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Raza Press, Media, and Popular Expression



Journal of the Raza Press and Media Association

Spring-Summer 2012




a n o z i r a n i

J A People’s History of the United States J A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America J Borderlands La Frontera: The New Mestiza J House on Mango Street J Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools J ...y no se lo trago la tierra/And the Earth Did Not Devour Him J Always Running - La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A. J Bless Me Ultima J So Far From God J Yo Soy Joaquin/I Am Joaquin J Zoot Suit and Other Plays J Live from Death Row J The Devil’s Highway and more...

Guerrillera/os de la Pluma

Journal of the Raza Press and Media Association


Not Raza Studies!


n January 2012, the Tucson Board of Education capitulated to the Superintendent of Education John Huppenthal of Arizona, in an attempt to erase, censor and alter the content and character of Tucson’s educational curriculum. By dismantling Chicana/o Studies and banning books such Occupied America by Rodolfo Acuña, Rethinking Columbus: The Next 500 Years by Rethinking Schools, and Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire, among other books, the Tucson School Board stood on the side of apartheid white rule over the needs and interests of the majority Raza/ Indigenous people of that city and of that state.With one notable exception, the Tucson School Board voted 4‐1 in favor of pulling over 50 titles from the classroom –putting ignorance above critical thinking. For more than 20 years the Chicana/o Studies curriculum taught through the Mexican American and Ethnic studies courses were successful in providing a sense of historical understanding to the present day oppression of Raza/indigenous majority of Arizona. This program was one the few set of courses in the whole of the United States that were successful in enabling students to graduate from High School and attend colleges and universities. So it is no surprise that in the age of increased hostility towards Raza/Indigenous people‐ the racist settler governor, Jan Brewer, signed into law HB2281 in May of 2010. HB2281 was written with the explicit objective of prohibiting “ethnic solidarity” and class‐consciousness –important elements towards building unity among oppressed peoples to effect social justice. This is why apartheid white rule has openly attacked ethnic solidarity and class‐consciousness; it wants to maintain its political power by utilizing ignorance and lies to alter history. After more than one year of legal challenges to HB2281, the courts of Arizona in December of 2011 allowed the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to eliminate the

Guerrillera/os de la Pluma Editor

Luis H. Moreno

Associate Editors Francisco Romero Pablo Aceves Antonio Velasquez


Francisco Romero Pablo Aceves Antonio Velasquez

Raza Press and Media Association Editorial Board 2011-2012

Ernesto Bustillos 1951-2012 Pablo Aceves Francisco Romero Antonio Velasquez Luis H. Moreno

Raza Press, Media, and Popular Expression



(Ratified January 24, 2008)


• Create A Movement of Progressive and Revolutionary Media Workers

• To Establish A Raza News Wire Service. • Hold On-Going Workshops And Conferences To Advance Raza Press, Media, And Popular Expression. • Establish An Editorial Board To Oversee Joint Publications. • Pool Existing Resources To Assist Publications And To Establish New Ones. • Establishment of a Collection Of Periodicals, Past, And Current.



• Must Be Raza Publications/Media Workers Who Are Independent Of Government Agencies. • Members Must Supp ort Raza Self-Determination. • Must Adhere To Democratically Reached Decisions. • Must Supp ort General Objectives Of The Association. • Must Supp ort The Struggles Of Other Indigenous People, Latino Americanos (Raza), and All Opp ressed People Within And Outside The U.S.


• Admission To All RPMA Events (conferences, summ its, etc.) • Membership Card and RPMA Press Card . • RPMA Reference (for emp loyment, grant purposes etc.). • Technical Assistance In Media Production.

• Voice In The Direction of the RPMA. • Knowing That You Are Fighting for Justice, Peace, and Liberation


• Mesa Directiva/Editorial Board Will Consist Of a) Coordinator, b) Events, c) Membership, d) Publications, And e) Member at Large. • Mesa Will Serve As Coordinating Body To Insure Comm unication And Comp letion Of Tasks. • Mesa Will Also Serve As Editorial Board For All RPMA


• Standing Comm ittees Will Be Established As Needed. • Mesa Directiva Will Organize A Yearly Summ it Or Conference.

Raza Press, Media, and Popular Expression

Spring-Sumer 2012 Mexican American and Ethnic Studies programs by defunding school districts that teach these areas of study. This act clearly demonstrates that there is no democracy within the current political, judicial and educational system in the United States. It is clear to us that these attempts to censor and silence the voices of truth and justice, are from those forces who are scared and shaking in their boots of the possibility of oppressed people learning the truth about ourselves and our ability to become subjects of our own liberation. Our task as Raza journalists is to expose the nature of the rotten colonial school system. This is why we must step up our efforts to expose the lies, defamation and dehumanizing conditions imposed on our communities by settler institutions of white power (courts, legislators, and schools). As an organization who for more 20 years has been struggling for real free speech and raising the critical consciousness of all oppressed people, the Raza Press and Media Association stands in solidarity with the educators, students and parents of Tucson and throughout Arizona, in their struggle to defend the right to learn about our history, social and economic justice, and the right to self‐determination. J


Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing and the Attacks on Nuestra Historia, Cultura, Arte y Literatura


Tenochtitlan and be taken aback. What they saw was the Valle de los early 520 years ago, the Mexica, from Teotihuacan, TexcoItalian colonizer, Christo- co, to Xocomilco. They witnessed pher Columbus landed in an advanced civilization, with unilas islas del caribe, in the land of versities, mass open-markets, the Guanahuani, now called the and thousands upon thousands Bahamas. Over the next several of indigenas creating music, writyears there would be a vicious ing, reading, working, and tending slaughter of the indigenous people to their ‘floating gardens’ called in order to contain any resistance chinampas. In fact, Tenochitlan itor any semblance of it. Soon more self was an impressive mass floatand more Europeans became ing garden, an island, created with aware of a land of opportunity - a the advanced technological skills “New World” - as they referred to developed by the Mexica. it that was ripe for land, gold and This awesome sight must human exploitation. Within a few have struck an immediate chord of years of the first landing, ship after both admiration, wonder and fear. ship came to these lands, including The sheer colors and vibrancy the arrival of the Spanish Conquis- of life of Nuestro Pueblo was imtador, Hernan Cortes, who would pressive and a contrast to their arrive in Cuba and embark on a cold, grey Europe. But they soon mission to conquer Mexico. also saw the bounty to be taken. The conquistadores would So they set off on a campaign of drive into the Aztec capitol of genocide* and ethnic cleansing*


to embark on what can only be described as a wholesale destruction of human life - an indigenous peoples’ holocaust. As part of the invasion and occupation, the aggressors would focus on ensuring that the accumulated knowledge held sacred and outlining a way of life was censored and erased. They targeted the elders with centuries of knowledge flowing through their veins and made sure to capture, torture, and hang the maestros, the doctors, and the warriors, men and women. They set out to destroy our pyramids, temples, art, sculptures and libros. They nearly succeeded in wiping us off the map but, nuestra gente resisted. We were able to defend Tenochtitlan for months as the Españoles encircled and cut off all supplies, slowly but surely starving SEE NEXT PAGE


Guerrillera/os de la Pluma our gente. Before they could penetrate the main corridor entrance to the capital, the Mexica had already ensured that the codices (books), the elders, maestros and knowledge was secure by escaping in chalupas (small canoes). To chase us down, the Españoles unleashed their vicious dogs, a special breed bred, specifically to tear humans apart.. They succeeded in capturing some, routing others, and killing many but not all. We survived and sang, painted, and etched our history into the hearts and minds of our people. We preserved our history and knowledge within the codices, within the canto, within our danza. We persevered. Since the Spaniards, the British, French, German, and others up to the present day, in what is now known as the”United States of America” the same policy and legacy of genocide, ethnic cleansing, occupation and colonization has been ongoing. Still, we have survived. We are tied to the land. The subsequent colonization by these empires, hence, what has been referred to as Colonialism and Imperialism, have ruled over our gente. We have become ‘foreigners’ on our own lands. However, we have steadily been building our resistance and self-defense, with progressive action toward our complete self-determination and liberation. Now fast forward to Arizona in 2010. We now have SB 1070, the “show me your papers” legislation that has codified racial profiling against Raza and House Bill 2281, the infamous piece of legislation that has aimed to ban Ethnic Studies, in particular the Raza Studies (Mexican American Studies -MAS) program.


Journal of the Raza Press and Media Association This past month, the Tucson Unified School District has chosen to officially begin dismantling the MAS program by targeting the educators, students and community and attempting to terminate the best Maestros in the MAS Program, starting with the director. The MAS program has been a critical educational factor that has had a major role in reversing the effects of a failed educational system by empowering the local community, teachers, and students to participate in designing and implementing a curriculum that is ‘culturally relevant.’ As of today, there are now two Federal investigations by the U.S. Department of Justice for the blatant and outright violations of ‘civil rights’. Their courts will only bring light to the issue, but the core systemic problems will be brushed aside. What is it about the MAS program that the status-quo is afraid of? What is within the curriculum, that strikes fear into the hearts of these gringo legislators as it did centuries ago to the Spaniards,? It is the fact, that we are tied to this land, that our history flows through the veins of La Tierra… and that no legislation will ever take that away from us. As part of this attack, there has been a list of books that have been banned from being used as part of any teaching curriculum in Arizona schools. There are at least one hundred titles that are specifically outlawed from being read as part of the lessons. What is in these books that have been banned that would cause such drastic actions as to censor literature? Simply a critical literature, curriculum, and counter narrative that motivates students to ‘read the world’ and be-

come critical independent thinkers. Once you become a critical thinker, you begin to analyze your environment and conditions. You begin to question the inequities in society, and perhaps you become an active subject of history, or you might become an advocate for social justice, an activist, or perhaps a revolutionary that will leave an imprint in the history of a peoples’ fight for self-determination and liberation from the chains of Colonialism and Imperialism. Unfortunately, the reality is that most schools are now moving toward ‘Teaching to the Test’, that is, preparing students to be able to take and pass a basic test on reading, writing, and math. These ‘standardized tests’ are a general probe to measure student ability to perform and execute basic skills to become a ‘productive’ worker. ‘Productive’, meaning that a human being will clock in to work, work, work and work, no questions asked. No time to read, no time to write, no time to organize. If one looks closely at the list of Banned Books, Libros Prohibidos, most of them are part of the critical literature, curriculum, and counter narrative that has been suppressed from the entire US society. For example, Occupied America, is a research-based book that outlines the experience of Raza in these territories. The Peoples’ History of the United States and Rethinking Columbus offer alternative views about the arrival Europeans onto this continent and their ‘expansion’ and settler-occupation into these territories. Another, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, is geared toward educators and challenges teachers to bring in dialogue and SEE NEXT PAGE

Raza Press, Media, and Popular Expression

Spring-Sumer 2012 critical analysis into the lessons of the day. Other books they fear, bring out the testimonials, art, culture and realities of our communities onto their pages, from Always Running to So Far From God, to 500 Years of Chicano History, to Zoot Suit, to Drink Cultura among others. Even the ‘portadas,’ that is, the book covers themselves strike fear into them. The fear of Another

World, Otro Mundo, Uno Sin Fronteras Ni Guerras, Sin Ricos Ni Pobres. They will attempt to erase us from La Historia, but our gente will continue to defend ourselves, resist, and organize. We will paint magnificent and bold murals on their cold concrete pillars, we will carve out a slogan of protest upon their prison wall, and the drumbeat and verses of our revolution will be

etched into the hearts of our pueblo... Hasta La Victoria! J *Genocide: the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. *Ethnic Cleansing: is a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terrorinspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas.


A lifetime of Struggle and Resistance


tee on Chicano Rights and subsequent founding of Union del Barrio rnesto Bustillos, or Chair- on August 29, 1981. In the ensuing man Neto as many affec- years, Camarada Ernesto Bustiltionately called him, was someone who was committed to the Chicano Mexicano Liberation Movement and the struggle in defense of our gente from a very early age until the end of his life. A compañero who faced the oppression of the system in the schools and in the streets, who grew to become a true hero of our gente, a tireless fighter for liberation and true change for the masses of Raza and all oppressed people. In the wake of his untimely death on March 26, 2012, much has been written and spoken of the comrade’s years of struggle. His militancy spanned from his early work as a Brown Beret, as San Diego City College MeChA Chairperson, later to a continued activism at San Diego State University, los would also play a central and to his central work in the Commit- leadership role in CHISPA (Chica-


nos in Solidarity with the People of Central America), the Raza Coalition Against Police Terror, the Concilio on Chicano Studies, and and would found and be a central figure in the Chicano Mexicano Prison Project, Association of Raza Educators (ARE), the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, and countless other efforts to promote the defense, consciousness, and liberation of Raza. What must be mentioned here is the tireless work Ernesto Bustillos in writing, producing countless articles, a number of important books, pamphlets, speeches, and other publications; his founding of La Verdad, Las Calles y la Torcida, and Guerrillera/os de la Pluma. What we must emphasize here was the compañero’s role in the re-founding in 1990 of the Chicano Press Association, which would evolve into the present day Raza Press and Media Association. The Chicano Press AsSEE NEXT PAGE


Guerrillera/os de la Pluma sociation was an effort that traced its roots to the Chicano Power Period of the late Sixties and Early to Mid-Seventies that attempted at that time to bring together independent Raza publications having a liberation perspective. This effort, like many others of our Movement of the Chicano Power Period was a casualty of the State-Sponsored War on Raza and all Liberation Movements. Ernesto Bustillos had the talent of taking the lessons learned from the Last Period of Struggle and not being “stuck in the past” but of using the foundations of our Movimiento and our collective history of struggle and resistance to build the present and future. And in that spirit, Ernesto Bustillos took a leadership role in calling for a Conference in December of 1990 at San Diego City College to re-found the Chicano Press Association. It was soon after this historic event that Ernesto Bustillos published his first book, Chicano Journalism, Its History and Its Use as a Weapon of Liberation. This compilation of articles and speeches by the camarada was key in setting a tone for the present period of struggle and was the gateway to a series of publications and efforts, all aimed at documenting our history and struggles our gente face so that we would be able to define for ourselves our conditions and develop the strategies necessary to transform our reality as Raza and Oppressed People. One of the lessons Ernesto had learned very well from the Chicano Power Period and one of the factors that drove him to push the development of Raza Journalism was the understanding that very little of our history had been docu-


Journal of the Raza Press and Media Association mented by us. He was able to see clearly, along with other veteranos of the Chicano Power Period, that all too often academics and the White Left with no connection to our struggle or our community made their own disconnected interpretations of our history and thus confusing our gente. This resulted in relegating our struggles to “sideshows” or unimportant events that were trivialized. For this reason, under the camarada’s leadership, the Chicano Press Association evolved into the Raza Press and Media Association. Under his leadership the Raza Press and Media was able to evolve into a presence on the Internet with a strong Web page and contacts with and analysis of struggles inside the current borders of the “United States.” Ernesto Bustillos pushed for not only positions and editorials but for liberation-oriented reporting that could inform as well as editorialize our struggle. Chairman Neto understood that the only way to push forward the Liberation of our people was to break the information blockade that is forced on the masses of our community. This was especially true in these times when disinformation is so sophisticated to confuse and disorient our people. This is one of the key elements of his legacy in developing Raza Journalism. He was a tireless compañero who possessed an iron will and discipline who always put the masses before himself, his health, and his physical integrity. Even at the end of his life, Ernesto Bustillos, while ill and in pain, continued to make speeches, write on the essential questions confronting Raza and what is to be done to advance the struggle. He never took

a sabbatical, or a timeout. He understood that we have to struggle, as he so eloquently put it “until we drop dead.” He was always ready to not only defend la Raza and fight for justice but to do the hard, arduous work of documenting our struggle and of analyzing the world in order to organize ourselves for liberation. Some of the key lessons he leaves us are: J The importance of sacrifice and discipline. J The need to read and study diligently not only our history and struggle but the struggles of all oppressed peoples and learn from them. J That the best writing is not done on “sabbatical” or after “taking time off” but on the ground in the thick of the movement, among the masses. J That we must write and build our own history, not wait for some “expert” or anthropologist to do it for us. J That the Movement is more important than all of us and that a true revolutionary must struggle against “individualism, egotism, and liberalism.”

This is but a part of the legacy Chairman Ernesto Bustillos leaves us; a lifetime committed to struggle. The Raza Press and Media Association calls on all Raza activists, journalists, academics, students, as well as all sectors of our people, to honor this legacy by committing or recommitting to struggle and by joining an organization, or by redoubling efforts to fight as never before for our liberation. J Ernesto Vive La Lucha Sigue Ernesto Bustillos-Presente Venceremos

Raza Press, Media, and Popular Expression

Spring-Sumer 2012

Ernesto Bustillos Presente! ALL POWER TO THE PEOPLE!

with Francisco Romero, 2006 Oxnard, 2005

with Kelly Flores and Pablo Aceves, 2010


with Cathy Espitia, 2006

“ E must combat liberalism, individualism, parochialism, and uphold collectivism, accountability, and personal sacrifice. We can’t let those who live off our movement, off the hook, no matter if they are our friends.”



Guerrillera/os de la Pluma

Journal of the Raza Press and Media Association

with Cathy Espitia and raulrsalinas, 2006

with Jose G. Moreno, Francisco Romero, and Luis H, Noreno, 2006

Oxnard, 2006

with Louie H. Moreno and Antonio Velasquez,

Detroit. 2003

with Cathy Espitia and Maria Ortiz, 2006


Raza Press, Media, and Popular Expression

Spring-Sumer 2012



t would seem that most important in one’s life is having the freedom of movement. It is perhaps even more so than being free of economic exploitation although it would be ridiculous to compare them, as both are intricately related. While the latter for a working person is relative to a seeming progressive move from one’s former condition to a hopedfor improved situation, one that feigns a psychological mask of freedom, the former is absolute – either one is physically controlled or one is not. The most damning of all barriers to free movement for us are the monstrous walls that are edified by power more to show how insignificant it considers the manipulated mass that now only sees a significance of getting from south to north when the intent has always really been to set a trap to have it not see the opposite. When distinguished by its economic impact the Orwellian strategy becomes clear – that the real reason for a physical U.S. border wall is not to keep someone out but to keep someone in until such time that extreme exploitation at the created so-called illegal level is exhausted and requires the beginning of a new cycle of the same tragic charade. The economic bottom-line always determines this process

while also being influenced by an extended period of exploitation that creates, over time, an irreversible accommodation in the insecure population currently being victimized that begins to demand security and benefits. Denying these for too long creates the potential for uncontrolled political disruption, while on the other hand, managing the timeline by creating a mixture of tension, terror, debate, and bogus solution results in support for a system that is the cause of the problem. The secret of the system’s success in this area has always been in its timing. In the U.S., we are fast approaching the end of the current cycle that will begin another. The only question left unanswered, however, is whether this new cycle will begin having reinforced White privilege by the full implementation of Endgame, the plan currently underway by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to detain and deport all removable aliens (and domestic terrorists) currently living in the United States by 2012. Or on the other hand, will it dilute this privilege by bowing to cheap labor needs and the negative public opinion generated by orchestrated racist laws like Arizona’s SB1070, and implement some type of socalled immigration reform before

the next presidential elections that will result in creating gratefully submissive partisan party political slaves? Whichever occurs, the question of freedom of movement and the problem of continued occupation will still not be addressed nor resolved. What will simply happen in either case is the clearing out of one exploited population by a process of so-called legalization or deportation to allow a completely new one to take its place. This will take place under a new set of rules that further deteriorates freedom of movement for everyone under even more restrictive ancillary actions, such as, increased militarization of the borders, a national identification program, and heightened xenophobia. However, lost in this confusing milieu of a finely tuned maze of manipulated intersecting Hegelian actions and reactions, is the undeniable historical reality of invasion, occupation, and colonization. And, it is in this last phase where power exerts itself most and the division between the colonist and the occupied becomes clearly evident. Since the original invasion of this hemisphere, the U.S. has put into practice genocide, overt slavery, a process of continued colonization to overwhelm numerically the original native populations, and has maintained an increased profit SEE NEXT PAGE


Guerrillera/os de la Pluma margin by the protection of white privilege in the labor force. However, as social and economic realities have evolved and the contradictions of the capitalist pyramid scheme become more acute and fast reaching its pinnacle, it is now implementing a sacking of a created false nation(al) mix of EuroAmerican colonists, ex-slave Africans and both willing and unwilling occupied Raza. It is doing this primarily through unrepresented tax wealth expropriation, labor exploitation, and outright theft that allow it to begin or continue this same process in other lands. What cannot be denied,

Journal of the Raza Press and Media Association however, is that when one is “of” an area, due to any number reasons but mainly because of a need to provide for basic needs, one might normally migrate from one place to another. Assuming a natural belonging, one then would not be immigrating anywhere, as this would connote requesting and being granted or denied a legal permission from an external or foreign power to move about in one’s own environment. In our case, rational thinking would dictate that one does not ask permission to move within one’s own land unless one is under some form of domestic or foreign

subjugation. It would logically follow that if one were experiencing either of the oppressive conditions, the natural response would then be to revolt against them. If one is not willing to accept a condition of modern-day serf to be tied to the land and owned by the state, there is no other conceivable sane response. One could understand, however, if one is implementing a strategy that requires biding one’s time while an appropriate window of opportunity becomes available to put into play that deliberated reaction. Anything less would be to accommodate or surrender to that subjugation. J

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Raza Press, Media, and Popular Expression

Art As A Weapon For Resistance

Spring-Sumer 2012

RPMA Reading List The Struggle in Black and Brown: African American and Mexican American Relations during the Civil Rights Era By Brian D. Behnken JJJ

Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media

By Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky JJJ The Hidden 1970s: Histories of Radicalism By Dan Berger JJJ Blowout!: Sal Castro and the Chicano Struggle for Educational Justice By Mario T. Garcia JJJ States of Delinquency: Race and Science in the Making of California’s

Juvenile Justice System By Miroslava Chávez-García JJJ The Making of Chicana/o Studies: In the Trenches of Academe By Rodolfo Acuna JJJ Chicano Students and the Courts: The Mexican American Legal Struggle for Educational Equality By Richard Valencia

JJJ Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice By Ian Haney López JJJ Quixote’s Soldiers: A Local History of the Chicano Movement, 1966-1981 By David Montejano JJJ Migra!: A History of the U.S. Border Patrol By Kelly Lytle Hernandez


Raza Press And Media Association P.O. Box 620095 San Diego, CA 92162

Website: • E-Mail:

A Call For Articles On Raza Press, Media, And Popular Expression For The Upcoming Issue... STATEMENT OF PURPOSE:

The Raza Press and Media Association is the only national group of progressive journalists working towards winning justice, peace, and freedom for all Mexicano-Latinos (Raza). We meet on a regular basis, have an organizational structure, principles of unity, objectives, and we consistently published journal, Guerrilleros de La Pluma. In response to the continuing and growing assaults on the right to information and freedom of expression, especially as it relates to Raza and other oppressed nationalities and peoples within the current borders of the United States, the Raza Press Association (formerly known as the Chicano Press Association) is making another call on Raza (students, journalists, community activists, and academicians) active in the field of media (journalism, radio, TV, popular art, spoken word, computer information, etc.) to submit articles related to the question of The Role of Raza Press, Media, And Popular Expression In Our Struggle For Democracy, Justice, And Self-determination. The articles must address the historical/cur-

rent onslaught on progressive and alternative thought. We see this fascist-racist attack coming down both “within the belly of the beast” from FBI, Police, Mainstream Media, Christian Right, Vendidos, etc., and externally from the CIA, Military Industrial Complex, Global Capitalism, and so forth. A major objective of these attacks on progressive thought is a conscious racist-capitalist effort to eliminate all programs which were initially developed for the purpose of advancing the educational and cultural development of the Raza community; for example: Chicano Studies, Ethnic Studies, Progressive Publications and Programs at Colleges and Universities, Raza Cultural Celebrations at elementary and high schools, Centro Culturales, and Bilingual/ Multicultural Education. Selected articles will be published in the Guerrilleros de la Pluma. Issues of Guerrilleros de La Pluma are distributed widely. Copies are circulated at political actions, colleges, libraries, and conferences; they are mailed Raza prisoners and a subscribers list; the journal is

also posted online (Internet). Literally thousands of people read the journal.


(1) articles must be between 3 and 5 pages (no longer please), typed and doubled space (Fonts 10 or 12 points). If you submit a research type working paper, when quoting, or referring to data, use footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography for documentation purposes. Writing styles that could be use are the following; Chicago, APA, and MLA. (2) send your articles via e-mail (newswire@ or on a floppy disk/ CD (i.e. MS Words, etc.) to the following address:



Guerrillera/os de la Pluma, Spring/Summer 2012  

Guerrillera/os de la Pluma, Spring/Summer 2012

Guerrillera/os de la Pluma, Spring/Summer 2012  

Guerrillera/os de la Pluma, Spring/Summer 2012