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Luis Guzman Design Portfolio_

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design studio I arch3553 | fall 2016

instructor

oswald jenewein

student

luis guzman

CAPPA

College of Architecture, Planning and Public Affairs The University of Texas at Arlington The University of Texas at Arlington

601 W. Nedderman Drive Arlington, Texas 76019 www.uta.edu/cappa

copyright 2016

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acknowledgment _

In 2015, UT Arlington’s School of Architecture and School of Urban and Public Affairs combined to form the College of Architecture, Planning and Public Affairs. The integration of the two schools strengthened the academic and research opportunities available for students and faculty at UT Arlington. CAPPA offers internationally recognized degrees in architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. Design Intelligence, a national evaluating service based in Washington, D.C., ranked the University’s landscape architecture program No. 13 in the nation for 2013. The college also hosts the Institute of Urban Studies, contributes to the Arlington Urban Design Center at Arlington City Hall, and offers graduate degrees in city and regional planning, public administration, urban planning and public policy, and others. The Master of Public Administration was listed on U.S. News & World Report’s 2014 list of best public affairs programs, while the online MPA program was No. 7 on Graduate Programs.

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preface Design Studio I focuses on the application of basic design principles and spatial concepts towards the synthesis of simple building types in an urban context. In the education of an architect, it is important to think three-dimensionally and understand architecture as a holistic process engaging culture, structure, material and design. For the first time, students worked on a project in an urban context and got exposed to the cultural background of a European City – Vienna. Every student, every individual, brings a story and certain skills. People are different and so is architecture. My goal is to see every student as a person and support them according to their strengths and weaknesses. Studio should be a collective experience - the social aspect of studying architecture does

not just contribute to a better learning environment, but also helps students to learn from each other. Coming from Austria to Texas, I appreciate the cultural diversity of UTA and try to encourage students to appreciate cultural variety as a great asset to both their professional and personal life. I want to thank Abel, Alfredo, Clint, Clodagh, Dima, Dylan, Gene, Julio, Karem, Kenny, Luis, Perla, Rohan, Samantha, Stephanie, Trevor and Tuong for being open to traveling into the unknown, for working late hours and participating actively and passionately in the discourse of architecture. Remember Zaha Hadid’s words, “Without that element of uncertainty, that sensation of traveling into the unknown, there would be no progress.” Together we came far this semester. Keep on growing beyond your limits.

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-Oswald

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about _

luis guzman

sanford, north carolina

third year

undergraduate design

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content _

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introducing cappa

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geometric primitives

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operative design

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spatial clusters

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precedent study

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part to whole

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urban hybrids

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glossar + architects

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research

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people sources

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The college of architecture, planning & public affairs interweaves the unique gifts and expertise of each person and profession to co-create urban, ecological, and social fabrics that unleash the inherent potential

of places and communities

in the DFW region and beyond.

In CAPPA, we work with our hands, heads, and hearts to change the world

one place at a time.

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introducing cappa In 2015, UT Arlington’s School of Architecture and School of Urban and Public Affairs combined to form the College of Architecture, Planning and Public Affairs. The integration of the two schools strengthened the academic and research opportunities available for students and faculty at UT Arlington.

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CAPPA offers internationally recognized degrees in architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. Design Intelligence, a national evaluating service based in Washington, D.C., ranked the University’s landscape architecture program No. 13 in the nation for 2013. The college also hosts the Institute of Urban Studies, contributes to the Arlington Urban Design Center at Arlington City Hall, and offers graduate degrees in city and regional planning, public administration, urban planning and public policy, and others. The Master of Public Administration was listed on U.S. News & World Report’s 2014 list of best public affairs programs, while the online MPA program was No. 7 on Graduate Programs.

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geometric primitives


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icosa (20 tri

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lines _

line

°

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parabola

hyperbola

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lines

circle

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ellipse

spline

helix

nurbs surface

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circle

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ellipse


polygons _

urbs surface

square (4-sides)

are (4-sides)

ellipse

hexagon (6-sides)

rectangle (4-sides

agon (6-sides)

rectangle (4-sides)

triangle (3-sides

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le (4-sides)

polygons _

triangle (3-sides)

bs surface

square (4-sides)

ellipse

hexagon (6-sides)

rectangle (4-sides)

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polyhedra _

right triangle

right square

right square

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polyhedra

tetrahedron (4 triangles)

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oblique pentagonal

oblique pentagonal

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polyhedra _

hexahedron (cube)

octahedron (8 triangles)

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polyhedra _

icosahedron (20 triangles)

dodecahedron (12 pentagons)

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ellipsoids _

sphere

oblate elipsoid

prolate elipsoid

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paraboloid hyperboloid _

paraboloid

hyperboloid

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prisms _

right square

right rectangular

oblique rectangular

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prisms

right triangular

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right pentagonal

oblique hexagonal

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cylinders _

right circular

oblique circular

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cones _

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torus _

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nurbs _

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operative design

twist + branc

ess >

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iations >

ch

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join

operation > br aggregation > anch + tw array + j _

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add > single > expand add > single > extrude _

expand

variations >

process >

process >

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variations >

extrude


add > multiple > merge add > multiple > nest _

merge

variations >

process >

process >

variations >

Nest

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add > multiple > offset displace > single > bend _

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displace > single > twist displace > multiple > interlock _

in

variations >

twist

process >

process >

process >

variations >

interlock

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displace > multiple > intersect displace > multiple > lift _

intersect

variations >

process >

process >

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variations >

lift


subtract > single > carve subtract > single > compress _

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subtract > single > fracture subtract > single > grade _

fracture

variations >

process >

process >

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variations >

grade


subtract > single > notch subtract > single > pinch _

nch

variations >

process >

pinch

process >

not

variations >

variations >

notch

process >

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subtract > single > shear subtract > single > taper _

shear

variations >

process >

process >

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variations >

taper


subtract > multiple > embed subtract > multiple > extract _

act

variations >

process >

extract

process >

em

variations >

variations >

embed

process >

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subtract > multiple > inscribe _

process >

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variations >

inscribe


operation > fracture + lodge aggregation > stack + rotate

process >

variations >

fracture + lodge

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stack + rotate

views >

operation > fracture + lodge aggregation > stack + rotate

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additive operations _

process > 1

2

3

variations >

interlock+pinch

process > interlock + pinch aggregation > join + stack

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views >

join + stack


additive operations _

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operation > notch + fracture aggregation > stack + pack


operation > extrude + inscribe aggregation > stack + bend

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extrude + inscribe

variations >

process >

stack + bend

views >

process > extrude + inscribe aggregation > stack + bend

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views >

operation > pinch + extrude aggregation > array + stack _

ude

process >

a

variations >

views >

pinch + extrude

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operation > pinch + extrude aggregation > array + stack

views >

variations >

array + stack

operation > pi aggregation >


operation > extrude + inscribe aggregation > stack + bend

twist + branch

j

variations >

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operation > b aggregation >

process >

join + array

operation > branch + twist aggregation > array + join

views >

variations >

branch

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spatial clusters

Using the concept “from part to whole�, a structure was built using a single unit. The form of the building was dictated primarily by a mix of two design operations. In this instance stack and array was used. 46

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views _

section

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plan


rendering studies _

perspective 1

perspective 2

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precedent study

_ C.F Moller’s Osterbrogade in Denmark and

David Chipperfield’s Museo Jumex in Mexico were analyzed from part to whole.


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museo jumex _

Museo Jumex lies on a triangular site in Mexico City and exhibiits one of the largest private art collections in Latin America. The building is surrounded by other commercial buildings and a museum. Its three levels house art collections and can also be used as platform to hold discourses and other educational activities. The building is elevated through the use of pilotis, which is one of Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture. The slight elevation of the building allows the lower level to act as an extension of the plaza that it lies on. This concept of maximizing publicly accessible space continues from the plaza to the loggia of the first floor of the building.

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architect David Chipperfield site Mexico City, Mexico year 2013 function Museum floors 3 floor area 15,000 sqf (139 sqm) source archdaily

The rooftop resembles a sawtooth and creates a rhythmic geometry that defines the third floor gallery. The facade is made up entirely of travertine that is quarried in Veracruz. The indegenous stone reminisces the old native sculptures of anicent mexican tribes.


osterbrogade Osterbrogade lies along the triangular inner city block of Copenhagen. The corners of the building are curved which direct the people where to move. The building was constructed in 2006 and is placed adjacent to some older housing units. The facade is made entirely of recycled bricks which gives the building a classical look despite being modern.

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Ostergrade is 6 stories high and the 1st floor acts as a shopping center. An important aspect of the building is that it contains balconies on its southern facade. This allows residents to look down on the courtyard and street. The balconies also bring in a significant amount of natural light to flood the living areas. architect C.F. Moller site Copenhagen, Denmark year 2006 function housing floors 6 number of units 52 source Architizer.com

The building was nominated for the Mies van der Rohe award in 2006. The design of the building resembled some of Kay Fisker’s and C.F Moller’s early designs of the 19.30s. The solidity of the materials used enforced the idea that the building was functionalist in desing.

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plans _

2BR unit floorplan

floorplan overview

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part to whole diagrams _

housing unit diagram

museo jumex part to whole diagram

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from part to whole

the concept of the part to the whole is used to create a form compisited by the agglomeration of a basic unit. in addition, several masses were subtracted.

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site _

the site is in rural Texas at an intersection. The site would then be organized into a grid system composed of a single unit.

overlapping grids superimposed on the site 58

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studies first studies

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final grid system with unit

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final views _

top view collage

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physical model _

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urban hybrids

Located in Vienna, Austria, this project involved the idea of an urban hybrid. The first program was a coffee house and the second was a gallery space with auditorium.


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diagrams _ stairs stairs

gallery

dining event

bar

gallery building

coffeehouse auditorium

patio kitchen

plaza

stage

storage

freeform organizational diagram

bar

patio

restroom

sunken plaza coffee house gallery building

exhibition

restroom auditorium storage

kitchen

gift shop offices

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organizational diagram

dressing room

gallery


movement diagrams movement

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circulation

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perspectives _

street view

bird’s eye view 66

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interiors interior

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interior coffeeshop

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plans _

first floor

second floor 68

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third floor

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first floor coffeeshop

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section _

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section _

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vienna coffehouse collage _

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glossary architects


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breuer marcel _

Breuer, born in Hungary, became an architect early in his life. Over the course of his career, he developed furniture, new systems of fabrication, and many acclaimed buildings.

nationality Hungarian born 1902-1981 selected works Church at St. John’s Abbey IBM Laboratory Hagerty House selected publications Marcel Breuer: New Buildings and Projects, Marcel Breuer and Tician Papachritou Sun and Shadow: the Philosophy of an Architect, Marcel Breuer Marcel Breuer: Furniture and Interiors, Marcel Breuer

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After a rough start at a school in Vienna, Breuer began studying at the Bauhaus in 1920 and remained there until 1928. After an economic problem in the 1930’s in Germany, Breuer furthered his development of furniture. He specialized in tubular steel framed structures. He took the information he learned and also focused on prefabricated structures. They were a cheap and easy alternative to those that were struggling. They were modular, and since they could be quickly produced out of inexpensive materials, Breuer was able to make the overall form detailed. Breuer also joined a partnership with Herbert Beckhard in New York of 1953, where the two continued to design iconic buildings.

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_ Papachristou, Tician. “Macel Breuer”. “Marcel Breuer Bigraphy”. The Famous People. n.d.

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candela felix

nationality Spanish-Mexican born January 27,1910 (died in 1997) selected works Los Manantiales, Mexico Narvarte church, Mexico selected publications -Massimiliano Savorra, La forma e la struttura. Félix Candela, gli scritti, Milano, Electa, 2013

“Candela-the Shell Builder.” (Book, 1963) source pictures

Candela attended La Escuela Superior de Arquitectura and graduated in 1935. Where at that time Candela traveled to Germany to further study architecture. After he started classes, he developed a very keen sense of geometry and started teaching other students in private lessons. Candela worked very hard during his lifetime to prove the real nature and potential reinforced concrete had in structural engineering. Félix Candela worked as an architect upon his arrival in Mexico until 1949 when he started to engineer many concrete structures utilizing his well known thin-shell design. He was responsible for more than 300 works and 900 projects in this time period. Many of his larger projects were given to him by the Mexican government, Candela became a professor in Mexico, which is what he did for the remainder of his career. Felix moved to the United States and taught at University of Illinois at Chicago from 19711978.

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chipperfield david chipperfield _

david

David Chipperfield is well known for his modern minimal designs. He was born in London, England and earned his architectural degree from the Architectural Association in London. Before starting his own practice in 1985, Chipperfield collaborated with award winning architects Norman Foster and Richard Rogers.

nationality English born December 18, 1953 selected works Anchorage Museum America’s Cup Museum selected publications David Chipperfield Architects Verlag der Buchh. Walther König, 2013

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Most of Chipperfield’s early projects were located in Japan and gained him respect for his approach to context. The site specifications of his buildings were widely accepted accross Japan because it resembled the island’s traditional use of architecture. Later on, Chipperfield established his own offices in cities like Berlin, London, Milan and Shanghai. From 1998 to 2013, seven of Chipperfield’s projects were nominated for the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Stirling Prize as well as the Mies van der Rohe award for contemporary architecture. In 2010, Chipperfield was Knighted in the New Year Honours.

_ source http://www.famous-architects.org/

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hadid zaha In 2004, Zaha Hadid became the first woman to be awarded the Pritzker Prize. She was not only a pioneer but also an icon in the world of architecture. Hadid expressed a unique architectural personality in which highlighted fragmentation, fluidity and futurism.

nationality Iraqi born 1950 (died in 2016) selected works Vitra Fire Station Landscape Formation One Lois & Richard Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art Galaxy SoHo Bergisel Ski Jump selected publications Zaha Hadid: Complete Works Zaha Hadid: Testing the Boundaries

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Hadid’s education includes a degree at the Architectural Association School of Architecture after receiving a degree in mathematics at the American University of Beruit in 1972. She continued to be an educator at various locations throughout the world: AA, Harvard Graduate School of Design, University of Applied Arts Vienna just to name a few. Zaha Hadid has drawn inspiration from the two dimensional arts through painting and designing. Her buildings are abstract forms with parametric representation not falling short of a sence of order.

_ _ arch Zaha-Hadid.com “Zaha Hadid” by Magherita Guccione

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kahn louis isadore

nationality American born 1901 (died in 1974) selected works Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban Yale University Art Gallery Salk Institute Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad Phillips Exeter Academy Library Kimbell Art Museum selected publications The Houses of Louis Kahn Louis Kahn: Conversations with Students Louis Kahn: Drawing to Find Out Louis Kahn: On the Thoughtful Making of Spaces

source www.thefamouspeople.com

Louis Isadore Kahn was born as Itze-Leib Schmuilowskyin a poor Jewish family in Parnu, Estonia. In 1906, his family transferred to the United States. Because of their poor financial conditions, they could not even afford pencils. As such, they burned twigs in order to make money through Louis’ drawings. When this renowned American architect was 3-years-old, he was fascinated by the light emitting out from the coal burning in the stove. He put on an apron and put some coal in the apron which caught fire and eventually burnt his face.

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He later played the piano to supplement silent movies in cinemas. He became an established citizen in 1914 and the next year, he adopted the name ‘Kahn’. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania and completed his Bachelor of Architecture in 1924. The ‘Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban’ in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is considered his magnum opus. It took him twelve years to complete this magnificent edifice, starting from 1962 and ending in 1974.

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koolhaas rem _

In 1944, Dutch Architect Rem Koolhaas was born in Rotterdam, Netherlands to Anton Koolhaas and Selinde Pietertje Roosenburg. His father was a screenwriter and journalist. As his father,Koolhaas began his career as a writer. Through his writing he recieved fame before commisioning his first building.

nationality Dutch born 1944 selected works Maison à Bordeaux Seattle Central Library selected publications Delirious New York S,M,L,XL Junkspace/Running Room

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_ http://www.pritzkerprize.com/2000/bio http://alchetron.com/Rem-Koolhaas-686534-W

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After graduating from the Architecture Association School in London, Koolhaas was awarded the Harkness Fellowship to be able to research and study in the U.S. During this time he studied under Peter Eisenman at Cornell University and developed his famous writing Delirious New York which he stated as a “retroactive manifesto for Manhattan”.

After success at writing, Koolhaas came into more public notice when he founded OMA in 1975 that focuses on contemporary design. He was later joined by one of his former students, Zaha Hahid. Koolhaas has been named one of the most important architectural thinkers and urbanist of his period. In 2000, Koolhaas won the _ Pritzker Prize.


le corbusier

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nationality Swiss_French born October 6, 1887 (August 27, 1965) selected works 1929 Savoie villa in Poissy 1962 Exhibition hall in Stockhom, project 1961 Assembly building selected publications Le Corbusier et son atelier rue de Sevres 35 (George Wittendorn, Inc. New York, N.Y.10021 José Oubrerie e Le Corbusier Saint_Pierre de Firminy_Vert. Contiuità o tradimento? Le Corbusier. Willy Boesiger

arch 3553 fall 2016

“What beauty! What extraodinary work! What an example of idealism and professional conviction! What an untiring struggle to maintain a work which is already almost no longer his but the patrimony of all humanity! With what enthusiasm, with what lyrical power he defended it all the while, knowing full well that it was too advanced and therefore remaining ununderstood by the mediocre.”

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“As early as 1960, during preparation of the volume covering his work from 1910 to 1960, Le Corbusier expressed the desire that his work be published in a cheap edition. “We have to think of the young people, who don’t have access to expensive books, and for me, in particular, they are the ones I address myself to...” His own published work always appeared in low_cost edition.” “Of the great twenties century architects Le Corbusier is recognized for his forthright proclaimation of architectural theories and his work relates closely to those princples which he advocated.”

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niemeyer oscar ribeiro de almeida Oscar Niemeyer was a Brazilian architect who is considered to be one of the key features to modern architecture. Niemeyer was best known for his design of government buildings for Brasília. His experimentation with concrete was beneficial to the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

nationality Brazilian born 1907 (died in 2012) (aged 104) selected works Cathedral of Brasilia Niteroi contemporary art museum Edificio copan Palacio da alvorada and planalto selected publications The curves of time, Oscar Niemeyer

source Niemeyer, Oscar. The Curves of Time: The Memoirs of Oscar Niemeyer. London: Phaidon, 2000. Print. pictures arquiteturaurbanismotodos.org.br

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Niemeyer was noted as a wonderful artist and one of the greatest architects of his generation. His architecture was strongly influenced by Le Corbusier, but in an interview, assured that this “didn’t prevent his architecture from going in a different direction”. Niemeyer was famousfor using abstract forms and curves and wrote in his memoirs: “I am not attracted to straight angles or to the straight line, hard and inflexible, created by man. I am attracted to free-flowing, sensual curves. The curves that I find in the mountains of my country, in the sinuousness of its rivers, in the waves of the ocean, and on the body of the beloved woman. Curves make up the entire Universe, the curved Universe of Einstein.”

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prince-ramus joshua _

Joshua Prince-Ramus has a master degree in Architecture from Harvard University and a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy from Yale University.

nationality American born 1969 (age 47 now) selected works Seattle Central Library Dee and Charles Wyly Theater selected publications Seattle Public Library. OMA / LMN by KOOLHAAS, Rem, and Joshua Prince-Ramus, Architects Conversations with Architects: In the Age of Celebrity by Belogolovsky, Vladimir

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_ source: www.rex-ny.com picture: www.rex-ny.com

He is the founder of REX located in New York and was the partner of Rem Koolhaas who established OMA in New York also but he left in 2006. He has been a visiting professor in many high ranked university such as Rice, Yale, Harvard, MIT and Columbia University. He was a member of Ted Brain Trust where he shared his design ideas and methodologies. He won the Marcus Prize. Also credited as “ 5 greatest architects under 50 “, as well in many other publishers. Joshua was a partner in charge of the Seattle Library, Guggenheim-Hermitage Museum and Wyly Theater too.


zumthor peter Peter Zumthor woked with a carpenter as a teenager, studied architecture in his home town and New York, and later worked as as a conservationist architect. Zumthor won the Pritzker Prize in 2009. Currently he teaches and works out a small village in the Swiss Alps.

nationality swedish born 1943selected works the therme vals kunsthaus bregenz brother klaus field chapel kunsthaus bregenz, museum and administration building

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Zumthor completed two of his most famous works within a year, listed in selected works. He is known for being a low profile architect. Quotes “Every building is built for a specific use in a specific place and for a specific society. My buildings try to answer the questions that emerge from these simple facts as precisely and critically as I can�. Peter

selected publications thinking architecture by peter zumthor atmospheres by peter zumthor

source: new york times magazine picture: gerry ebner

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research


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red vienna social housing _

Social Housing by www.werkbundsiedlung-wien.at/``

Living Condiotions for the poor in Vienna www.writingcities.com

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Housing shortages and deplorable sanitary living conditions and diseases like cholera were widespread for the working classes as Vienna’s population went through a dramatic growth from half a million in 1850 to 2 million by the 1900. The concept of Red Vienna evolved with the social democratic party, which took over after the fall of Habsburg dual monarchy of Austria & Hungary in 1918. During this time, the notion of social housing was viewed as the only way to combat these housing shortages in Vienna. These housing programs were not only to provide accommodation for people but also to give the same inhabitants a better quality of life. This would be achieved by transforming existing working class housing, from dark, damp and cramped living spaces to areas that would be flooded in natural light, insulated, spacious and safe. Each unit was to contain a fully equipped kitchen, living room and bedrooms. This would also include access to a toilet and to running water, almost unheard of with previous social housing programs.


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This concept allowed ideas like the Garden City from Ebenezer Howard to be created and discussed. The Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by green areas which would contain housing, industry and agriculture. This need for change in social housing also created a need for inventive ideas for the use of smaller spaces. The Frankfurt Kitchen, designed by Margarete SchütteLihotzky (first female Austrian architect). The kitchen design used the idea that reduced space meant increased efficiency, and “was key to the kitchen’s transformation into a rationalized modern domestic laboratory”.Schütte-Lihotzky’s design was enormously successful, and around 10,000 Frankfurt kitchens were built in the late 1920s. The Frankfurt Kitchen http://urbanplanning.library.cornell.edu

Plan for the Garden City pictures http://urbanplanning.library.cornell.edu/, https://en.wikipedia.org

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The Vienna housing tax and the luxury tax was essential element to the funding for these social housing projects as the government had full control on the rents of these properties. The rent was determined by a percentage of the household income (4%). This amount would not cover the actual cost of construction of the building but it was seen more as a maintenance fee for the unit’s upkeep. Over 61,000 apartments were created under this housing scheme. The most famous project was Karl Marx – Hof (1927-1930). This complex was designed by architect and city planner, Karl Ehn. Ehn worked under and was greatly influence by the architect Otto Wagner, who had a key impact modern architecture. In addition, to the 1,500 apartments. Karl Marx – Hof, had nurseries, playgrounds, health clinics, libraries, laundries, a youth center, a post office, a pharmacy and other multiple shops. The unique design divided up the long continuous building by using partition walls, which created smaller areas centered around the staircase and then the main

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corridors opened onto the street. Each cluster contained 20 apartments, which allowed smaller communities to develop inside the greater Karl Marx scheme. The façade of the building is simple except for the addition of large arches, which the apartments are built on. The arches served to connect the green spaces of the complex to the outside world. It also provided access to the nearby train station. This design produced strong social interactions between tenants and the outside.

Karl Marx - Hof https://www.pinterest.com


When the Austrian Civil War broke out and then ended within a week in 1934, Austrofascists attacked the Karl Marx Hof, which was a symbol of Red Vienna socialism, where socialists fighting against the conservative Christian Social government had barricaded themselves inside the building. The artillery created damage that would not be repaired until the 1950s. In 1932 Werkbundsiedlung was launched as an international exhibition for residential construction.It had work from architects from Austria, Europe and America. It contained 70 fully furnished houses for public display in the Werkbundsiedlung, before being made available for sale to potential residents.

The proclamation of the Stanestannt, and World War 2 halted further development of social housing until the population boom of the 1960’s. Pre-fabricated high rise buildings were the solution. This allowed the government to create cheap housing in a short time frame. During this time, over 100,000 apartments were completed to meet immediate shortages. The Government then changed focus to more urban renewal and restoration of older buildings to fulfill the need for housing. This plan worked well until the 1990’s but then the population grew again due to the arrival of immigrants and the demand for single person housing. Vienna city council created Rosblergasse no. 15 in 2004 to resolve the shortages. This became the last government housing project before social housing was passed over the control of non-profit associations and cooperatives. housing project before social

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Launch of Werkbundsiedlung exhibition source http://www.ic.org, https://www.wien.gv.at, https://www.huduser.gov/, https://mitpress. mit.edu pictures,http://www.werkbundsiedlung-wien.at/

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loos adolf _

nationality Austrian born 1870 (died in 1933) selected works Tristan Tzara House The American Bar Michaelerplatz selected publications Ornament and Crime Adolf Loos On Architecture Adolf Loos

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source pictures yatzer.com

Adolf Loos is known by some as the father of Modernism. He was the first recognized architect to go against the neoclassisism of his day and age. He says in his book Ornament and Crime that “... the evolution of culture marches with the elimination of ornament from useful objects.” This was very controversial at the time and many saw it as insulting. His project, the Looshaus, best represented this quote. Adolf Loos mostly practiced architecture in Vienna, even going as far as to design The American Bar, a coffee house for which Vienna is famous for. He also designed a House in Paris, France for an poet Tristan Tzara. Loos’s style is very present within this design, as it is again, very minimalist. The building has no ornaments and sticks to just 2 materials for the facade.


Adolf Loos’s Looshause (facade pictured left) was the first of the modernist buildigns. When first designed, it didn’t even have the flower boxes hanging outside of the window. This was seen as insulting, with one individual finding it so repulsive that he never walked infront of that building again to avoid loocking at it. This style would later go on and inspider Le Corbuiser and Mies van der Rohe.

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Pictured left is the floor plan of the American Bar, also located within Vienna. It’s no surprise that Loos would design one of these houses. Many intellectuals would gather at these places and discuss their varying trades. This Coffee house had a unique style (American) and was the first of it’s kind. To this day, the Bar has the same atmosphere as it did the day it opened in 1908. It is very small, at a meager 290 square feet, but many say that it just adds to the ambience.

source vanityfair.com pictures

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viennese coffee house culture _ Viennese coffee house culture might have begun during 1683. After the Siege of Vienna, Georg Kolschitzky obtained the first license to sell coffee for his heroic actions. His coffee was left behind by the Turks. Today, there is a street in Vienna’s 4th district named after him. The first Coffee house wasn’t opened by him however. This was done by an Armenian spy by the name of Diodato. The Johannes-Diodato park in Vienna’s 4th district is named after him. The first few houses were stocked with cards to play games and Billiard tables. However, In 1720, The Kramersches Kaffeehaus was the very first coffee house to supply newspapers. Shortly after this, the houses started to serve warm meals and alcohol, increasing the clientele. This was beneficial for many of the houses after Napoleon’s Blockade of 1808 increased the price of coffee exponentially. The Viennese coffee house is often decorated with nice dining areas, comfortable chairs, and relaxing atmospheres. Many artists, 100

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source www.wien.gv.at pictures upload.wikimedia.org


viennese coffee house culture often thought of the coffee houses as their extended living rooms. It helped that many of these individuals were crowded into tiny apartments. They wouldn’t just have one favorite either, as they would do rounds to many of the city’s bustling houses. Café Griensteidl, Café Central, and Café Harrenhof were the choice houses for writers, while Café Museum was a venue bustling with painters. Some of these houses were even used for black market deals.

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The coffee houses changed again after World War One. Dance Cafés opened, playing a popular form of music from America, Jazz. Most coffee houses have an extensive list of craft brews, making it near impossible to order a simple cup of coffee. Black coffee is normally substituted for a mocha, while cappuccino is substituted for something along the lines of Melange. The varieties are extensive, with different combinations of flavorings, coffee beans, chocolates, and sometimes even ice creams. It is traditional to accompany every glass of Coffee with a glass of water source theculturetrip.com pictures http://newshour-tc.pbs.org/

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vienna today _

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The Austrian Parliament (German: Österreichisches Parlament) is the bicameral legislature in Austria. Consists of two chambers: the National Council (Nationalrat) and the Federal Council (Bundesrat). Both houses convene as the Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung). Legislature meets in the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna. The National Council is composed of 183 members elected through proportional representation in a general election. The legislative period lasts five years, Elections are held earlier if the National Council prematurely moves for its own dissolution. The National Council is the dominant (albeit ‘lower’) house in the Parliament. City Council were divided among the Socialists (58 seats), the People’s Party, or Conservatives (36 seats), and the Communists (6 seats). source theculturetrip.com pictures http://newshour-tc.pbs.org/

The first and foremost priorities of the new city government were to ensure welfare programmes for the young and the elderly, to repair the city-owned utilities and rebuild the city - altogether a programme that continued essentially until the early 1960s. The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs--SPÖ), until 1991 known as the Socialist Party of Austria (Sozialistische Partei Österreichs--SPÖ), has its roots in the original Social Democratic Workers’ Party (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei--SDAP), founded in 1889 by Viktor Adler, a young doctor. The SDAP supported revisionist Marxism and the use of democratic methods to establish workingclass rule in a democratic government. The SDAP was responsible for pushing through universal voting rights for men in 1905 and for extending the same for women in 1919. From 1934 to 1945, In 1945 it was reconstituted as the Socialist Party of Austria. In 1991 the party readopted the designation “Social Democratic.”


weather in vienna

“Photocase‘Straßenbahnschneechaos in Wien’ a Photo by ‘Elektra Bregenz’” Photocase. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2016 picture source

Winter it’s a cold time of year, Daily highs reach 4°C, when the average low temperatures drop below freezing every month. January is the coldest month of the year, Averaging lows of -4°C and average highs of 2°C. Both December and January have overall average temperatures that are below freezing at -1°C. Vienna is known for its placid continental climate; one with variable weather

patterns and a large seasonal temperature variance. Austria’s capital has warm and pleasant summers and winters with cold temperatures that can drop below freezing. On average, 2,000 hours of sunshine are registered annually, and because of the city’s continental location away from any large bodies of water, it can actually get quite hot at times during the summer. Vienna’s weather changes regularly, but summer is undoubtedly the most comfortable time of year to visit. Summer is also by far the sunniest of all seasons. June, July and August all enjoy days with 11 hours of sunshine on average. Autumn months, October and November, are fresh and mild. although the skies can be rather overcast on some days. When the sun sets on autumn days, the city quickly cools down, especially when it’s breezy. While March nights still have temperatures ranging around freezing, in May the nights are 9°C “warm” on average. May also marks the beginning of the warmer half of year, with an average high temperature of 20°C.

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“Architecture in Austria.” Wojtek Gurak Architecture Photographer ByWojteknet. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2016 source pictures Vienna University of Economics Library and Learning Centre by Zaha Hadid Architects

“Architecture in Austria.” Wojtek Gurak Architecture Photographer ByWojteknet. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2016 source pictures Haas Haus designed by the architect Hans Hollein

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Beginning in the 1960s, Vienna post-war architecture established new accents. In the 1980s and 1990s, revolutionary residential buildings were suggested. In effect the earliest decade of the 21st century, new architectural landmarks arose in Vienna Austria, for example the Museums Quartier & Danube City. In 1980s, new housing advances and residential structures were constructed. Frequently in the post-modern style. By the middle of the 1980s. Vienna had a spoton architecture scandal. Hans Hollein’s design for modern glass structure across from the time-honored St. Stephen’s Cathedral caused a controversy. The Haas House was built nonetheless and opened in 1990. Contemporary architecture in Vienna thus drew increased attention. Additional contributing aspect this was a roof extension by Coop Himmelbau, completed in 1988 in the earliest district Falkestraße, known about beyond the borders of Austria.


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”Architecture in Austria.” Wojtek Gurak Architecture Photographer ByWojteknet. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2016 picture source

Hundertwasser House by Friedensreich Hundertwasser

”Architecture in Austria.” Wojtek Gurak Architecture Photographer ByWojteknet. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2016 picture source

Wotrubakirche church by Fritz Wotruba & Fritz Gerhard Mayr

Friedrich Hundertwasser furthermore generated a lot of excitement. Hundertwasser created the best well-known buildings in Vienna in the 1980s. The Hundertwasser House, Vienna’s most bizarre apartment building, and the Kunst Haus Wien as well as the Spittelau garbage incinerator facility. For all of his buildings, Hundertwasser demanded creative freedom and harmony with nature. His colorful designs are very popular with the Viennese and tourists alike. Additional architectural hotspots in Vienna Austria are the landing stage of the Twin City Liner on the Danube Canal (by Fasch & Fuchs) and the luxury hotel built by Jean Nouvel diagonally opposite. The WU Campus, which opened in 2013 with structures by Zaha Hadid, BUSarchitektur and Sir Peter Cook, is the new center of student life at the Prater. The lakeside district of Aspern, on the edge of Vienna, homes and offices for 40,000 people are currently being constructed on a site of 2.4 million square meters. The newly built main station is exceptionally electrifying in an architectural sense.

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Vienna Population _

Http://thexpatmagazine.com/author/ thexpatmagazine/

Http://thexpatmagazine.com/author/ thexpatmagazine/

“Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first (in a tie with Vancouver, Canada and San Francisco, US) for the world’s most livable cities.” 106

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Vienna the capital and biggest city of Austria. Also one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria main city, with a population of approximately 1.8 million and 2.6 million within the metropolitan area, nearly one third of Austria’s population. It’s also one third of the cultural, economic, and political center of Austria. The 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the AustroHungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants.


wagner otto _

www.ottowagner.com

nationality Austro-Hungarian born 1841 selected works Nussdorf weir and lock Viennese Wiener Stadtbahn (Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station) Majolica House Postal Office Savings Bank Building Kirche am Steinhof

Otto Koloman Wagner (18411918) is rightly regarded as one of the pioneers of the modern movement in architecture. Wagner was a native of Vienna and studied architecture there at the Vienna Polytechnic and the Vienna Academy of Arts. As well as in Berlin at the Kรถnigliche Bauakademie. In Vienna, he first worked under Ludwig von Fรถrster, the architect of the Ringstrasse. After this Wagner established his own practice. Much of his early work consisted of apartment houses, but he received commissions or won competitions for such other structures as a theatre, synagogue, banks, and dwellings. In later projects Wagner demonstrated an ability to move beyond the styles of the moment in pressing forward to find

selected publications Moderne Architektur (1896) Die Grosstadt (1911)

www.ottowagner.com

The Architectural Record 31 (May 1912):485500 austria-forum.org

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wagner’s structures _

Austrian Postal Savings Bank he Austrian Postal Savings Bank is the first move by Wagner to break off from the architecture of that time. He broke away from the Art Nouveau style and the the Neoclassicism style and was part of the modernist movement.Even though the front of the building has a traditional continuation with the decoration, Such examples given as sculptures,decorations, and the underlying order that the structure has. Its construction began in 1904 and was completed in 1906. The major use of material was reinforced concrete. Kirche am Steinhof Considered one of the most important Art Nouveau churches in the world. The Church of St.Leopold or known as Kirche am Steinhof is the Roman Catholic oratory for the Steinhof Psychiatric Hospital in Vienna, Austria. Construction began in 1903 and was completed in 1907. The materials used are Carrara Marble and Copper.

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The Architectural Record 31 (May 1912):485500 https://upload.wikimedia.org


_ University of Vienna architect: Heinrich Ferstel (1828-1883) built between 1873-1878 primary style: Renaissance A symbol of the liberal culture. The style proclaims its historical affiliation between modern rational culture and the revival of learning after the dark ages. The tremendous debate and furor surrounding the three paintings for the university which Gustav Klimt was to do (philosophy, medicine and jurisprudence) not only caused a sensation in Vienna in 189798, but dramatically changed Klimt’s entire life and mode of painting. RATHAUS architect: Frederich Schmidt built between 1872-1883. primary style: Gothic Shows its tie to the free medieval commune, as the city itself has great autonomy from Austria itself. his partner Franz Matsch) did the ceiling as a history of theater in Austria and decorated the grand stairway.

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vienna secession + wiener werkstatte _

The Vienna Secession, formed in 1897, was a group of artists that broke away from the main association at that time- the Kunstlerhaus. The Kunstlerhaus was rooted in classicism, and many artists wanted to investigate more modern ideas.Original members would meet in coffee houses to exchange ideas, and before the secession formed two sub groups existed: the Hagenbound and the siebener club. The leaders of this breakaway movement were Gustav Klimt, Carl Moll, and Josef Engelhart who were inspired by the Munich Secession in 1892. At its peak, 64 members were part of the secession, including Andri Ferdinand, Leopold Bauer, Josef Hoffmann, and Otto Wagner. The meeting place of the secession was in a building built by Joseph Olbrich. It is situated off the Ringstrasse and is a completely different style that all the buildings that were there. It embodies how the artists felt about historicism at the time and how they wanted to move forward and discover new forms of art. The building was also a mix of “fine and applied arts�, just like group that formed the secession. Overall, the members wanted to

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www.theviennasecession.com www.voices.uchicago.edu


break away from the cycle of reusing old styles. They wanted to leave the historicism and develop their own style. While this was, in some aspects, similar to the Jugendstil style, the secession style “centered around symmetry and repetition rather than natural forms”. It was very inspired and reminiscent of the Arts and Crafts movement. They wanted quality and cared for work as opposed to a regeneration of old ideas. “To every age its art, to every art its freedom” was written on the front of the building. The members of the secession wanted to expose the truths in art, to form a “representative artistic language” that every age could look at, understand its purpose, understand that it was meaningful, and realize that it was art. With art becoming “art” rather than a recreation of something real, it exposes new social ideas, so people can discuss those ideas that would otherwise remain hidden. One art piece the secession was of a nude legs. Schiele

painted during by Egon Schiele, women with open drew “nervous

www.visual-arts-cork.com www.artsy.net

lines” the closer he got to the focal point of the painting. In this way, schiele was acknowledging that it was dangerous to do, dangerous to show but deliberately did it anyways. This one painting is a sort of summary of the entire movement. artists were doing new things, regardless of how they were perceived by society.

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Another series of pieces on the ceiling of the University of Vienna by Klimt show perpspectives that were frowned upon at the time. In one, a nude woman is depicted from a lower viewpoint. In another, people are left in a mist, not truly seeing wat is around them. The pieces forced people to see what they rather would not. Klimt shows what is always going to be there, acknowledging it and making it apparent to the public- which he thought was a good thing. Contrary to the traditional ideas at the time, Klimt realized that the world is progressing, so why wasn’t art? The members of the secession realized that progression is always going to be present, ignoring it and trying to stick to old forms that are

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_ already known to be successful is not doing anything to push the boundaries of art or expand intellectual conversation. Instead, artists have to experiment, they have to make something that not everybody will see as beautiful because it will force society to ask questions. The Weiner Werkstatte was a shop that opened to bring craft to all parts of life. They produced fashion, silver, furniture, graphic designs, and ceramics. The shop was a branch off the vienns secession, as most of the pieces sold were created by its members. Some old principles were used- just because they were breaking away from tradition did not mean they were ignoring old ordering pprinciples, they were just utilizing them in a new way. Similar to this, they took old painting subjects and ortrayed them in an unorthodox waylike the human figure. They used design to force people to see what they thought should be the focus

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athens charter + the functionalist city The Athens charter is perceived to be produced by CIAM IV, the fourth meeting of the congres internationaux d’architecture moderne. There has been some confusion as to how it actually came to be. While some say it was produced during the time the congress convened, other say that Corbusier published it after the congress disbanded. Regardless, of when it was published, it outlined the modern approach to the functionality of a city. CIAM was founded in 1928. Some of it’s starting members were Le Corbusier, Karl Moser, Gerrit Rietveld, and Hannes Meyer. Later on, the congress was joined by Walter Gropius among others. During the fourth congress, one of the most talked about aspects in city planning was how a city should be organized; what parts of the city should be utilized for and how they should be connected. The Athens Charter summarized the majority of this discussion. Many aspects of the charter were Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture. The charter also highlighted the problems in current cities and how to remedy

www.getty.edu www.archdaily.com

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_ those problems to create the ultimate functionalist city. these work together to form the basis of society. As citizens of that city go about their day to day lives, their thoughts are somewhat influenced by their built environment. The charter states that at the time, “most of the cities studied oresent an image of chaos”. Corbusier also said that they did “not correspond in any way to their ultimate purpose: to satisfy the basic biological and physiological needs of their inhabitants”. The charter sought to change this by providing a rubric of sorts. As stated, a lot of the main points of the charter were based on Le Corbusier’s points of architecture. They were as follows: -Supports to lift up the first floor of the building off the game -Roof gardens -Free designing of the ground plan -Horizontal ribbon windows -Free design of the façade In the charter, the corresponding poiints were: -Establish a strong sense of communal grounds (by raising private buildings to create separation) 114

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www.ciam4.com www.open.edu

private buildings to create separation) -Green spaces established throughout the city, in somewhat unconventional ways (like a roof) if there is not room -Not reusing old design styles of architecture (by instituting modern open floor plans) -As much sunlight as possible for as long as possible (through the use of large windows) -A building that reflects its usage, while still pushing the envelope of accepted architecture at the time (through a free facade) Overall, the charter laid out the plan of most modern cities. It contributed to much of the urban sprawl present today. As most elements of the city were separated, it eliminated much of the compact elements present in older cities.


fin de siecle _ to accommodate the influx of people from the surrounding countries. Great minds like Sigmund Freud are only just being born, 1856.

picture: media.gettyimages.com

Vienna, Austria has seen many changes throughout its history and one of the most notable is a time known as fin de siecle, which is french for end of a century. Although the translation is literal since fin de siecle took place towards the end of the nineteenth century, it is also symbolic due to the large amount of socio-political and cultural revolutions starting to emerge that contradicted the current state of societal and governmental points of view. this marked the beginning of Fin De Siecle. Fin De Siecle starts to take large strides during the 1850s where Vienna begins to expand and creates what is known as the Innere Stadt, the first district of Vienna, in order

In the same year, 1857, The Vienna-Trieste Railway, also known as the the Southern Railway, is completed and allows faster travel to the south of Austria from Vienna and construction begins on the Ringstrasse, a circular road surrounding Innere Stadt. Anti-semitism also begins to spread throughout not just Vienna but Austria as a whole and slowly the Jewish community begins to have their rights take away; they can no longer own land or have community gatherings. 1859 brings a boiling point as tensions between the French and Austria-Hungary Empire reach their peak and France declares war which leads to the defeat of the AustriaHungary Empire in the same year. Between the 1860s and 1900s the new, free-way of thinking begins to affect the traditional views of schooling and teaching/learning styles take a more expressive role. The University of Applied Arts becomes the Vienna School of

sources: www.timelines.ws; www.vienna4u.at; www.bbc.com; www.google.com/books; www.wein.gv.at

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fin de siecle _ Arts and Crafts. This is a direct influence by the arts and crafts movement which started in England and spread throughout Europe. The movement represented antiindustrial ideals and pushed for socio-economic reform. In 1965 the Ringstrasse is finally finished but the buildings which encompass the road took the better part of thirty years to complete; this period is known as Historicism, 1860s to 1890s. During his time in Vienna, Sigmund Freud had yet to make a name for himself until he studied the results of Doctor Josef Breuer whose successful therapy talks inspired Sigmund Freud to produce the cathartic method, also known as the talking cure. He is often seen spending his time observing the happenings in Vienna and is a frequent traveler around the Ringstrasse; he used his observations and notes in his work.

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Groups such as the Austrian and Czech Nationalists begin to make their voices heard as they rally for socio-political changes, such as socialism instead of liberalism, and condemn the monarchy in

Vienna. The, previously non-existent, working-class begin to rise through their struggles against aristocrats, start to create a different view of elite and differentiate themselves through intellect and education. In 1897, the Vienna Secession art group was founded and had radical ideas which revolved around the objection of conservatism in any form of art; the Vienna Secession building was built shortly after the founding of the group in 1987. In 1899, Sigmund Freud publishes “interpretation of dreams” which takes displays Sigmund Freud’s work and findings about the human mind. By the time the 1900s begin coffee houses have established themselves and are popular with all of Vienna. It is in this time where a young Adolf Hitler begins to understand what is happening around Vienna, radical political ideologies, and attempts to enroll in art school but is quickly rejected due to his conservative style of painting. He spent many hours in cafes where he constantly overheard what ideas were currently being explored by the people in Vienna which also began to influence him.

source: www.pbs.org; www.britannica.com; www.jstor.org


fin de siecle _ Otto wagner designed a series of railways and pavilions throughout Vienna some of which were underground and above gournd in some sections of the city. He also designed a railway pavilion specifically for Emperor Franz Josef who only used it once since he preferred to travel on horseback. Emperor Franz Josef decrees German the official language of the Austria-Hungary Empire military, and later the country, as a way to oppose the Czech Nationalists. Karl Lueger becomes the mayor of Vienna of anti-Semitism. he spent many hours on of a chair in the viennese plazas preaching this ideology which made him ever popular with the citizens of Vienna. Otto Weininger publishes his book “Geschlecth und Charakter� which explains his ideas about people being having both masculinity and femininity and reveals some undertones of anti-semitism and antifeminism. During the 1910s historical figures, Joseph Stalin, Leo Trotsky, spend their time in viennese cafes writing what will later be praised by their followers when their time to

rule comes. The efforts of the Nationalists and the Viennese community produced what is known as Red Vienna, 1918, a time where the city was ruled democratically. Once more, tensions between nationalists and the empire reached a zenith which resulted in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, nephew of Emperor Franz Josef, and his wife by a teenage Serbian nationalist in 1914. The assassination lead to the start of world war one; after the war Vienna becomes the capital of Austria, 1918. Prior to the start of world war two, Hitler was part of a nazi coup which ended in Hitler murdering chancellor dollfus in 1934. Germany invades Austria and Vienna becomes part of hitler’s greater Germany, 1938. 1939 sparks the beginning of world war two and Sigmund frued finds himself fleeing Vienna along with his daughter after she was arrested by the gestapo and released a day later. In the 1945 allied forces remove the german military from Vienna and occupy the city dividing it into four parts controlled by the united states, soviet union, france, and united kingdom.

source: www.wien.gv.at; www.historynet.com; discovery.ucl.ac.uk; www.bkka.gv.at

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