘deconstruction’ in design journalism in the mid-1980s, the word has served to label architecture, graphic design, products, and fashion featuring chopped up, layered, and fragmented forms imbued with ambiguous futuristic overtones. Deconstruction belongs to both history and theory. It is embedded in recent visual and academic culture, but it describes a strategy of critical form-making which is performed across a range of artefacts and practices, both historical and contemporary. In design, New Wave refers to an approach to typography that actively defies strict gridbased usage. Characteristics include inconsistent letterspacing, varying typeweights within single words and type set at unusual angles. Credit for the introduction of New Wave design is given to Wolfgang Weingart. A movement based on historical revival first emerged in New York and spread rapidly throughout the world. Called retro by some designers, it was based on an uninhibited eclectic interest in modernist European design from the first half of the century, a flagrant disregard for the rules of proper typography, and a fascination with eccentric and mannered typefaces designed and widely used during the 1920s and 1930s that were more or less forgotten after World War II. During the 1980s, graphic designers gained a growing understanding and appreciation of their history. A movement based on historical revival first emerged in New York and spread rapidly throughout the world. Called retro by some designers, it was based on an uninhibited eclectic interest in modernist European design from the first half of the century, a flagrant disregard for the rules of proper typography, and a fascination with eccentric and mannered typefaces designed and widely used during the 1920s and 1930s that were more or less forgotten after World War II. The prefix retro suggests the term retrograde, implying “backwardlooking” and “contrary to the usual.”

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Broke with international typographic style communications Intuitive Communicated emotional qualities with expressive typography Layering/overlapping Uses computers to generate layouts and typography

WOLFGANG WEINGART Designer and instructor Wolfgang Weingart created a more experimental and expressive approach to typography that was influential around the world. He taught a new approach to typography that influenced the development of New Wave, Deconstruction and much of graphic design in the 1990s. 02.

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NEW WAVE Stair stepped rules Some evidence of grid underlying organization Layering, overlapping simultaneity

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RETRO/VERNACULAR Eclectic modernist European design of the first half of century Disrespect for proper rules of typography placed in new ways Kinky mannered type of 20s/30s

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BIBL PHY

www.flickr.com www.plasticpumpkin .wordpress .com www.eldritchpress .org www.logarchitecture.tumblr.com www.eyemagazine.com de stijl www.en .wikipedia .org www.flickr.com www.rober tlpeters .com www.weetstraw.com bauhaus thecabinet.tumblr.com www. studyblue.com www.tumblr.com the new typography www.iconofgraphics .com www.thenewgraphic .com www.max-n0d3 .deviantar t.com modern movement in america www. aiga .org www. aqua-velvet.com www.harpersbazaar.com the international typographic style www.montagueprojectsblog.blogspot.com www. smashingmagazine.com www. sherodesigns .com new york school www.karakreative.blogspot.com www.burningsettlerscabin .com www.vangeva .com corporate Id and visual symbols www.montagueprojectsblog.blogspot.com www. smashingmagazine.com www. sherodesigns .com conceptual image www. ahoylandahoy.blogspot.com www.brainpickings .org www.mockduck .net digital revolution www.aiga.org www.maborok.blogspot.com www.thestrangeattractor.net postmodern design (deconstruction/new wave & retro/vernacular) www.aiga.org www.uartsgd.com www.stocklogos.com www.studyblue.com www.inspirationlab.wordpress.com www.bebelestrange.tumblr.com


LIOGRAPH victorian era www. sherodesigns .com www.mikeshenderson.blogspot.com www.suite101.com arts and crafts www. studyblue.com www.tynicholsonuwf.blogspot.com www.bnmhistor yofdesign .blogspot.com ukiyo-e www.havingalookathistor yofgraphicdesign .blogspot.com www.lawrence.edu www.commons .wikimedia .org art nouveau www. allposters .fr www.wikipaintings .org www. ar tcyclopedia .com vienna secession www.writedesignonline.com www.vienay yo.wordpress .com www.higheredbcs .wiley.com www.barewalls .com cubism www. sastikusuma .wordpress .com www.wikipaintings .org www. awesome -ar t.biz futurism www. arh3 46 .blogspot.com www.typetoken .net www.etc .cmu.edu dada www.tumblr.com www.humanities .uchicago.edu www.mheidbreder.wordpress .com expressionism www. ar thistor y. about.com www.paulklee.net www.weimarar t.blogspot.com surrealism www.inspirationtolivewell.com www.wikipaintings .org www.imgur.com photography and the modern movement www.wikipaintings .org www.wor th-photography.blogspot.com www.wor th-photography.blogspot.com plakatstil www.phaidon .com www.printmag.com www.vintagefeedsacks .blogspot.com art deco www.brainpickings .org www.lessing-photo.com www.lessing-photo.com suprematism/ constructivism



Graphic Design Style Guide