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Protehi I Kuttura’ta

Newsletter of the Division of Historic Preservation Department of Community and Cultural Affairs December 2017

Volume 10, No. 1

HPO welcomes new staff members to team IN THIS ISSUE New coordinators at all three HPO offices 2 Nearly 600 permits processed in FY 2017

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Staff work hands-on at potential oldest site 2 WWII Maritime Heritage Trail

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Youth take over HPO 4 Staff take part in discussion program

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NPS increases grant to HPO

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New vehicles for all offices

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Climate change, archaeological training 5 Staff earn promotions

The CNMI Division of Historic Preservation (HPO) has now filled all the positions required by the U.S. National Park Service, which provides federal funding to the office through an annual grant. New staff that joined the office in the past two years have allowed HPO to meet these requirements and have made the office better prepared to protect the valuable heritage of the CNMI. James Pruitt came on board as Staff Archaeologist in April 2016. Pruitt holds a degree in Maritime Studies from East Carolina University. His thesis research for that degree previously brought him to Saipan to study the wreck of a PB2Y5R Coronado flying boat that wrecked in Tanapag LaPruitt goon in 1945. Before joining HPO his experience included time working as a contract archaeologist and

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Staff represent CNMI at Yap meeting 5 Four Saipan NRHP nominations 6-7 Public outreach helps to share HPO mission 8 Marianas History Conference

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Chamorro, Carolinian Identity Conference 8 Ongoing and upcoming projects

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Major archaeological projects 10

Newsletter of the Division of Historic Preservation

as a SCUBA diving instructor. Since arriving he has focused on finding ways to best protect cultural resources while also fostering sustainable development through HPO’s role in the earthmoving permitting process. He has also worked to help start a number of projects that will be contracted out to improve how HPO completes its mission. Pruitt has enjoyed seeing HPO make progress as a program and the chance to get out in the field on survey projects. Moving forward, he hopes to develop more inhouse survey projects to better understand the historical and archaeological sites of the CNMI. Lucas Simonds joined Simonds HPO staff in September 2017 as Staff Historian, a federally required position that had long been vacant. Continued on Page 11


New coordinators at all three HPO offices

Staff work hands-on at potential oldest site

There are now new HPO Coordinators at each of the three HPO offices, including the main office on Saipan and the offices on Tinian and Rota. HPO Coordinators are responsible for reviewing earthmoving permits transmitted to HPO by the Bureau of Environmental and Coastal Quality (BECQ) and working with the Staff Archaeologist to place conditions on those permits when needed, among Palacios many other duties. On Saipan, the new HPO Coordinator is John Diego D. Palacios, who has worked with HPO for 27 years and served previously as HPO Specialist. Pa lac io s t akes the pla ce o f former HPO Coordinator Juan Diego C. Camacho, who no longer works for HPO. Borja On Tinian, the new HPO coordinator is Gilbert M. Borja, who has worked with HPO for 14 years and served previously as HPO Technician I. Borja takes the place of former HPO Coordinator Carmen A. Sanchez, who no longer works for HPO. On Rota, the new HPO coordinator is Eloy M. Ayuyu, who has worked with Ayuyu HPO for 25 years and served previously as HPO Technician II. Ayuyu takes the place of former HPO Coordinator Pedro A. Duenas, who no longer works for HPO.

HPO staff had the chance late last year to gain hands-on experience with some of the leading archaeologists in Micronesia. HPO staff joined in a three-week excavation at Unai Bapot led by Drs. Mike Carson of the Micronesian Area Research Center at University of Guam and Hsiao-chun Hung of the Australian National University. Located on LaoLao Bay, the Unai Bapot site is now thought to be one of the oldest settlements on Saipan. The team, which included HPO staff and volunteers from the community, excavated a 4x4 meter unit (172 ft.2) down to just over 2 meters (6.56 ft.). The unit, which was excavated near to several latte sets, revealed cultural layers dating from the Spanish period around A.D. 1700 all the way back to the earliest habitation by the ancient Chamorro around 1500 B.C. In fact, radiocarbon dates now suggest the site may have been inhabited just before 1500 B.C., making Unai Bapot perhaps the oldest known site in Micronesia. The excavation also provided new information about the ancient environment and seashore, the nature of the first settlements in the Marianas, and the types of food consumed. For HPO staff, the excavation provided invaluable experience in full excavation that is usually beyond the scope of HPO’s work of backhoe and shovel testing. Staff took part in activities ranging from excavating and sorting and counting artifacts to performing flotation to search for phytoliths — remains from ancient plants that provide information about which plants grew in the area thousands of years ago. Thanks to this work, HPO staff are now better prepared for their tasks and have a deeper understanding of the full range of archaeological techniques.

Nearly 600 permits processed in FY 2017 In fiscal year 2017, HPO’s Review and Compliance Section reviewed and processed a total of 596 HPO Clearances on all One-Start Earthmoving Permit Applications transmitted to HPO from BECQ. This marks an increase over the 527 clearances processed in fiscal year 2016. Of the applications processed, 535 were for projects on Saipan, while 36 were for Tinian and 25 for Rota. A total of 28 projects required the services of professional archaeologists due to their location in archaeologically sensitive areas. Additionally, in fiscal year 2017, HPO reviewed and commented on a total of 37 federally funded Section 106 projects. As part of a federal regulation under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, HPO consults with federal agencies, local agencies administering federal funds, and consultants working on federally funded or permitted projects that have the potential to affect significant cultural resources.

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HPO staff Lufo Babauta (Left) and Jose Jesus Fitial (Right) work in the excavation unit at Unai Bapot alongside other staff and volunteers during a project led by Dr. Mike Carson in October 2016.

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Research continues on WWII Maritime Heritage Trail In March, HPO partnered with Dr. Jennifer McKinnon to help promote and protect cultural heritage left in the waters off Saipan in the wake of World War II. Since 2009, McKinnon has been involved with the WWII Maritime Heritage Trail – Battle of Saipan, a project that was first funded by a grant from the American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP) to Ships of Exploration and Discovery Research, Inc., a nonprofit research organization in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and Flinders University’s Maritime Archaeology Program. The project has involved documenting a variety of shipwrecks, aircraft wrecks, and other vehicles sunk off Saipan and producing information that can be provided to divers and snorkelers wishing to visit those sites. In 2012, working with Vicki Richards and Jon Carpenter of the Western Australia Museum, the team gathered data about how these sites are deteriorating in the underwater environment to better understand how they can be conserved. In March, McKinnon, Carpenter, and Richards returned to conduct a five-year update on the trail

and to collect new conservation data to compare to that collected in 2012 — sponsored by a new ABPP grant to Ships of Exploration and Discovery and East Carolina University. The team also worked with Dr. Kotaro Yamafune to perform photogrammetry on the sites on the trail. Photogrammetry is a technique using software that allows a highly accurate 3D model to be created from thousands of photographs taken of a site. These models can now be used to study the sites and share them with those who cannot visit in person. HPO partnered with this group in March, assisting with permitting and sending Staff Archaeologist James Pruitt to assist the team in their work. HPO was happy to assist in this project to promote the preservation of underwater historic sites and to better understand how they can be preserved for future generations. More information about the WWII Maritime Heritage Trail is available atwww.pacificmaritimeheritagetrail.com online. The 3D models of the sites on the trail are also available at sketchfab.com/jenmck13 online.

These 3D models of vessels and aircraft sunk off Saipan during World War II were created by Dr. Kotaro Yamafune using photogrammetry, a technique that uses software to stitch together thousands of photos to create highly accurate models. For example, the model of the Japanese Aichi E13A “Jake” seaplane (above, left) was created using more than 1,600 photos. Also pictured are a Japanese Daihatsu Class landing craft (above, right), a U.S. Martin PBM Mariner flying boat (below, left), and what is thought to be a Japanese whaling ship converted as a submarine chaser (below, right). Photos Courtesy of Ships of Discovery

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Youth take over HPO HPO staff shared their passion for preservation with the younger generation in October as the office hosted two high school students for Youth Takeover Day. Annalei H. Santos, a senior at Mount Carmel School, and Hovanness Mirzoian, a senior at Da'ok Academy, spent the day in the office Oct. 20. The students had the chance to learn about the mission of HPO to preserve heritage in the CNMI, as well as to meet the staff and to learn about the variety of jobs they do to help achieve that mission. In the morning, the students worked with Staff Historian Lucas Simonds to research the Chacha Latte Site in Kagman and learn about the process of nominating sites to the National Register of Historic Places. They also worked with Staff Archaeologist James Pruitt to study possible sites for a cell phone tower in Tinian and to learn about how HPO works with developers to ensure development does not disturb valuable heritage. In the afternoon, Pruitt and Simonds took the students out into the field, visiting the Chacha Latte Site and taking measurements of some of the stones, as well as touring Japanese Pillboxes at Tank Beach and the Isley Field National Historic Landmark. Throughout the day the students had the chance to ask questions and learn not only about historic preservation but also about possible careers and how to navigate life after graduation from high school. As they learned about the work of the office, they also shared ideas about how some things could be done better — some of which staff are considering implementing in the future. At the end of the day, both said they were surprised by how much fun historic preservation work can be and by how many interesting sites exist that few people know about. HPO is thankful to the Youth Takeover Day Committee for organizing this year’s event and looks forward to participating again in the future.

Staff take part in Discussion Program HPO staff took the chance in September to be part of a program that brought a wide variety of community members together to discuss the heritage of conflict and war in the CNMI. Staff Archaeologist Jim Pruitt and Staff Historian Lucas Simonds took part in “War in the Pacific: A Difficult Heritage,” a discussion program held at American Memorial Park. Funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and coordinated by faculty from East Carolina University, the program brought together people ranging from high school students to veterans and local survivors of World War II to discuss a variety of themes related to the heritage of conflicts such as the Spanish-Chamorro War and World War II in the CNMI. For Pruitt, this marked the second time he participated in the program, again as a discussion leader for the topic of “The Enemy.” He was happy to have the chance to take part, as he thinks the program provides a great opportunity for people to come together to talk about the experiences of war and how it has affected them, their families, or their cultures. He especially appreciates how the program connects the stories and memories of war to the sites in the CNMI, and he hopes participants were able to see heritage sites in a new way, especially younger participants and those not native to the CNMI, who may have a different perspective. Simonds, who had arrived on Saipan shortly before the program, was glad for the chance to learn more about CNMI history and how the community views heritage. He was particularly interested to hear stories of survival during World War II, both first-hand from a survivor and those passed down to members of younger generations who attended the program. More information about the program is available online at cnmiheritage.wordpress.com.

NPS increases grant to HPO

Students Annalei Santos (Left) and Hovanness Mirzoian (Right) measure a fallen latte stone at the Chacha Latte Site in Kagman with Lucas Simonds during Youth Takeover Day.

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The U.S. National Park Service has again increased its grant funding to HPO. For fiscal year 2017 HPO received a grant of $412,854 — an increase of $2,023 compared to the grant of $410,831 for the previous three fiscal years. This marks the fourth time in recent years that NPS has increased its grant to HPO. Changes to the grant allocation are based on a review of the work HPO has completed, meaning the increase shows the office has produced good results. In particular, HPO has been conducting many projects inhouse rather than contracting them, as well as conducting a large amount of reviews for projects that fall under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. The increase in grant funding will help HPO to not only continue this high level of work but to improve in the future.

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New vehicles for all offices

Staff earn promotions

HPO was recently able to purchase new vehicles to help staff better complete their important work in the field. The office received approval from the U.S. National Park Service to use lapsed funds from previous fiscal year grants to purchase five vehicles. The Saipan office received a Toyota Tacoma, Nissan Frontier, and Kia Sportage, while the Tinian and Rota offices each received a Nissan Frontier. In addition to the federal funds, the office also received local funding for an additional vehicle, which was used to purchase a Kia Rio for the Saipan office.

A number of HPO staff members received promotions in the past year. Because the office accomplishes much with a small field crew, the promotions are meant to recognize the hard work of the staff that make that possible. In the Saipan office, John Diego D. Palacios, with 27 years at HPO, was promoted from HPO Specialist to HPO Coordinator; Lufo Q. Babauta, with 14 years at HPO, was promoted from HPO Technician II to HPO Specialist; Jose Jesus K. Fital, with 6 years at HPO, was promoted from HPO Technician I to HPO Technician II; and Abraham B. Tenorio, with 4 years at HPO, was promoted from HPO Trainee to HPO Technician I. In the Rota office, Eloy M. Ayuyu, with 25 years at HPO, was promoted from HPO Technician II to HPO Coordinator, while Antonelli M. Rosario, with 23 years at HPO, was promoted from HPO Technician I to HPO Technician II.

Staff attend climate change, archaeological survey training Two HPO staff members attended training in July to learn new archaeological skills and how to manage the effects of climate change on heritage. Saipan HPO Technician II Lufo Babauta and Rota HPO Technician II Eloy Ayuyu completed the trainings “Cultural Resources and Climate Change: Views from the Field” and “Advanced Archaeological Documentation.” The trainings, held in Pohnpei, were sponsored jointly by the U.S. National Park Service, the University of Oregon, and the University of Guam. The first training was designed to help staff assess climate change-related impacts on island cultural resources and integrate culturally appropriate adaptation measures into preservation planning an management. The second served to help build archaeological field survey skills and techniques. This included building capabilities to identify, evaluate, record, and manage significant cultural resources in accordance with the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Archeology and Historic Preservation. These trainings have better prepared Babauta and Ayuyu for their important roles in the office and contributed to their recent promotions.

HPO staff Eloy Ayuyu (left) and Lufo Babauta tour sites on Pohnpei during training on the effects of climate change on archaeology and advanced archaeological recording techniques.

Staff represent CNMI at Yap meeting Historic preservation professionals from around the Pacific Region and the territories met in Yap in June for an annual meeting. Staff Archaeologist James Pruitt, HPO Coordinator John Palacios, and HPO Specialist Lufo Babauta traveled to Yap to represent the CNMI at the meeting. Staff attended the board meeting of the Micronesian Endowment for Historic Preservation, as well as meetings organized by the U.S. National Park Service, which helps to fund historic preservation programs throughout the region with grants. The meeting was a good opportunity for staff to reconnect with colleagues from around the region and to discuss the successes and challenges different offices have faced over the past year. It was particularly valuable for Pruitt, who met many people for the first time since he joined the HPO staff. Staff also had the chance to meet directly with leaders from the National Park Service to discuss the program in the CNMI.

HPO staff (L-R) John Palacios, Lufo Babauta, and James Pruitt meet with National Park Service representatives Dr. David Louter (Left) and Paula Falk Creech at the 2017 National Park Service meeting in Yap.

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Four NRHP nominations completed for Four new sites on Saipan will be nominated for placement on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Nomination forms have been completed for the wreck of a PB2Y Coronado Flying Boat in Tanapag Lagoon, the German Stairway at Sugar King Park, the Japanese Hoan-den shrine at Paseo de Marianas, and the Liyang Kalabera Rock Art Site (Kalabera Cave). These nominations will next be reviewed by the CNMI Historic Preservation Review Board before they are sent on to the National Park Service for a final decision on if the sites will be added to the register. The nomination for the PB2Y Coronado was completed as an in-house project by Staff Archaeologist James Pruitt and HPO Specialist Lufo Babauta. Located at a depth of approximately 26 feet in Tanapag Lagoon, the wreck is thought to be Bureau Number (BuNo) 7070, which wrecked during takeoff on September 15, 1945. BuNo 7070 was designated as a PB2Y-5R, meaning it had been converted to serve as a transport rather than as a patrol bomber, which was the original purpose of the Coronado. Sadly, only six of the 14 people on board survived the crash. Today, pieces of wreckage, including the cockpit canopy, one engine, pieces of the flight deck and many smaller components, are spread across a large area. Serial numbers on some of the parts were used when identifying the wreck as BuNo 7070. The wreck is being nominated to the NRHP for its significance as one of only two known examples of the PB2Y Coronado and for the important role that type of aircraft played in the Pacific theater of World War II. The nominations for the German Stairway, Hoan-den, and Liyang Kalabera Rock Art site were completed on contract by Scott Russell, the former Assistant Historic Preservation Officer. The German Stairway is located on the back side of the small hill at the eastern end of Sugar King Park. The 14 stairs are the remains of a staircase constructed in 1904 at the order of Georg Fritz, the District Officer for the German administration that controlled the Northern Marianas at the time. The stairs led from Fritz’s house, which was located at the base of the hill, to a wooden semaphore tower at the top of the hill used to communicate with ships anchored outside the reef off Garapan. The stairs now present are only part of the original stairway, as portions were damaged by work shortly

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Wreckage from a PB2Y Coronado flying boat sits on the bottom of Tanapag Lagoon. In addition to this main assemblage, more pieces are spread out widely across the seafloor in the area. Based on serial numbers found on the wreckage, it is thought this is the wreck of BuNo 7070, a PB2Y-5R converted for use as a transport, which wrecked in the lagoon during takeoff on Sept. 18, 1945, killing eight of the 14 on board. Photo Courtesy of Ships of Discovery / Jon Carpenter These 14 steps are all that remains of a staircase originally constructed in 1904 at the order of District Officer Georg Fritz during the German administration of the Northern Marianas. The steps lead up the back side of the hill on the eastern end of Sugar King Park. Originally they led from Fritz’s house at the base of the hill to a semaphore tower at the top of the hill used to signal ships anchored outside the reef. The steps are now part of a nature trail in the park.

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historical, archaeological sites on Saipan

This Hoan-den shrine was originally built in 1935 as a part of the Japanese Saipan Primary School. It was used to house and protect portraits of the Emperor and Empress and a copy of the Imperial Rescript on Education, important items for ceremonies held at the school. It now sits on Paseo de Marianas in Garapan between two commercial buildings. It was moved approximately 10 feet by crane in 1986 to make way for the construction of buildings in the area. This pictograph of a man in a canoe, which serves as the logo of this newsletter, is one of more than 50 located at the Liyang Kalabera Rock Art Site (Kalabera Cave) in the north of Saipan. The images, painted in white or red or carved into the walls of the cave, are thought to date to the Latte period of prehistory and to possibly reflect elements of ancient Chamorro religious practices. Excavations in the cave show use during that period as well as during World War II.

Newsletter of the Division of Historic Preservation

after World war II and again in the 1990s. The stairway is being nominated for its significance as one of the few remaining pieces of German architecture in the CNMI and for its association with Fritz, an important historical figure. The Hoan-den is located on Paseo de Marianas in Garapan at the intersection with Ginger Avenue. It was constructed in 1935 as a part of the Japanese Saipan Primary School. The Hoan-den served as a shrine to house and protect portraits of the Emperor and Empress and a copy of the Imperial Rescript on Education. The shrine, made of concrete, was designed to be fire and earthquake-proof to protect these items, which were used in important ceremonies throughout the year. The Hoan -den was damaged by bullets during the Battle for Saipan, and many wrote graffiti on the interior walls, including their names, dates, and hometowns after the battle. The shrine was moved approximately ten feet east of its original location by crane in 1986 to make way for a new commercial building. In 2010 a project was undertaken to repair some damage to the shrine, add wooden doors, and add interpretive signs in Japanese and English. The Hoan-den is being nominated for its significance as a rare example of that type of shrine and its important role in the educational system during the period of Japanese administration. The Liyang Kalabera Rock Art Site is located approximately one mile southeast of the Bird Island Lookout off Rt. 36. The site consists of nine petroglyphs and at least 50 pictographs carved and painted with white and red paint on the walls of Kalabera Cave. Additionally, excavation in the cave has shown evidence of use during World War II and the prehistoric period. A small defensive wall was constructed near the entrance of the cave during the war. The rock art, including many headless human figures, one person in a canoe, a possible sea turtle, a possible fishhook, and many unidentified shapes, is thought to date to the Latte Period (A.D. 900-1700) and to be related to ancient Chamorro religious practices. In 2016, a project was completed to install an elevated walkway leading into the mouth of the cave and other facilities for visitors. The site is being nominated for its significance as one of only four known rock art sites on Saipan, as well as its potential to provide unique information about the lives and culture of the Chamorro during the Latte Period.

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Public outreach helps to share HPO mission

Staff archaeologist presents at Marianas History Conference

HPO staff have taken part in a number of public outreach efforts recently to not only share knowledge of CNMI history and culture but also to share the office’s mission of preserving that valuable heritage. In January, HPO Specialist Lufo Babauta and HPO Technician II Juan Salas manned a booth at the My Wave Tourism Summit, which brought hundreds of students together to learn more about tourism and how to share the unique aspects of the CNMI with visitors. The two brought display cases with artifacts such as slingstones and potsherds and reproductions of ancient tools such as shell adzes. They shared with students how these tools and artifacts were used in ancient Chamorro society, as well as the importance of understanding and passing on cultural traditions and knowledge so that they are not lost. In November, Staff Historian Lucas Simonds appeared on the “Your Humanities Half Hour” radio program on Power 99. As a new member of the HPO staff, he answered questions about himself and how he came to work in the CNMI, in addition to talking about the mission of HPO to study, preserve, and share the cultural heritage of the CNMI and how the office works to achieve that mission. These are some of the ways staff have worked recently to reach out to the public, but with a full staff on board, HPO hopes to increase these efforts in public outreach and education.

Staff Archaeologist Jim Pruitt represented HPO in September at the 3rd Marianas History Conference. Organized by the Northern Marianas Humanities Council, the conference provides the chance for people working on a wide range of projects related to Marianas history and archaeology to share their research. Pruitt attended both days of the conference to learn about the latest research and to present some research of his own. Since March, he has been conducting research on two anchors located off Tinian in 140 ft. of water. Based on their size Pruitt and shape, as well as historical accounts, Pruitt believes they are the anchors lost by British Commodore George Anson when his ship, H.M.S. Centurion, spent two months at Tinian in 1742. Research into the anchors is ongoing, and Pruitt hopes to dive on them again in the near future to take final measurements and search for related artifacts nearby.

HPO staff Lufo Babauta (right) and Juan Salas demonstrate traditional shell adzes at the display featuring tools and artifacts they manned at the 2017 My Wave Tourism Summit.

HPO staff John Diego D. Palacios (Back center) and Jose Jesus K. Fitial (Front left) attend the first annual Chamorro and Carolinian Identity Conference to take part in discussions about reviving cultural identities.

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Staff share in Chamorro, Carolinian Identity Conference Members of the HPO staff, along with staff of various other CNMI government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and the Hotel Association, took part in the First Chamorro and Carolinian Identity Conference. Hosted by the Indigenous Affairs Office, the objective of the conference is to create and revive Chamorro and Carolinian identities in the CNMI. The conference will be held annually after a Memorandum of Agreement was signed between Governor Ralph DLG. Torres, DCCA Secretary Robert Hunter, Indigenous Affairs Director Roman Tudela and Carolinian Affairs Director John Tagabuel.

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Updates on ongoing and upcoming projects · An intensive archaeological survey of 50 hectares of public land in the Carolinas Heights region of Tinian is scheduled to take place in the near future. Funded by HPO, the survey is to be conducted by a team from Cardno led by Dr. Boyd Dixon. The survey was intended to locate prehistoric habitation sites, Pre-WWII Japanese sites, and sites related to WWII in the area. It is hoped data collected in the survey can provide new information about the complexity of prehistoric society on Tinian by comparing settlements in the Carolinas to other known sites on the island; the nature of Japanese agriculture and the possibility that productivity decreased over time; and a better understanding of the battle for Tinian by comparing sites in the Carolinas to firsthand accounts of the battle. A report on the survey is anticipated by March 2018. · HPO has selected Saipan Computer Services to produce 20 interpretive signs to be placed around the CNMI at important historic sites. Seventeen signs will replace signs damaged or destroyed by Typhoon Soudelor in 2015, while three will go to sites that have not had signs in the past. Thirteen signs will be placed on Saipan, while four will be placed on Tinian, and three will be placed on Rota. Sites that will receive new signs are: Suicide Cliff, Christo Rai Bell Tower, Japanese Lighthouse, Japanese Hospital, Aslito Airfield National Historic Landmark, Chalan Kanoa Round House, Invasion Beaches National Historic Landmark, Achugao (Gyokusai), Japanese Jail, Sugar King Park, Bapot Latte Site, Banzai Cliff, and Obyan Latte Site on Saipan; House of Taga, Taga Well, Taga Quarry, and Mt. Lasso Shrine on Tinian; and Rota Sugar Mill, Chugai Cave, and the Spanish Convento on Rota. · Former Assistant Historic Preservation Officer Scott Russell has been selected to write a historical overview of Chalan Kanoa, which is anticipated to be complete before the end of the year. HPO has sought in the past to nominate Chalan Kanoa as a historic architectural district on the National Register of Historic Places, but not enough detailed historical background information on the area was available. It is hoped the historical overview could lead to a nomination for the historic architectural district in the future. · Garcia and Associates (GANDA), a natural and cultural resources consulting firm with an office in Hawaii, has been selected for two projects intended to help streamline and organize work at HPO. GANDA will create a Geographic Information System (GIS) and geodatabase of sites in the CNMI, which will allow staff to more easily find the location of known historic and archaeological sites and understand which areas are likely to have sites that have not yet been discovered.

GANDA will also create an electronic database of all sites in HPO’s files, which will allow those site files to be more easily organized and searched. The site database will be integrated with the geodatabase and GIS, which will allow staff to work more efficiently. · HPO is currently seeking a contractor to draft a new five-year State Historic Preservation Plan. When complete, the plan will outline the challenges of historic preservation facing the CNMI, goals that should be pursued in historic preservation, and ways to achieve those goals. · SEARCH Inc., an international cultural resources contractor with expertise in underwater archaeology, has been selected to conduct a remote sensing survey of LaoLao Bay. A SEARCH team will use sonar to scan the seafloor of the bay to a depth of 600 feet. The team will scan the entire bay between Puntan Dandan and Forbidden Island, searching for underwater cultural heritage such as remnants of shipwrecks or sunken aircraft. · SEARCH has also been selected to conduct a historic architectural survey of Capitol Hill. The survey will focus on the history and architecture of structures constructed in the area by the American administration following World War II. The survey will help provide a better understanding of the history of the area and the significance of its architecture, and could possibly lead to nominations to the National Register of Historic Places. · Fung Associates Inc., an architectural firm based in Hawaii and specializing in historic preservation, has been selected to conduct a review of the legal framework that supports HPO. This will include a review of the enabling legislation, as well as regulations and policies. Fung Associates will provide suggestions on how to modernize and improve elements of the legal framework based on their expertise in the area and examples from legislation in other areas of the Pacific. · HPO is currently seeking a contractor to design and build a new website. HPO hopes to find a contractor that can create a modern, easily usable site to help better provide information to the public about HPO and its work and to make it easier for the public to find and contact HPO. · HPO has selected Saipan Computer Services for a major technology improvement project. The project will include upgrading the computers for all employees and implementing an upgraded network infrastructure to support its work.

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· HPO has decided to prepare its next nomination to the National Register of Historic Places in-house rather than contracting for the project. It had been planned to contract the nomination of the Chacha Latte Site, located in Kagman III, however, that project will now be undertaken by Staff Historian Lucas Simonds. Going forward, as a part of his duties, Simonds will complete at least two National Register nominations per year. · HPO will soon bid a project to conduct an intensive archaeological survey of 35 hectares in Kagman. The planned survey will focus on the

clifflines and plateau southeast of Kagman III, one of the few areas on the Kagman Peninsula that has not yet been surveyed archaeologically. It is hoped the survey might locate new prehistoric sites, in particular rockshelters and caves that may have been used for shelter, which could provide a better understanding of the pattern of settlement and expansion on Saipan after the island was first settled. · All staff from the Saipan, Tinian, and Rota offices have completed required CPR training to be prepared in the case of emergency medical situations.

Updates on major archaeological projects · Laboratory work is now complete for the archaeological data recovery investigation at the site of the future Honest Profit resort in San Antonio. Work on the project was conducted by Cardno. Fieldwork on the site concluded in May 2016 and was followed by laboratory analysis, including radiocarbon dating of soil samples to determine the age of the prehistoric sites found in the project area; pollen, phytolith, and starch analyses to determine which plants were grown and used in the area in the prehistoric period; osteological analysis of human remains recovered in the excavation to determine the number of individuals, age, and gender; and analysis of pottery, tools, and other artifacts recovered to determine what activities took place on the site in prehistory, as well as how the site was impacted by later Japanese defensive construction and the Battle for Saipan in World War II. With the laboratory work complete, HPO is now awaiting a final report on the investigation, which is anticipated to be complete before the end of the year. HPO is also awaiting a mitigation plan to discuss the reburial of ancient remains recovered during the investigation and a plan to preserve a Japanese ammunition bunker on the site. Preliminary analysis of the artifacts recovered shows the area was inhabited during the Latte Period of prehistory (A.D. 900-1700), indicated by artifacts such as beads, shell and stone adzes, sling stones, basalt mortars, and ceramic sherds. Approximately 70 sets of prehistoric remains were also recovered. Later historic uses include a buried Japanese ammunition bunker, which remains intact on the site, and a U.S. Coast Guard Loran Station, remains of which were recorded during the project. Artifacts from the Battle of Saipan including American and Japanese weapons and ammunition and other American military equipment were discovered on the site. The remains of two Japanese soldiers and two partial sets of Japanese remains were also recovered. Thirty boxes of artifacts, including prehistoric human remains, have been turned over to the CNMI Museum. Artifacts will remain at the mu-

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seum for preservation, while the human remains will be reburied once a reburial plan has been finalized. The Japanese human remains were turned over to the Japanese Consulate for cremation and repatriation to Japan. · HPO is awaiting a revised final report of the archaeological data recovery investigation at the site of Grand Marianas Resort (Best Sunshine International) in Garapan. Work on the project was conducted by Scientific Consultant Services, Inc. (SCS). Fieldwork was completed in June 2015, and a draft report was submitted to HPO in December 2016. However, upon review by HPO staff, it was found that it did not meet the standards set for archaeological reports in the CNMI. In an external review, Dr. James Bayman of University of Hawai’i Manoa came to the same conclusion. SCS has been provided with a list of revisions required for the report, and a deadline has been set for December 2017 to provide a revised report and a mitigation plan for the reburial of the human remains recovered during the excavation. It is the goal of HPO that, through the revision process, it can be ensured that the artifacts recovered during the excavation are analyzed properly to the highest standards and shared with the public. During the project, at least 416 human burials were excavated, along with a wide range of artifacts dating from the Latte Period (A.D. 900-1700) through to World War II. Most of the remains were grouped together into large burial complexes — something that had not been observed on this scale before in the CNMI. When proper archaeological analysis of these remains and the associated artifacts is complete, HPO hopes to learn much about the rich heritage of the ancient inhabitants of the CNMI. HPO also understands the sacred importance of such ancient remains and hopes to quickly finalize the plan to properly rebury them. · Fieldwork has been completed for the archaeological data recovery and archaeological monitoring investigations at the site of the fu-

Protehi I Kuttura’ta


ture Sufrider Resort and Spa and Beach Club in Chalan Kanoa. Data recovery work on the project was conducted by International Archaeology, LLC, while archaeological monitoring was conducted by Micronesian Archaeological Research Services. HPO is awaiting the final report on the data recovery phase of the project. The report for the monitoring phase is already complete. Work on the project began after human remains were discovered by a construction crew. A monitoring plan was then created, but when monitoring began in November 2016, it quickly became clear there was a significant prehistoric site in the area. The data recovery phase then took place in January and was followed again by monitoring through the end of earthmoving activities. Preliminary reporting shows that a wide variety of prehistoric artifacts, many typical of the Latte Period (A.D. 900-1700), were recovered, including pottery, beads, stone and shell adzes, slingstones, and bone spear points. Human remains from 13 prehistoric burials were also recovered. Osteological analysis is ongoing to determine how many individuals are represented in the remains and to learn more about those individuals. World War II era artifacts such as Japanese rifles and buttons were also recovered. ¡ Teams from the Japan Association for Recovery and Repatriation of War Casualties (JARRWC) returned to Saipan and Tinian in 2017. Working with Swift and Harper Archaeological Resource Consulting (SHARC), the group sought to investigate possible Japanese World War II remains located by local informants and to recover and repatriate those remains if they were shown to be Japanese. On Tinian, SHARC conducted a Phase 1 investigation in June to visit and record the sites of potential Japanese remains. The team visited 17 sites but discovered that the bones at most of the sites had already been collected and placed in bags, possibly by coconut crab hunters. Because of this, the SHARC team recorded where the bones were found, as well as information about the surrounding of the bones and any artifacts nearby, but they then collected the bags that had been made. Those remains were turned over to HPO to hold until a JARRWC team can return to collect them. On Saipan, the SHARC team visited 21 sites that had been previously identified in 2012 by teams from the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare and the Kuentai Bereavement Group. At that time the sites had been visited but not recorded. During two phases in August and November, the SHARC team visited those sites to record them and to collect the remains. JARRWC is now planning another trip to hold a cremation ceremony for the remains, which will then be repatriated to Japan.

Continued from Page 1

Simonds also holds a degree in Maritime Studies from East Carolina University, where his thesis research focused on the history and archaeology of a naval battle of the American Civil War. Before coming to HPO his experience included work with the UNESCO Secretariat of the 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, a long-term research project into the history of a shipwreck on the North Carolina coast, and time as a reporter for a weekly newspaper. Since he started work with HPO, Simonds has focused on researching sites for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, helping to organize the HPO library, and producing public outreach documents such as the HPO newsletter. He has enjoyed learning everything he can about the rich and complex history of the CNMI, not only through books but also by spending time visiting heritage sites. Going forward, he hopes to expand the public outreach efforts of HPO to get more people involved in learning about and protecting CNMI heritage. Shizelle Pua started work as HPO Trainee in July 2017. Pua graduated from Marianas High School in 2015 and spent time studying at Northern Marianas College before joining the HPO staff. She has been busy organizing the HPO library and office files and assisting other staff members on a variety of projects when needed. Pua has always loved history, a trait she inherited from her father, and she has enjoyed the chance to dig into the library and some of the many valuable historical works on Pua the shelves. She hopes to continue to help better organize the office so that HPO staff can work more efficiently to protect CNMI heritage. Pua also plans to resume her studies at Northern Marianas College in the spring semester, pursuing an associate degree in liberal arts. She hopes one day to go on for a degree in forensic science.

What is HPO? The CNMI Historic Preservation Office (HPO) was established in 1982 by Public Law 339, also known as the CNMI Historic Preservation Act. HPO receives Historic Preservation Fund grants from the U.S. Department of the Interior, through the National Park Service, to administer Federal programs and maintain the office. HPO is a division of the CNMI Department of Community and Cultural Affairs. The main office is located in a historic Japanese fuel storage building, part of the Aslito/Isley Field National Historic Landmark near Saipan International Airport. Branch Offices are located on Tinian and Rota.

Newsletter of the Division of Historic Preservation

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Protehi I Kuttura’ta Newsletter of the CNMI Division of Historic Preservation Secretary, Department of Community and Cultural Affairs Robert Hunter Historic Preservation Officer Mertie T. Kani Newsletter Editor Lucas Simonds Historic Preservation Review Board Members Pedro A. Duenas, Eugenio L. Villagomez, Fr. Francis X. Hezel, S.J., Dr. D. Colt Denfeld, Dr. Hiroyasu Kurashina, Dr. Elizabeth D. Rechebei The publication of this newsletter is supported by financial assistance awarded to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands by the National Park Service. The views expressed in this volume, however, do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. National Park Service or the U.S. Department of the Interior. This program receives federal financial assistance for identification and protection of historic properties. Under Title 6 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the U.S. Department of the Interior prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, age, national origin, or handicap in its federally assisted programs. If you believe you have been discriminated against in any program activity or facility as described above, or if you desire further information, please write to the Office for Equal Opportunity, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. “Our past is the Foundation for our Future. Think twice before you impair or destroy our Cultural or Historical Resources.”

Division of Historic Preservation Department of Community and Cultural Affairs P.O. Box 500090 CK Saipan, MP 96950

Postage

Telephone: (670) 664-2120 / 5 Fax: (670) 664-2139 Email: lsimonds.cnmihpo@gmail.com Deliver To:

MERRY CHRISTMAS

FELIS PASGUA YAN ANO NUEBO

AMMESEIGHIL UBWUTIWEL LLIUL LUUGH ME RACH FFE

& HAPPY NEW YEAR

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Protehi I Kuttura’ta

Profile for Lucas Simonds

Protehi I Kuttura'ta Vol. 10 No. 1  

Protehi I Kuttura'ta is the newsletter of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Division of Historic Preservation. This issue was...

Protehi I Kuttura'ta Vol. 10 No. 1  

Protehi I Kuttura'ta is the newsletter of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Division of Historic Preservation. This issue was...

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