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A Visual Study into Typography

Photography Binding





Luke Keen

Agathe Jacquillat and Tomi Vollauschek, 2011, The 3D Type Book, London EC1V 1LR, United Kingdom, Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

My Distinctive Character

S My Partner

Rob Cheeseman

Task One (Week 1/2) Distinctive Characters: Typography as a Semiotic Resource. Typography can be used as a powerful vehicle to transmit ideas and notions of culture, gender, history, materiality and value. The function of typography is to communicate a message so that it effectively conveys and reinforces meaning. In the early 20th Century Beatrice Warde in The Crystal Goblet ascertained that typography should render itself invisible and be subservient to the content. In the 21st Century digital intervention has allowed greater access to typographic technologies and no longer is typography judged on its ability to remain within these constrained parameters. Typography as a semiotic resource in its own right is capable of transmitting meaning. The study of semiotics has been used by academics to analyse and deconstruct Post Structuralist Theories. If we look at the work of The Semiotic Alliance on we can see how semiotics are used within the commercial sector to help some of the world’s biggest brands find fame and fortune. If we go much further back in history to the Middle Ages we see how religious and secular texts use Illuminated Characters to accentuate meaning, reinforce understanding and establish hierarchical construction. Even the use of colour is codified to provide particular emphasis and meaning to the texts. Working in groups of two choose an initial letter from the following set and based on the terminology and glossaries contained within the brief create a word that is related to the unit - you can produce it in caps or lowercase.

N A T L H U I S N I V I G K 300mm high MT R P EA S RA E I O I CT E S O U C E Y S 150mm high After careful planning and research you are required to design and make a three dimensional initial character that communicates the meaning of the word. The model can be made of found objects but must finally be wall-mounted.

When given the brief i thought it was appropriate to research 3D typeface design, when doing so I came across a book in the University Library, “The 3D Type Book.” The following pages show scans of the typeface designs that intrigued me.

Evelin Kasikov Evelin Kasikov is an artist and designer. Born in Estonia. She lives and works in London her work crosses the boundaries between handmade and digital, above shows of her CMYK Alphabet representing the Design process, using two overlaying colours.

She has transformed the printing process into hand embroidery, which in my opinion is incredible, it’s something very unique, The CMYK Alphabet shown above consist of 26 sans-serif uppercase letterforms on a 12.7x12.7cm grid, each letter is hand embroidered using a combination of two overlapping CMYK colours, the work was created for UPPERCASE magazine issue 3, Fall 2009.

Rafael Farias Rafael Farias is a design and member of Bumf - and art collective group and ongoing online exhibition that involves the creation of work following rules set by the collective. Typeface, which is shown, was created in 2009 as a response to a brief set by Bumf to create a typeface using a single found object, the lace holes on a pair of trainers were used as a grid in order to create the typeface. When consider the project/brief set this shows a simplistic but still very well designed outcome, I will need to consider simplicity with in my design due to the time restraint of the project. 1 week.

Andrew Byrom Interiors, the typeface shown above was originally conceived as a digital font in 2003, it was inspired by an old wooden chair in the corner of Andrew Bryom’s London Office, which, when looked at from a certain angle, resembled the letter H, from this 26 letters of the alphabet were drawn and generated into font. they were then later constructed into three dimensions using tubular steel, this typeface now doubles up with a purpose, as furniture. From this i can consider the idea of giving my designs a purpose, or meaning, giving my outcome more possible depth will emphasis the conclusion, so it is something which should be considered.

With my initial research i then decided to look further into 3D design, upon this and the following pages shows visual research.

A list of possible words to represent/design the given letter, S.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Smoke Sausage Saw Salmon Stitching Stain Stereo Sap Shoe/Shoe Laces Silly Sand/Sand Paper Screen Scene Sky Space Sweet corn String Sugar Sweets Swap Sick Strange Sleep Stereotypes See Through Sun Staples Straw Stalls Systems Socks Salad Sale Sambuca Syringe Ships Shock Shutters Spices Shrink Spaghetti

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Signs Slime Stragtego Sport Sentences Stacks Strands Siren Skid marks Skittles Skin Sticks Stake Sawdust Sea Shells Slide

Countries/Places • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Spain Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Singapore Slovakia Slovenia South Africa South Korea Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Sweden Switzerland Syria Scotland

Brands • • • • •

San Miguel Samsung Saisburys Schuh Starbucks

From the list shown i have narrowed down my themes. • • • • • • • •

Shoe laces Smoke Slide Shock Sweets Skittles Space Sugar


The following pages show some idea’s and experiments when consider the letter S.





A mindmap of experimentation Skin


Sweets, an edible 3D Design

With the experimentation previous, i was started visualising my idea, S for Sweets below shows a Visual Representation of my 3D concept, produced upon illustrator.


To create the 3D letter S visually represented above, me and my partner will need the following. • Sherbet Boiled Sweets • Skittles • Sugar • Perspex • Oil(of any edible nature) • Water • Frying Pan/Oven • Laser Cutter

Before creating the design it’s essential that me and my partner gathered all the materials needed to create the outcome. We decided that sweet shops in the local area will be the cheapest possible way to get a large quantity of sweets for a smaller price, we did not find this and ended buying the sweets in the multinational supermarkets, Aldi and Lidl. Cost - £16.58

Above shows the route in which me and my partner took when looking for appropriate materials.

Planning the creation of 3D type design.

Boiled Sweets


Melting the bottom of the sweets allows me and my partner to make our own edible glue.


Perspex For the Base of the letter S, we decided upon using the material Perspex, We believe it to be strong yet flexible and that it would be a suitable starting point when melting the Boiled sweets onto, retaining it’s original form without melting and possibly ruining the outcome. Using a laser printer we will cut a piece of perspex into the letter S to create a suitable base, We will use Transparent Perspex to ensure that colour doesn’t detract from the outcome, and of a thickness of 5mm to ensure stability.

Typeface When researching into Typefaces that relate to sweets, we found that the typeface used upon both the packaging and on the sweet, Skittles is Helvetica, a clear thick and basic typeface, which had very simple characteristics, i believed these factors to be essential considering the restriction given in detail from the larger boiled sweets, acting as an outline in the design, so we made the decision to laser print the perspex in the typeface Helvetica.

S kittles

After Creating the wall/Outline, me and my partner will fill the inside with Skittles, this providing the outcome with a vibrant, bold and colourful finish.

Typ Swee bar

ascender line

descender line


uppercase character

x-height baseline

cross stroke

lowercase character

pe ets counter



Anatomy of Helvetica

Research Into my chosen typeface As decided previously, I will be using Helvetica as my Typeface bases, this to create a correlation/connection with Skittles as this is the font used upon the sweets which are within my design, giving my typeface a link/meaning. Therefore I found it essential to research further into the type, to gain a stronger understanding when creating my outcome. As already known Helvetica is a widely used typeface, seen almost everywhere, especially in high streets and advertising, this is due to its simplicity and it’s readability from a distance, its a clear and modern Sans-serif typeface making it one of the most usable and popular typefaces to at this current date, but where did it come from and how did it originate?

S Helvetica was developed in 1957 by Max Miedinger and Eduard Hoffmann at the Haas Type Foundry of Munchenstein, Switzerland. When creating this typeface the aim was to produce a neutral San-serif font that had incredible clarity so much so that it could compete with the most popular Swiss type of it’s time Akzidenz-Grotesk, which is clear to this day how successful the two designers were. The type was created to contain to intrinsic meaning to it’s form, this so it could be used for signs at a later date, but for such a clear typeface how and why is it so popular today? This is due to the strengths in its characteristic.

Helvetica Bold

The following shows of the characteristics of the type that made it stand out in comparison to others at its timeIt has a tall x height, which makes it easier to read in smaller sizes. Two-storied letter a. A narrow t and f. It has a square looking s. finally a rounded off square tail of capital R. Shown to the right is the Helvetica 26 upper case and lower case character alphabet.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

From the research I have pursued I have now ensured myself that Helvetica is both a clever and suitable letter form, as due to its simplicity I will be able to create my S for Sweets design still representing the typeface, without it greatly effecting the conclusion of my design, ensuring that I consider the characteristics given from the Letter S from the typeface Helvetica by following the restraints of the Perspex that I will laser cut.

When creating our outcome these images show a visual representation of the process we went through, 1. Laser cut perspex for base of letter. 2. Arrange Boiled Sweets in colour order to save time at a later point. 3. Arrange Boiled sweets to create wall/outline to type. 4. Heat oil in pan(Hot enough to melt sweets, without oil spitting, safety precaution) 5. Melt sweets onto Perspex then leave first layer to set. 6. Re pour oil in pan. 7. Melt second layer of Boiled sweets, directly on top os first layer, 8. create a syrup using sugar brought earlier, and drizzle over design. 9. Leave to Set, 10. Fill the space inside outline with Skittles. With this completed we had what is shown to the right, a complete letter made of sweets. S is for Sweets.

Visual Step-by-Step

The outcome created is still edible, which is essential as this is what both me and my partner wanted when creating the expressive character. We have managed to create both an effective 3D design which strongly represents the brief and a design which is edible, granting it with more then one purpose.

This photograph has been taken with an I-pad. When creating my outcome for the postcard shown upon the following page I will replace it with a higher quality photograph Until this moment i will use the image shown above as visual Representation to develop my work considering positioning and composition.

Task Two (Week 3/4) Postcard

Produce an A6 postcard with the image and a brief description in word, these to be positioned upon one side. Resources: InDesign, Photoshop, Layout and pre-print specification. Postcard Pre-print Specifications. Size - 105x148mm Bleed - 3mm Slug - 18mm Margins Included.

Lillian Davenport-Partac

Now that i have finished creating my 3D type design based upon the letter S using sweets, i then found it appropriate to research edible type design upon google, after a vast amount of time i came across the typographic designer Lillian DavenportPartac, her work below shows of edible type, in relation to icing, placed standing on top of tea cakes. The amount of detail put into her type design is incredible, they are very intricate and hold strong characteristics, crafting a true form of a typeface, ensuring that the detail included is prominent, this is shown in the photos below, including a consistent size, terminals, tails and even serifs, its shows of great skill which is demonstrated amazingly with icing. I found her work to link strongly to my own due to it’s purpose, that being edible so when looking upon the website shown i came across a quote which linked perfectly to my outcome.

The Quote

“Boy, did i ove the designs appetite for e

erestimate s world’s edible type” Now that i have decided upon the type which will be included upon my postcard, me have my partner have decided to create 5 rough idea’s each and compare. From this we will decide which outcome best presents our S is for sweets, in the clearest, boldest and powerful format. We will also be using different quotes/type within our designs, so we will have to discuss what we feel is best alongside this.

“Boy, did I overestimate the design world’s appetite for edible type” Lillian Davenport-Partac

Post Card Designs Upon the following pages shows of 5 designs in which I have created for my postcards, all changing the composition and position of the page, I firstly decided upon how to lay out the type, ensuring that the leading was easily readable alongside the kerning, when this was displayed sufficiently, dividing the main text from the person quoted, I work Helvetica, further pushing the main typeface of this design when this process was completed I had the type for my designs. For the first design shown to the left I wanted to see if the I could drive the viewers eyes towards the type, by directing the S towards it, when looking at the outcome I believe it does this, but the emphasis should not be the type but the actual design itself, so decided against this one. With this design I decided to separate both type and design from one another, using a simple line, I instantly felt it lost impact as the S for sweets design seems to loose it’s power simply due to the reduction of size, so was deterred from this design in large doses.

“Boy, did I overestimate the design world’s appetite for edible type” Lillian Davenport-Partac

I then went back to a portrait format, as shown I have kept to the same scale, I have done this to see if the size would cause the viewer to be more intrigued and drawn into the image, this as it is centred, still over powered the type, as it creates its own emphasis, bit with this I still found it to loosing a certain impact. With this in mind I enlarged the previous design to create what is shown, I can instantly see a stronger impact but I still feel as if the type and image are some what divided as if the viewer would not read the postcard as a whole, but in two separate parts, causing more strain upon the audience then is needed.

“Boy, did I overestimate the design world’s appetite for edible type� Lillian Davenport-Partac

“Boy, did I overestimate the design world’s appetite for edible type” Lillian Davenport-Partac

I then when on to box the design and type together, with both image and type centred, I believe this to be the strongest design in abundance, especially with the secondary box of a smaller stroke, pulling the audience in just that little more.

“Boy, did I overestimate the design world’s appetite for edible type� Lillian Davenport-Partac

Chosen Design

When comparing the designs with my partner, we both agreed that this design is the one we want to put forward.

Now that my partner and I have decided upon a postcard the next stage is to Photograph our outcome using an open studio. Within this Studio we will using two main light sources, both with soft boxes(produces soft light) to give an even lighting covering the image, so that no particular side of section of the imagery is over or under exposed when photographing. When taking our image it is essential to leave a certain amount of space under the letter S(this for the type) it to be portrait and of a birds-eye view, all to meet the requirements of the post card created. I will ensure that the Photograph is of a high quality by using a tri-pod, this reduces camera shake and forces the image to be in focus, rectifying a professional outcome. Finally i will be using a DSLR camera, linking the flash to the shutter upon the camera, this causing the lights to flash/expose upon the subject whenever the shutter is pressed, working in twine. Photographs shown.

As shown the images contain yellow light polluting the quality of the outcome.

To ensure that my Postcard design is of a high quality it is essential that my photographs depict the 3D model as well as possible.

As shown upon this page is the photographic manipulation taken place to create a stronger more powerful outcome. When photoshopping my imagery, the main focus points to consider were, the reflection of lighting upon the boiled sweets, ensure the background was in black, fixing any broken or distorted sweets, and ensuring that the image was properly exposed and not blurred. The change is shown.

Photo Manipulation

The final further manipulation is to remove the unwanted tungsten lighting which is making the design come across as slightly yellow/orange, to do this I did what is shown below, upon photoshop.

With this simple change i was able to perfectly replicate my outcome in the means of colour, with this completed i can now place this image in replace for the chosen rough design, to produce my final outcome, shown to scale.

With the layout decided and the image manipulated i then wen on to combine the two to create my outcome, this is shown.

“Boy, did I overestimate the design world’s appetite for edible type” Lillian Davenport-Partac

Final Design to Scale

Study Trip Berlin

Buchstaben Museum When in berlin I decided to visit a museum dedicated towards type, glorifying beautiful sign type. It was amazing to see the upscale type away from it’s purpose of advertising or direction and just as art/design, it gave the typefaces a completely different meaning, I found it to be a essential part of both my trip and a contributing factor to this project. The reason for this museum of letters, or even its starting point was the need to rescue typographic icons, this started in may 2005 and has since fluoresced to a large substantial collection of interesting, unique and inspiration typographic objects that have been gathered from Germany with a main emphasis upon Berlin.

Going to this museum has allowed me to see type in a glorified setting, if anything it has heightened my awareness to the amount of detailed hidden all around us in type signs, and advertisement, when linking this museum to my project and what I have taken away from it is that I now not only see type as type but now as art, upon this double page spread shows some images from the museum.

Bauhaus Archiv Going to the Bauhaus Archiv was truly inspirational and the main purpose for going on the study trip, the building itself was stunning and the movement and what the Bauhaus School stood for has been my main inspiration as a designer so I found it to be an essential part of my trip, the Archiv contained a selection of every form of design taught with the School of Arts known as Bauhaus, from architecture to furniture, it gave me a feeling of real admiration determining me as a designer to push myself. It allowed me to see the power of the movement viewing the first designs ever made in person these deigns for basic household items it allowed me to compare them to ones used today, its just incredible how they haven’t changed the designers from this school were truly incredible, I was also able to look into poster designs of that movement and architecture, I already knew that the bauhaus was functionality over anything, but seeing the collection as it was reinforced this.

Unfortunately I was unable to take photographs within the main section of the museum, so the images collected are limited, but I believe the images shown gives a good interpretation of my vist and what I took away from it. page spread shows some images from the museum.


Brandenburg Gate

Checkpoint Charlie

Berliner Fernsehturm

Essay Influence in Berlin

Consistent Task Throughout Propaganda/Ethics Essay 2,500 word illustrated essay which must include full bibliography (bibliography not included in the word count). Description of the brief: Write a 2,500 word illustrated essay that addresses the following: “With the world’s economy in a slump and the ongoing war on terrorism, there is a heightened awareness in the world community of the numerous issues that both directly and indirectly affect our lives. Increasingly, people are feeling powerless and excluded because they have no voice. Designers, however, do have a voice. They are among the most influential bystanders because their skills enable them to communicate a message easily through the internet or through posters and print. A picture is worth a thousand words, and designers have used this adage to their advantage for years by creating simple, yet powerful designs that immediately convey the message to the viewer.[...].” ( 187&sr=1-2) Consider how graphic designers can promote a cause, provoke a response and trigger reaction through their visual interpretation and communication of a belief or commitment. Consider how the passion or conviction of a contemporary graphic designer/design company is communicated visually in a specific example of their work. Examine the particular message that is communicated and critically analyse the design approach and visual communication of the designer’s feelings, beliefs or intent. Discuss the particular contexts that have informed and shaped the design (eg technological, social, political and cultural) and consider the target audience and the mode of communication. Is the Graphic Designer a bystander or an active participant? Compare your selected designer’s work with comparable design examples. Place your discussion of the selected focus within the context of propaganda and/or ethics. Ensure that your discussion relates and refers to, addresses and applies appropriate theoretical ideas and texts relating to propaganda and/or ethics accordingly).

Another thing in which I gained from my trip to Berlin, alongside with an educated look into WW2 it gave me a path to follow consider the ethics after the war, shown with the images on the following pages, the two experiences, both the Holocaust Museum and the Jewish Museum’s exhibition Fallen Leaves allowed me to connect emotionally making it almost impossible not to base my Essay upon WW2.

Shalekhet - Fallen Leaves

The Holocaust Memorial

The opportunity to experience these two ethical designs has enlightened me to both design for a purpose and historical events, due to the devastation of WW2, i have decided focus my essay upon it.

Word and Image Workshop

During this term we were set the task to complete 3 workshops and 3 lectures of our own choice when considering the project at hand I decided that word and image to be of strong relationship to the outcome, with this in mind I took some notes of what was presented, this is shown.

When looking deeper into signs/semiotics(study of signs) we can break the idea into three separate categories, these shown below. Index- the signify, a mode where the signifier is only arbitrary but is directly linked in some way, for example an image of smoke would signify a fire, or very much like a rash, a GP would use this to assume there is a problem, the rash would signify there is a problem, the problem does not reveal itself but will lead to the conclusion of an illness of some kind. Icon- signifies by resemblance, a mode in which the signifier is perceives as resembling or irritating the signified. Looking, feeling, tasting, or smelling like an image. An onomatopoeia would be considered as a icon, as the words sounds like what it is describing. Symbol- signifies by intellectual operation, a mode in which the signifier does not resemble the signifier which is fundamentally arbitrary to purely conventional. They rely on the knowledge of the viewer/audience, something in which is understood and given a meaning.

Images and words can be considered as different types of signs, as when we use images on there own they have a very instant form of communication(an images tells 1000 words) as when type is used alone less is put across. Two different ways of communication through the viewers reaction, but the power of them combined produces a third effect of the two. The way word and image can be combined completely changes the idea/meaning that is put across, due to what is put across in the type gives the image a completely different purpose this can also be produced when considering the positioning of the two in connection to each other. Using signs we can communicate to any audience, no matter their knowledge or situation, this is the most powerful device we have as graphic designer.

What is propaganda? One sided images, biased views, subconscious manipulation, propaganda is the means to make someone believe what the creator wants, to change their views dependent on the designers/artists believe. It’s the manipulation to create a certain response, to feel to act in a certain way, in a way it’s a form to control people, communities and even nations. Definition- information to assist or damage the cause of a government or movement. The spreading of ideas, information, or rumour for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person. Ideas facts or allegations spread deliberately to further one’s cause or to damage an opposing cause;also: a public action having such an effect. Propagate - to grow and spread information or idea’s. Three forms of propaganda. Black- comes from a source that can not be identified, usually artificial or lies. White- does come from a reliable source, is true/correct. Grey- might have some facts but the source might be questionable, may not be reliable, but might be.

Lecture on Propaganda


4 basic varieties 1. big lie - adapted by hitler and Stalin. The state controlled Egyption press has been spreading a big lie, saying the world trade centre was it tacked by Israel to a barres Arabs. 2. It doesn’t have to be true, so long as it’s plausible. 3. Tell the truth but withhold the other side of the story. 4. Tell the truth and reinforce it. Persuasion techniques Censorship Manipulation Distorting information Omitting significant information False flag - blaming enemy for attack on own people, through the means of propaganda. Imitating others - copying other people, positive role models, which may not necessarily be positive. Grand theft auto, films, music icons and even show presenters help do this. The main way of spreading propaganda is the use of repetition, stuffing information down a census’s mouth.

What is Taste? Taste can be developed by our environment and our relationship towards objects in a consumer culture. Cool hunting,com A daily update on ideas and products in the intersection of art, design and culture. Alluring advertising to seduce, persuade Edward Bernays USA today - image management, neomania Taste - derives from old French term - to touch to to feel, metaphor for judgement. Interiors - identity of an individual. Culture consumption, different tastes in different countries culture preferences, social taboo. With taste and culture, it can change dependent on social mean, for example when the London riots took place sales in Adidas and baseball hats went up.

Lecture on Taste


We invest profane things with meanings. Mass consumer market - styles, fads, trends.Visual language Lifestyle - possessions Bespoke, unique, limited edition desirable Prestige - status - luxury What we judge by Function and form Use Ergonomics Size, handling, storage Recycling Shape Colour Style Materials Production process Manufacture Cost Target audience Competitors Marketing

What is Transmedia? Storytelling and remix culture Story telling is not just expressed through the means of imagery, in connection to this typefaces enhance and even describe there own story, from graphic designers to fine artist we all tell a story in our own way. But what is transmedia? Lecture on Transmedia

Mono media - the Book, spoken word, the images. I.e traditional media forms. However, no medium really exists in isolation. kristeva/Barthes and others recognised the extent to which all texts are intertextual and draw upon cultural experiences. Also, a la Barthes, most images exist in relation to the written word - the title to an image for example that anchors it’s meaning. Interpretation/adaptation - remaking one media product into another - lotr / the hobbit, DC/ Marvel. Whilst seemingly popular many critical of such an approach. Multimedia - a combination of mediums working together. Whilst the illustrated book may count as multimedia, we tend to think to think of multimedia in terms of rich content (film/ animation) or interactivity - i.e. Internet pages with images, sound, video, and hyperlinks. Multimedia or multimodality. Transmedia is about, coexisting, open-ended, Adaptability, interactivity. transmedia relies on a culture of convergence “as consumers are encouraged to seek out new information and make connections among dispersed media content�(Jenkins,2006) However the convergence is not limited to the social sphere and we see media convergence occurring rapidly - iPhone, Xbox / Playstation, Digital TV.

Commercial transmedia story telling The matrix. (Film trilogy, comics, animations, computer games, action figures, online forum) best example of early transmedia, all narratives combine to form a whole story. Unique contribution of each medium is key: each medium has it’s own affordances, potential, communicative ability; but also potentially audience differentiation and accessibility. Connection of multiple texts between each other - stories develop between and across texts. The universe becomes expansive but interrelated and inter textual. Pokemon Cartoon Computer games Physical game Toys Teddy’s Cards Soap A transmedia text does not simply disperse information, it provides a set of roles and goals which readers can assume as the enact aspects of the story through their everyday lives.


Non-commercial transmedia role of folk story telling, much like Romulus and Remus, a myth of Rome. Or the modern slender man, the first internet myth. Bouriard - post production and remix. Cultural objects as transmedia - taking up and initiating forms of narrative. What is out entry point to digitally stored media? For example discovering the slender game before finding the original source.

Identity Class Traditional ways of looking at identity revolved around class, race and gender. Class was always a problematic concept, argued to be defined around either money, education, occupation or pedant occupation. Sex/gender Education regarding who we are an be thought of to revolve around gender. Traditional notions of gender assign certain roles - for example, the breadwinner, housewife. Gender and notions of identity are assigned early - girls wear pink boys wear blue. This is a construct of the modern era. The link between sex and gender have been challenged by more modern feminist concerns, essentially arguing. That sex is assigned, but gender is learnt, constructed and forced upon us. Race Races equally be thought as of a construct, I which a form of othering or marking difference between us and them is established. Like class and gender, we come to establish ourselves by what we are not just as much as we do. Occupation Many of us judge or our judged by our occupations. TV quizzes, talk shows, the news, social networking, all identify people by their age and occupation. The unemployed seem to rarely feature in these formats. However, they do appear and are identified in talk shows, crime news, or fat fighting tv shows. Unemployed.. Less valuable, higher pay more important in society. Culture The culture activities you engage in can define you and your class. Consider the opera/gigs, classical/drum ‘n’ bass, football/cricket, river cottage/ mcdonalds. Politics Traditional allegiances to political parties were defined by class, geographic location, and background, this may also influence issues such as union membership, and your social network. North/South decides that still exists to some exists to some extent in voting patterns. Modern politics include tendency towards single issue politics, little or no party allegiance, apathy towards mainstream politics, and a decline in union membership. Even food determines who we are,what we eat can come across in our identity, brand of clothing, everything we do can help determine/shape other peoples view. Levi Strauss - bricolage Hebdige - subcultures Jameson and postmodernism Pastiche is like parody, the imitation of a peculiar unique, idiosyncratic style, the wearing of a linguistic mask, speech in a dead language. But it is a neutral practise of such mimicry, without any of parody’s ulterior motives, amputated of the satiric impulse, devoid of laughter and of any conviction. Traditional culture, is later adapted into fashion.

Extra Lecture on Identity, double page spread shows of notes taken

Within branding,identity is even more so, every company sells something, but it’s the image in which makes the brand stand out. Zizik RSA charity talk Bourdieu and capitial Defines the concept of different forms of capital - economic is self explanation. Cultural capital equally has a value and can be exchanged, although it’s worth depends on context. Cultural capital for example can be of value in getting a job, this is exchanged through a process, for economic capital. Other forms of cultural capital are exchanged through relationship. Lawyer and lack Identity is a postmodern context may be defined by lack. Lack if taste. The lack constituents a powerful means of consumption. Consumption is not based upon needs but rather desires. What we lack, we try to make up for with consumption - however the fulfilment of this lack is rarely satiated. This constant need to reaffirm our status and lack of lack is termed by Alain de bottom ‘status anxiety’ Butler and performativity Uses the concept of performativity in relation to gender. Argues that gender is not so much what one is but is rather what one does - thus gender is performed. A similar argument is made by Gorman, in which he refers to social identify as a theatrical, performance on a stage. Gender is performed through a number of codes, including clothing and ways of behaving. Performativity is reflexive, in that interpolation (hailing) and performance feeds back and brings the gender identity into being. Gender is thus done, rather then ascribed. Indentity is complex and dependent upon a number of factors - historical, social position, education. Identity is not fixed, however some aspects are harder to change.

Task Three (Week 6/7) Letters in the landscape - A lexicon of urban typography

This unit begins with a visit to Poole where you will identify, collect and photograph, examples of vernacular letterforms in the town. Your images could be literal interpretations of details of road signs, hand painted signs, neon signs, fragments of words, individual characters, manhole covers, gravestones or shop-front signs. Documenting these typographic havens is crucial to rebuff the constant threat from planners and councils that choose to subvert local history and ignore the rich traditions of vernacular heritage. Alternatively, you could choose to record a slightly more challenging abstract collection of ‘hidden signs’ drawn from architectural forms, found objects, and unintentional typographic structures. You will be working teams of four and planning which letterforms you each photograph in order to create a lexicon of vernacular letterforms. Remember, you will need a full alphabet It is important that you keep accurate notes for each of the pictures: ie Photographer, Location, Date, Description before returning to AUB and uploading your pictures to hard drive. You will then go through a process of picture editing and retouching in readiness to prepare layouts for the book they will be published in. Technical specifications: Trimmed size: 300 x 300 mm Four Colour Pix to be saved as 300dpi CMYK Tiffs. Binding: French Fold You print it, then book bind it. Resources: InDesign, Photoshop, Grids, Layout and pre-print specification

My Partner’s

Rob Cheeseman Katie Hockley Sam Tillan

on the following pages shows the photoshoot in poole

The photo shoot shown on the previous pages consists of a selection of 349 Photographs taken in the proximity of Poole, this will be used in the creation of my typographic book.

When capturing our images my group and I firstly discussed the purpose in which we would be photographing our letter forms, we all want to create a complete lexicon alphabet, ensuring that we cover every letter, this strengthening out outcome. We then went on to discuss what will be our main focus/ style of letter forms, we considered what the outcome would look like, and wanted our work to stand out, from this we decided to produce a selection of abstract typefaces, taken from the environment, we wanted our letters to be through the means of photography, letters in which wouldn’t be seen by the human eye, unless presented to them through the directed view of a photo frame. With this decided, my group and I had two cameras between the four of us, we found this very useful, as when capturing our images we both had at least one copy, this allowing us to feel more reliant upon the outcome with have collected, in the means of contrast, positioning, exposure and composition so that the letters out clear to the viewer.

Looking at photo shoot it is clear that we looked into type further then just the given typeface. focusing on the abstract giving the imagery more depth then the standard typefaces would give upon shop signs ect. imagery more depth then the standard typefaces would give upon shop signs ect. Considering what we used to create our letters there is a vast amount of objects/environments used to portray our means, some of which are listed, Buildings, Fences, Road Signs, Floor Markings/Cracks, Benches, Cranes, Telescopes, Sculptures, Railings, Wall Art, Engravings and so on. Participating in this task has allowed me to see the vast range of vernacular typefaces hidden in the landscape, if anything it has opened my eyes. The next stage is to go through the images and select the better imagery.

Group Planning Considering the task at hand, this to create a book me and my group will have to carry out the following tasks. - Decide upon chosen photos from shoot(to be placed into outcome). - Create/plan a rough layout so that we have both a visual representation and an idea of how to photoshop/manipulate our images. - Photoshop our images, to a high standard. - Place images upon requirements of brief within InDesign. - Print book in a French fold book style. - Bind Book.

As shown above, me and my group printed off the photo shoot and selected the images in which we decided, labels and evaluated which we thought was of a stronger quality. considering the content. we did not take quality into consideration as we can edit the images at a later point. The selected images will be shown on upcoming pages upon contact sheets.

With this done we then decided to plan the layout of the images, so that my group and I had a strong idea of how the images will be presented the working is shown on the left. We found that with presenting the images, our book was 44 pages with a collaboration of 54 images/letter faces.

The 54 selected un-edited images

Image Manipulation

As a group we all got given a selection of photographs to edit below is one example of this. We had to ensure that the images did not overpower one another, but at the same time the images had to be of a high quality, for the photograph below, my group and I decided that the image would be best in grayscale, this because the colour distracted the viewers attention from the type, when removed, and contrast and curves manipulated, it created a stronger focus point, with a aesthetically pleasing outcome and composition. We continued to manipulate the images until we had a collection of finished usable photographs.

Page Measurements

With the images manipulated and up to a high quality standard. Considering composition, contrast, exposure and focus, we as a group believe that the next stage is to produce the book within In-design, we will be creating our book using the technique of french fold, as shown to the right(not to scale) is a screen shot of the layout, with a 10 column vertical grid system, to ensure that we had a consistent layout throughout out book. The measurements of our page layout remain a consistent width of 380mm by a height of 190mm. This a combination of two pages, with a outward fold down the middle, creating the french fold. When folded and bound, the book will be of the measurements 190x190mm, a square french folded finished book. with both a front and back cover. With the layout, margin and bleed considered, my group and I went on to place our edited photographs, to create our letters in the landscape outcome, screen shots of some selected pages our shown.

With the layout, margin and bleed considered, my group and I went on to place our edited photographs, to create our letters in the landscape outcome, screen shots of some selected pages our shown.

Perfect Binding When creating the french bold book, the technique we used to bind our pages is names “perfect binding�, and to do this we used a Lumbeck Press, this shown in the image to the left. With out pages printed, we first had to fold the pages (using a boning tool) outward from the centre, so that the crop marks upon both sides lined together creating an accurate fold, with this done, and the book in order, we then placed a spare piece of paper either side to ensure the book did not get ruined at a later stage. As shown to the left is the lumber press upside down, and opened as far as required to fit the pages in, with this done we ensure that the pages were placed aligned together, and that none of which were raised, and tightened/clamped the device using the wing nuts.

With the book in place the next step is to turn the Lumbeck press the correct way around and lock the device in place so that it can not move, with this done, the press should be steady and attached to the table, with everything securely fastened. The final step before glueing is to loosen upon one side, the swivels (the rectangle blocks) this will then allow the pages to bend and in turn to place spare paper, in-between the gap to protect the press from glue, you then do the same upon the over side, and then lock the Swivels back into place.

Book Binding

With the pages in place, as shown in the image at the top of the page, ensuring that all paper is aligned, it is essential that the spine of the parallel to so this you should be able to run your finger down and it should be smooth, if this is so you are now able to glue, if not then you will have to start again. The spine looked perfect, we then glued the spine, and continued to do so at 15 minute intervals, after a while place the mull over the glue and glue again allow to dry for 6 hours it should be set and ready for a cover. We then used black card as a cover and connected the spin to the centre of the black sheet, using both the cutting and folding machines, at our facility we created what is shown to the right.

Finished French Fold Book

Project Analysis When looking back upon this project, visual thinking there many key points in which needs to be discussed, initially the three outcomes, the 3D s for Sweets design, the Postcard and the letters in the landscape Typographic book. How I have managed working in a group and finally what I have learnt from partaking in this project. Starting with the first task creating the 3D model I was able to use my background knowledge in cooking to help give me an edge towards the quality of the outcome, I believe the response to be a perfect reflection of the brief, creating semiotics and a clear visualisation of sweets, allowing an audience to instantly link the letter S to it’s given word. I didn’t find the task particularly challenging, but it allowed my to create a 3D model for the first time. Being hands on gave me the opportunity to ensure the models quality and by doing so it gave a different side to type design, creating type for an image as opposed to a body of text or for headings. I found that when sticking to my groups personal goals of keeping the 3D model edible it caused our design to be slightly weaker then it could using Syrup as opposed to glue, but this could have rendered our design with white marks ruining the look of the image, In conclusion I am more then content with the outcome created. With the design done, my partner and I then had the task to photograph, manipulate and create a Postcard this of the 3D design, alongside with chosen text, looking back upon the outcome, I believe that the photography and layout to be of a high quality, this due to the image being clear and of a correct colour this combined with the layout enhances the natural colours in the design providing a strong bold outcome. Alongside this the type reinforces this boldness, as it is of a much smaller scale giving the 3D Design emphasis as opposed to the writing in which is the secondary piece of information, I believe this work well as a whole, the only thing in which I would go back upon if I had the time is the quotation used, yes the quote relates to edible type but I believe it comes across as slack and lazy, and does not provide the audience with much information if any, so I would change the quote to something more formative. The final piece, the letters in the landscape book provided the most challenge to me, with a group of 4 it was particularly difficult ensuring everyone had equal jobs, but I believe as a group we had a constructive method, this explained previously. This project has given me the opportunity to use in-design on a more in-design bases, especially within this outcome, as the aims was to create a book as opposed to a solitary postcard, from start to finish this task has taught me to both be more aware of grid system and learn a completely new piece of software, in which I feel almost fluent upon now, which it essential to my growth as a designer. The outcome itself shows of a well constructed book, with a full vernacular alphabet, the binding process went extremely well, the book looks almost immaculate so I was very overcome by this, the book consist of a selection of both well photographed images and some of a poorer quality, I believe that to improve the outcome I would, if we had more time go out and do another photo shoot to collect a vaster selection of imagery this both improving the quality of the book, but then allowed me to use a stronger layout system. I found working in a group to be of a particular struggle, especially within the first two tasks, as my partner was not as devoted to the project as myself, and felt that I did a large percentage of the work, and had to ensure that everything was done by myself, I didn’t find this a problem, it was just unfortunate that I didn’t have a secondary voice/input. I Found that this continued, even to the group of 4, have me and 1 person within the group doing all the work when the other two managed to sit back and do, in fairness as little as possible, but with the help of one person in the group we managed to the work completed to a high standard, and I am very happy with what both me and my partners have achieved.

Exhibition For The Love of Graphics

Board Games Alongside our creative thinking project we as a class were set the task to create an exhibition titled “For The Love Of Graphics�, the brief was simple, to present graphic design in which we love, this could be absolutely anything in which had a bases or link to Graphic Design in anyway, something in which we as a person can relate to or that we personally liked for a particular reason, alongside this we had the option to sell our own graphic design work. When deciding upon what I wanted to present within my exhibition I was initially stuck, have many idea’s of thing in which have moulded me as a designer such as film posters, design books, vintage advertisements and many collection I had as a child, but I want to reach a wider audience ith my exhibition, something in which everyone could relate to, something in which had no particular generation and could be appreciated by all.

Discussing my idea’s to some fellow classmates and lecturers, I put across the concept of classic board games, with this suggestion I had a group of students wanting to part-take, and help collect a selection of games. We then went on to have a group discussion seeing how we could take our idea’s further, we settled upon a collection of both classic and post-modern/ themed versions giving a sense of development and branding to our exhibition. Every member of the group went on to gather board games, and the collection was extensive, but we wanted more, to give a better variance. We contacted both Modip, the Universities Museums of Plastics, which were willing to participate and we also contacted the games manufacture Hasbro, as willing as they were to help, the time scale made it impossible for the games to be delivered in time As a group we were overcome by the collection of games we had, and were proud of our selection, it was amazing to see the reaction of people when considering the modern day twists of old designs, and how it made people reminisce about the classics, we also exhibited how the games were played, having a games table to ourself, gave not only our stand but the whole exhibition a warming family feeling.

Previously shown within this book, lectures and a workshop in which I believed related to the project, the following two in which I participated in, to me granted no help within the project, but I decided to carry out because they bared particular interest, the first of which was a lecture into colour. Notes taken are shown below. Colour has severely developed over the years, from flat single colour to various coloured layers allowed an image to come across as living due to scale or gradients of colour. Colour developed through means of animals (elephants urine, crushed beetle) giving artists the means to use colours. We did this until we were able produce our own colours, by extracting pigments from rock, we found this in the north mountains of Pakistan, which at the time was a great distance away and was only made possible due to the silk trade route. Our maximum sense of colours is when two flat colours are placed next to one another or against each other. Colour is not just colour, different shades of black and white can provide just as much as a pleasing outcome, cool black against a cloudy white.

Letterpress Unfortunately for the workshops I do not have the outcomes produced as did not feel they were necessary, but for the final workshop in which I found most enjoyable I took a couple of photographs of the technique of Letter press printing, these will be shown. Relief printing, or with in this case, letterpress due to the use of presses designed to print from type, this process is made possible when the raised letters are inked and mashed into/ against another surface which in this case was paper, this in turn resulted in a printed area, the following materials used for the type are as follows, Wood cuts and engravings, linoleum blocks and even text images from rubber stamps. Using a flat cylinder letter press during this workshop I was taught the process, as shown within the image to the right, is the first stage of this technique, setting up my type. Using a composing stick beforehand it is essential that I order my type so that I can continue to the first stage of printing. To do this I will need to use spacing, mids, leading and of course the type with this complete it is now ready to transferee the type to the chase(the square block around the type as shown.

Using what is known as quoins and furniture to lock the type into place, ensure that there is equal pressure two quoins, this part is essential as if there is not enough pressure the type will fall out of the chase, and if there is two much it can break the delicate type faces, with this done place the chase onto the flatbed cylinder, and once again lock the chase using quoins and furniture, with this done it it then possible to print. I very much enjoyed learning the lengthy process of type, and learnt the true value of what we have today digitally, I will be exploring into this within the future, but it did not relate in my opinion that much to the project.

Creative Thinking

First Year Student Arts University Bournemouth


Luke Keen

Visual thinking  
Visual thinking