Preventing Infectious Diseases Lucy Crenshaw
What are infectious diseases? An infectious disease is any disease caused by an agent that invades the body. There are five agents, or pathogens, that
There are four common ways diseases are
cause an infectious disease:
1. Bacteria: tiny, single-celled
1. Person to person: sneezing,
organisms that cause disease. Ex: tuberculosis, tetanus, sinus infections.
coughing, kissing, drinking from the same glass, sexual contact
2. Food and water: food or water
2. Virus: tiny disease-causing
infected by person, animal, or sewage.
particles. Ex: colds, the flu, measles, AIDS, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
3. Environment: Pathogens are on everything you touch.
3. Fungi: Organisms that absorb and use the nutrients of living or dead organisms. Ex: Athlete’s foot, ringworm.
1. Eat a healthy, balanced diet and stay hydrated 2. Reduce stress levels 3. Get regular medical checkups 4. Get enough sleep 5. Get vaccinate
4. Animals: animals carry diseases and pass them onto to humans. Treatments:
4. Protist: larger, more complex organisms that are free living. Ex: Malaria.
5. Parasites: Animals that get their energy feeding on other living things. Ex: lice, tapeworm, roundworms.
1. Antibiotics: medicine used to kill or slow the growth of bacteria. (Incorrect use can lead to antibiotic resistant bacteria. to prevent this, only use antibiotics for bacterial infections and follow prescription.)
2. See a Doctor
Protecting Yourself Your body has many ways of fighting disease causing pathogens: No matter how healthy or careful
1. Physical Barriers: Skin, Mucous Membranes, and chemicals prevent pathogens from entering your body
2. Inflammation: reaction to injury or infection that shows your body is attacking pathogens.
3. Immune system: White blood cells in your body attack pathogens and fight disease If your body fails to protect you from these pathogens and you do become sick you should stay home and rest, drink plenty of fluids, take medicine, and wash your hands frequently.
Five Easy Ways to Stay Well
you are, everyone is affected by infectious diseases. There are so many pathogens in so many places it is impossible to avoid
Prevent spread of infectious disease
1. Get vaccinated 2. Keep Clean 3. Don’t share personal items 4. Cover mouth
Common infectious diseases Viral: Bacterial: 1. Tetanus Symptoms: severe muscle spasms Transmission: enters body through cuts and wounds 2. Strep Throat: Symptoms: sore throat, fever, yellow or white specks on tonsils Transmission: contact with mucus from infected person
Fungal: 1. Athleteâ€™s foot, jock itch, ringworm Transmission: specific fungus comes into contact with warm or moist skin
Parasitic: 1. Hookworms, flukes, pinworms, tapeworms. 2. Lice, leaches, ticks, flees Transmission: eating infected food, drinking infected water, contact with infected soil, bitten by infected insects.
1. Flu Symptoms: Headache, sore muscles, fever, vomiting, fatigue, cough Transmission: contact with saliva or mucus of an infected person. 2. Mononucleosis: Symptoms: fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, weakness Transmission: contact with saliva or mucus of infected person
Protistan: 1. Amebic dysentery Symptoms: inflammation of the intestine, nausea, diarrhea Transmission: caused by an amoeba 2. Malaria: Symptoms: fever, chills, headache, fatigue, nausea Transmission: passed through mosquitoes.