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7T815 - Integrated building technology

By: Sander Guinta d’Albani


Rik Hermans 654412 Lucas Klerk 784995 Luuk de Kluiver



7T815 - Integrated building technology

Preface This is the report from group C, for the subject Integrated building technology (7T815) in which we had to design a glass structure as an addition for a healthcare organization or hospital. The main goal is to create a space where the client of these organizations, can have some distractions from being ill. By giving them the feeling of being outside. The wellbeing and the recovery trail of the clients are leading in this concept.

Particularly interesting

points in this project are the involvement of the healing environment, and the importance of hygiene. Designing with glass and ill people leads to some privacy issues which need to be addressed. These are important things to handle while designing with glass for healthcare. In this report is tried to design a space for healthcare with glass, the named problems are approached and dealt with. This report shows the process, design and the problems encountered with their solutions. We would like to thank Ir. Hajo Schilperoort for his time and supervision during this project.

Januari 2013 - Group C



7T815 - Integrated building technology

Contents Preface3 Introduction7 Concept8 Choices8 Result9

Design10 3D visualisation


Building procedure


Construction principle


Building physics


Process24 Conclusion24 Appendix25 A Knowledge space


B Section


C Details


Januari 2013 - Group C



7T815 - Integrated building technology

Introduction In the concept that was given as an result of the first fase, can be concluded that the client wants a building as an addition to a building that is used for healthcare. As known there are many different organization’s working on the field of healthcare. These organizations will all have different demands, depending on the clients they have. For example: healthcare, hospitals, G.P’s, rehabilitation centers, and many more. First of all we needed to decide what kind of casus we wanted to use for this project . This casus had three main focus points which had to be addressed. 1.

Reaching many people; when you reach as many people or clients with your addition, it

will bring down the cost of such an addition. Which makes it more interesting for a potential buyer 2.

Using an healing environment; To create a nice environment for the clients of the health

organization. Hoping to give the recovery process of the clients a boost. Which shortens the stay at a healthcare centre. 3.

Upgrading the existing building: the addition has to be an improvement for a part of

the existing building, this can be on the aesthetically or technology front. As an conclusion of this three main focus point the conclusion was made to use a hospital as a casus study. This way the most people can be reached, and the addition will be most effective. Besides that there are 342 hospitals in the Netherlands alone. By picking the hospital as a casus, there was a discussion started how to create this healing environment with the three demands as described before. When is a healing environment healing? Does a client need to be in a healing environment the whole day, or does it have to be an option to go there? So on which area is the project going to be focused, private or semi-public. After some research the conclusion was made, that being in a healing environment for short time on a longer period is also effective. Therefore the choice was made to create a place for people to visit when needed. This option will be more efficient because it will be cheaper than a private version.

Januari 2013 - Group C


Concept The goal was to design a concept that meets the demands listed prior. There are

of problems with privacy because people will walk in front of the windows of the hospital

many problems that have to be solved to reach this goal. Some problems come from


the nature of the client, hospitals have strong regulations, for example for the inside

A second idea came up, which now makes the concept. The idea was to put the second

climate, other problems need to be solved to ensure the concept gets a good quality.

(glass) skin on a greater distance of the hospital and make a green environment in between

The choices that were made to get to the concept form the knowledge space. This

with a few entrances to balconies on different heights. In this way the prior problems can

knowledge space can be found in appendix A. Below the different demands and the

be solved. The concept is “A park in the façade”.

choices that are made are handled. In appendix A the chosen options are highlighted, together these form the concept. One demand we had to meet was the function of the concept. Is it an individual module or is it a building for a group of people? Decided is that the concept has to reach as


many people as possible, therefore the concept has to be publicly accessible. This means that the designed space needs to be accessible for a great group of patients and not just a few rooms for a few patients. The usage of the concept healing environment is of great importance in this concept. The belief is that the healing environment works for people who stay for a longer duration in this environment, but its effective fades in time. Therefore a healing environment for more patients only a few hours per day lengthens the effectiveness of the healing environment, using this idea more patients

Position - Easy positioning - Cheap building method possible - Same volume, more value for money

can have benefits by using the design. Another demand was that the product should upgrade an existing building, this inevitably means that the design has to be constructed against a building or at least be close by it. In the end an attached building on the ground floor has the preference, in this way more can be done with ‘green’ and people looking into the building have benefit from this healing environment. This also increases the isolation value of the


existing facade.

- Climates cannot mix

Another demand is that the concept has to give a healing environment to the patients.

- Overpressure system in hospitals

A healing environment is an environment with a comfortable climate and the sight on

- Possible airlock

green. There are a few options here. In the first option the patient sees the green, in the second option the patient is between the green. The healing environment also has to give the patients a distraction and the feeling of being in contact with the outside. Because of this it is decided that the patients should be between the green. Patients sitting between the green and the demand that the concept has to reach many patients provided the idea to make a “greenhouse on its side”, a second skin for


the hospital in which people can stay and walk between the green on a sort of gallery

- Privacy is very important

bridge. The downside of this idea was that there have to be multiple entrances per

- Make sure privacy can be guaranteed

floor, this means that a lot of hospital rooms need to be sacrificed. Also there are a lot


7T815 - Integrated building technology



- Could be a problem, but only locally

- Park function

- And fully glazed structure mimics daylight

- Walking through the green


- Balcony, staying in the green - Gallery bridge, temporary in the green

Result Green - Healing environment - Vertical green - Horizontal green

The concepts wide double facade delivers a green environment in which patients can stay several hours per day. In this concept patients see and feel the nature around them. The glass facade will provide a feeling of being outside while being in a comfortable climate. This all creates a healing environment that not only benefits the patients, but also the hospital itself because faster healing patients are an real advantage and the concept provides an upgrade for the existing hospital.

Acoustics - Green absorbs sound - 35% of surface is green - No extra costly sound absorbing materials

Accessibility - Balconies - Gallery bridge - Adjust complete faรงade

Januari 2013 - Group C


Design 3D visualisation


7T815 - Integrated building technology

Januari 2013 - Group C



7T815 - Integrated building technology

Januari 2013 - Group C


1TH Floor One hospital room will me sacrificed to make an airlock and entrance to the healing environment.


7T815 - Integrated building technology

2ND Floor With this gallery it is possible to walk around the healing environment. On the downside two hospital rooms has to be sacrificed.

Januari 2013 - Group C


3TH Floor The balconies on floor 1 and 3 give vertical interaction between the different floors in the healing environment.


7T815 - Integrated building technology

For details drawing see appendix B

001 002 004




001 002


Januari 2013 - Group C


Building procedure

Step 1 - Situating the green space As an example we chose the maxima medical centrum in Veldhoven. It exists of several piers in which it is possible to project our concept. We have chosen for an option in between of two

Step 2 - Foundation

piers. In this way the healing environment can also be seen from the pier on the opposite side. Step 3 - Construction

To make the green space a construction has to be made. This construction will be placed on

Between the construction of the facade and the hospital facade are beams that will carry the

a foundation.

weight of the balcony’s and gallery.


7T815 - Integrated building technology

Step 4 - Floors The balcony’s and gallery can be placed on the structural beams. On the ground we situated

Step 5 - Glass facade The glass facade can be placed in front of the construction.

a route to enter the green space. Step 6 - Balustrades

Step 7 - Adding green

The floors will be covered with linoleum which is easy to clean. Around the balcony’s a

On the hospital facade we made a system that hold plants up against the wall and gives

balustrade will me made in glass with a wooden handrail.

them water. The ground floor of the green space is filled with shrubs and small trees.

Januari 2013 - Group C


Construction principle The green space has to be a transparent building. Mainly this will be achieved by applying a curtain wall system on the façades and the roof. The construction itself has to be as slender as possible to achieve maximum transparency. The construction principle has to be simple and needs to be applicable for the use on the most types of hospitals. In this case the construction of the green space is adapted to a wing of a example hospital. The example hospital is 4 floors high, in which the first floor is 4 meters high and the other floors are 3,5 meters high. The total height of the hospital is 14,5 meters and wing has a length of 40 meters. The green space has a ground surface of 40 x 7 meters and covers the whole façade of the hospital wing. The construction principle of the green space is shown in picture 1. The construction of the green space is a structure of steel columns and beams. The façade is made of a curtain wall system with aluminum profiles. The manufacturer is yet to be determined. Because the most hospitals have the same floor-to-floor distance, the curtain wall is build up out of elements. In this way the system can be applied on many hospitals regardless of their height or length. The construction consists of large columns and beams which are attached to the construction of the hospital. These columns and beams are 5 meters apart which corresponds to the wall-to-wall distance of the hospital rooms. Between these columns and beams girders are fitted on which the curtain wall elements can be mounted. These girders also reduce the buckling distance of the columns and roof beams. In the roof surface tension cables are mounted to ensure lateral

Picture 1. Construction principle

stability. Inside the structure are two balconies and a gallery bridge attached to the façade. These components are build up out of steel beams and concrete floors. In this case the floors of the balconies and the gallery bridge are hollow core slabs with a cement screed. On top of this comes the floor finish. Stability The construction of the green space has to stand wind on the facades. Stability perpendicular on the façade is obtained by the fact that the construction is connected the hospital, which has a stable construction. Lateral stability is obtained by the use of tension cables in the roof section. Below the stability in both directions is explained with support of picture 2 (a part of the curtain wall elements have been left out for clarification). Wind loads perpendicular on the façade [orange] are passed through by the curtain wall, via the girders to the columns, via the columns to the roof beams or the foundation. Via the roof beams the loads are passed on to the construction of the hospital. Wind loads on the sides of the green space [blue] are passed through via de girders to the hospital and the columns. The loads that are passed onto the columns are passed through on to the construction of the hospital via the tension cables in the roof.


7T815 - Integrated building technology

Picture 2. Stability principle

Profile dimensioning The structure of the green space has to bare many different loads. The construction needs to

The loads listed above are put on to the construction in MatrixFrame, they can be found

be strong and stiff enough to withstand these loads. The construction is put in to MatrixFrame, in appendix D. Four situations with different placements for the balconies and gallery are so that the construction components can be checked on strength and stiffness. In the end checked on strength and stiffness, they can be seen in the picture. these components can be dimensioned to an optimal profile keeping in mind that the structure has to be slender.

With the loads on the construction the beams and column deform, these deformations can

Before MatrixFrame can check the components the loads on the need to be defined. The be found in appendix D. The bending of the components is the most relevant deformation. construction has permanent and variable loads. The loads are defined according to Basis There are demands relating to bending which the beams and column need to meet: Constructieleer (2006). Below the different loads are listed and given a value. The variable A beam cannot bend more then : 1/250 of the length loads are multiplied with a safety factor of 1,3.

A column cannot bend more then: 1/300 of the length With these demands the profiles for the construction components can be optimally

The permanent loads are: •

The weight of the balcony and gallery floor

• •

The weight of the curtain wall

The own weight of the beams and column

dimensioned. 8,6 kN/m 3,6 kN/m

Because the structure needs to be as transparent as possible, the construction components

(depending on the profile)

need to be slender. With MatrixFrame, to check if the components meet the demands for bending, the following profiles are chosen:

The variable loads are:

Roof beam

IPE 300

Persons + snow on the roof

10 kN/m

• Column HEB 340

Wind on the facade

6,1 kN/m

Balcony beam

HEB 240

Persons on the balcony

8 kN/m

Gallery beam

HEB 200

Persons on the gallery bridge

16 kN/m

Januari 2013 - Group C


Building physics In a hospital, hygiene is of great importance. Outside air is banned from entering the building by using an overpressure system. This fact is important to keep in mind, while we are designing an environment for the ill, our climate should not mix with the indoor climate of the hospital. This because of the use of extensive vegetation which can lead to bacteria in the air, therefore it should be made sure that the climate of the newly designed space does not mix with the indoor hospital climate. Knowing that the hospital has an overpressure system, the newly designed space needs to be under this pressure anytime. To make sure this is always the case, an under pressure system is chosen. This way air can never flow from the Green Space into the hospital, air will flow from the hospital into the Green Space. This is not a problem, secondly the under pressure gives the opportunity to use soil suction. This means the energy in the earth can be used to preheat or precool the air before entering the space. This is a big energetically benefit, it is one of the crucial parts to create a sustainable climate. Ventilation now covered and climate partly, another system is introduced. In the flooring of the balconies and gallery bridge is a floor cooling/heating system integrated. This system uses water to transport energy to the location where it’s needed, this system can be connected to an existing aquifer system. The Green Space has a big volume and not the complete volume needs to be climatized. The proposed water system creates a locally enhanced climate, this creates a maximum cost effectiveness regarding to energy costs. Usage of ground suction to precool/heat the air which is free and locally enhancing of the climate, means using only the energy where it is needed. The added structure consists mainly out of glass, this means that in the summer temperature can rise quickly due to solar radiation, to prevent overheating a solar screen will be used to block the sunlight. This system works best on the outside, but is implemented on the inside to help maintenance and enhance lifetime expectancy. In between the glass and the solar screens lots of heat accumulates, this heat is extracted at the top. The extraction of air is done by a mechanical system, this also ensures that the space is a low pressure zone. The complete system has been drawn in a section which you can see here.


7T815 - Integrated building technology

Januari 2013 - Group C


Process During this project there was a lecture from Perica Savanovic, in which he tried to learned

green is mainly planted on the ground floor of the addition. There is also an route through

us a way of designing by using a knowledge-space and concept-space.

this vegetation on the ground floor, which you might see as a small park. This area can be

Designing this project has been very simple, after the choice making a green house on its

open for visitors of the hospital. Besides the vegetation on the ground floor, there will also

side against an hospital. The design has been kept as simple as possible, And therefore also

be vegetation growing in the vertical direction. Therefor we used the plant ivy (Hedera helix

as generic as possible. The jumps from knowledge space and concept space ad back where

‘Glacier’) a climbing plant that always has leaves, in summer and winter. The specific type

mainly done for the subjects: privacy, light and hygiene. These subjects needed a solution

can be determined by a gardener. We placed it by the columns as dressing on the glass

on the field between the existing building and the addition.

side and also used it on the existing façade to give it a new look. This plant had to be kept

For privacy: this meant a few changes in the project, first of all we chose to create a

in his boundaries to prevent blocking the sun. watering all vegetation will be done by a

greenhouse of 5 meters wide where the gallery was placed besides the old façade. This

water supplying system. Which provides the amount of water that the vegetation needs.

way people could enter this gallery from their room. In this situation the privacy of the

This system works on pressure. When there is pressure on the hose it will start leaking a

patients can’t be guaranteed. Therefore the gallery had to move to the other side of the

little bit on given positions. This must happen on a regular base. There has not been any

greenhouse, and it had been removed from some stories. By creating a few balcony’s on

special jumps from knowledge space to concept space in this subject, most of it has grown

certain places as seen in the design we guaranteed the privacy.

by solving other issues.

For the hygiene: hygiene is one of the main focus points when you build an addition to a hospital. By tackling the issue of privacy we mainly tackled the point hygiene. Less entrances and direct connections with the existing building means less chance on bacteria’s entering the building. For the connections we made with the existing building. We used the already


existing overpressure in the hospital in combination with an airlock. To prevent untreated

The final product delivers a huge upgrade to existing hospitals, it is a generic product which

air to flow into the hospital.

not only enhances the aesthetics of a hospital, but also greatly improves the atmosphere

By adding expansion to a hospital you might create an shortage on natural light in the

in the hospital itself. It improves the image of the hospital, because it creates an improved

existing rooms. The choice of materials demanded in the assignment was already in our

healing environment which supports the healing process of their patients. This, in the end,

advance. Because glass is transparent. The only obstruction that can create a shortage of

is the core business off the hospital. By investing in this product they not only improve their

light are the balcony’s an balustrades. For privacy matters we already moved the gallery

hospital, but they also improve the healing process of their patients.

to the glass side of the addition, by the purpose of light we moved it again two meters, so

It is an expansion kit for the hospitals, due to its modular construction principle is applicable

the gallery’s will block as less daylight as needed.

to almost every hospital. This makes it an unique product and a must have for every

To finish the healing environment there had to be add some vergetation in the addition. This



7T815 - Integrated building technology

Appendix Knowledge space








Januari 2013 - Group C



Knowledge space

3. function

2. climate

1. location

solution 1


7T815 - Integrated building technology

solution 2

solution 3

solution 4

solution 2

solution 3

solution 4

6. green

5. daylight

4. privacy

solution 1

Januari 2013 - Group C


9. acoustics

8. appliance

7. acces

solution 1


7T815 - Integrated building technology

solution 2

solution 3

solution 4

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B Section


7T815 - Integrated building technology

C Details

Januari 2013 - Group C



Construction loads and deformations

Situation A

Situation C


Appendix X – Deformations of the construction

Appendix D – Loads on the construction

7T815 - Integrated building technology

Situation B

Situation D

Situation A

Situation B

Situation C

Situation D

Healing facade - Hospitals  

This is the report from group C, for the subject Integrated building technology (7T815) in which we had to design a glass structure as an ad...

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