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1. · male; · black - African and Caribbean; · from families of low socio-economic status; · have special educational needs; · have low levels of academic achievement. 20.

In the most extreme cases, disaffection can lead to exclusion. Research evidence highlights the following individual factors associated with exclusion (Sharp & Cato 1998): · Excluded pupils may have difficulties in establishing positive relationships with teachers and other pupils. They may seek the company of other (deviant) peers. · Excluded pupils may difficulties with literacy.



· Parents of excluded pupils are likely to have experienced difficulties in controlling their childÕs behaviour. Equally there is evidence that the experience of excluded pupils from African-Caribbean backgrounds differs from that of white pupils. OFSTED (1996) found that the exclusion of black pupils was less likely to be associated with underachievement or trauma than was true of white pupils. Many research studies have suggested that structural changes to the educational system may be contributing to the causes of exclusion, including increased competition between schools which has increased the emphasis on conventional academic attainment and fewer resources and less time to support disaffected pupils.

Back To Basics 21.

In all of these ways the tasks of education are complex and difficult. They include raising academic standards. These alone will not answer the questions that education now faces. A motif of educational debate over the last ten years has been the need to get back to basics. The transformational changes we have outlined here are enough to raise questions about what these basics are. Many developed countries are now asking how education can:

The Challenge for Education

NACCCE report


ken robinson et al 1999_all our futures  
ken robinson et al 1999_all our futures  

All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education Report to the Secretary of State for Education and Employment the Secretary of State for...