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LULU LE LI

2012-2013

UNIT 22 Izaskun Chinchilla, Carlos Jimenez

EXERCISE

3

HUTONG ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL PROJECT Jan - May 2013


Historical Beijing

Royal Palace

Temples & Tombs

Gardens

Hutong fabric

Royal Elite culture

Mass culture: Street - Hutong - Courtyard house

The rise of Hutong market

Street - Hutong - Courtyard house system and hierarchy diagram

City layout shift

The city plan

Yuan Dynasty

Ming Dynasty

City layout analysis

The district plan Inner city wall Royal city wall Forbidden Palace wall

Outer city wall

The courtyard house plan

Hutong’s Formation in Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Hutong and courtyard houses as the most fundamental urban element in old Beijing.

The map of Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)

The map of Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

The term “Hutong” first appeared during the Yuan Dynasty(1271-1368), and is a term of Mongolian origin meaning “water well”. The Hutong houses were first arranged in order around water wells for nobles and heroes as feudal estates.

The shift of the commercial and business area due to the division between the Man and Han ethnic groups. Man as the royal ethnic lived mainly in the inner city, Han as the mass and main population stayed mainly in the outer city.

Li

Liao

Jin

Yuan

Ming & Qing

Modern Beijing

The historical transformation of Beijing city

HUTONG history HISTORY --- Hutong The Layout layout and history(since (sinceLi Li1046b.c.). 1046b.c.).Above Aboveare arethe the The and size size of of Beijing Beijing city city has has changed changed and and expanded expanded aa lot lot through through its its more more than than 3000 3000 years year history keytransformations transformationsofofthe thecity cityand andthe theHutong Hutongformantion. formation. key


Beijing’s urban development over the past 50 years

Hutong transformation in 20th century

In 1949, after the establishment of the New Chinese government, the city planners realised that Beijing could not fulfil the role of a modern 20th century capital. In the same year, the Beijing urban planning committee was established. This committee invited experts from the Soviet Union and China, to develop concepts for Beijing’s urban development plan. These experts had diverse opinions and suggestions. Notably, architect Liang-Si-Cheng proposed “keeping the old city and building a new city outside of the city walls.”

At the turn of the 20th century, the Qing court was disintegrating as China’s dynastic era came to an end. The traditional arrangement of hutongs was also affected. Many new hutongs, built haphazardly and with no apparent plan, began to appear on the outskirts of the old city, while the old ones lost their former neat appearance. The social stratification of the residents also began to evaporate, reflecting the collapse of the feudal system.

The plans suggested had three common points: 1) Beijing should develop not only as the political capital of China, but also as an industrial, cultural and artistic centre. 2) The population of the city centre should be controlled not to exceed 4 million. 3) The city layout should radiate from the centre, integrating a series of ringroads.

During the period of the Republic of China (1911-1948), society was unstable, fraught with civil wars and repeated foreign invasions. Beijing deteriorated, the condition of the Hutongs worsened. Courtyard houses previously owned and occupied by single families were subdivided and shared by many households, with additions tacked on as needed, built with whatever materials were available. The 978 Hutongs listed in Qing Dynasty records swelled to 3073 by 1949. (see images bellow)

In the spring of 1958, the Beijing city government adopted the ‘Beijing City Construction Master Plan’. This plan is based on the “child- mother city” concept, proposed a main central city surrounded by 40 satellite towns. To promote industrial development, the Central Government announced that the character of Beijing should change from a Consumer to a Producer city. The resulting emphasis on industrialisation, including the construction of communal factories within the inner city, led to unforeseen levels of pollution and traffic congestion.

Crowded Hutong is a hotchpotch of the old and the new with Qing dynasty courtyard houses riddled with modern brick outhouses and socialist-era conversions

Following the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, almost half of the old Hutongs neighbourhoods have been demolished. Between 3,000 and 4,550 Hutongs have weathered the Cultural Revolution and mass industrialization to survive in various states of dilapidation. (Based on the data from the Beijing Municipal Administration of Cultural Heritage). Hutong was a platform for media display. The walls in the Hutongs were used primarily for political propaganda and advertisement in the context of the Cultural Revolution. (see image on the page after)

A draft plan of Beijing city in 50s

Liang-Si-Cheng plan

1959 Hutong space during the construction of tian’an gate square The map of Beijing (1949)

Hutong threatened With the 1949 communist revolution, the social and cultural values of China were cataclysmically shaken and altered to such an extent that even the long-practiced building methods that had defined urban living in China’s capital city were viewed as outdated and no longer relevant. Chinese communists sought to create a fresh, new socialist utopia, and any cultural icon (including siheyuans) of China’s past became suspect. In a race to build up China’s industrial capacity, many siheyuans were destroyed. Also, younger people became more financially important, which shifted their roles in the family, encouraging them to move away from the multi-generational siheyuans and into their own homes. Urbanization was another factor that diffused the family members. Many people left their native homes and headed to different cities seeking better jobs. Since the 1980s, the Chinese government has been implementing a housing relocation plan called the “Weigai” system (Old and Dilapidated Housing Redevelopment) . The goal is to transform old hutongs into new high-density residential neighborhoods with modern utilities, but it’s lead to a mass destruction of Beijing’s cultural assets. During that era, more than 200,000 families were relocated and their courtyard houses were demolished. Many siheyuans have also been demolished for the city’s concentric circled “ring-road” highway system, developed in the 1990s. The 2008 Olympics Games put even more pressure on these unique aspects of China’s cultural heritage, and Beijing further accelerated the destruction of courtyard houses to make way for sports venues and infrastructure for the games. Between 1990 and 1998, 45.2 million square feet of courtyard houses were demolished, and 150.7 million square feet of siheyuans have been destroyed since the early 1950s.

Now

Weigai project area in 1983

Weigai project planned area in 1991

From 1966 to 1976, during the Cultural Revolution, Beijing underwent enormous changes and many of the city’s ancient structures were irrevocably damaged. The Beijing City Planning Office was closed down, resulting in the uncontrolled occupation and development of land. Large numbers of people drifted into the city during this period, sowing the seeds of today’s over-population in residential courtyards.

Chinese charactor meaning “demolish”

Hutong under demolition

After 1978, the political and economical situation improved rapidly. In 1983, the State Council approved a new ‘Beijing City Construction Master Plan’. The plan included provisions for industrial development, population control, upgrading of the old city and improvement of basic infrastructure. This plan forms the basis of present-day road-building projects. Under the Open Door Policy, China transformed from a planned to a market economy system. A new plan for Beijing’s development was adopted, reflecting the changing political and economic climate.

However, many of Beijing’s ancient hutongs still stand today. More recently, 539 of them have been designated as protected areas in an attempt to preserve Chinese cultural heritage. The old neighborhoods survived today, offering a glimpse of life in the capital city as it has been for generations. (see images bellow) Many hutongs, some several hundred years old, in the vicinity of the Bell Tower and Drum Tower and Shichahai Lake are preserved amongst recreated contemporary two and three-storey versions. This area abounds with tourists, many of which tour the quarter in pedicabs.

In 1993, the State Council approved the ‘Beijing City Master Plan (1991-2010)’. The Master plan established Beijing’s status as an aspiring internationalcity. It highlightedthe need for balance in integrating cutting edge modern development into Beijing’s unique ancient heritage. As a result, the municipal government adopted ‘The conservation plan for the historic and cultural city of Beijing’ in September 2002. This plan gives detailed guidelines for the protection of the old city. Implementation of this conservation plan is, as yet, unrealised.

Protected hutong area and celebrity memorials

A plan of Beijing city in 1980s

Hutong as media display

The decline of Hutong Map showing the Hutongs been demolised between 1949 to 2002.

“北平在人为之中显得自然,几乎什么地方既不挤得慌,又不太僻静:最小的胡同里的房子也有树;最空旷的地 方离买卖街与住宅不远。这种分配法可以算——在我的经验中——天下第一了。” ——老舍 (1899-1966)“想北平”

‘Beijing has the quality of an artificial naturalism, by that i mean there is nowhere too crowded nor too quiet: even the smallest Hutong house has trees in the courtyard; even the largest open area is not far from commercial and residential blocks. This layout, in my experience, is the most perfect.’ —— LaoShe (1899-1966) “Miss Beijing”

-- HUTONG Hutong IN IN MODERN modern ERA era -Urban Urbandevelopment, development,Hutong’s Hutong’sdecline declineand andtransformation. transformation.


Courtyard houses in Hutong

Courtyard houses in structure

Siheyuan (courtyard houses) are the product of 3000 years of accumulated cultural wisdom and building practices, combined with the enigmatic theory know as feng shui. Siheyuan emphasize a harmonized relationship with nature and the materials extracted from it: sun-dried brick, wood, and pounded earth.

Traditional street fabrics formed by Hutongs and courtyard houses

Building materials: earth bricks and wooden frame

5

1. Main gate 2. Screen wall 3. Main courtyard 4. Eastern wing room 5. Principal room 6. Western wing room 7. Short-cut corridor 8. Reversibly-set room

4 3 2 6

7 1 8 The typical structure of a medium Courtyard House

Hutong Architecture Azevedo, Andre, et al. Beijing Hutong Conservation Study. Beijing: Communication University of China press, 2004.

Courtyard house design One of the major attractions of the traditional Courtyard House is “its secluded and peaceful atmosphere, affording a degree of privacy and calm within the city’s bustle.”1 Subject to strict restrictions on height, design, color and decoration patterns, so as to show respect to imperial palace nearby, most Courtyard Houses remain grey one-storey building.

Undulating Roofscape

The layering and tranquil environment

The use of colour

Street

Hutong

The contrast between the streets and Hutongs Street:

Noisy

Busy

Wide

Elevation with open front

Very colouful

Straight

Hutongs:

Quite

Relax

Narrow

Elevation with solid walls

Mainly grey

Turns

Hutong and street elevation

The intimate scale of traditional street and architecture:

1. Main streets: 20-30 meters wide 2. Side streets: 10-20 meters wide 3. Hutongs: less than 9 meters wide. 1 3

The proportion in Hutong space:

Houses around 3m high from floor to eave

Most architecture (residential and commercial) in hutong are single storey with a few two-storey ones. Single storey architecture: 3 meters from floor to eave, 5-6 meters tall to the top of the roof. Two-storey architecture: 6 meters from floor to eave, 8-9 meters tall to the top of the roof. Most Hutong are between 3-6 meters wide. Therefore the proportions between the Hutong street and the architecture are normally 2:1, 1:1 or 1:2, which are the most balanced proportions for the spatial experience and intimacy.

2

Hutong around 3m wide 1:1 ratio

Hutong ARCHITECTURE architecture --- HUTONG Croutyardhouse housedesign design||Intimate Intimatescale scale||Use Useof ofcolour colour||House Housematerial materialand andstructure structure Courtyard

Hutong around 6m wide 2:1 ratio


Hutong as the important public space in old Beijing The characteristics of Beijing Hutongs and Courtyard Houses represent an ideal lifestyle in Chinese philosophy: to find serenity in chaos and be creative under the rigidity.

The sound in the Hutong Apart from the visual image of Hutong lifestyle, the sound in the Hutong also played an important part to the Hutong lifestyle. Various tools are used by street salesmen to make a distinct sound to notify hutong communities of their services.

Wedding ceremony

Shoe repair

Toffee fruit seller

cricket seller

Hutong music

Hutong bird

Hutong barber

Salesman

Thousands of Hutongs spread through out the City of Beijing. The names of Hutongs are like an encyclopedia, which not only reflect the historical development of the city, but also represent the social customs.

Development of Hutong tourism

Traditional-style shopping street.

Traditional Hutong experience

Traditional-style hotel in Hutong. some of courtyard houses in Hutong have been purchased and renovated by hotel chains and now function as hotels.

Beihai Beijia Dao Meaning a in between lane at the north of Beihai Park. It is a very quite and long narrow Hutong that not many people knows. It is a hidden Hutong with not many things go on in the space, resulted it’s unique poetic atmosphere.

Narrow Hutong with the most turns (13 turns in total)

- Hutong HUTONG Culture CULTURE Hutong Hutongactivities activities||Sound Sound||Traditions Tradition

Narrow Hutong with no windows and doors

Hutong with courtyard houses on a lower level (a result from long term accumulation)


Pop-up 1: Wall painting and power generating bike. The idea of accumulation and the return of slowness in the Hutong.

Pop-up 2: Folding Hutong walls and furnitures. The idea of flexible use of Hutong spaces for gathering and meetings.

- Initial approach initial master plan and pop up pages


LINE 8

Demolition area for line 8 Station

SITE

Demolition area for commercial square

Bell Tower

SITE

Drum Tower

Demolition area for new museum

METRO MAP OF BEIJING

Demolition area for retro shoping mall

Bell Tower Drum Tower

Dian Gate

Shouxing Hall Jing Hill Shenwu Gate Qiangqing Palace Qiangqing Gate Zhonghe Hall Taihe Hall Taihe Gate Wu Gate Duan Gate Tian’an Gate

Daqing Gate Zhengyang Gate Front Building

Heaven’s Bridge

- Site SITE analysis ANALYSIS Bell and Drum tower site The new development plan and current demolision of the site.

SITE


06:00

07:00

08:00 Group morning exercise

Individual morning 06:00 - 08:00 exercise

06:00 - 08:00

09:00 Breakfast

Barber

06:00 - 09:00 Local students go to school

08:00 - 18:00

07:30 - 18:00 10:00 Walk birds

07:00 - 10:00 11:00

Local food market

09:00 - 18:00 12:00

climb the roof

12:00 - 14:00

13:00

14:00

Play chess Chatting/reading Wedding ceremony

15:00-17:30

Street artist weekend afternoon

Market weekend afternoon

Dry clothes weekend afternoon

15:00

Afternoon 16:00

17:00 Young people play after school

17:30-19:30 18:00 Family dinner

Evening exercise

19:00-21:00

Relax and chat after dinner

18:30-20:30

19:00-21:00 19:00

20:00

21:00

Hutong salesmen mobile business and their instruments

Night street food Time not specific

22:00-24:00 22:00

23:00

24:00

Chinese snacks

Cricket seller

Polish knife and scissors

Key maker

Toy seller

Oil seller

- Site analysis Study and mapping of Hutong’s traditional and existing activities and programs, the associated sound, time line, location and experiential condition.


modern School:

• • • • •

Institutional purity education Singular educational system Contained and divorced from the world Work and result based Hospital and office like

Open air school

Hospital

Proposed architecture school:

Office building

Disbursed university, as an insertion and overlay to existing fabric

• • • • • •

Temporary, 7 years life span Interfaces in Hutong, collision with other Hutong programs The value of social and experiential condition Create a reaction with how this Hutong works (visually and program) New network of school, elevated links get between things. With different open and informal learning experience for students and locals

- School philosophy and educational structure “Design is everything, how you eat, how to dress. “ (Bauhaus) Fundamental: Free, open, accessible Not study based, result oriented education, but the idea of learning, a progressive condition. School as an infrastructure that interface with the city. Learning as an intricate part of living, not just for the young.


Bell tower

House condition sample analysis

no. 60

no. 58

north south section of Zhong lou wan hutong no. 58 and no. 60 Original building space Extension buildings Each family owning space

No. 58 12 families, 33people All the buildings are public housing.

no. 58

no. 60 primary school

No. 60 4 families, 14people The main building is privately owned, the rest are public housing.

population and ownership

space arrangement of No. 58

drum tower

Historical houses Non-historicals Extentions Demolished house House in relatively good condition Potential school sites (courtyard combines historical house and strong Non-historical ones, or demolished site)

space arrangement of No. 60

traditional courtyard house structures

Potential “column houses” for supporting school architecture (strong non-historical houses with further retrofit)

common problems

Potential retrofit techniques for “column house”

2. Overly crowded and poorly lit courtyard

Roof leaks

6.

5.

4. 3. 1.

Sample works

Damp walls caused by rising ground humidity

Partially damaged timber structure caused by insects and rot

- School ARCHITECTURE ASSESSMENT Historical houses | non-historicals | extentions | demolished House in good condition | weak houses Potential school sites | Potential “column houses” for supporting school architecture (strong non-historical houses) Traditional courtyard house structures Existing courtyard conditions and structure problems Potential retrofitting strategies and techniques

1. Reinforce timber column foundation/footing using micro-piling 2. FRP (fibre-reinforced polymer) jacketing the main timber structure. (reinforce and protect columns and beams from insect and moist) 3. Additional vertical supports in the form of thin carbon fibre post 4. Additional bracing between column and beams 5. Moment frame inserted between walls and timber frames 6. Brickwall with coatings of glass firber


year 1

School started by locating and building the fundamental parts of the school such as the workshop, school canteen and library etc, using existing Hutong courtyard houses.

year 2

School started to develop and expand into the Hutong fabric. More enclosed and temporary outdoor spaces are fabricated by the students.

year 3

Most of the key school programs and spaces are established. Including private accommodations, semi-public educational spaces and elevated temporary public spaces.

year 4

School reaches its best condition, with all the educational spaces and facilities fully integrated with the local programs and activities.

year 5

Some of the temporary structures have reached their limit and began to fail. Some of them are replaced and some are demolished depending on the function and program.

year 6

Some of the less essential parts of the school are returned to their original function, as temporary residential houses. Elevated public structures are gradually removed due to their limited life span.

year 7

Towards the end of the course, all the temporary structures are removed, leaving only few key parts of the school for the start of the its next 7 years cycle.

- School life cycle and developing phases An architecture school grows and dies in respond to its 7 years architecture course cycle. All the temporary structures and house extensions are specifictly designed to have a limited life span of less than 7 years. School developes with specific rules at different stages. In bigger scale, Schools with similar rules are developped at various areas in Hutong, with each at different stages, form a system of Hutong “school fireworks�.


Reception

school office

bike storage

library

photo studio

workshop

photocopy room

如意锁 Lock

玉印 Stamp

车轮 Wheel

卷轴 Stroll

灯笼 Lantern

刨子 Woodwork Tool

活字印刷 Removable printing

lecture space

unit space

crit space

exhibition space

school canteen

cafe/bar

accommodation

太师椅 Chair

文房四宝 Study tools

鸟笼 Bird cage

扇子 Paper fan

碗筷 Bowl chopstick and spoon

酒壶茶壶 Tea/wine pot

香炉 Incense

- hutong School Conceptual plan Proposed school program, location and icon.


- CRIT SPACE (RUIN) Memories | Threshold | Porous Boundaries | Revealing | Temporary | Space for Sharing Reforming the demolished courtyard houses and site in “mesh form� based on the original outline with thin wooden trusses. It allows both students and locals to use is as temporary spaces for crit or any other activities. paper and other materials can be attached to it for different purposes. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 1 Frame Houses


- CRIT SPACE ACTIVITIES Collage drawing showing the use of the frame houses as Crit space for the architecture students.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 1 Frame Houses


- FRAME HOUSE ACTIVITIES Collage drawing showing the use of the frame houses as funeral ceremony, as one of the Hutong activities. Different papers and other materials can be attached to the house frame and trusses for different purposes and activities.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 1 Frame Houses


- SCHOOL CANTEEN Temporary | Outdoor | Informal eating space | Scale | Hierarchy | Porous | Ionic | Ritual of eating and sharing The design of school canteen plays with the idea of traditional Hutong outdoor dining culture and the ritual of eating and sharing food around round table to encourage social interaction. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 2 school canteen


samples with back light

samples making process Type 1

Rustic ice-ray patterned papercut inserted in the middle of the cast wax. Materials: Paper cut (120gsm) Wax Potetial connection to frame: Clamp Thickness: 8mm

Type 2

Rustic ice-ray patterned papercut placed at the top of the cast wax to control amount of light transmittance. Materials: Paper cut (120gsm) Wax Potetial connection to frame: Clamp Thickness: 6mm

Type 3

Paper strips inserted in the threads net and then cast with wax. Materials: Paper strips Wax Cotten thread Potetial connection to frame: Tie to the frame with threads Thickness: 11mm

Type 4

Rustic ice-ray patterned papercut inserted in the middle of the cast wax. Materials: Paper cut with tracing paper Wax Potetial connection to frame: Clamp Thickness: 3mm

Type 5

Shredded paper inserted in the diagnal placed threads net then cast with wax. Materials: Shredded paper pieces Cotten thread Wax Potetial connection to frame: Tie to the frame with threads Thickness: 6mm

Type 6

Wax cast with moulded “landscapes” to form varied depth and thickness. Materials: Thick cardboard Wax Potetial connection to frame: Tie to the frame with threads Thickness: varies

Type 7

Open top wax casting with build in honey-comb paper for reinforcement. Materials: Honey comb paper Wax Potetial connection to frame: Clamp Thickness: 12mm

Type 8

Capped wax casting with build in honey-comb paper for reinforcement. Materials: Honey comb paper Wax Potetial connection to frame: Clamp Thickness: 12mm

Type 9

Rustic ice-ray patterned papercut placed at the bottom of the cast wax. Materials: Paper cut (120gsm) Wax Potetial connection to frame: Clamp Thickness: 7mm

- ‘PAPER-WAX’ TILES Detail studies of the wax paper materiality in relationship to the translucent threshold. Early samples of wax paper tiles. Testing the structure, pattern and light transmittance with different paper insertions, positions of the paper in relation to the wax and thickness of the wax.

light transmittance


- SCHOOL LIBRARY Continuity | Translucent threshold | Intimate while retaining connection to the surroundings | Revealing | Lighting | Framing | Melting and changing The design of the library focuses on the idea of translucent threshold and multiple access to encourage the sharing of the library between the students and local residents. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 3 school library


Primary school

SITE PLAN | access

SITE PLAN | access

key: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Landing with garden and rooftop view Raised open reading space Informal reading space on rooftop Raised open meeting space Rooftop informal meeting space with paper filter openings 6. Timber truss threshold 7. Wax rotating entrance 8. Rooftop open platform reading space 9. Semi-open reading space with garden view 10. Enclosed reading space 11. Library reception/IT desks 12. Library book shelves 13. Computer and research room 14. Courtyard space

6

1

5

6

4 3

2

1

5

8

5

7 14

3

1

Roof plan

9 11

12 10 13

9

10 14 12 9

ground floor plan

elevation

- SCHOOL LIBRARY ANALYSISExploded isometric drawing showing the spatial relationship and use of part of the library. Site plan, floor plans and elevation are used to explain the overall spatial configuration of the library and functions of different spaces. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 3 school library


Stairs | bookshelf

Drapping balustrade

Timber truss threshold

Translucent Wax threshold | entrance

Paper light filter | plants display

WAX PAPER TABLE

- SCHOOL LIBRARY KEY ELEMENTSThe design of the furniture used in the library focuses on the idea of providing a pleasant and calm reading environment. Paper and wax play an important role in terms of filtering the sunlight during the day, providing candle-light in the evening, and also work as thermal isolations and heat for the reading spaces. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 3 school library


- SCHOOL LIBRARY PERSPECTIVESLibrary courtyard space in winter at dusk. Translucent space with cracks on wax panels.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 3 school library


- SCHOOL LIBRARY PERSPECTIVESEntrance view in summer at noon. Melting wax facade and red timber panels in contrast with dark grey existing architecture.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 3 school library


- SCHOOL LIBRARY PERSPECTIVESRoofscape view in spring on a rainy day. Red painted water-proof timber panels added colour to the otherwise grey Hutong fabric.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 3 school library


- SCHOOL LIBRARY TABLE PHYSICAL MODELThe design of the library table plays with the idea of revealing and uses fire as the main source for lighting and heating in the library. The wax contained in the table can provide light and heat for more than a week, and gradually reveals the painting underneath. New wax blocks can be replaced on request. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 3 school library

drawing table BURNING TEST SCALE 1:10


- SCHOOL WORKSHOP Flexible spaces | Porous structure| Natural lighting | Ventilation | Temporary and experimental structure | Open space | Multiple access The design of the workshop focuses on the flexibility of the spaces and furniture, and encourages the sharing of the workshop facilities between locals and students. Open crafting classes are set up regularly to train locals and students with specific crafting skills. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 4 school workshop


Primary school

SITE strategy The courtyard is choosen for workshop as it has a combination of historical architecture and strong non-historical ones which can be reinforced further to support the elevated workshop flatform. Also its ideal location close to the primary school allows informal workshop classes to be carried out collabrating with the school, for local children to learn and practice craft at a young age. The extentions in the courtyard will be removed before any workshop construction to return to the courtyard’s original layout.

Historical houses

Non-historicals

Extentions

House in relatively good condition

“Column houses” for supporting school architecture (strong non-historical houses with further retrofit)

6

4

3

5

4 3

3 3 5

2

1

Roof plan | access

11

11 18

12

13

6

16 9

14

10 8

15

17

key:

7

11

20

19

5 1

2

1. Public pavilion for informal crafting class 2. Entrance to the workshop 3. Stair access to elevated platform 4. Elevated platform 5. Ladder access to elevated platform 6. Rotating storage 7. Recess entrance to workshop 8. Folding work tables and benches 9. Stairs and tables for relaxing and chatting 10. Informal outdoor work tables 11. Indoor formal work benches 12. Workshop tools and machines for working on wood 13. Laser cutter with computers 14. 3D printer 15. CNC machine with computer control 16. Workshop office 17. Workshop material storage 18. Workshop wood panel storage 19. Workshop tools and machine for materilas other than wood 20. Screen wall

ground floor plan | access

- WORKSHOP ANALYSISExploded isometric drawing showing the spatial relationship of the workshop. Site plan and floor plans are used to explain the overall spatial configuration of the workshop and its functions. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 4 school workshop


Spinning workshop storage

Flexibale informal workbench type 2

Flexibale informal workbench type 1

folding walls and platform | recess entrance

- SCHOOL WORKSHOP KEY ELEMENTSThe design of the key elements for the workshop focuses on the flexibility of the use, so it can be shared between local kids, local adults, school students and others. People can set up the working space based on their needs and preference.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 4 school workshop


Breakfast

Workshop

Traditional Beijing breakfast is served in Hutong from 6am -9am normally.

Workshop opens from 9am - 6pm Monday to Saturday.

Primary school

Morning market

Fresh vegetables and fruits are sold in the morning market from 7am - 9am during weekdays.

Parent or grandparent takes the child to primary school around 7:30am Monday to Friday.

All day traditional food

Morning market

Beijing traditional bread are served all day in the Hutong.

Morning market

Morning market

Breakfast

Morning activities 7am-9am

Chess games

Knifesmith

Local people play chess in the afternoon in the Hutong when they dont need to work.

Local knifesmith works around the workshop helps people to sharpen their knife and helps to maintain the workshop occassionaly.

sports

Local kinds play sports such as football, pingpong, sand bags etc after school and before dnner.

Open workshop classes

Informal workshop class is open to local kids evreyday from 4pm - 5:30pm after school. The class focuses on model making and craft, which is organised by architecture school students and is collabrated with the local primary school.

workshop

All day traditional food

Afternoon activities 4pm-6pm

- WORKSHOP ENTRANCE PERSPECTIVE Perspective drawings showing the workshop entrance and its relationship to the Hutong layout. The morning and late afternnon activities are collaged to the perspective to show the use of the space at different time of the day, and how the School program and Hutong activities share the same space and react to each other. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 4 school workshop


Elevated platform

Local young people can access the elevated platform to make models or origamis with better views. The baket can be used to lift tools from bellow.

Workshop spinning storage

Informal Workbench 2

The round storage is used to store all the workshop tools, it can be rotated to access different storages.

Informal workbenches are provided in the courtyard space for anyone to use during the day for model making or crafting etc. The work top can be placed either at the top of the supporting shelves or inserted in between the slots for a flexible height and position of the work top.

Informal Workbench 1

Informal workbenches are provided in the courtyard space for anyone to use during the day for model making or crafting etc. The workbenches are designed at different height for people at different ages.

Multiple access

The workshop has multiple access allowing different people to use it and share it at different time of the day.

Consulting local crafting experts

Local crafting experts are employed in the workshop for students who need professional help.

Informal Workbench 1

All day activities 9am-6pm

- WORKSHOP COURTYARD PERSPECTIVE Perspective drawings showing the courtyard space of the workshop, which is the informal crafting area shared by students and local people. All day workshop activities are collaged to the perspective to show the use of the space by different people. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 1 - PHASE 4 school workshop

Elevated resting place

Varies elevated resting spot are designed for people to take rest with good views.


TYPE 1

TYPE 1

TYPE 1

Rustic ice-ray patterned paper cut inserted in the middle of the cast wax.

Wax casted with honey-comb paper insertion. The honey-comb paper is the same thickness as the wax tile.

Various width of shredded paper strips are waved in between the cotton thread net, which is stitched to the frame. The paper strips and cotton threads are acting together as light filter and reinforcement.

Materials: Paper cut (120gsm) Fully refined Paraffin wax Connection to frame: Clamped by wooden frame Thickness: 5mm- 12mm, bigger tiles with greater thickness

Materials: Honey-comb crafting paper Fully refined Paraffin wax Connection to frame: Clamped by wooden frame and brass clips Thickness: 12mm

- ‘PAPER-WAX’ TILES Detail studies of the paper-wax materiality in relationship to the translucent threshold. Prototype of wax-paper tiles at scale 1:2

Materials: Paper strips Fully refined Paraffin wax Cotton threads Potential connection to frame: Tie to the frame with threads Thickness: 10mm


- ‘PAPER-WAX TILE’ STRUCTUAL PERFORMANCEPrototype of paper-wax tiles at scale 1:1 Structural performance of the paper-wax tiles are tested with 3 different tile designs.


- ‘PAPER-WAX TILE’ LIGHT TRANSMISSION PERFORMANCEPrototype of paper-wax tiles at scale 1:1 Light transmission performance of the paper-wax tiles are tested with 3 different tile designs.


- ‘PAPER-WAX TILE’ MELTING PERFORMANCEPrototype of paper-wax tiles at scale 1:1 Melting performance of the paper-wax tiles are tested with 3 different tile designs.


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2 Access to the rooftop

3 top Isometric

FRONT ELEVATION

- DRAWING STUDIO PHYSICAL MODEL Natural lighting | Candle light | Transition between interior and exterior | Transition between furniture and architecture | Retrofit existing architecture | Calm atmosphere Southeast Elevation SCALE 1:10 SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 1 drawing studio


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2 top isometric

3 the studio entrance

screen details

- DRAWING STUDIO PHYSICAL MODEL Natural lighting | Candle light | Transition between interior and exterior | Transition between furniture and architecture | Retrofit existing architecture | Calm atmosphere northwest Elevation SCALE 1:10 SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 1 drawing studio


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2 raised platform

3 studio corridor

4 curtain wax wall detail

- DRAWING STUDIO PHYSICAL MODEL Natural lighting | Candle light | Transition between interior and exterior | Transition between furniture and architecture | Retrofit existing architecture | Calm atmosphere west Elevation SCALE 1:10 SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 1 drawing studio

studio display space


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2 Ceiling light screen detail

3 drawing furniture detail

candle holder detail

- DRAWING STUDIO PHYSICAL MODEL Natural lighting | Candle light | Transition between interior and exterior | Transition between furniture and architecture | Retrofit existing architecture | Calm atmosphere southwest Elevation SCALE 1:10 SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 1 drawing studio


- DRAWING TABLE PHYSICAL MODEL The design of the drawing table works as a light-box and uses fire as the main source for lighting and heating in the drawing studio. The wax contained in the table can provide light and heat for roughly one week. New wax blocks can be replaced on request. drawing table details SCALE 1:10 SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 1 drawing studio


- MAIN DRAWING STUDIO COMPOSITE DRAWING Composite drawing of the main drawing studio: PLAN and ELEVATION. (not to scale) Perspective drawing of the drawing studio interior design.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 1 drawing studio


- SCHOOL LECTURE HALL Natural lighting | Transition between interior and exterior | Transition between furniture and architecture | Retrofit existing architecture | Existing architecture as structural support | Multiple access | Flexible use and sharing spaces

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 2 lecture hall

The design of the lecture hall focuses on the semi-public spaces for open lectures and the idea of sharing knowledge between architecture students and other societies. The open Hutong lecture space, semi-open courtyard lecture space and semi-enclosed indoor lecture space allows free access to different classes. The open Hutong lecture space can also be used as theatre over weekend to encourage traditional Hutong activities and performances.


weekend activities

Public performance stage | open theatre

weekend indoor group activities

weekend public meeting space

Free public space

School lecture space

courtyard open lecture

Weekday activities

- LECTURE HALL PERSPECTIVE SECTIONPerspective sections showing the transition between the exterior and interior lecture space and different uses of the lecture space at different time.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 2 lecture hall


- OPEN LECTURE SPACE PERSPECTIVE Perspective drawing showing the open lecture space extended to the Hutong alleyway, which can potentially be used for open lectures or as a public theatre.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 2 lecture hall


- ENCLOSED LECTURE SPACE PERSPECTIVE Perspective drawing showing the retrofitting of the existing architecture and the exposed structure for the indoor lecture space. Natural lighting and candle light are used as the main lighting strategy. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 2 lecture hall


- COURTYARD LECTURE SPACE PERSPECTIVE Perspective drawing showing the semi-public lecture space in the courtyard with raised viewing platforms sitting on top of existing courtyard houses.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 2 lecture hall


- MAIN LECTURE HALL ANALYSISExploded isometrics showing the design configuration, the structural and retrofitting strategies of the main lecture hall.

SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION YEAR 2 - PHASE 2 lecture hall

Hutong Architecture School Project Portfolio (early version)  

Final Project. Hutong Architecture School Design, 2013

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