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MathiasMÜLLER

& DanielNIGGLI

s o u r c e p e o p l e ...

GastdozenturETHZürich

DepartementARCHITEKTUR

s o u r c e t a b ...

book source

LukaPISKOREC ManuelaSEDLAR

infrastrukturelle

Studenten:

das

StefanBERNOULLI GuillaumeHENRY GabiKÄGI

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Assistierende:


(Utopias are sites with no real place...) 1/ (...) That is a constant of every human group. (...) crisis heterotopias, i.e. there are privileged or sacred of forbidden places (...). (...) heterotopias of deviation (rest homes or psychiatric hospitals) 2/ (...) for each heterotopia has a precise and determined function within a society and the same heterotopia can, (...) habe one function or another (...) (i.e. cemetry) 3/ The heterotopia is capable of juxtaposing in a single real place several spaces, several sites that are in themselves incompatible. (...) (i.e. theater, cinema)

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Heterotopias

4/ Heterotopias are most often linked to slices in time - which is to say that they open onto what might be termed, for the sake of symmetraay, heterochronies (...) (i.e. museums, libraries)

yammering.co.uk; Michel Foucault “Of Other Spaces” 1967; Kevin Hetherington “The Badlands of Modernity”

book source

The present epoch will perhaps be above all the epoch of space. The anxiety of our era has to do fundamentally with space, no doubt a great deal more than with time.

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The power of the concept of heterotopia lies in its ambiguity, that it can be a site of order just as much as it can be a site of resistance. This ambivalence is at the centre of the utopian idea of modern society that took shape in the eighteenth century. It is the ambivalence contained in the idea of heterotopia as both the castles of the Marquis de Sade and Franz Kafka.

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6/ The last trait of heterotopias is that they habe a function in relation to all the space that remains. (...) a space of illusion (...) heteroropia not of illusion, but of compensation (...)

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5/ Heterotopias always presuppose a system of opening and closing that both isolates them and makes them penetrable. In general, the heterotopic site is not freely accessible like a publike place. (...)


luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Brownfield sites are abandoned or underused industrial

and commercial facilities available for re-use. Expansion or redevelopment of such a facility may be complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations.[1] In the United States city planning jargon, brownfield site (or simply a brownfield) is land previously used for industrial purposes or certain commercial uses. The land may be contaminated by low concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution, and has the potential to be reused once it is cleaned up. Land that is more severely contaminated and has high concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution, such as a Superfund site, does not fall under the brownfield classification. Mothballed brownfields are properties which the owners are not willing to transfer or put to productive reuse.[2]

book source

infrastrukturelle 20xx

das

Medienorientierung Hardturm-Areal I 07.02.2008 I Stadt Zürich - Amt für Städtebau; en.wikipedia.org

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Generally, brownfield sites exist in a city’s or town’s industrial section, on locations with abandoned factories or commercial buildings, or other previously polluting operations. Small brownfields also may be found in many older residential neighborhoods. For example, many dry cleaning establishments or gas stations produced high levels of subsurface contaminants during prior operations, and the land they occupy might sit idle for decades as a brownfield. Typical contaminants found on contaminated brownfield land include hydrocarbon spillages, solvents, pesticides, heavy metals such as lead (e.g., paints), tributyltins, and asbestos. Old maps may assist in identifying areas to be tested. A number of innovative financial and remediation techniques have been used in the U.S. in recent years to expedite the cleanup of brownfield sites. For example, some environmental firms have teamed up with insurance companies to underwrite the cleanup of distressed brownfield properties and provide a guaranteed cleanup cost for a specific brownfield property, to limit land developers’ exposure to environmental remediation costs and pollution lawsuits. The environmental firm first performs an extensive investigation of the brownfield site to ensure that the guaranteed cleanup cost is reasonable and they will not wind up with any surprises.


Bild: HAMM Manfred (2008): Markthallen, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin; www.google.com

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book source

In 1996, influenced by the budget ranges in supermarket chains in Australia[4], Migros made their budget range called M-Budget with 70 products aimed at those with low incomes and large families. Now it has grown to 330 products including mountain bikes, snowboards, mp3 players, milk chocolate, jeans, shoes and lighters. M-Budget products have a standardized packaging color scheme, consisting of a grass green background with the Migros logo in small white text repeated over it. Many of these products are produced in limited quantities rather than as an integral, permanent part of the Migros line. Whether they become permanent depends on their success. This, combined with the considerable brand recognition that Migros enjoys, conveys a certain amount of desirability to the rarer products. As a result, M-Budget items will sometimes be considered collectibles, as it is not always sure that they will ever be produced again. To promote the range, in the early 2000s, Migros developed M-Budget Party with tickets costing CHF 9,90 including free non-alcoholic drinks (cola, lemonade and orange juice) and snacks (crisps, chocolate and cakes).

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Migros was founded in 1925 in Zürich as a private enterprise by Gottlieb Duttweiler, who had the idea of selling just six basic foodstuffs at low prices to householders who, in those days, did not have ready access to markets of any kind. At first he sold only coffee, rice, sugar, noodles, coconut oil and soap from trucks that went from one village or hamlet to another. Later he and his drivers expanded their inventory and in 1926 Duttweiler built his first market, also in Zürich. His second store, in Ticino, presaged the future because it was founded as a cooperative. By 1941 the energetic entrepreneur had built a number of markets but in that year he basically gave the business to his customers by transforming everything from his privately owned enterprises into regional cooperatives, headed by the Federation of Migros Cooperatives (FCM) (German: MigrosGenossenschafts-Bund, MGB, French: La Fédération des Coopératives Migros, FCM).

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is one of Switzerland’s largest enterprises, its largest supermarket chain and largest employer. It co-founded Turkey’s largest retailer, Migros Türk, which became independent of Migros Switzerland in 1975.

das

Migros


en.wikipedia.org; skizzen - manuela s.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

Although a Gantt chart is useful and valuable for small projects that fit on a single sheet or screen, they can become quite unwieldy for projects with more than about 30 activities. Larger Gantt charts may not be suitable for most computer displays. A related criticism is that Gantt charts communicate relatively little information per unit area of display. That is, projects are often considerably more complex than can be communicated effectively with a Gantt chart. Gantt charts only represent part of the triple constraints (cost, time and scope) of projects, because they focus primarily on schedule management. Moreover, Gantt charts do not represent the size of a project or the relative size of work elements, therefore the magnitude of a behind-schedule condition is easily miscommunicated. If two projects are the same number of days behind schedule, the larger project has a larger impact on resource utilization, yet the Gantt does not represent this difference. Because the horizontal bars of a Gantt chart have a fixed height, they can misrepresent the time-phased workload (resource requirements) of a project, which may cause confusion especially in large projects. In the example shown in this article, Activities E and G appear to be the same size, but in reality they may be orders of magnitude different.

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Gantt charts have become a common technique for representing the phases and activities of a project work breakdown structure (WBS), so they can be understood by a wide audience. A common error made by those who equate Gantt chart design with project design is that they attempt to define the project work breakdown structure at the same time that they define schedule activities. This practice makes it very difficult to follow the 100% Rule. Instead the WBS should be fully defined to follow the 100% Rule, then the project schedule can be designed.

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is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e. precedence network) relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent-complete shadings and a vertical “TODAY� line as shown here.

das

Gantt chart


en.wikipedia.org; HAMM Manfred (2008): Markthallen, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin; skizzen - manuela s. & luka p.

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Different perspectives exist as to how strong a role the government should have in both guiding the market economy and addressing the inequalities the market produces. For example, there is no universal agreement on issues such as central banking, and welfare. However, most economists oppose protectionist tariffs.[7] The term market economy is not identical to capitalism where a corporation hires workers as a labour commodity to produce material wealth and boost shareholder profits.[8] Market mechanisms have been utilized in a handful of socialist states, such as China, Yugoslavia and even Cuba to a very limited extent. It is also possible to envision an economic system based on independent producers, cooperative, democratic worker ownership and market allocation of final goods and services; the labour-managed market economy is one of several proposed forms of market socialism.[9] Although no country has ever had within its border an economy in which all markets were absolutely free, the term typically is not used in an absolute sense. Many states which are said to have a market economy have a high level of market freedom, even if it is less than some parts of the population would prefer.

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This is often contrasted with a planned economy, in which a central government determines the price of goods and services using a fixed price system. Market economies are also contrasted with mixed economy where the price system is not entirely free but under some government control or heavily regulated, which is sometimes combined with state-led economic planning that is not extensive enough to constitute a planned economy. In the real world, market economies do not exist in pure form, as societies and governments regulate them to varying degrees rather than allow self-regulation by market forces.[2] [3] The term free-market economy is sometimes used synonymously with market economy,[4] but, as Ludwig Erhard once pointed out, this does not preclude an economy from having socialist attributes opposed to a laissez-faire system.[5] Economist Ludwig von Mises also pointed out that a market economy is still a market economy even if the government intervenes in pricing.[6]

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is economy based on the power of division of labor in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system set by supply and demand.[1]

das

Market economy


or free price mechanism (informally called the price system or the price mechanism) is an economic system where prices are set by the interchange of supply and demand, with the resulting prices being understood as signals that are communicated between producers and consumers which serve to guide the production and distribution of resources.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Free price system

book -

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en.wikipedia.org; HAMM Manfred (2008): Markthallen, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin; skizze - luka p.

das

Rather than prices being set by the state, as in a command economy with a fixed price system, prices are determined in a decentralized fashion by trades that occur as a result of sellers’ asking prices matching buyers’ bid prices as a result of subjective value judgement in a market economy like ebay. Since resources of consumers are limited at any given time, consumers are relegated to satisfying wants in a descending hierarchy and bidding prices relative to the urgency of a variety of wants. This information on relative values is communicated, through price signals, to producers whose resources are also limited. In turn, relative prices for the productive services are established. The interchange of these two sets of prices establish market value, and serve to guide the rationing of resources, distributing income, and allocating resources. Those goods which command the highest prices (when summed among all individuals) provide an incentive for businesses to provide these goods in a corresponding descending hierarchy of priority. However, the ordering of this hierarchy of wants is not constant. Consumer preferences change. When consumer preferences for a good change, then bidding pressure raises the price for a particular good as it that moves to a higher position in the hierarchy. As a result of higher prices for this good, more productive forces are applied to satisfying the demand driven by the opportunity for higher profits in satisfying this new consumer preference. In other words, the high price sends a price signal to producers. This causes producers to increase supply, either by the same firms increasing production or new businesses coming in to the market, which eventually lowers the price and the profit incentive to increase supplies. Hence, the now lower price provides a price signal to producers to decrease production and, as a result, a surplus is prevented. Since resources are scarce (including labor and capital), supplies of other goods will be diminished as the productive resources are taken from other areas of production to be applied toward increasing output of the good who has risen in the hierarchy of consumer preferences. Also, as resources become more scarce the price increases, which signals to consumers to reduce consumption thereby ensuring that the quantity demanded does not exceed the quantity supplied.

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Through the free price system, supplies are rationed, income is distributed, and resources are allocated. A free price system contrasts with a controlled or fixed price system where prices are set by government, within a controlled market or planned economy.


en.wikipedia.org; HAMM Manfred (2008): Markthallen, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin; skizzen - luka p.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

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Determinants of supply and demand other than the price of the good in question, such as consumers’ income, input prices and so on, are not explicitly represented in the supply-demand diagram. Changes in the values of these variables are represented by shifts in the supply and demand curves. By contrast, responses to changes in the price of the good are represented as movements along unchanged supply and demand curves. The supply schedule, depicted graphically as the supply curve, represents the amount of some good that producers are willing and able to sell at various prices, assuming ceteris paribus, that is, assuming all determinants of supply other than the price of the good in question, such as technology and the prices of factors of production, remain the same. Under the assumption of perfect competition, supply is determined by marginal cost. Firms will produce additional output as long as the cost of producing an extra unit of output is less than the price they will receive. The demand schedule, depicted graphically as the demand curve, represents the amount of some good that buyers are willing and able to purchase at various prices, assuming all determinants of demand other than the price of the good in question, such as income, personal tastes, the price of substitute goods, and the price of complementary goods, remain the same. Following the law of demand, the demand curve is almost always represented as downward-sloping, meaning that as price decreases, consumers will buy more of the good.[1] Equilibrium is defined to the pricequantity pair where the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied, represented by the intersection of the demand and supply curves.

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The supply-demand model is a partial equilibrium model representing the determination of the price of a particular good and the quantity of that good which is traded. Although it is normal to regard the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied as functions of the price of the good, the standard graphical representation, usually attributed to Alfred Marshall, has price on the vertical axis and quantity on the horizontal axis, the opposite of the standard convention for the representation of a mathematical function.

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is an economic model of price determination in a market. It concludes that in a competitive market, price will function to equalize the quantity demanded by consumers, and the quantity supplied by producers, resulting in an economic equilibrium of price and quantity.

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Supply and demand


en.wikipedia.org; HAMM Manfred (2008): Markthallen, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin; townofwindsorct.com

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In 1976, skateboarding was transformed by the invention of the ollie by Alan “Ollie” Gelfand. It remained largely a unique Florida trick until the summer of 1978, when Gelfand made his first visit to California. Gelfand and his revolutionary maneuvers caught the attention of the West Coast skaters and the media where it began to spread worldwide. The ollie was adapted to flat ground by Rodney Mullen in 1982. Mullen also invented the “Magic Flip”, which was later renamed the Kickflip, as well many other tricks including, the 360 Kickflip, which is a 360 pop shove it and a kickflip in the same motion. The flat ground ollie allowed skateboarders to perform tricks in mid-air without any more equipment than the skateboard itself, it has formed the basis of many street skating tricks. The use of skateboards solely as a form of transportation is often associated with the longboard[citation needed]. Depending on local laws, using skateboards as a form of transportation outside residential areas may or may not be legal. Backers cite portability, exercise, and environmental friendliness as some of the benefits of skateboarding as an alternative to automobiles. Skateboards, along with other small-wheeled transportation such as in-line skates and scooters, suffer a safety caveat where riders may easily be thrown from small cracks and outcroppings in pavement, especially where the cracks run perpendicular to the direction of travel. However, high average travel speeds help mitigate this; injuries are more likely to be minor[citation needed], although very uncommon, head injuries still pose a major health risk. The United States Marine Corps tested the usefulness of commercial off-the-shelf skateboards during urban combat military exercises in the late 1990s in a program called Urban Warrior ‘99. Their special purpose was “for maneuvering inside buildings in order to detect tripwires and sniper fire”.[10][11]

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Skateboarding was, at first, tied to the culture of surfing. As skateboarding spread across the United States to places unfamiliar with surfing or surfing culture, it developed an image of its own. For example, the classic film short Video Days (1991) portrayed skateboarders as reckless rebels. With the evolution of skateparks and ramp skating, the skateboard began to change. Early skate tricks had consisted mainly of two-dimensional maneuvers like riding on only two wheels (“wheelie” or “manual”), spinning only on the back wheels (a “pivot”), high jumping over a bar and landing on the board again, also known as a “hippie jump”, long jumping from one board to another (often over small barrels or fearless teenagers) or slalom.

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is the act of riding and performing tricks using a skateboard. A person who skateboards is most often referred to as a skateboarder, or just skater.

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Skateboarding


en.wikipedia.org; govinda-shop.ch; bildungbrauchtbewegung.ch; absolut-bio.de

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book source

Organic food production is a heavily regulated industry, distinct from private gardening. Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Japan and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification in order to market food as “organic” within their borders. Most certifications allow some chemicals and pesticides to be used[citation needed], so consumers should be aware of the standards for qualifying as “organic” in their respective locales. Historically, organic farms have been relatively small family-run operations, which is why organic food was once only available in small stores or farmers’ markets.[citation needed] However, since the early 1990s organic food production has had growth rates of around 20% a year, far ahead of the rest of the food industry, in both developed and developing nations. As of April 2008, organic food accounts for 1–2% of food sales worldwide. Processed organic food usually contains only organic ingredients. If non-organic ingredients are present, at least a certain percentage of the food’s total plant and animal ingredients must be organic (95% in the United States[4], Canada,and Australia) and any non-organically produced ingredients are subject to various agricultural requirements. Foods claiming to be organic must be free of artificial food additives, and are often processed with fewer artificial methods, materials and conditions, such as chemical ripening, food irradiation, and genetically modified ingredients

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However, contrary to popular belief, certain nonorganic fertilizers are still used. If livestock are involved, they must be reared without the routine use of antibiotics and without the use of growth hormones, and generally fed a healthy diet.In most countries, organic produce may not be genetically modified. It has been suggested that the application of nanotechnology to food and agriculture is a further technology that needs to be excluded from certified organic food.[1] The Soil Association (UK) has been the first organic certifier to implement a nano-exclusion.[2]

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are made according to certain production standards. Under organic production, the use of conventional non-organic pesticides, insecticides and herbicides is greatly restricted and saved as a last resort.

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Organic foods


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book -

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source

marketing-blog.biz; reisenews-online.de; imagecache2.allposters. com

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STEHENBLEIBEN

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Das Gebäude soll wie ein lebender Organismus wirken und durch seine aktive Ausstrahlung einen extremen Pol in Zürich - West bilden. Dieser Pol existiert nur durch die Nutzer, dem Menschen. Es geht eine anziehende Kraft vom Organismus aus, welche sich weiter ausbreitet, als “nur” in seiner näheren Umgebung. Der Organismus bildet eine kritischen Knotenpunkt, er ist ein Konfliktort. Er bildet eine Verdichtung in sich selbst, wie auch im urbanen Raum. Das einzige, was man hier nicht kann ist


is the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy use. Energy savings can be achieved either from the reduced use of artificial (electric) lighting or from passive solar heating or cooling.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Daylighting

book -

infrastrukturelle

source

en.wikipedia.org; haggertyinthehague.com; skizzen - manuela s. & luka p.

das

There is no direct sunlight on the polar-side wall of a building from the autumnal equinox to the spring equinox in parts of the globe north of the Tropic of Cancer and in parts of the globe south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, in these parts with largely overcast skies, houses were designed with minimal windows on the polar side but more larger windows on the equatorial-side. Equatorial-side windows receive at least some direct sunlight on any sunny day of the year, so they are effective at daylighting areas of the house adjacent to the windows. Even so, during mid-winter, light incidence is highly directional and casts deep shadows. This may be partially ameliorated through light diffusion and through somewhat reflective internal surfaces. Another type of device used is the light tube, also called a solar tube, which is placed into a roof and admits light to a focused area of the interior. These somewhat resemble recessed ceiling light fixtures. They do not allow as much heat transfer as skylights because they have less surface area. Tubular Daylighting Devices (TDDs) use modern technology to transmit visible light through opaque walls and roofs. The tube itself is a a passive component consisting of either a simple reflective interior coating or a light conducting fiber optic bundle. It is frequently capped with a transparent, roof-mounted dome ‘light collector’ and terminated with a diffuser assembly that admits the daylight into interior spaces and distributes the available light energy evenly (or else efficiently if the use of the lit space is reasonably fixed, and the user desired one or more ‘bright-spots’).

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Artificial lighting energy use can be reduced by simply installing fewer electric lights because daylight is present, or by dimming/switching electric lights automatically in response to the presence of daylight, a process known as daylight harvesting. Daylighting is a technical term given to a common centuries-old, geography and culture independent design basic when “rediscovered” by 20th century architects.


en.wikipedia.org; farm4.static.flickr.com; skizzen - luka p.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

Daylight is widely accepted to have a positive psychological effect on the human being[citation needed], and consequently more cases of mental health problems are registered during the winter months than during the summer months due to the shortened periods of daylight[citation needed]. Cases of depression specifically linked to limited daylight are referred to as seasonal affective disorder. Daylighting is lighting an indoor space with openings such as windows and skylights that allow daylight into the building. This type of lighting is chosen to save energy, to avoid hypothesized adverse health effects of over-illumination by artificial light, and also for aesthetics. Artificial lighting energy use can be reduced by simply installing fewer electric lights because daylight is present, or by dimming/ switching electric lights automatically in response to the presence of daylight, a process known as daylight harvesting.

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This includes direct sunlight, diffuse sky radiation, and (often) both of these reflected from the Earth and terrestrial objects. Sunlight scattered or reflected from objects in outer space (that is, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere) is generally not considered daylight. Thus, moonlight is never considered daylight, despite being “indirect sunlight”. Daytime is the period of time each day when daylight occurs. Daylight is present at a particular location, to some degree, whenever the sun is above the horizon at that location. (This is true for slightly more than 50% of the Earth at any given time. For an explanation of why it is not exactly half, see here). However, the outdoor illuminance can vary from 120,000 lux for direct sunlight at noon, which may cause eye pain, to less than 5 lux for thick storm clouds with the sun at the horizon (even <1 lux for the most extreme case), which may make shadows from distant street lights visible. It may be darker under unusual circumstances such as a solar eclipse or very high levels of atmospheric smoke (See New England’s Dark Day), dust,[1] or volcanic ash.[2]

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or the light of day is the combination of all direct and indirect sunlight outdoors during the daytime (and perhaps twilight).

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Daylight


en.wikipedia.org; skyscrapercity.com; skizzen - luka p.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

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Although photosynthesis can happen in different ways in different species, some features are always the same. For example, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called photosynthetic reaction centers that contain chlorophylls. In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, while in bacteria they are embedded in the plasma membrane. Some of the light energy gathered by chlorophylls is stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The rest of the energy is used to remove electrons from a substance such as water. These electrons are then used in the reactions that turn carbon dioxide into organic compounds. In plants, algae and cyanobacteria this is done by a sequence of reactions called the Calvin cycle, but different sets of reactions are found in some bacteria, such as the reverse Krebs cycle in Chlorobium. Many photosynthetic organisms have adaptations that concentrate or store carbon dioxide. This helps reduce a wasteful process called photorespiration that can consume part of the sugar produced during photosynthesis.

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Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of Bacteria, but not in Archaea. Photosynthetic organisms are called photoautotrophs, since they can create their own food. In plants, algae and cyanobacteria photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a waste product. Photosynthesis is vital for life on Earth. As well as maintaining the normal level of oxygen in the atmosphere, nearly all life either depends on it directly as a source of energy, or indirectly as the ultimate source of the energy in their food[2] (the exceptions are chemoautotrophs that live in rocks or around deep sea hydrothermal vents). The amount of energy trapped by photosynthesis is immense, approximately 100 terawatts:[3] which is about six times larger than the power consumption of human civilization.[4] As well as energy, photosynthesis is also the source of the carbon in all the organic compounds within organismsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bodies. In all, photosynthetic organisms convert around 100,000,000,000 tonnes of carbon into biomass per year.[5]

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is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight.[1]

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Photosynthesis


is a wall, either free-standing or part of a building, that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and, in some cases, soil or an inorganic growing medium. The vegetation for a green façade is always attached on outside walls; with living walls this is also usually the case, although some living walls can also be green walls for interior use. [1].

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Green wall

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en.wikipedia.org; manhattanplant.com; baulinks.de; planet-wissen. de

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Green walls are found most often in urban environments where the plants reduce overall temperatures of the building which in turn reduces energy consumption. “The primary cause of heat build-up in cities is insolation, the absorption of solar radiation by roads and buildings in the city and the storage of this heat in the building material and its subsequent reradiation. Plant surfaces however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise more than 4–5 °C above the ambient and are sometimes cooler.”[5] Living walls may also be a means for water reuse. The plants may purify slightly polluted water (such as greywater) by absorbing the dissolved nutrients. Bacteria mineralize the organic components to make them available to the plants. Living walls are particularly suitable for cities, as they allow good use of available vertical surface areas. They are also suitable in arid areas, as the circulating water on a vertical wall is less likely to evaporate than in horizontal gardens. The living wall could also function for urban agriculture or urban gardening. It may be built as a work of art for its beauty. It is sometimes built indoors to help cure sick building syndrome.

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For living walls there are many methods including attaching to the air return of the building to help with air filtration. They are also referred to as living walls, biowalls, or vertical gardens. There are two main categories of green walls: green façades and living walls. Green façades are made up of climbing plants either growing directly on a wall or, more recently, specially designed supporting structures. The plant shoot system grows up the side of the building while being rooted to the ground. In a living wall the modular panels are often made of polypropylene plastic containers, geotextiles, irrigation systems, a growing medium and vegetation.[2]


en.wikipedia.org; wallpapers.3yen.com; bentply.tumblr.com

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book source

Accurate records are kept and updated for most sports at the highest levels, while failures and accomplishments are widely announced in sport news. Sports are most often played just for fun or for the simple fact that people need exercise to stay in good physical condition. However professional sport is a major source of entertainment. Although they do not always succeed, sports participants are expected to display good sportsmanship, standards of conduct such as being respectful of opponents and officials, and congratulating the winner when losing. Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents, ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in victory or defeat.[5] [6] Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice, that it’s “not that you won or lost but how you played the game,” and the Modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin: “The most important thing . . . is not winning but taking part” are typical expressions of this sentiment. Violence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Athletes, coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. Rioting or hooliganism are common and ongoing problems at national and international sporting contests.

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In a sport the key factors are the physical capabilities and skills of the competitor when determining the outcome (winning or losing). The physical activity involves the movement of people, animals and/or a variety of objects such as balls and machines. In contrast, games such as card games and board games, though these could be called mind sports, require only mental skills. Non-competitive activities such as jogging and rock-climbing, are usually classified as recreations. Physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first often define the result of a sport. However the degree of skill in some sports such as diving, dressage and figure skating is judged according to well-defined criteria. This is in contrast with other judged activities such as beauty pageants and body-building shows, where skill does not have to be shown and the criteria are not as well defined.

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is commonly defined as an organized, competitive, and skillful physical activity requiring commitment and fair play. It is governed by a set of rules or customs.

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Sport


, or trial by error, is a general method of problem solving, fixing things, or for obtaining knowledge. “Learning doesn’t happen from failure itself but rather from analyzing the failure, making a change, and then trying again.”[1]

Flächenvergleich

Fussballplätze

Trans - Ader

Problem der riesigen Wand

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Trial and error

In the field of computer science, the method is called generate and test. In elementary algebra, when solving equations, it is “guess and check”. This approach can be seen as one of the two basic approaches to problem solving and is contrasted with an approach using insight and theory. Trial and error has a number of features: SOLUTION-ORIENTED: trial and error makes no attempt to discover why a solution works, merely that it is a solution.

weitere Abstufung gen Osten

PROBLEM-SPECIFIC: trial and error makes no attempt to generalise a solution to other problems.

Verbindungsstück: Foyer en.wikipedia.org; modellfotos für die zwischenkritik 1 - manuela s. und luka p.

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It is possible to use trial and error to find all solutions or the best solution, when a testably finite number of possible solutions exist. To find all solutions, one simply makes a note and continues, rather than ending the process, when a solution is found, until all solutions have been tried. To find the best solution, one finds all solutions by the method just described and then comparatively evaluates them based upon some predefined set of criteria, the existence of which is a condition for the possibility of finding a best solution. (Also, when only one solution can exist, as in assembling a jigsaw puzzle, then any solution found is the only solution and so is necessarily the best.)

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Durch Abstufung max. Lichteinfall herbeiführen

das

NEEDS LITTLE KNOWLEDGE: trials and error can proceed where there is little or no knowledge of the subject.

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NON-OPTIMAL: trial and error is generally an attempt to find a solution, not all solutions, and not the best solution.


en.wikipedia.org; arkitera.com; farm4.static.flickr.com

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Contract farming is one of the different governance mechanisms for transactions in agrifood chains. The use of contracts (either formal or informal) has become attractive to many agricultural producers worldwide because of benefits such as the assured market and access to support services. It is also a system of interest to buyers who are looking for assured supplies of produce for sale or for processing. Processors are among the most important users of contracts, as they wish to assure full utilisation of their plant processing capacity. A key feature of contract farming is that it facilitates backward and forward market linkages that are the cornerstone of market-led, commercial agriculture. Well managed contract farming is considered as an effective approach to help solve many of the market linkage and access problems for small farmers.

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Typically, the farmer agrees to provide established quantities of a specific agricultural product, meeting the quality standards and delivery schedule set by the purchaser. In turn, the buyer commits to purchase the product, often at a pre-determined price. In some cases the buyer also commits to support production through, for example, supplying farm inputs, land preparation, providing technical advice and arranging transport of produce to the buyerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s premises. Another term often used to refer to contract farming operations is â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;out-grower schemesâ&#x20AC;?, whereby farmers are linked with a large farm or processing plant which supports production planning, input supply, extension advice and transport. Contract farming is used for a wide variety of agricultural products.

infrastrukturelle

agricultural production carried out according to an agreement between a buyer and farmers, which establishes conditions for the production and marketing of a farm product or products.[1]

das

Contract farming is


en.wikipedia.org; skyscrapercity.com

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

The social meanings of monuments are rarely fixed and certain and are frequently ‘contested’ by different social groups. As an example whilst the former East German socialist state may have seen the Berlin Wall as a means of ‘protection’ from the ideological impurity of the west, dissidents and others would often argue that it was symbolic of the inherent fascism and paranoia of that state. This contention of meaning is a central theme of modern ‘post processual’ archaeological discourse. Monuments have been created for thousands of years, and they are often the most durable and famous symbols of ancient civilizations. The Egyptian Pyramids, the Greek Parthenon, and the Moai of Easter Island have become symbols of their civilizations. In more recent times, monumental structures such as the Statue of Liberty and Eiffel Tower have become iconic emblems of modern nationstates. The term monumentality relates to the symbolic status and physical presence of a monument.

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Cities that are planned such as Washington D.C., New Delhi and Brasília are often built around monuments. The Washington Monument’s location (and vertical geometry, though not physical detail) was conceived to help organize public space in the city before it was ever connected with George Washington. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are already important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one. As Shelley suggested in his famous poem “Ozymandias” (“Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!”), the purpose of monuments is very often to impress or awe. In English the word “monumental” is often used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power. The word comes from the Latin “monere,” which means ‘to remind’ or ‘to warn.’

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is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of past events. They are frequently used to improve the appearance of a city or location.

das

Monument


en.wikipedia.org; video.google.com

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

He opposed rote learning or unthinking memorization and other teaching methods that emphasized form over function. He put these opinions into action whenever he could, from a conference on education in Brazil to a State Commission on school textbook selection. Clear thinking and clear presentation were fundamental prerequisites for his attention. It could be perilous even to approach him when unprepared, and he did not forget the fools or pretenders.[19] During one sabbatical year, he returned to Newton’s Principia Mathematica to study it anew; what he learned from Newton, he passed along to his students, such as Newton’s attempted explanation of diffraction.

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Feynman has been called the “Great Explainer”.[16] He gained a reputation for taking great care when giving explanations to his students and for making it a moral duty to make the topic accessible. His guiding principle was that if a topic could not be explained in a freshman lecture, it was not yet fully understood. Feynman gained great pleasure[17] from coming up with such a “freshman-level” explanation, for example, of the connection between spin and statistics. What he said was that groups of particles with spin 1/2 “repel”, whereas groups with integer spin “clump”. This was a brilliantly simplified way of demonstrating how Fermi-Dirac statistics and BoseEinstein statistics evolved as a consequence of studying how fermions and bosons behave under a rotation of 360°. This was also a question he pondered in his more advanced lectures and to which he demonstrated the solution in the 1986 Dirac memorial lecture.[18] In the same lecture, he further explained that antiparticles must exist, for if particles only had positive energies, they would not be restricted to a so-called “light cone”.

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...the students don’t understand it either. But that’s because the professors doesn’t understand it. The thing that is exciting about it is that the nature is straaaange in this sense, that the rules are so screwy you can’t believe them... That’s the way nature works. You don’t like it? Go somewhere else! To another universe, where the rules are simpler.

das

Richard Feynman


is a novel by the Irish author James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. One of the most important works of Modernist literature,[1] it has been called “a demonstration and summation of the entire movement”.[2]

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Ulysses

book -

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source

en.wikipedia.org; grafiken - manuela s. und luka p.

das

Joyce divided Ulysses into eighteen chapters or “episodes”. At first glance much of the book may appear unstructured and chaotic; Joyce once said that he had “put in so many enigmas and puzzles that it will keep the professors busy for centuries arguing over what I meant”, which would earn the novel “immortality”.[10] The two schemata which Stuart Gilbert and Herbert Gorman released after publication to defend Joyce from the obscenity accusations made the links to the Odyssey clear, and also explained the work’s internal structure. Every episode of Ulysses has a theme, technique, and correspondences between its characters and those of the Odyssey. The original text did not include these episode titles and the correspondences; instead, they originate from the Linati and Gilbert schema. Joyce referred to the episodes by their Homeric titles in his letters. He took the titles from Victor Bérard’s two-volume Les Phéniciens et l’Odyssée which he consulted in 1918 in the Zentralbibliothek Zürich. Bérard’s book served as the source of Joyce’s idiosyncratic rendering of some of the Homeric titles: ‘Nausikaa’, the ‘Telemachia’.

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Ulysses totals approximately 265,000 words from a vocabulary of 30,030 words (including proper names, plurals and various verb tenses)[4], divided into 18 “episodes”. Since publication, the book attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from early obscenity trials to protracted textual “Joyce Wars.” Ulysses’ stream-of-consciousness technique, careful structuring, and experimental prose—full of puns, parodies, and allusions, as well as its rich characterisations and broad humour, made the book a highly regarded novel in the Modernist pantheon. In 1999, the Modern Library ranked Ulysses first on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.[5]


en.wikipedia.org; google earth - überarbeitung luka p. und manuela s.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

In general a representation may involve more than one scale at the same time. For example a drawing showing a new road in elevation might use different horizontal and vertical scales. An elevation of a bridge might be annotated with arrows with a length proportional to a force loading, as in 1 cm to 1000 newtons: this is an example of a dimensional scale. A weather map at some scale may be annotated with wind arrows at a dimensional scale of 1 cm to 20 mph. Map scales require careful discussion. A town plan may be constructed as an exact scale drawing but for larger areas a map projection is necessary and no projection can represent the Earth’s surface at a uniform scale: in general the scale of a projection depends on position and direction. The variation of scale may be considerable in small scale maps which may cover the globe. In large scale maps of small areas the variation of scale may be insignificant for most purposes but it is always present. The scale of a map projection must be interpreted as a nominal scale. (The usage large and small in relation to map scales relates to their expressions as fractions. The fraction 1/10,000 used for a local map is much larger than 1/100,000,000 used for a global map. There is no hard and fixed dividing line between small and large scales.)

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Examples include a 3-dimensional scale model of a building or the scale drawings of the elevations or plans of a building. In such cases the scale is dimensionless and exact throughout the model or drawing. The scale can be expressed in four ways: in words (a lexical scale), as a ratio, as a fraction and as a graphical (bar) scale. Thus on an architect’s drawing we might read ‘one centimetre to one metre’ or 1:100 or 1/100 and a bar scale would also normally appear on the drawing.

infrastrukturelle

of some sort of model which represents an original proportionally is the ratio of a linear dimension of the model to the same dimension of the original.

das

Scale ratio


en.wikipedia.org; google earth - überarbeitung luka p. und manuela s.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

The city is situated where the river Limmat issues from the north-western end of Lake Zurich (Zürichsee), about 30 km north of the Alps. Zürich is surrounded by wooded hills including (from the north) the Gubrist, the Hönggerberg, the Käferberg, the Zürichberg, the Adlisberg and the Oettlisberg on the eastern shore; and the Uetliberg (part of the Albis range) on the western shore. The river Sihl meets with the Limmat at the end of Platzspitz, which borders the Swiss National Museum (Landesmuseum). The geographic (and historic) center of the city is the Lindenhof, a small natural hill on the west bank of the Limmat, about 700 meters north of where the river issues from Lake Zürich. Today the incorporated city stretches somewhat beyond the natural hydrographic confines of the hills and includes some neighborhoods to the northeast in the Glatt Valley (German: Glattal) and to the north in the Limmat Valley (German: Limmattal).

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While the municipality itself has 380,500 inhabitants, the Zürich metropolitan area is an urbanised area of international importance constituted by a population of nearly 2 million inhabitants.[1] Zürich is a mixed hub for railways, roads, and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the largest and busiest in the country. Zürich is a leading global city and amongst the world’s largest financial centres.[3] The city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking giants. Also, most of the research and development centers are concentrated in Zürich and the low rate of tax attracts overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe.

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is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in Eastern Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich.

das

Zürich


en.wikipedia.org; google earth - überarbeitung luka p. und manuela s.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) which began as a fortress built in the late 12th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are still visible. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1672, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection of antique sculpture.[3] In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years.[4] During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum, to display the nation’s masterpieces. The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being confiscated church and royal property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The size of the collection increased under Napoleon when the museum was renamed the Musée Napoléon. After his defeat at Waterloo, many works seized by Napoleon’s armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and gifts since the Third Republic, except during the two World Wars. As of 2008, the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities; Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities; Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts; Paintings; Prints and Drawings.

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It is a central landmark of Paris, France and is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (district). Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square metres (652,300 square feet).

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or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre — is one of the world’s largest museums, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument.

das

Musée du Louvre,


en.wikipedia.org; google earth - überarbeitung luka p. und manuela s.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

The first two islands will comprise approximately 100 million cubic meters of rock and sand. Palm Deira will be composed of approximately 1 billion cubic meters of rock and sand. All materials will be quarried in the UAE. Among the three islands there will be over 100 luxury hotels, exclusive residential beach side villas and apartments, marinas, water theme parks, restaurants, shopping malls, sports facilities and health spas. The creation of the Palm Jumeirah began in June 2001. Shortly after, the Palm Jebel Ali was announced and reclamation work began. The Palm Deira, which is planned to have a surface area of 46.35 square kilometres, was announced for development in October 2004. Construction was originally planned to take 10–15 years, but that was before the impact of the global credit crunch hit Dubai. The Palm Islands are artificial peninsulas constructed of sand dredged from the bottom of the Persian Gulf by the Belgian company Jan De Nul and the Dutch company Van Oord. The sand is sprayed by the dredging ships, which are guided by DGPS, onto the required area in a process known as rainbowing because of the arcs in the air when the sand is sprayed. The outer edge of each Palm’s encircling crescent is a large rock breakwater. The breakwater of the Palm Jumeirah has over seven million tons of rock. Each rock was placed individually by a crane, signed off by a diver and given a GPS coordinate.[citation needed] The Jan De Nul Group started working on the Palm Jebel Ali in 2002 and had finished by the end of 2006. The reclamation project for the Palm Jebel Ali includes the creation of a four kilometre long peninsula, protected by a 200 metre wide, seventeen kilometre long circular breakwater. 210,000,000 m3 of rock, sand and limestone were reclaimed (partly originating from the Jebel Ali Entrance Channel dredging works). There are approximately 10,000,000 m3 of rocks in the slope protection works.

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They are being constructed by Nakheel Properties, a property developer in the United Arab Emirates, who hired Belgian and Dutch dredging and marine contractor Jan De Nul and Van Oord, some of the world’s specialists in land reclamation. The islands are the Palm Jumeirah, the Palm Jebel Ali and the Palm Deira. Each settlement will be in the shape of a palm tree, topped with a crescent, and will have a large number of residential, leisure and entertainment centers. The Palm Islands are located off the coast of The United Arab Emirates in the Persian Gulf and will add 520 kilometres of beaches to the city of Dubai.

infrastrukturelle

are artificial islands in Dubai, United Arab Emirates on which major commercial and residential infrastructure will be constructed.

das

Palm Islands


en.wikipedia.org; google earth - überarbeitung luka p. und manuela s.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

Central Park is bordered on the north by West 110th Street, on the south by West 59th Street, on the west by Eighth Avenue. Along the park’s borders however, these are known as Central Park North, Central Park South, and Central Park West, respectively. Fifth Avenue retains its name along the eastern border of the park. Most of the areas immediately adjacent to the park are known for impressive buildings and valuable real estate. The park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted and architect Calvert Vaux, who went on to collaborate on Brooklyn’s Prospect Park. Central Park has been a National Historic Landmark since 1963.[4][5][6] While much of the park looks natural, it is in fact almost entirely landscaped. It contains several natural-looking lakes and ponds,[7] extensive walking tracks, bridle paths, two ice-skating rinks (one of which is a swimming pool in July and August), the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, a wildlife sanctuary, a large area of natural woods, a 106-acre (43 ha) billion gallon reservoir with an encircling running track, and an outdoor amphitheater called the Delacorte Theater which hosts the “Shakespeare in the Park” summer festivals. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre, and the historic Carousel. In addition there are numerous major and minor grassy areas, some of which are used for informal or team sports, some are set aside as quiet areas, and there are a number of enclosed playgrounds for children.

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Central Park is a public park in Manhattan, New York City, with an area of 843 acres (3.41 km2; 1.317 sq mi). It is 2.5 miles (4 km) long between 59th Street (Central Park South) and 110th Street (Central Park North), and 0.5 miles (0.8 km) wide between Fifth Avenue and Central Park West. It is similar in size to San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park, Chicago’s Lincoln Park, Vancouver’s Stanley Park and Munich’s Englischer Garten; it is just over 1/3 of the size of London’s Richmond Park. With about twenty-five million visitors annually, Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States,[3] and its appearance in many movies and television shows has made it famous.

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is an urban park that occupies about 1.2 square miles (341 hectares, or 843 acres) in the heart of Manhattan in New York City. It is host to approximately twenty-five million visitors each year. Central Park was opened in 1859, completed in 1873 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1963.

das

Central Park


Population

is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular species; in sociology, a collection of human beings. Statistical study of human populations occurs within the discipline of demography. This article refers mainly to human population.

schule

M

bus / auto / tram eisenbahn gewerbe / kleinunternehmen / shopping tankstelle wohnen - übernachten kultur restauran / bar parkmöglichkeit

M

Migros - Areal

bus / auto / tram eisenbahn gewerbe / kleinunternehmen / shopping tankstelle wohnen - übernachten kultur restauran / bar parkmöglichkeit

M

Migros - Areal

Migros - Betriebszentrale büro, zubringerdienst produkteverarbeitung lastwagen- und personalparkplätze, mensa/ restaurant

M

book -

schule

source

schrebergärten

infrastrukturelle

tonni-areal zukünftige Campus der ZHdK

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situation 1/5000 umgebungsanalyse - nach dem Umbau

Population growth increased significantly as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards[4]. The last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth[4] due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity, particularly beginning in the 1960s,[5] made by the Green Revolution.[6] In 2007 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world’s population will likely surpass 10 billion in 2055.[7] In the future, world population has been expected to reach a peak of growth, from there it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. There is around an 85% chance that the world’s population will stop growing before the end of the century. There is a 60% probability that the world’s population will not exceed 10 billion people before 2100, and around a 15% probability that the world’s population at the end of the century will be lower than it is today. For different regions, the date and size of the peak population will vary considerably.[8]

en.wikipedia.org; grafiken - manuela s. und luka p.

Migros - Betriebszentrale büro, zubringerdienst produkteverarbeitung lastwagen- und personalparkplätze, mensa/ restaurant

das

As of 14 April 2010, the world population is estimated by the United States Census Bureau to be 6.815 billion.[1] According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion (6,500,000,000) on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion. This was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, and 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. However, the population of some countries, such as Nigeria and China is not even known to the nearest million[2], so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates.[3]

schrebergärten

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

situation 1/5000

umgebungsanalyse - vor dem Umbau


analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture.

S_ gute verkehrsverbindung O_ Leute können von weiter her geholt werden

T_ grosse menschenmasse enormer zuwachs an neuen angeboten “qual der wahl” O_ mit anderen neuen angeboten ergänzen oder bestehende angebote verstärken O_ hochhäuser in der Umgebung - Höhe des anbautes ist etwas esibler

A SWOT analysis must first start with defining a desired end state or objective. A SWOT analysis may be incorporated into the strategic planning model. Strategic Planning, including SWOT and SCAN analysis, has been the subject of much research. STRENGTHS: attributes of the person or company that are helpful to achieving the objective(s).

situation 1/5000

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W

O

T _

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

SWOT

S_ ”neue Kundschaft” in grosser Mengen - kurzzeitig O_ stadionnähe

W_ lärmpegel

WEAKNESSES: attributes of the person or company that are harmful to achieving the objective(s).

Arbeit - Geschäftsräume / Büros: Nutzer: Arbeiter im Bereich Büroarbeiten, Verkauf, Management... Bedürfnisse: Gastro / Freizeitplätze / Parking

S_grosszügige, exible geschossäche

S_ visueller offener Raum

situation 1/2000

Zutritt zum Gebäude und Bewegungsachsen _

O_ neue architektonische elemente, z.b. brücke

W_ physische Abgrenzung

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Stadion Nutzer: kurzzeitige grosse Ansammlung von versch. Menschen Bedürfnisse: Gastro / Parking / öffentliche freizugängliche Plätze

Personen

LKW

LKW

M

source

PKW / LKW

en.wikipedia.org; grafiken - manuela s. und luka p.

T_ hinderniss durch migrosareal

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Identification of SWOTs are essential because subsequent steps in the process of planning for achievement of the selected objective may be derived from the SWOTs. First, the decision makers have to determine whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is NOT attainable a different objective must be selected and the process repeated. The SWOT analysis is often used in academia to highlight and identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It is particularly helpful in identifying areas for development. Another way of utilizing SWOT is matching and converting. Matching is used to find competitive advantages by matching the strengths to opportunities. Converting is to apply conversion strategies to convert weaknesses or threats into strengths or opportunities. An example of conversion strategy is to find new markets. If the threats or weaknesses cannot be converted a company should try to minimize or avoid them.[1]

Wohnen - insbes. für junge Familien: Nutzer: Kinder, Jugendliche, “Arbeiter” Bedürfnisse: Einkaufen / Schule / Gastro / Sport bzw. Freizeitplätze / Kultur

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THREATS: external conditions which could do damage to the objective(s).

In der neu überbauten Umgebung wird folgendes Programm hinzugefügt:

das

OPPORTUNITIES: external conditions that are helpful to achieving the objective(s).


lewebpedagogique.com; en.wikipedia.org

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

The concept of spacetime combines space and time to a single abstract “space”, for which a unified coordinate system is chosen. Typically three spatial dimensions (length, width, height), and one temporal dimension (time) are required. Dimensions are independent components of a coordinate grid needed to locate a point in a certain defined “space”. For example, on the globe the latitude and longitude are two independent coordinates which together uniquely determine a location. In spacetime, a coordinate grid that spans the 3+1 dimensions locates events (rather than just points in space), i.e. time is added as another dimension to the coordinate grid. This way the coordinates specify where and when events occur. However, the unified nature of spacetime and the freedom of coordinate choice it allows, imply that to express the temporal coordinate in one coordinate system requires both temporal and spatial coordinates in another coordinate system. Unlike in normal spatial coordinates, there are still some restrictions for how measurements can be made spatially and temporally (see Spacetime intervals). These restrictions correspond roughly to a particular mathematical model which differs from Euclidean space in its manifest symmetry.

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According to certain Euclidean space perceptions, the universe has three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. By combining space and time into a single manifold, physicists have significantly simplified a large number of physical theories, as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the supergalactic and subatomic levels. In classical mechanics, the use of Euclidean space instead of spacetime is appropriate, as time is treated as universal and constant, being independent of the state of motion of an observer. In relativistic contexts, however, time cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space, because the rate at which time passes depends on an object’s velocity relative to the speed of light and also on the strength of intense gravitational fields, which can slow the passage of time.

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(in physics) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum. Spacetime is usually interpreted with space being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort from the spatial dimensions.

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Spacetime


en.wikipedia.org; modell - luka p. und manuela s.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

Most Gothic churches, unless they are entitled chapels, are of the Latin cross (or â&#x20AC;&#x153;cruciformâ&#x20AC;?) plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and, beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. There are several regional variations on this plan. One of the defining characteristics of Gothic architecture is the pointed or ogival arch. Arches of this type were used in the Near East in pre-Islamic[16] as well as Islamic architecture before they were structurally employed in medieval architecture, and are thus thought to have been the inspiration for their use in France, as at Autun Cathedral, which is otherwise stylistically Romanesque.[7] However, contrary to the diffusionist theory, it appears that there was simultaneously an ongoing structural evolution towards the pointed arch, for the purpose of vaulting spaces of irregular plan, or to bring transverse vaults to the same height as diagonal vaults. This latter occurs at Durham Cathedral in the nave aisles in 1093. Pointed arches also occur extensively in Romanesque decorative blind arcading, where semicircular arches overlap each other in a simple decorative pattern, and the points are accidental to the design. The Gothic vault, unlike the semi-circular vault of Roman and Romanesque buildings, can be used to roof rectangular and irregularly shaped plans such as trapezoids. The other structural advantage is that the pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. This enabled architects to raise vaults much higher than was possible in Romanesque architecture.[7] While, structurally, use of the pointed arch gave a greater flexibility to architectural form, it also gave Gothic architecture a very different visual character to Romanesque, the verticality suggesting an aspiration to Heaven. In Gothic Architecture the pointed arch is used in every location where a vaulted shape is called for, both structural and decorative. Gothic openings such as doorways, windows, arcades and galleries have pointed arches. Gothic vaulting above spaces both large and small is usually supported by richly moulded ribs.

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In Gothic architecture, a unique combination of existing technologies established the emergence of a new building style. Those technologies were the ogival or pointed arch, the ribbed vault, and the flying buttress. The Gothic style, when applied to an ecclesiastical building, emphasizes verticality and light. This appearance was achieved by the development of certain architectural features, which together provided an engineering solution. The structural parts of the building ceased to be its solid walls, and became a stone skeleton comprising clustered columns, pointed ribbed vaults and flying buttresses.

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architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.

das

Gothic


takekonbu.fc2web.com; upload.wikimedia.org; takekonbu.fc2web. com; en.wikipedia.org

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book source

The term illusion refers to a specific form of sensory distortion. Unlike a hallucination, which is a distortion in the absence of a stimulus, an illusion describes a misinterpretation of a true sensation. For example, hearing voices regardless of the environment would be a hallucination, whereas hearing voices in the sound of running water (or other auditory source) would be an illusion. Mimes are known for a repertoire of illusions that are created by physical means. The mime artist creates an illusion of acting upon or being acted upon by an unseen object. These illusions exploit the audience’s assumptions about the physical world. Well known examples include “walls”, “climbing stairs”, “leaning”, “descending ladders”, “pulling and pushing” etc. An optical illusion is always characterized by visually perceived images that, at least in common sense terms, are deceptive or misleading. Therefore, the information gathered by the eye is processed by the brain to give, on the face of it, a percept that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. A conventional assumption is that there are physiological illusions that occur naturally and cognitive illusions that can be demonstrated by specific visual tricks that say something more basic about how human perceptual systems work. The human brain constructs a world inside our head based on what it samples from the surrounding environment. However sometimes it tries to organise this information it thinks best while other times it fills in the gaps.[3] This way in which our brain works is the basis of an illusion.

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Illusions may occur with more of the human senses than vision, but visual illusions, optical illusions, are the most well known and understood. The emphasis on visual illusions occurs because vision often dominates the other senses. For example, individuals watching a ventriloquist will perceive the voice is coming from the dummy since they are able to see the dummy mouth the words.[2] Some illusions are based on general assumptions the brain makes during perception. These assumptions are made using organizational principles, like Gestalt, an individual’s ability of depth perception and motion perception, and perceptual constancy. Other illusions occur because of biological sensory structures within the human body or conditions outside of the body within one’s physical environment.

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is a distortion of the senses, revealing how the brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. While illusions distort reality, they are generally shared by most people.[1]

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Illusion


klaustoon.files.wordpress.com; Rem Koolhaas, S,M,L,XL, OMA, (with Bruce Mau), The Monicelli Press, New York, 1995

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Since it is out of control, the urban is about to become a major vector of the imagination. Redefined, urbanism will not only, or mostly, be a profession, but a way of thinking, an ideology: to accept what exists. We were making sand castles. Now we swim in the sea that swept them away. To survive, urbanism will have to imagine a new newness. Liberated from its atavistic duties, urbanism redefined as a way of operating on the inevitable will attack architecture, invade its trenches, drive it from its bastions, undermine its certainties, explode its limits, ridicule its preoccupations with matter and substance, destroy its traditions, smoke out its practitioners.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

If there is to be a “new urbanism” it will not be based on the twin fantasies of order and omnipotence; it will be the staging of uncertainty; it will no longer be concerned with the arrangement of more or less permanent objects but with the irrigation of territories with potential; it will no longer aim for stable configurations but for the creation of enabling fields that accommodate processes that refuse to be crystallized into definitive form; it will no longer be about meticulous definition, the imposition of limits, but about expanding notions, denying boundaries, not about separating and identifying entities, but about discovering unnameable hybrids; it will no longer be obsessed with the city but with the manipulation of infrastructure for endless intensifications and diversifications, shortcuts and redistributions – the reinvention of psychological space. Since the urban is now pervasive, urbanism will never again be about the new only about the “more” and the “modified.” It will not be about the civilized, but about underdevelopment.

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This century has been a losing battle with the issue of quantity.

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Urbanism?

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What Ever Happened to


en.wikipedia.org; skizzen - luka p.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

The history of agent-based modeling can be traced back to Von Neumann machines, the concept of a machine capable of reproduction. The device he proposed would follow precisely detailed instructions to fashion a copy of itself. The concept was then extended by von Neumann’s friend Stanislaw Ulam, also a mathematician, who suggested that the machine be built on paper, as a collection of cells on a grid. The idea intrigued von Neumann, who drew it up, thus creating the first of the devices later termed cellular automata. A further advance was achieved by mathematician John Conway. He constructed the well-known game of life. Unlike von Neumann’s machine, Conway’s Game of Life operated according to tremendously simple rules in a virtual world in the form of a 2-dimensional checkerboard. The application of the agent-based model as a social model was primarily initiated by computer scientist Craig Reynolds. He attempted to model living biological agents, a method known as artificial life, a term coined by Christopher Langton. The computational methods of artificial life were applied to the analysis of social systems, christened “the artificial society” by Joshua Epstein and Robert Axtell. Eventually, the artificial society provided a new method for sociological analysis in the form of computational sociology. The principle problem is that of classical sociology, the issue of macro-micro linkage: as first articulated by French Sociologist Émile Durkheim, the question of how individuals within a social system influence and are influenced by the macrosocial level.

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The aim is to construct parallel simulations consisting of computational devices, referred to as agents, with given properties, in order to model the target phenomena. The subject is the process of emergence from the lower (micro) level of a social system to the higher (or macro) level.

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the specific agent based computational model for computer simulation in social analysis. It is mostly connected to the theme in complex system, emergence, Monte Carlo Method, computational sociology, multi-agent system, and evolutionary programming.

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Artificial Society is


luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

en.wikipedia.org; skizzen - luka p.

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Although early Cretan coins occasionally exhibit multicursal patterns,[3] the unicursal sevencourse â&#x20AC;&#x153;Classicalâ&#x20AC;? design became associated with the Labyrinth on coins as early as 430 BC,[4] and became widely used to represent the Labyrinth â&#x20AC;&#x201C; even though both logic and literary descriptions make it clear that the Minotaur was trapped in a complex branching maze.[5] Even as the designs became more elaborate, visual depictions of the Labyrinth from Roman times until the Renaissance are almost invariably unicursal. Branching mazes were reintroduced only when garden mazes became popular in the Renaissance. Labyrinths appeared as designs on pottery or basketry, as body art, and etched on walls of caves or churches. The Romans built many primarily decorative labyrinth designs on walls and floors in tile or mosaic. Many labyrinths set in floors or on the ground are large enough that the path to the center and back can be walked. They have historically been used both in group ritual and for private meditation.

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(in colloquial English) is generally synonymous with maze, but many contemporary scholars observe a distinction between the two: maze refers to a complex branching puzzle with choices of path and direction; while a singlepath (unicursal) labyrinth has only a single, non-branching path, which leads to the center. A labyrinth in this sense has an unambiguous route to the center and back and is not designed to be difficult to navigate.[2]

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Labyrinth


performs the following functions: PROTECTION: an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.[3][4] SENSATION: contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury; see somatosensory system and haptics.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Skin

HEAT REGULATION: the skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heatloss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat. Erector pili muscles are significant in animals. CONTROL OF EVAPORATION: the skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss.[4]

book source

en.wikipedia.org; skizzen - luka p.

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WATER RESISTANCE: The skin acts as a water resistant barrier so essential nutrients arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t washed out of the body.

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ABSORPTION: Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide can diffuse into the epidermis in small amounts, some animals using their skin for their sole respiration organ (contrary to popular belief, however, humans do not absorb oxygen through the skin).[5]

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STORAGE AND SYNTHESIS: acts as a storage center for lipids and water


luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

en.wikipedia.org; skizzen - luka p.

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A social structure is a pattern of relations. They are social organizations of individuals in various life situations. Structures are applicable to people in how a society is as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships. This is known as the social organization of the group. Sociologists have studied the changing structure of these groups. Structure and agency is the two confronted theories about human behaviour. The debate surrounding the influence of structure and agency on human thought and behaviour is one of the central issues in sociology. In this context “agency” refers to the capacity of individual humans to act independently and to make their own free choices. “Structure” here refers to those factors such as social class, religion, gender, ethnicity, customs etc. which seem to limit or influence the opportunities that individuals have.

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is a fundamental and sometimes intangible notion covering the recognition, observation, nature, and stability of patterns and relationships of entities. From a child’s verbal description of a snowflake, to the detailed scientific analysis of the properties of magnetic fields, the concept of structure is an essential foundation of nearly every mode of inquiry and discovery in science, philosophy, and art.[1] A structure defines what a system is made of. It is a configuration of items. It is a collection of inter-related components or services. The structure may be a hierarchy (a cascade of one-to-many relationships) or a network featuring many-to-many relationships.

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Structure


, also called semiotic studies or semiology, is the study of sign processes (semiosis), or signification and communication, signs and symbols, and is usually divided into three branches:

SEMANTICS:

Relation between signs and the things to which they refer; their denotata

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Semiotics

SYNTACTICS: Relations among signs in formal structures

PRAGMATICS: Relation between

book source

en.wikipedia.org; skizzen - luka p.

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Syntactics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the formal properties of signs and symbols.[1] More precisely, syntactics deals with the â&#x20AC;&#x153;rules that govern how words are combined to form phrases and sentences.â&#x20AC;?[2] Charles Morris adds that semantics deals with the relation of signs to their designata and the objects which they may or do denote; and, pragmatics deals with the biotic aspects of semiosis, that is, with all the psychological, biological, and sociological phenomena which occur in the functioning of signs.

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Semiotics is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, Umberto Eco proposes that every cultural phenomenon can be studied as communication. However, some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science. They examine areas belonging also to the natural sciences â&#x20AC;&#x201C; such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics or zoosemiosis.

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signs and their effects on those (people) who use them


luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

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thelivingnewyork.com; farm3.static.flickr.com; footprint.swan-web. net; www.studio-office.com; en.wikipedia.org

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Modern architecture, conceived of as the elimination of ornament in favor of purely functional structures, left architects the problem of how to properly adorn modern structures. [5] There were two available routes from this perceived crisis. One was to attempt to devise an ornamental vocabulary that was new and essentially contemporary. This was the route taken by architects like Louis Sullivan and his pupil Frank Lloyd Wright, or by the unique Antoni GaudĂ­. Art Nouveau, for all its excesses, was a conscious effort to evolve such a â&#x20AC;&#x153;naturalâ&#x20AC;? vocabulary of ornament.

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(in architecture and decorative art) is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object. Architectural ornament can be carved from stone, wood or precious metals, formed with plaster or clay, or impressed onto a surface as applied ornament; in other applied arts the main material of the object, or a different one may be used. A wide variety of decorative styles and motifs have been developed for architecture and the applied arts, including pottery, furniture, metalwork. In textiles, wallpaper and other objects where the decoration may be the main justification for its existence, the terms pattern or design are more likely to be used.

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Ornament


is an area in philosophy concerned with theories about the processes causing intentional (willful) human bodily movements of more or less complex kind. This area of thought has attracted the strong interest of philosophers ever since Aristotleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Nicomachean Ethics (Third Book). With the advent of psychology and later neuroscience, many theories of action are now subject to empirical testing.

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Action theory

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rasmusbroennum.files.wordpress.com; en.wikipedia.org

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In some theories a desire plus a belief about the means of satisfying that desire are always what is behind an action. Agents aim, in acting, to maximize the satisfaction of their desires. Such a theory of prospective rationality underlies much of economics and other social sciences within the more sophisticated framework of Rational Choice. However, many theories of action argue that rationality extends far beyond calculating the best means to achieve oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ends. For instance, a belief that I ought to do X, in some theories, can directly cause me to do X without my having to want to do X (i.e. have a desire to do X). Rationality, in such theories, also involves responding correctly to the reasons an agent perceives, not just acting on wants. While action theorists generally employ the language of causality in their theories of what the nature of action is, the issue of what causal determination comes to has been central to controversies about the nature of free will. Conceptual discussions also revolve around a precise definition of action in philosophy. Scholars may disagree on which bodily movements fall under this category, e.g. whether thinking should be analysed as action, and how complex actions involving several steps to be taken and diverse intended consequences are to be summarised or decomposed.

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Basic action theory typically describes action as behavior caused by an agent in a particular situation. The agentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s desires and beliefs (e.g. my wanting a glass of water and believing the clear liquid in the cup in front of me is water) lead to bodily behavior (e.g. reaching over for the glass). In the simple theory (see Donald Davidson), the desire and belief jointly cause the action. Michael Bratman has raised problems for such a view and argued that we should take the concept of intention as basic and not analyzable into beliefs and desires.


There are some very serious challenges facing the construction industry that are motivating new approaches to how we design, build, operate, and maintain buildings and infrastructure. While these new technologies are designed to address challenges in the construction industry, I think that they are going to profoundly affect other sectors such as operations and maintenance, emergency planning, first response and urban planning. [...]

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Aging infrastructure

http://rempower.com/blog/category/business-plan/ http://geospatial.blogs.com/geospatial/2007/09/convergence.html

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The biggest challenge is not typically data, because the data that would help these folks already exists because much if it is created when buildings and infrastructure were designed. The biggest challenge is that islands of information and technology make it difficult to integrate existing data in a seamless view. [...]

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ment. [...]

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The construction industry is faced with the challenge to replace or renovate buildings to minimize environmental impact, for example, achieving carbon neutrality, while at the same time yielding a respectable financial return on invest-

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Aging infrastructure is expected to be an increasing prominent issue in many parts of the world. [...]


en.wikipedia.org; architakes.com; fgautron.com

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

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Utopia is largely based on Plato’s Republic.[2] It is a perfect version of Republic wherein the beauties of society reign (eg: equality and a general pacifist attitude), although its citizens are all ready to fight if need be. The evils of society, eg: poverty and misery, are all removed. It has few laws, no lawyers and rarely sends its citizens to war, but hires mercenaries from among its warprone neighbors (these mercenaries were deliberately sent into dangerous situations in the hope that the more warlike populations of all surrounding countries will be weeded out, leaving peaceful peoples). The society encourages tolerance of all religions. Some readers[who?] have chosen to accept this imaginary society as the realistic blueprint for a working nation, while others have postulated More intended nothing of the sort. Some[who?] maintain the position that More’s Utopia functions only on the level of a satire, a work intended to reveal more about the England of his time than about an idealistic society. This interpretation is bolstered by the title of the book and nation, and its apparent confusion between the Greek for “no place” and “good place”: “Utopia” is a compound of the syllable ou-, meaning “no”, and topos, meaning place. But the homophonic prefix eu-, meaning “good,” also resonates in the word, with the implication that the perfectly “good place” is really “no place.” Scientific and technological utopias are set in the future, when it is believed that advanced science and technology will allow utopian living standards; for example, the absence of death and suffering; changes in human nature and the human condition. Technology has affected the way humans have lived to such an extent that normal functions, like sleep, eating or even reproduction, have been replaced by artificial means. Other examples include a society where humans have struck a balance with technology and it is merely used to enhance the human living condition (e.g. Star Trek). In place of the static perfection of a utopia, libertarian transhumanists envision an “extropia”, an open, evolving society allowing individuals and voluntary groupings to form the institutions and social forms they prefer. Buckminster Fuller presented a theoretical basis for technological utopianism and set out to develop a variety of technologies ranging from maps to designs for cars and houses which might lead to the development of such a utopia. One notable example of a technological and libertarian socialist utopia is Scottish author Iain Banks’ Culture. Opposing this optimism is the prediction that advanced science and technology will, through deliberate misuse or accident, cause environmental damage or even humanity’s extinction. Critics, such as Jacques Ellul and Timothy Mitchell advocate precautions against the premature embrace of new technologies, raising questions on responsibility and freedom brought by division of labour.

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The term has been used to describe both intentional communities that attempted to create an ideal society, and fictional societies portrayed in literature. It has spawned other concepts, most prominently dystopia.

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is a name for an ideal community or society, which is taken from Of the Best State of a Republic, and of the New Island Utopia, a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional island in the Atlantic Ocean, possessing a seemingly perfect socio-politico-legal system.[1]

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Utopia


is a vision of an often futuristic society, which has developed into a negative version of Utopia. A dystopia is often characterized by an authoritarian or totalitarian form of government. It often features different kinds of repressive social control systems, a lack or total absence of individual freedoms and expressions and a state of constant warfare or violence.

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Dystopia

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en.wikipedia.org; dossierjournal.com; hubpages.com

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Many dystopias found in fictional and artistic works can be described as a utopian society with at least one fatal flaw,[7] whereas a utopian society is founded on the good life, a dystopian society’s dreams of improvement are overshadowed by stimulating fears of the “ugly consequences of presentday behavior.”[8] People are alienated and individualism is restricted by the government. In the novel Brave New World’, by Aldous Huxley, the class system is prenatally designated in terms of Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons. In We, by Yevgeny Zamyatin, people are permitted to live out of public view for only an hour a day. They are not only referred to by numbers instead of names, but are neither “citizens” nor “people”, but “ciphers.” In the lower castes, in Brave New World, single embryos are “bokanovskified”, so that they produce between eight and ninety-six identical siblings, making the citizens as uniform as possible.[9] The concept of religion may be under attack in a dystopia. In Brave New World, for example, the establishment of the state included lopping off the tops of all crosses (as symbols of Christianity) to make them “T”s, (as symbols of Henry Ford’s Model T).[11] In some of the fictional dystopias, the family has been eradicated and continuing efforts are deployed to keep it from reestablishing itself as a social institution.

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Dystopia is a modified form of the neologism utopia, which was originally coined by Sir Thomas More in his book of that title completed in 1516.[2] The first known use of dystopian, as recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary, is a speech given before the British House of Commons by John Stuart Mill in 1868, in which Mill denounced the government’s Irish land policy: “It is, perhaps, too complimentary to call them Utopians, they ought rather to be called dys-topians, or caco-topians. What is commonly called Utopian is something too good to be practicable; but what they appear to favour is too bad to be practicable.”[3][4][5][6]


en.wikipedia.org; creativitymakesthebadgood.wordpress.com; insideadog.com.au; isiria.wordpress.com

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

Steampunk is often associated with cyberpunk and shares a similar fanbase and theme of rebellion, but developed as a separate movement (though both have considerable influence on each other). Apart from time period and level of technological development, the main difference between cyberpunk and steampunk is that steampunk settings usually tend to be less obviously dystopian than cyberpunk, or lack dystopian elements entirely. Various modern utilitarian objects have been modded by individual artisans into a pseudo-Victorian mechanical “steampunk” style, and a number of visual and musical artists have been described as steampunk. Although many works now considered seminal to the genre were published in the 1960s and 1970s, the term steampunk originated in the late 1980s as a tongue in cheek variant of cyberpunk. It seems to have been coined by the science fiction author K. W. Jeter, who was trying to find a general term for works by Tim Powers (author of The Anubis Gates, 1983), James Blaylock (Homunculus, 1986) and himself (Morlock Night, 1979 and Infernal Devices, 1987) which took place in a 19th-century (usually Victorian) setting and imitated conventions of actual Victorian speculative fiction such as H. G. Wells’s The Time Machine. In a letter to the science fiction magazine Locus, printed in the April 1987 issue, Jeter wrote: Dear Locus, Enclosed is a copy of my 1979 novel Morlock Night; I’d appreciate your being so good as to route it Faren Miller, as it’s a prime piece of evidence in the great debate as to who in “the Powers/Blaylock/ Jeter fantasy triumvirate” was writing in the “gonzo-historical manner” first. Though of course, I did find her review in the March Locus to be quite flattering. Personally, I think Victorian fantasies are going to be the next big thing, as long as we can come up with a fitting collective term for Powers, Blaylock and myself. Something based on the appropriate technology of the era; like “steampunks”, perhaps... —K.W. Jeter[1]

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The term denotes works set in an era or world where steam power is still widely used — usually the 19th century, and often Victorian era England — but with prominent elements of either science fiction or fantasy, such as fictional technological inventions like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne, or real technological developments like the computer occurring at an earlier date. Other examples of steampunk contain alternate history-style presentations of “the path not taken” of such technology as dirigibles, analog computers, or digital mechanical computers (such as Charles Babbage’s Analytical engine); these frequently are presented in an idealized light, or with a presumption of functionality.

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is a subgenre of science fiction and speculative fiction, frequently featuring elements of fantasy, that came into prominence in the 1980s and early 1990s.

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Steampunk


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en.wikipedia.org; grafiken - manuela s. und luka p.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

In architecture the whole is not just a building but the set and setting of the site. The things that make a building and its site “well shaped” include the orientation of the site and the buildings on it to the features of the grounds on which it is situated. Light, shade, wind, elevation, choice of materials, all should relate to a standard and say what is it that makes it what it is, and what is it that makes it not something else. Vitruvius thought of proportion in terms of unit fractions[2] such as those used in the Greek Orders of Architecture.[3] Scribes had been using unit fractions for their calculations at least since the time of the Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll and Rhind Mathematical Papyrus[4] in Egypt and the Epic of Gilgamesh[5] in Mesopotamia. One example of symmetry might be found in the inscription grids[6] of the Egyptians which were based on parts of the body and their symmetrical relation to each other, fingers, palms, hands, feet, cubits, etc; Multiples of body proportions would be found in the arrangements of fields and in the buildings people lived in.[7] A cubit could be divided into fingers, palms, hands and so could a foot, or a multiple of a foot. Special units related to feet as the hypotenuse of a 3/4/5 triangle with one side a foot were named remen and introduced into the proportional system very early on. Curves were also defined in a similar manner and used by architects in their design of arches and other building elements. These proportional elements were used by the Persians, Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans, in laying out cities, stadiums, roads, processional ways, public buildings, ports, various areas for crops and grazing beasts of burden, so as to arrange the city as well as the building to be well proportioned,[8][9] Architectural practice has often used proportional systems to generate or constrain the forms considered suitable for inclusion in a building. In almost every building tradition there is a system of mathematical relations which governs the relationships between aspects of the design. These systems of proportion are often quite simple; whole number ratios (such as the vesica piscis or the golden ratio). Generally the goal of a proportional system is to produce a sense of coherence and harmony among the elements of a building. Among the Cistercians, Gothic, Renaissance, Egyptian, Semitic, Babylonian, Arab, Greek and Roman traditions; the harmonic proportions, human proportions, cosmological/astronomical proportions and orientations, and various aspects of sacred geometry (the vesica piscis), pentagram, golden ratio, and small whole-number ratios) were all applied as part of the practice of architectural design. Going back to the Pythagoreans there is an idea that proportions should be related to standards and that the more general and formulaic the standards the better. This idea that there should be beauty and elegance evidenced by a skillful composition of well understood elements underlies mathematics in general and in a sense all the architectural modulors of design as well.

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“Proportion is a correspondence among the measures of the members of an entire work, and of the whole to a certain part selected as standard. From this result the principles of symmetry. Without symmetry and proportion there can be no principles in the design of any temple; that is, if there is no precise relation between its members as in the case of those of a well shaped man. —Vitruvius,[1] The Ten Books of Architecture (III, Ch. 1)

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is the relation between elements and a whole.

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Proportion


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Zwischenkritik 2: Szenario

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Zwischenkritik 2: Szenario

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Zwischenkritik 2: Szenario

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DASINFRASTRUKTURELLEHAUS_FS10_GASTDOZENTURETHZÜRICH_PROF_MATHIASMÜLLER_DANIELNIGGLI_ASIST_STEFANBERNOULLI_STUD_LUKAPISKOREC_MANUELASEDLAR

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Zwischenkritik 2: Aksonometrie


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DASINFRASTRUKTURELLEHAUS_FS10_GASTDOZENTURETHZÜRICH_PROF_MATHIASMÜLLER_DANIELNIGGLI_ASIST_STEFANBERNOULLI_STUD_LUKAPISKOREC_MANUELASEDLAR

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Zwischenkritik 2: Aksonometrie


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LIFT/ TREPPE_

SCHNITT 1

LIFT/ TREPPE_

HAUSTECHNIK_

BÜRO_

SCHNITT 2

MEETING_

FUSSBALL + 39.00

PARKEN + 33.00 LIFT/ TREPPE_ RESTAURANT/ LOUNGE_

FUSSBALL + 39.00

PARKEN + 33.00

WERKSTÄTTE + 21.00

BESTEHENDES GEBÄUDE_

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Innenperspektive Querschnitte QUERSCHNITT 2 _ 1/500 N

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QUERSCHNITT 1 _ 1/500

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BESTEHENDES GEBÄUDE_

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WERKSTÄTTE + 21.00


Die Entwicklung

When a public building complex cannot be completely served by outdoor pedestrian streets, a new form of indoor street, quite different from the conventional corridor, is needed.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Indoor streets

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ALEXANDER, Christopher, 1977: A pattern language. Towns, Buildings, Construction. Oxford University Press, New York

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[...] Place each thoroughfare in a position where it functions as a shortcut, as continous as possible with the public street outside, with wide open entrances. And line its edges with windows, places to sit, counters, and entrances which project out into the hall and expose the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main functions to the public [...] . If the street is several stories high, then the walkways along the edges, on the different stories, can be used to form the low places.


VENTURI, Robert, SCOTT BROWN, Denise, 1977: Learning from Las Vegas. The MIT Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

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In logic, linguistics and semiotics, the denotation of a word or phrase is a part of its meaning; however, the part referred to varies by context: In grammar and literary theory, the literal meaning or â&#x20AC;&#x153;dictionary definitionâ&#x20AC;? of a term, devoid of emotion, attitude, and color. In semiotics, the surface or literal meaning of a signifier. In logic, formal semantics and parts of linguistics, the extension of a term.

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Within contemporary society, connotation branches into a mixture of different meanings. These could include the contrast of a word or phrase with its primary, literal meaning (known as a denotation), with what that word or phrase specifically denotes. The connotation essentially relates to how anything may be associated with a word or phrase, for example, an implied value judgment or feelings. A stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. Although these have the same literal meaning (i.e. stubborn), strong-willed connotes admiration for the level of someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s will, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone. It is often useful to avoid words with strong connotations (especially disparaging ones) when striving to achieve a neutral point of view. A desire for more positive connotations, or fewer negative ones, is one of the main reasons for using euphemisms.[1]

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A sign on a building carries a denotative meaning in the explicit message of its letters and words. It contrasts with the connotative expression of the other, more architectural elements of the building.

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Denotation connotation


luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

www.takamatsu.co.jp

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In linguistics, syntax is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages. In addition to referring to the discipline, the term syntax is also used to refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language, as in â&#x20AC;&#x153;the syntax of Modern Irish.â&#x20AC;? Modern research in syntax attempts to describe languages in terms of such rules. Many professionals in this discipline attempt to find general rules that apply to all natural languages. The term syntax is also sometimes used to refer to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as logic, artificial formal languages, and computer programming languages. There are a number of theoretical approaches to the discipline of syntax. Many linguists see syntax as a branch of biology, since they conceive of syntax as the study of linguistic knowledge as embodied in the human mind. Others (e.g. Gerald Gazdar) take a more Platonistic view, since they regard syntax to be the study of an abstract formal system.[3] Yet others (e.g. Joseph Greenberg) consider grammar a taxonomical device to reach broad generalizations across languages. Some of the major approaches to the discipline are listed below. The hypothesis of generative grammar is that language is a structure of the human mind. The goal of generative grammar is to make a complete model of this inner language (known as i-language). This model could be used to describe all human language and to predict the grammaticality of any given utterance (that is, to predict whether the utterance would sound correct to native speakers of the language). This approach to language was pioneered by Noam Chomsky. Most generative theories (although not all of them) assume that syntax is based upon the constituent structure of sentences.

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Takamatsu.

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Syntax Building Monumentale Architektur von Shin


A building cannot be a human building unless it is a complex of still smaller buildings or smaller parts which manifest its own internal social facts.

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ALEXANDER, 1977: A pattern language I .Oxford University Press, NY fachdokumente.lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de| phodana.de

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Population density (in agriculture standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans. It is a key geographic term. For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area usually per square kilometer or mile (which may include or exclude cultivated or potentially productive area). Commonly this may be calculated for a county, city, country, another territory, or the entire world. The world population is 6.8 billion [1], and Earth’s total area (including land and water) is 510 million square kilometers (197 million square miles) [2]. Therefore the worldwide human population density is 6.8 billion ÷ 510 million = 13.3 per km2 (34.5 per sq. mile). If only the Earth’s land area of 150 million km2 (58 million sq. miles) is taken into account, then human population density increases to 45.3 per km2 (117.2 per sq. mile). This calculation includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to 50 people per km2 (129.28 per sq. mile). Considering that over half of the Earth’s land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human inhabitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and that population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh water sources, this number by itself does not give any meaningful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely-populated territories in the world are city-states, microstates, micronations, or dependencies. These territories share a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation. Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though the extent to which this is the case depends on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely-populated cities are in southern and eastern Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa also fall into this category.

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For public sqares, courts, pedestrian streets, any place where crowds are drawn together, estimate the mean number of people in the place at any given moment (P), and make the area of the place between 150P and 300P square feet.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Density


http://images.travelpod.com/users/dane/se_asia.1163415600. ALEXANDER, Ch. 1977: A pattern language. Oxf. University Press, NY

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

A dynamical system is described in terms of differential equations or difference equations that describe its behavior for a short period of time. To determine the behavior for longer periods it is necessary to integrate the equations, either through analytical means or through iteration, often with the aid of computers. Dynamical systems in the physical world tend to be dissipative: if it were not for some driving force, the motion would cease. (Dissipation may come from internal friction, thermodynamic losses, or loss of material, among many causes.) The dissipation and the driving force tend to combine to kill out initial transients and settle the system into its typical behavior. This one part of the phase space of the dynamical system corresponding to the typical behavior is the attracting section or attractee. Invariant sets and limit sets are similar to the attractor concept. An invariant set is a set that evolves to itself under the dynamics. Attractors may contain invariant sets. A limit set is a set of points such that there exists some initial state that ends up arbitrarily close to the limit set (i.e. to each point of the set) as time goes to infinity. Attractors are limit sets, but not all limit sets are attractors: It is possible to have some points of a system converge to a limit set, but different points when perturbed slightly off the limit set may get knocked off and never return to the vicinity of the limit set. For example, the damped pendulum has two invariant points: the point x0 of minimum height and the point x1 of maximum height. The point x0 is also a limit set, as trajectories converge to it; the point x1 is not a limit set. Because of the dissipation, the point x0 is also an attractor. If there were no dissipation, x0 would not be an attractor.

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An attractor is a set to which a dynamical system evolves after a long enough time. That is, points that get close enough to the attractor remain close even if slightly disturbed. Geometrically, an attractor can be a point, a curve, a manifold, or even a complicated set with a fractal structure known as a strange attractor. Describing the attractors of chaotic dynamical systems has been one of the achievements of chaos theory. A trajectory of the dynamical system in the attractor does not have to satisfy any special constraints except for remaining on the attractor. The trajectory may be periodic or chaotic or of any other type.

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Surround public gathering places with pockets of activity - small, partly enclosed areas at the edges, which jut forward into the open space between the paths, and contain activities which make it natural for the people to pause and get involved.

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Activity pockets


Create alternating areas of light and dark throughout the building, in such a way that people naturally walk toward the light, whenever they are going to important places: seats, entrances, stairs, passages, places of special beauty, and make other areas darker, to increase the contrast.

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Lightness Darkness

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ALEXANDER,1977: A pattern language I. Oxford University Press, NY ; eyeofthefish.org/national-architecture| aedesign.wordpress.com

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There are many sources of light. The most common light sources are thermal: a body at a given temperature emits a characteristic spectrum of black-body radiation. Examples include sunlight (the radiation emitted by the chromosphere of the Sun at around 6,000 K peaks in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum when plotted in wavelength units [1] and roughly 40% of sunlight is visible), incandescent light bulbs (which emit only around 10% of their energy as visible light and the remainder as infrared), and glowing solid particles in flames. The peak of the blackbody spectrum is in the infrared for relatively cool objects like human beings. As the temperature increases, the peak shifts to shorter wavelengths, producing first a red glow, then a white one, and finally a blue color as the peak moves out of the visible part of the spectrum and into the ultraviolet. These colors can be seen when metal is heated to “red hot” or “white hot”. Blue thermal emission is not often seen. The commonly seen blue colour in a gas flame or a welder’s torch is in fact due to molecular emission, notably by CH radicals (emitting a wavelength band around 425 nm).

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Light is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the human eye (in a range from about 380 or 400 nanometres to about 760 or 780 nm).[1] In physics, the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not.[2][3] Four primary properties of light are intensity, frequency or wavelength, polarization, and phase Light, which exists in tiny “packets” called photons, exhibits properties of both waves and particles. This property is referred to as the wave–particle duality. The study of light, known as optics, is an important research area in modern physics.


Fotografie: Luka Piskorec und Manuela Sedlar, 2010

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

Uses of the model are however not restricted to strictly functional analysis, as the model has been adapted to examine the relational aspects of urban relationships between infrastructure and citizens[1].

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The concept of ‘urban metabolism’ has been used to describe the resource consumption and waste generation of the cities for some time (see for example, Wolman, 1965). Historically, first suggestions that quasiorganism analogies may help in understanding cities - including references to ‘metabolism’ - were made by the Chicago school of urban sociology (Burgess and others). Presently, the great advocate and populariser of the term has been the British educator and author Herbert Girardet. More recently the metabolism frame of reference has been used in the reporting of environmental information in Australia and it has been suggested that it can be used to define the sustainability of a city within the ecosystems capacity to support it. A strong theme in present literature on urban sustainablity is that of the need to view the urban system as a whole if we are to best understand and solve the complex problems.

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is a model to facilitate the description and analysis of the flows of the materials and energy within cities, such as undertaken in a Material flow analysis of a city. First used as an exploration and comparison modeling tool by Abel Wolman in “The metabolism of Cities”. The use of the Urban Metabolism model offers benefits to studies of the sustainablity of cities by providing a unified or holisitc viewpoint to encompass all of the activities of a city in a single model.

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Urban Metabolism


de.academic.ru | 3lhd.com |

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

A similar term with the same meaning in the eastern coastal region of Spain is rambla, but more widely referred to as paseo marítimo (esplanade), paseo (promenade) or explanada (esplanade) in the Hispanic world.

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The original meaning of esplanade was a large, open, level area outside fortress or city walls to provide clear fields of fire for the fortress against incoming infantry or artillery. Esplanade and promenade are sometimes used interchangeably, but that is a mistake.[citation needed] A promenade can be anywhere, and it is exclusively for walking, while an esplanade is for walking but also can include large boulevards or avenues with cars. A Promenade, often abbreviated to ‘(The) Prom’, was an area where people - couples and families especially - would go to walk for a while in order to ‘be seen’ and be considered part of ‘society’.

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is a long, open, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water, where people may walk. This allows people to promenade along the sea front, usually for recreational purposes, whatever the state of the tide, without having to walk on the beach. Esplanades became popular in Victorian times when it was fashionable to visit seaside resorts.

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Esplanade


luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

3lhd.com - project for a library in Zadar, Croatia

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The Latin word atrium referred to the open central court, from which the enclosed rooms led off, in the type of large ancient Roman house known as a domus. The impluvium was the shallow pool sunken into the floor to catch the rainwater. Some surviving examples are beautifully decorated. The opening in the ceiling above the pool called for some means of support for the roof. And it is here where one differentiates between five different styles of atrium. As the centrepiece of the house the atrium was the most lavishly furnished room. Also, it contained the little chapel to the ancestral spirits (lararium), the household safe (arca) and sometimes a bust of the master of the house. The term was also used for a variety of spaces in public and religious buildings, mostly forms of arcaded courtyards, larger versions of the domestic spaces. Byzantine churches were often entered through such a space (as are many mosques, though the term is not usually used for Islamic architecture.

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(plural atria), in modern architecture, is a large open space, often several stories high and having a glazed roof and/or large windows, often situated within an office building and usually located immediately beyond the main entrance doors. Atria are popular with companies because they give their buildings â&#x20AC;&#x153;a feeling of space and lightâ&#x20AC;?, but have been criticised by fire inspectors as they could allow fire to spread to a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s upper stories more quickly.

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Atrium


affordabledream.wordpress | biologybiozine.com | .fletcherpriest. com

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The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has extended the concept to apply to the management of stormwater runoff at the local level through the use of natural systems, or engineered systems that mimic natural systems, to treat polluted runoff.[3][4] This use of the term “green infrastructure” to refer to urban “green” best management practices (BMPs), although not central to the larger concept, does contribute to the over health of natural ecosystems. The Green Infrastructure approach analyses the natural environment in a way that highlights its function and subsequently seeks to put in place, through regulatory or planning policy, mechanisms that safeguard critical natural areas. Where life support functions are found to be lacking, plans may propose how these can be put in place through landscaped and/or engineered improvements.[5] The term “green infrastructure” is sometimes expanded to “multifunctional” green infrastructure. Multifunctionality in this context refers to the integration and interaction of different functions or activities on the same piece of land. This is key to the efficient and sustainable use of land, especially in a compact and bustling country like England where pressures on land are particularly acute. An example might be an urban edge river flood plain which provides a repository for flood waters, acts as a nature reserve, provides a recreational green space and could also be productively farmed (probably through grazing). In the United Kingdom, Green Infrastructure planning is increasingly recognised as a valuable approach for spatial planning and is now seen in national, regional and local planning and policy documents and strategies, for example in the Milton Keynes and South Midlands Growth area.[6]In 2009, guidance on green infrastructure planning was published by Natural England, and can be accessed online at [1] This guidance promotes the importance of green infrastructure in ‘place-making’, i.e. in recognising and maintaining the character of a particular location, especially where new development is planned.[7] Green infrastructure programs managed by EPA and partner organizations are intended to improve water quality generally through more extensive management of stormwater runoff. The practices are expected to reduce stress on traditional water drainage infrastructure--storm sewers and combined sewers--which are typically extensive networks of underground pipes and/or surface water channels in U.S. cities, towns and suburban areas.

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In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by a network of natural ecosystems, with an emphasis on interconnectivity to support long term sustainability. Examples include clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities.

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is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990s that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning.

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Green Infrastructure


in mathematics, is used to refer to various properties meaning, in some sense, â&#x20AC;&#x153;all one pieceâ&#x20AC;?. When a mathematical object has such a property, we say it is connected; otherwise it is disconnected. When a disconnected object can be split naturally into connected pieces, each piece is usually called a component (or connected component).

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Connectedness ,

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Fotografie: Luka Piskorec und Manuela Sedlar, 2010: Tischkritik

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Fields of mathematics are typically concerned with special kinds of objects. Often such an object is said to be connected if, when it is considered as a topological space, it is a connected space. Thus, manifolds, Lie groups, and graphs are all called connected if they are connected as topological spaces, and their components are the topological components. Sometimes it is convenient to restate the definition of connectedness in such fields. For example, a graph is said to be connected if each pair of vertices in the graph is joined by a path. This definition is equivalent to the topological one, as applied to graphs, but it is easier to deal with in the context of graph theory. Graph theory also offers a context-free measure of connectedness, called the clustering coefficient. Other fields of mathematics are concerned with objects that are rarely considered as topological spaces. Nonetheless, definitions of connectedness often reflect the topological meaning in some way. For example, in category theory, a category is said to be connected if each pair of objects in it is joined by a sequence of morphism. Thus, a category is connected if it is, intuitively, all one piece. There may be different notions of connectedness that are intuitively similar, but different as formally defined concepts. We might wish to call a topological space connected if each pair of points in it is joined by a path. However this concept turns out to be different from standard topological connectedness; in particular, there are connected topological spaces for which this property does not hold. Because of this, different terminology is used; spaces with this property are said to be path connected. Terms involving connected are also used for properties that are related to, but clearly different from, connectedness. For example, a path-connected topological space is simply connected if each loop (path from a point to itself) in it is contractible; that is, intuitively, if there is essentially only one way to get from any point to any other point.

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A topological space is said to be connected if it is not the union of two disjoint nonempty open sets. A set is open if it contains no point lying on its boundary; thus, in an informal, intuitive sense, the fact that a space can be partitioned into disjoint open sets suggests that the boundary between the two sets is not part of the space, and thus splits it into two separate pieces.


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Zwischenkritik 3: Szenario Jahr 3000

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I


Zwischenkritik 3: Modellbau

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

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A truss is composed of triangles because of the structural stability of that shape and design. A triangle is the simplest geometric figure that will not change shape when the lengths of the sides are fixed.[1] In comparison, both the angles and the lengths of a four-sided figure must be fixed for it to retain its shape. The simplest form of a truss is one single triangle. This type of truss is seen in a framed roof consisting of rafters and a ceiling joist.[2] Because of the stability of this shape and the methods of analysis used to calculate the forces within it, a truss composed entirely of triangles is known as a simple truss. [3] A planar truss lies in a single plane.[3] Planar trusses are typically used in parallel to form roofs and bridges. The depth of a truss, or the height between the upper and lower chords, is what makes it an efficient structural form. A solid girder or beam of equal strength would have substantial weight and material cost as compared to a truss. For a given span length, a deeper truss will require less material in the chords and greater material in the verticals and diagonals. An optimum depth of the truss will maximize the efficiency.[4] A space frame truss is a three-dimensional framework of members pinned at their ends. A tetrahedron shape is the simplest space truss, consisting of six members which meet at four joints.[3] Large planar structures may be composed from tetrahedrons with common edges and they are also employed in the base structures of large free-standing power line pylons.

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External forces and reactions to those forces are considered to act only at the nodes and result in forces in the members which are either tensile or compressive forces. Moments (torsional forces) are explicitly excluded because, and only because, all the joints in a truss are treated as revolutes. A planar truss is one where all the members and nodes lie within a two dimensional plane, while a space truss has members and nodes extending into three dimensions.

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, in architecture and structural engineering, is a structure comprising one or more triangular units constructed with straight members whose ends are connected at joints referred to as nodes.

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Truss


Zwischenkritik 3: Modellbau

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

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The concept of formalism can be traced as far back as Plato, who argued that ‘eidos’ (or shape) of a thing included our perceptions of the thing, as well as those sensory aspects of a thing which the human mind can take in. Plato argued that eidos included elements of representation and imitation, since the thing itself could not be replicated. Subsequently, Plato believed that eidos inherently was deceptive. In 1890, the Postimpressionist painter Maurice Denis wrote in his article ‘Definition of Neo-Traditionism’ that a painting was ‘essentially a flat surface covered in colours arranged in a certain order.’ Denis argued that the painting or sculpture or drawing itself, not the subject of the artistic work, gave pleasure to the mind. Denis’ emphasis on the form of a work led the Bloomsbury writer Clive Bell to write in his 1914 book, Art, that there was a distinction between a thing’s actual form and its ‘significant form.’ For Bell, recognition of a work of art as representational of a thing was less important than capturing the ‘significant form’, or true inner nature, of a thing. Bell pushed for an art that used the techniques of an artistic medium to capture the essence of a thing (its ‘significant form’) rather than its mere outward appearance. Throughout the rest of the early part of the 20th Century, European structuralists continued to argue that ‘real’ art was expressive only of a thing’s ontological, metaphysical or essential nature. But European art critics soon began using the word ‘structure’ to indicate a new concept of art. By the 1930s and 1940s, structuralists reasoned that the mental processes and social preconceptions an individual brings to art are more important than the essential, or ‘ideal’, nature of the thing. Knowledge is created only through socialization and thought, they said, and a thing can only be known as it is filtered through these mental processes. Soon, the word ‘form’ was used interchangeably with the word ‘structure’.

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Formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as color, line, shape and texture rather than realism, context, and content. In visual art, formalism is a concept that posits that everything necessary to comprehending a work of art is contained within the work of art. The context for the work, including the reason for its creation, the historical background, and the life of the artist, is considered to be of secondary importance. Formalism is an approach to understanding art.

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, in art theory, is the concept that a work’s artistic value is entirely determined by its form--the way it is made, its purely visual aspects, and its medium.

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Formalism


, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from widescale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Modernism

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Zwischenkritik 3: Modellbau

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A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).[4] The poet Ezra Pound’s paradigmatic injunction was to “Make it new!” Whether or not the “making new” of the modernists constituted a new historical epoch is up for debate. Philosopher and composer Theodor Adorno warns us: “Modernity is a qualitative, not a chronological, category. Just as it cannot be reduced to abstract form, with equal necessity it must turn its back on conventional surface coherence, the appearance of harmony, the order corroborated merely by replication.”[5] Adorno would have us understand modernity as the rejection of the false rationality, harmony, and coherence of Enlightenment thinking, art, and music. But the past proves sticky. Pound’s general imperative to make new, and Adorno’s exhortation to challenge false coherence and harmony, faces T. S. Eliot’s emphasis on the relation of the artist to tradition. Eliot wrote: “[W]e shall often find that not only the best, but the most individual parts of [a poet’s] work, may be those in which the dead poets, his ancestors, assert their immortality most vigorously.”[6]

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The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the “traditional” forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. Modernism rejected the lingering certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and also that of the existence of a compassionate, all-powerful Creator.[2][3] This is not to say that all modernists or modernist movements rejected either religion or all aspects of Enlightenment thought, rather that modernism can be viewed as a questioning of the axioms of the previous age.


Zwischenkritik 3: Modellbau

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The first mall ever built is located in The City of Damascus, the capital city of Syria. It is called Souq Al Hamdia in Old Damascus and dates back to the seventh century. Isfahan’s Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered, dates from the 10th century. The 10 kilometer long covered Tehran’s Grand Bazaar also has a long history. The Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered markets in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. In most of the world the term shopping centre is used, especially in Europe and Australasia; however shopping mall is also used, predominantly in North America.[2] Outside of North America, shopping precinct and shopping arcade are also used. In North America, the term shopping mall is usually applied to enclosed retail structures (and is generally abbreviated to simply mall), while shopping center usually refers to open-air retail complexes; both types of facilities usually have large parking lots, face major traffic arterials and have few pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoods.[2] Shopping centres in the United Kingdom can be referred to as “shopping centres”, “shopping precincts”, or “town centres”. The standard British pronunciation of the word “mall” is as in “The Mall, London” – the tree-lined avenue leading to Buckingham Palace, London and also like “pal” (friend). Mall can refer to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an exclusively pedestrianised street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic.

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Modern “car-friendly” strip malls developed from the 1920s, and shopping malls corresponded with the rise of suburban living in many parts of the Western World, especially the United States, after World War II. From early on, the design tended to be inward-facing, with malls following theories of how customers could best be enticed in a controlled environment. Similar, the concept of a mall having one or more “anchor” or “big box” stores was pioneered early, with individual stores or smaller-scale chain stores intended to benefit from the shoppers attracted by the big stores.[1]

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is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area – a modern, indoor version of the traditional marketplace.

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Shopping mall


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Bild: HAMM Manfred (2008): Markthallen, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin; www.google.com

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infrastructure + monument

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INFRA-MENT


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Bild: HAMM Manfred (2008): Markthallen, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin; www.google.com


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Bild: HAMM Manfred (2008): Markthallen, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin; www.google.com


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Ostfassade 1/1000 Nordfassade / Frontfassade an Pfingststrasse 1/1000

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12.80 M

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PRODUCTIONOFFICEMACHINE SHOP-

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Grundriss Geschoss A 1/1000


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Grundriss B 1/1000 2

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PRODUKTION BĂ&#x153;RO WERKSTATT ATELIER FAST FOOD -


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GESCHOSS B:

PARKEN 2 - ANZAHL PP: 408

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4. OG: Produktion und Werkstätte

Baukörper Süd

2. OG

1. OG +4.90 m

+/- 0.00 m

TREPPENKERN 3 : BESTAND

TREPPENKERN 2 : BESTAND

ZG

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

+41.50 m

EG

TREPPENKERN 1: BESTAND

UG

12.80 M

6.40 M

12.80 M

12.80 M

Werkstätte / Büro

+21.50 m

Werkstätte / Büro

+17.00 m

4. OG: Produktion und Werkstätte

Baukörper Süd

2. OG

Durchgang zu Baukörper Süd

1. OG

+4.90 m

+/- 0.00 m

ZG

EG

UG

12.80 M

Querschnitte 1 und 2 , 1/1000

6.40 M

12.80 M

12.80 M

book -

1. PG: Parkgeschoss 1

+26.00 m

source

2. PG: Parkgeschoss 2

+30.50 m

infrastrukturelle

DG: Fussballfelder

+33.50 m

das

+36.50 m

haus ...

+41.50 m


luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

+41.50 m

DG: Fussballfelder

2. PG: Parkgeschoss 2

1. PG: Parkgeschoss 1

Werkstätte / Büro

+36.50 m +33.50 m +30.50 m

+26.00 m

Werkstätte / Büro

+21.50 m

4. OG: Produktion und Werkstätte

+17.00 m

2. OG

1. OG

ZG

EG

+4.90 m

+/- 0.00 m

UG

das

Längsschnitt 1/1000

source

infrastrukturelle

book -

haus ...

12.80 M


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Explosionsaxonometrie einer St端tze

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I


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Explosionsaxonometrie mehrerer St端tzen

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I


minim. Wert

max. Wert

55685.74

A| BGF 65.1

218.7

28474.74 m2

408

540 ca

948 300 648

PP PP PP

8136 m2

2|  Fahrbahn und Fusswege: 

5388 3x

6961 6961

m2 m2 m2 m2 6726 m2 19075 m2 27609 m2

4|  Individuelles Zusatzprogramm                           / Aussenräume: 

65.1

218.7

14237.37 m2

C| BK. Pfingstweidstrasse     B x L x H:

65.1

218.7

263391.345 m3 619325.595 m3

263391.345 355934.25 39.5

39.5

m

4|Individuelles Zusatzprogramm :

C| BK Bahngeleise                   B x L x H:

Produktion/ Gewerbe

:

Büro Büro Migros Büro total

: :

Lagerflächen

:

1500 m2 9000 m2

/ / 5008 5946 951.3 894 6726

m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2

7511.4

5388

19525.3 m2

65.1

218.7

5612.1 m2

52.5

155

113925

14

113925 m3 276675 m3

162750 34

m

12000 m2 1500 m2 3932.16 m2 5432.16 m2

Werkstatt / Atelier

: :

600 m2

Haustechnik

:

1000 m2

Anlieferung

:

4000 m2

Parkplätze

:

17000 m2 700 PP

Gesamt BGF beider Baukörper: Gesamt Volumen beider Baukörper:

91227.24 m2 377316.345 m3

book -

Baukörper  Bahngeleise

Gastronomie

Kennziffern der Flächen und Volumen

PP PP PP

3149.8 m2

2|  Fahrbahn und Fusswege:  3| Vorhandenes Programm: Produktion/ Gewerbe/ Lagerflächen Büro Büro Migros Atelier Gastronomie Haustechnik  |  Lager Anlieferung

Volumen (Vol. neu und Vol. bestand)  + :  Höhe (ab OK Terrain):

Vorgaben

/ / /

ANZ. PP  P1 + P2: ANZ. PP bestand: ANZ. PP:

source

Volumen (Vol. neu und Vol. bestand)  + :  Höhe (ab OK Terrain):

18.5

/ m2

B| 1|  Parkplatzflächen  P1 & P2:

BK Bahngeleise ohne 2.:

m2

haus ...

3| Vorhandenes Programm: Produktion/ Gewerbe/ Lagerflächen Büro Werkstätte Gastronomie Anlieferung minim. Fläche max. Fläche

28287.2

A| BGF

infrastrukturelle

ANZ. PP  P1 + P2: ANZ. PP bestand: ANZ. PP:

64219.74 m2

das

B| 1|  Parkplatzflächen  P1 & P2:

m2

Baukörper Bahngeleise:

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Baukörper Pfingstweidstrasse:


Angaben anhand vorgeschlagenem Programm 62940.04

A| BGF B| 1|  Parkplatzflächen  P1 & P2: ANZ. PP  P1 + P2: ANZ. PP bestand: ANZ. PP:

m2

65.1

218.7

28474.74 m2

408

540 ca

948 300 648

PP PP PP

8136 m2

2|  Fahrbahn und Fusswege:  3| Vorhandenes Programm: Produktion/ Gewerbe/ Lagerflächen Büro Büro Migros Werkstätte Gastronomie Haustechnik Anlieferung

9986.2 1521 IN VOL.. 2 7440.7 655.4 IN VOL.. 2 6726

m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2

7511.4

5388

26329.3 m2

4|  Individuelles Zusatzprogramm        /Fussball (Aussenraum): 

65.1

218.7

14237.37 m2

C| BK. Pfingstweidstrasse     B x L x H:

65.1

218.7

BK Pfingstweidstrasse ohne 1. & 2.:

Volumen (Vol. neu und Vol. bestand)  + :  Höhe (ab OK Terrain):

18.5

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Baukörper Pfingstweidstrasse:

263391.345 m3 619325.595 m3

263391.345 355934.25 39.5

39.5

m

Lagerflächen

:

1500 m2

Werkstatt / Atelier

:

9000 m2

Baukörper  Bahngeleise

1500 m2 3932.16 m2 5432.16 m2

Gastronomie

:

600 m2

Haustechnik

:

1000 m2

Anlieferung

:

4000 m2

Parkplätze

:

17000 m2 700 PP

book -

: :

source

Büro Büro Migros Büro total

12000 m2

infrastrukturelle

:

das

Kennziffern der Flächen und Volumen einer Variante

Produktion/ Gewerbe

haus ...

Vorgaben


luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

Schlusskritik: Modellbau

haus ...

In locations where the car park is built on sloping land, the car park may be split-level or have sloped parking. Many car parks are independent buildings that are dedicated exclusively to that use. The design loads for car parks are often less than the office building they serve (50 psf versus 80 psf), leading to long floor spans of 55-60 feet that permit cars to park in rows without supporting columns in between. The most common structural systems in the United States for these structures are either prestressed concrete concrete double tee floor systems or post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete floor systems. In recent times, car parks built to serve residential and some business properties are built as part of a larger building, and often are built underground as part of the basement, such as at the Atlantic Station redevelopment in Atlanta. This saves land for other uses (as opposed to a parking lot), and is cheaper and more practical in most cases than a separate structure, and is hidden from view. It also protects customers and their cars from weather such as rain, or hot summer sunshine that raises a vehicle’s interior temperature to extremely high levels. Historic underground parking of only two levels was considered an innovative concept in 1964, when developer Louis Lesser developed a two level underground parking structure under six 10-story high rise residential halls at California State University, Los Angeles, which lacked space for horizontal expansion on its 176 acre university. The simple two level parking structure was considered unusual enough in 1964 that a separate newspaper section was titled, “Parking Underground”, and described the two level parking garage as an innovative “concept” and as “subterranean spaces”.[7][8] Car parks which serve shopping centres can sometimes be built adjacent to the shopping centre so as to effect easier access at each floor between shops and parking.

infrastrukturelle

Movement of vehicles between floors can be effected by: Insulation of a sectional garage door interior ramps - the most common type exterior ramps - which may take the form of a circular ramp (colloquially known as a ‘whirleygig’ in America) vehicle lifts - the least common automated robot systems - combination of ramp and elevator like the smart parking systems.

das

Car park

(also called a parking garage, parking structure, parking ramp, or parking deck) is a structure designed specifically to be for automobile parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place. It is essentially a stacked car park.


Schlusskritik: Modellbau

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

book source

Regulation curbed some of the worst excesses of industrializationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s factory-based society, a series of Factory Acts leading the way in Britain. Trams, automobiles and town planning encouraged the separate development of industrial suburbs and residential suburbs, with laborers commuting between them. Though factories dominated the Industrial Era, the growth in the service sector eventually began to dethrone them: the locus of labor in general shifted to central-city office towers or to semirural campus-style establishments, and many factories stood deserted in local rust belts. The next blow to the traditional factories came from globalization. Manufacturing processes (or their logical successors, assembly plants) in the late 20th century re-focussed in many instances on Special Economic Zones in developing countries or on maquiladoras just across the national boundaries of industrialized states. Further re-location to the least industrialized nations appears possible as the benefits of outsourcing and the lessons of flexible location apply in the future.

haus ...

Before the advent of mass transportation, factoriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs for ever-greater concentrations of laborers meant that they typically grew up in an urban setting or fostered their own urbanization. Industrial slums developed, and reinforced their own development through the interactions between factories, as when one factoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s output or waste-product became the raw materials of another factory (preferably nearby). Canals and railways grew as factories spread, each clustering around sources of cheap energy, available materials and/or mass markets. The exception proved the rule: even greenfield factory sites such as Bournville, founded in a rural setting, developed its own housing and profited from convenient communications systems.

infrastrukturelle

(previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial building where laborers manufacture goods or supervise machines processing one product into another. Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Typically, factories gather and concentrate resources: laborers, capital and plant.

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Factory


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das

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Three months in HIQ ...


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Fotos: Manuela Sedlar und Luka Piskorec

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I


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Fotos: Manuela Sedlar und Luka Piskorec

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I


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Fotos: Manuela Sedlar und Luka Piskorec

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I


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Fotos: Manuela Sedlar und Luka Piskorec

luka piskorec I manuela sedlar I

Sourcebook  

Sourcebook for the EM2N Design Studio - Infrastructural House, FS10 on ETH Zürich. Students: Luka Piskorec, Manuela Sedlar

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