Wars of the Roses special
Belgium’s tyrant of the Congo How Leopold II’s limitless greed
Kings & Queens ' Dynasties Great Battles ' Heritage ' Relics
WHITE QUEEN & Black Magic
Also inside House of Medici The bride & the broken heart Who stole the Tsar’s jewels?
Uncover the accusations of witchcraft that tormented the Queen of England
The First Yorkist Victory
The Battle of Towton
How Edward IV crushed the House of Lancaster to claim his enemy’s crown
Digital Edition GreatDigitalMags.com
King & Curry
Behind the scenes of the greatest Medieval feasts
4XHHQ:LOKHOPLQD·VÀJKW against Nazi domination
Inside the summer residence of Norway’s ruling elite
Was William Shakespeare born early enough to enjoy the delights of a cup of tea? And did he wear a Top Hat? ƌŝƚĂŝŶ͛ƐĮƌƐƚWƌŝŵĞDŝŶŝƐƚĞƌǁĂƐƐƵƌĞůǇ at a later date... ...but wasƚŚĂƚďĞĨŽƌĞŽƌĂŌĞƌƚŚĞ Great Fire of London?
Each turn you place one of your cards where you think it goes in the Timeline before turning it over to see if you are right. There is only one goal - correctly play all of your cards! This game contains 110 British History themed cards and can be combined with the cards from other Timeline sets.
EXPLORE THE TIMELINE GAMES RANGE:
ew queens in British history have proved quite so divisive as Elizabeth Woodville, the commoner bride of King Edward IV. Widowed with two sons, no lands and no title, her unprecedented rise to the throne was no fairy tale, and her end had no happily ever after. Instead, she was tormented by rumours of witchcraft, accused of bewitching the king with more than just her ZRPDQO\FKDUPVÂ²Ã€QGRXWPRUHDERXWRQHRIKLVWRU\Â·V most exceptional women on page 14. Just three years before, Edward IV had thrashed /DQFDVWULDQIRUFHVDQGFODLPHGKLVHQHP\Â·VFURZQDWWKH Battle of Towton. Turn to page 22 to delve LQWRWKHÃ€UVW<RUNLVWYLFWRU\RIWKH Wars of the Roses. Elsewhere this issue, discover the brutal reality of Leopold II, .LQJRIWKH%HOJLDQVÂ·FUXHODQG corrupt colonisation of the Congo on page 34, uncover what it really WRRNWRFRRNDIHDVWÃ€WIRUDNLQJRQ SDJHDQGH[SORUH,WDO\Â·VPRVW powerful dynasty, which rose from the rank of bankers to royals, over on page 43.
From the makers of Book of
From the triumph of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings to the brutal Spanish Inquisition begun by Isabella of Castile, discover fascinating tales of kings and queens, crusaders and criminals, and es and peasants in the All About History
A world of content at your fingertips Whether you love gaming, history, animals, photography, Photoshop, sci-fi or anything in between, every magazine and bookazine from Imagine Publishing is packed with expert advice and fascinating facts.
BUY YOUR COPY TODAY
Print edition available at www.imagineshop.co.uk Digital edition available at www.greatdigitalmags.com
Contributors This issueâ€™s featured historians includeâ€Ś Harry Cunningham
As the Netherlands fell into the hands of Hitler, one queen became a beacon of hope to her people, as Harry explains.
Regular contributor Catherine unveils the heartbreaking story of Sigismund Augustus and his ill-fated lover.
O Find out about Wilhelmina on p68
O Go to p54 to read about the kingâ€™s wife
Journalist-turnedauthor Stephen Davis chats to History Of Royals about the mystery of Nicholas IIâ€™s jewels in The Tsarâ€™s Banker.
Specialising in Medieval history, Toni goes behind the scenes of some of the grandest royal feasts at the court of Richard II.
O Go to p94 read about the lost heirlooms
O Cook up your own Medieval feast on p60
Future Publishing Ltd Richmond House, 33 Richmond Hill Bournemouth, Dorset, BH2 6EZ +44 (0) 1202 586200 Web: www.historyanswers.co.uk www.greatdigitalmags.com www.futureplc.com
Deputy Editor Philippa Grafton email@example.com
Contributors Matt Bennett, Ben Biggs, Sanne de Boer, Harry Cunningham, &DWKHULQH&XU]RQ&DOOLH*UHHQ-DFN*ULIĂ€WKV$PHOLD-RQHV Tanita Matthews, Toni Mount, Jen Neal, Peter Price, Nick Soldinger, Derek Wilson, Willow Winsham, June Woolerton Cover images Alamy, Shutterstock Photography Alamy, Flickr, Getty Images, Jan Haug/The Royal Court, Kym Winters, Mary Evans, Robert Venables, Rocio Espin, TopFoto. All copyrights and trademarks are recognised and respected. Advertising Digital or printed media packs are available on request. Head of Sales Hang Deretz 01202 586442 firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Executiver Daniel Stewart 01202 586430 email@example.com
International History of Royals is available for licensing. Contact the International department to discuss partnership opportunities. Head of International Licensing Cathy Blackman +44 (0) 1202 586401 firstname.lastname@example.org
Regular contributor Nick is back again, this time delving into the dark, dirty secret of Leopold IIâ€™s reign in the Congo Free State.
Bestselling historian and frequent contributor to History Of Royals, Derek throws light on Edward IVâ€™s decisive victory.
O Discover the Belgian kingâ€™s cruelty on p34
O Walk the fields of Towton on p22
Subscriptions For all subscription enquiries: email@example.com 0844 856 0646 Overseas +44 (0) 1795 414 904 www.imaginesubs.co.uk Head of subscriptions Sharon Todd
Designer Hannah Haughy Assistant Designer Ryan Wells Picture Editor Tim Hunt Photographer James Sheppard Editor in Chief James Hoare Senior Art Editor Andy Downes
Circulation Circulation Director Darren Pearce 01202 586200
Production Production Director Jane Hawkins 01202 586200
Management Finance & Operations Director Marco Peroni Creative Director Aaron Asadi Editorial Director Ross Andrews Printing & Distribution :\QGHKDP3HWHUERURXJK6WRUH\ÂˇV%DU5RDG3HWHUERURXJK Cambridgeshire, PE1 5YS Distributed in the UK, Eire & the Rest of the World by Marketforce, 5 Churchill Place, Canary Wharf, London, E14 5HU 0203 787 9060 www.marketforce.co.uk
This issue, Willow unearths the vicious rumours of witchcraft that hounded Elizabeth Woodville at the royal court.
Freelance journalist and broadcaster June uncovers the rise and fall of the House of Medici, Italyâ€™s family that found a fortune in royal marriages.
O See the White Queenâ€™s black magic on p14
O Explore the Medici family tree on p43
Get in touch firstname.lastname@example.org www.historyanswers.co.uk Share your views and opinions online
Distributed in Australia by Gordon & Gotch Australia Pty Ltd, 26 Rodborough Road, Frenchs Forest, New South Wales 2086 + 61 2 9972 8800 www.gordongotch.com.au
Disclaimer The publisher cannot accept responsibility for any unsolicited material lost or damaged in the post. All text and layout is the copyright of Future Publishing Ltd. Nothing in this magazine may be reproduced in whole or part without the written SHUPLVVLRQRIWKHSXEOLVKHU$OOFRS\ULJKWVDUHUHFRJQLVHGDQGXVHGVSHFLĂ€FDOO\IRU the purpose of criticism and review. Although the magazine has endeavoured to ensure all information is correct at time of print, prices and availability may change. 7KLVPDJD]LQHLVIXOO\LQGHSHQGHQWDQGQRWDIĂ€OLDWHGLQDQ\ZD\ZLWKWKHFRPSDQLHV mentioned herein. If you submit material to Future Publishing via post, email, social network or any other means, you automatically grant Future Publishing an irrevocable, perpetual, royalty-free licence to use the material across its entire portfolio, in print, online and digital, and to deliver the material to existing and future clients, including but not limited to international licensees for reproduction in international, licensed editions of Future Publishing products. Any material you submit is sent at your risk and, although every care is taken, neither Future Publishing nor its employees, agents or subcontractors shall be liable for the loss or damage.
ÂŠ 2016 Future Publishing Ltd ISSN 2041-7322
ISSUE TEN (D
Inside this issue Written by expert historians and brimming with specialist knowledge, our in-depth features delve into the stories behind KLVWRU\ V PRVW IDVFLQDWLQJ Ă€JXUHKHDGV
The White Queen's Black Magic
Married to the King of England, was there any truth in the claims that Elizabeth Woodville bewitched her way to the throne?
22 The Battle of Towton How King Edward IV annihilated the House of Lancaster and stole his HQHP\ VFURZQLQWKHĂ€UVW<RUNLVW victory of the Wars of the Roses
34 Belgium's tyrant of the Congo Leopold II's limitless greed and empirical ambition led to the mutilation and massacre of millions
54 The Bride and the Broken Heart Falling head over heels for a most unsuitable bride, Sigismund Augustus followed his love to her deathbed
60 For King and Curry 7DNHDWRXUEHKLQGWKHVFHQHVRIWKH greatest Medieval feasts
versus Hitler As WWII ravaged a nation and the Dutch found themselves living a nightmare under Nazi domination, the Netherlands rallied under its rebellious queen
Inside every issue
Each issue of History Of Royals unveils the mysteries behind some of the best-known monarchs, from towering castles and palaces to the interwoven family trees
08 Royal history now 7KHODWHVWQHZVIURPDURXQGWKHZRUOG
43 Royal house: Medici ,WDO\ VPRVWLQIDPRXVSRZHUIXOIDPLO\
78 Royal residence: Oscarshall 7KH1HR*RWKLFVXPPHUUHWUHDWRI 1RUZD\ VPRQDUFKV
88 Reviews 7KHRIÃ€FLDOHistory Of RoyalsYHUGLFW RQQHZÃ€FWLRQDQGQRQÃ€FWLRQ
94 Interview This issue, History Of Royals speaks to Stephen Davis about KLV Ã€UVW KLVWRULFDO Ã€FWLRQ QRYHO ZKLFK XQFRYHUV WKH P\VWHU\ RI 7VDU 1LFKRODV ,, V PLVVLQJ MHZHOV
98 Royal relic 7KHKLVWRU\RIRQHRI%ULWDLQ VROGHVW KHLUORRPVWKH&RURQDWLRQ6SRRQ
Subscribe & save 40%
SUBSCRIBE BEFORE 31 MARCH
A showcase of incredible artwork, our royal galleries provide a snapshot of how monarchs were viewed, for better or worse
To make the most of this incredible offer, turn to page 86
54 52 7
Royal History Now (THE LATEST NEWS, DISCOVERIES, EXHIBITIONS AND MORE (
THE HUNT FOR THE BIRTHPLACE OF HENRY VII
A portrait of Henry VII was painted for the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, on 29 October 1505. It was painted less than a decade after he came to the throne
A re-creation of Pembroke Castle as it might have appeared in the early 15th century, although there are slightly more outer ward buildings than would have been the case
Â© Neil Ludlow
A survey of Pembroke Castle sheds light on its crucial role in the Wars of the Roses and the rise of the Tudors
The site of Pembroke Castle being surveyed in 2013
he foreboding Norman battlements of Pembroke Castle in West Wales – one of the holdings of the powerful Jasper Tudor – was long known to be the 1457 birthplace of Henry Tudor – the future Henry VII of England. Not only was it from Pembroke WKDWWKHÀUVW7XGRUNLQJVSUDQJEXWLWZDV IURP3HPEURNHWKDWKLVXQFOH-DVSHUNHSW WKH/DQFDVWULDQEDQQHUÁ\LQJDQGIURP 3HPEURNHZKHUHWKHIRXU\HDUROG(DUORI 5LFKPRQGZDVHYHQWXDOO\WDNHQLQWRFXVWRG\ by William Herbert. HRZHYHUOLWWOHZDVNQRZQRIWKLV WXUEXOHQWWLPHXQWLODHULDOSKRWRJUDSK\E\ 7RE\'ULYHURIWKH5R\DO&RPPLVVLRQRQ $QFLHQWDQG+LVWRULFDO0RQXPHQWV:DOHV UHYHDOHGSDUFKPDUNVLQWKHJUDVV²LUUHJXODU JURZWK²ZKLFKSURYLGHGHYLGHQFHRIWKH RXWHUZDUGEXLOGLQJZKHUH+HQU\PD\KDYH EHHQERUQ:LWKWKHSHUPLVVLRQDQGVXSSRUW RIWKH3HPEURNH&DVWOHV7UXVWDJHRSK\VLFDO VXUYH\ZDVWKHQFDUULHGRXWE\'\IHG $UFKDHRORJLFDO7UXVWZLWKDVVLVWDQFHIURP 7LP6RXWKHUQDQG7),QGXVWULHV/WGDVZHOO DVIXQGLQJE\WKH&DVWOH6WXGLHV7UXVW AUFKDHRORJLFDOFRQVXOWDQWRQWKHSURMHFW 1HLO/XGORZDUUDQJHGDQGFRRUGLQDWHGWKH VXUYH\ZRUNDQGWKHUHSRUWH[SODLQLQJ“7KH RXWHUZDUGSDUFKPDUNVUHJLVWHUHGZHOOLQ
“7KHRXWHUZDUGSDUFKPDUNVUHJLVWHUHG ZHOOLQWKHVXUYH\DQGVHHPWREHORQJWR DZLQJHG+SODQKDOOKRXVHµ WKHVXUYH\DQGVHHPWREHORQJWRDZLQJHG +SODQKDOOKRXVH,WFDQEHLGHQWLÀHGZLWK DEXLOGLQJWKDWZDVSDUWLDOO\H[FDYDWHGLQ WKHVEXWZLWKRXWUHFRUG²DOOZHKDYH LVWZRSKRWRJUDSKVZKLFKVKRZZDOOVDQGD SRVVLEOHFHVVSLWµ +HFRQWLQXHV´%XWWKLVLVWKHEXLOGLQJ WKDWLVVLJQLÀFDQWUHJDUGLQJ+HQU\7XGRU $OOWKHHYLGHQFHVRIDUDPDVVHGVXJJHVWVWKDW LWZDVRIDIRUPW\SLFDORIWKHSHULRG -DVSHU7XGRUZDVWKHÀUVWUHVLGHQWHDUO DW3HPEURNHIRURYHU\HDUVDQGWKHUH ZHUHQRUHVLGHQWHDUOVDIWHUKLVGHDWKLQ 7KHUHIRUH-DVSHULVWKHPRVWOLNHO\EXLOGHU RIWKHZLQJHGKDOOKRXVH+RZHYHULWGRHV UHPDLQDSRVVLELOLW\WKDWWKH+HUEHUWVZKR KHOG3HPEURNHGXULQJ<RUNLVWUXOHEHWZHHQ DQGPD\KDYHEXLOWLWDIWHU+HQU\ 7XGRU·VELUWKµ 7UDGLWLRQDOO\VHDUFKHVKDYHFRQFHQWUDWHG RQWKHFDVWOH·VLQQHUZDUGDQGRQWKHWRZHUV LQGHÀDQFHRIFRQWHPSRUDU\VRXUFHV“As the FDVWOHZDVDFHQWUHRIUHJLRQDOJRYHUQPHQWµ 9
H[SODLQV/XGORZ´WKHLQQHUZDUG EXLOGLQJVKDGEHFRPHPDLQO\JLYHQRYHUWR DGPLQLVWUDWLYHXVHDQGDFFRPPRGDWLRQIRU WKHDGPLQRIÀFHUVDQGVWDII²ZKLOHEHFDXVH RIDEVHQWHHLVPWKHKLJKHUVWDWXVUHVLGHQWLDO DFFRPPRGDWLRQLQWKHLQQHUZDUGKDGEHHQ QHJOHFWHGDQGZDVLQSRRUUHSDLUµ /XGORZFRQWLQXHV´,WLVXQOLNHO\WKDW /DG\0DUJDUHW%HDXIRUWDKLJKVWDWXV UHODWLYHRIWKHUHVLGHQWHDUOJDYHELUWKWRKHU ÀUVWFKLOGLQVXFKDPDUWLDODQGPDVFXOLQH VHWWLQJ6RWKHGLVFRYHU\RIZKDWDSSHDUVWR EHDQHDUFRQWHPSRUDU\KLJKVWDWXVZLQJHG KDOOKRXVHPD\SURYLGHWKHDQVZHU,WLV PXFKPRUHWKHNLQGRIEXLOGLQJLQZKLFKWKH ELUWKZRXOGKDYHWDNHQSODFHµ NHLO/XGORZLVFXUUHQWO\SURGXFLQJD PRQRJUDSKRQPHGLHYDO3HPEURNH²LQ ZKLFKDOOÀQGLQJVZLOOEHIXOO\GLVFXVVHG ²ZKLFKVKRXOGEHSXEOLVKHGLQDFRXSOH RI\HDUV+RSHIXOO\ZKHQKLVÀQGLQJVDUH UHOHDVHGZHVKRXOGÀQGRXWPRUHDERXWWKH WUXHELUWKSODFHRI+HQU\9,,
© Dyfed Archaeological Trust
ROYAL HISTORY NOW
Upco i events
Her Fashion Story Opens 24 February www.hrp.org.uk The timeless beauty of the Princess of Hearts returns to her Kensington Palace home for the 20th anniversary of her passing, with the new exhibition from Historic Royal Palaces. Curator Eleri Lynn says, â€œDiana, Princess of Wales, was one of the most photographed women in the world, and every fashion choice she made was closely scrutinised. Our exhibition explores the story of a young woman who had to quickly learn the rules of royal and diplomatic dressing, who in the process put the spotlight on the British fashion industry.â€?
Hardy Amies: A Dagenham Designer Until 25 February www.valencehousecollections.co.uk Valence House Museum, Dagenham, is paying tribute to one of the townâ€™s most celebrated sons. Dressmaker to HM Queen Elizabeth II from 1952 (service that earned him a knighthood), among Amiesâ€™ on-trend output on display is the pink hat and coat created for the Silver Jubilee, along with other dresses worn by the Queen. The exhibition also includes costumes for 2001: A Space Odyssey and cutting-edge commercial couture. Entry is free.
Charles Percier: Architecture and Design in an Age of Revolutions Until 5 February www.bgc.bard.edu Charles Percier (1764â€“1838) defined the newly imperious France of Napoleon Bonaparte from grand building projects, exotic reflections of his masterâ€™s adventures, to the gilt decadence of the royal bedchamber. The architect and designerâ€™s first major US exhibition â€“ on view at the Bard Graduate Center Gallery in New York City â€“ focuses on his most famous and seminal works.
The travelling canteen of Prince Charles Edward Stuart will be on display at the NMS
THE KING OVER THE WATER RETURNS HOME 2017â€™s Bonnie Prince Charlie And The Jacobites exhibition will be the first major showcase of the Stuart pretender in 70 years Location National Museum Scotland, Edinburgh Running from 23 June â€“ 12 November Website www.nms.ac.uk
ith appetites whetted by their recent touring exhibition Gifts For A Jacobite Prince, National Museums Scotland (NMS) is bringing an array of treasures to the National Museum of Scotland for Bonnie Prince Charlie And The Jacobites Â˛WKHĂ€UVWPDMRUH[KLELWLRQRQWKLV FRQWURYHUVLDOĂ€JXUHLQ\HDUV The exhibition, which will run from 23 June to 12 November (tickets: adult ÂŁ10, children ÂŁ7) promises seldom-seen treasures, which, according to a spokesperson for NMS, includes â€œkey loans from major collections in the UK and overseas.â€? Highlights from National Museums Scotlandâ€™s own
collections will include the travelling canteen of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a Highland targe (shield) and broadsword, and a tartan suit made for John Hyde Cotton, a leading English Jacobite. With Bonnie Prince Charlie â€“ Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James VII of Scotland and II of England, and Catholic claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland DQG,UHODQGÂ˛FXWWLQJDĂ€QHĂ€JXUHLQ KLVWRULFDOĂ€FWLRQVXFKDVWKHUHFHQWOutlander TV series on Starz, this is a rare opportunity for visitors to understand the complexities of WKHUHDOĂ€JXUH â€œThis exhibition will enable us to use and present the best material there is â€“ real objects and contemporary accounts and
ROYAL HISTORY NOW
Royal Wardrobe Style tips from historyâ€™s royal trendsetters, by Kimberly Foy of the Association of Dress Historians
The exhibition includes an exquisite Highland targe
Marie Antoinette, Queen consort of France and Navarre
(1783) 01 White, sheer cotton muslin gown
02 Plumed straw hat with an elegant feather 03 Unpowdered hair and a lack of jewels 04 Broad silk golden sash around the waist
05 Balloon sleeves
06 Ruffle neck line
RIGHT Marie Antoinette in a Chemise Dress, Elisabeth Louise VigĂŠe-Lebrun, 1783, oil on canvas. Part of the private collection of Hessische Hausstiftung
depictions â€“ to present the truth of a story more layered, complex and dramatic than HYHQWKHVHĂ€FWLRQDOLPDJLQLQJVÂľVD\VDQ NMS spokesperson. â€œItâ€™s true to say that this is the stuff of peopleâ€™s souls and so there are some sensitivities but, really, the best and most appropriate thing we can do is present the physical evidence through the material culture and documentation, and give them the tools with which to arrive at their own informed conclusions.â€? Gifts For A Jacobite Prince is touring Scottish museums until May 2017, while the Bonnie Prince Charlie And The Jacobites exhibition opens 23 June 2017. For more information about the exhibitions, visit www.nms.ac.uk.
Marie Antoinetteâ€™s controversial UHWUHDWIURPFRXUWOLIHLVH[HPSOLĂ€HG in the minimalism of her gown, albeit with stylised additions of balloon sleeves DQGUXIĂ HVDWWKHQHFNOLQH+HUQHZ rural paradise, complete with real animals and milkmaids, is evident in her plumed straw hat, the â€˜shepherdess hatâ€™. Gone are the powdered wigs, silks and jewels, or any evidence that this is DUR\DOĂ€JXUH7KLVVLWWHUÂˇVKDLULVSODLQ the silk of the sheer golden sash and an elegant feather presenting the only hint of luxury. This is an ordinary woman in her underwear. It was a rejection of the traditional expectations of the royal wife, a rebellious declaration of female autonomy. It would not do. The portrait was removed and subsequently replaced with an image of the Queen in stately silk and lace.
For more information about dress history, visit www.dresshistorians.co.uk.
ÂŠ National Museums Scotland
A portrait of Prince Charles Edward Stuart from the National Museum Scotland
Royal wives at Versailles were expected to lead a prescribed existence as objects of majesty surrounded by courtiers; their structured silk or satin gowns were as structured and restraining as they were elaborate and bejewelled. Marie Antoinette broke the rules. The sheer cotton material of this muslin gown was lightweight, similar to undergarments, and was initially worn in the French West Indies as a practical solution to a hot climate. The addition of a broad silk sash at the waist and fastening mechanisms at the front added a touch more formality, but its scandalous association with underwear, and most damagingly with the Queen herself from the mid-1770s, would endure in its name: â€œla chemise Ă la reine.â€?
A month in European history January 1867 The Prince of the 6RXWK3DFLĂ€F 24 January, United Kingdom
Victoria leaves her splendid isolation 5 January, United Kingdom
Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and second VRQ RI 4XHHQ 9LFWRULD LV JLYHQ KLV Ă€UVW 5R\DO Navy command â€“ the Ariadne class 26-gun frigate HMS Galatea â€“ and sets sail from Plymouth on a world tour. The â€œsailor princeâ€? will be feted at every destination in the British (PSLUH DQG EH FHOHEUDWHG DV WKH Ă€UVW PHPEHU RI WKH 5R\DO )DPLO\ WR YLVLW $XVWUDOLD DQG 1HZ =HDODQG ,Q D OHVV SUHVWLJLRXV Ă€UVW KH DOVR EHFRPHV WKH Ă€UVW PHPEHU RI WKH 5R\DO )DPLO\ nearly assassinated in Australia, when an Irish republican takes a shot at him in Sydney.
The Earl of Derby, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, attempts to lure Queen Victoria out of her seclusion. Since the death of her beloved husband, Prince Albert, in 1861, the Queen had withdrawn from all formal public appearances and the government were increasingly worried about unrest, with even arch-traditionalists in the press wondering why so much money was being drawn from the Civil List for a monarch they seldom saw. With much protest, Queen Victoria agrees to attend the State Opening of Parliament.
From Mexico with love? 21 January, Belgium Maxime Weygand is born in Brussels to unknown SDUHQWV 5DLVHG DW Ă€UVW E\ D )UHQFK ZLGRZ DQG WKHQ E\ D Ă€QDQFLHU OLQNHG WR WKH %HOJLDQ NLQJ /HRSROG II, this association is long rumoured to be the key WR D ODUJHU VHFUHW :H\JDQG ZKR VHUYHV )UDQFH as a general in both World War I and World War II (although the latter is mired by collaboration), is suspected to be either the illegitimate son of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, or his wife Empress Carlota, or her brother Leopold II. The latter theory proves H[WUHPHO\ SRSXODU ZLWK WKH )UHQFK RIĂ€FHU FRUSV while the former is considered the more likely, given his name.
Two Sicilies and no home 15 January, Switzerland Princess Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is born in Zurich. Her father Prince Louis, Count of Trani, was heir apparent to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, covering much of southern Italy when Garibaldiâ€™s populist march toward XQLĂ€FDWLRQ NLFNHG KLV WKURQH RXW IURP XQGHU him in 1861. Not exactly a happy union, even before the anxiety of revolution, Maria Teresaâ€™s mother â€“ according to rumour â€“ already had one child and in turn, the Count of Trani fathers an illegitimate son two years later.
ROYAL HISTORY NOW
PROVING THE SAGAS RIGHT
The curtain lifts on a royal drama
7KHORVWVKULQHWKDWWUDQVIRUPHGD Norwegian king into a saint
22 January, Germany Ludwig II, the young â€˜Swan Kingâ€™ of Bavaria, makes his Ă€UVW SXEOLF DSSHDUDQFH ZLWK KLV Ă€DQFp KLV FRXVLQ 'XFKHVV 6RSKLH &KDUORWWH ZKR VKDUHV KLV HQWKXVLDVP IRU WKH ERPEDVWLF RXWSXW RI 5LFKDUG :DJQHU ,Q D FDUHIXOO\ FKRUHRJUDSKHG QLJKW out at the Hof Theatre, Ludwig and his mother ZDON WR WKH ER[ ZKHUH 6RSKLH &KDUORWWH VLWV ZLWK KHU EURWKHU 0D[LPLOLDQ -RVHSK $UPLQDUP WKH GXFKHVV LV ZDONHG WR WKH ,PSHULDO %R[ WR VLW EHWZHHQ WKH PRQDUFK DQG KLV TXHHQ PRWKHU /LNH DOO IDLU\ WDOHV LWÂˇV VLPSO\ WRR JRRG WR EH WUXH DQG E\ WKH HQG RI WKH HQJDJHPHQW LV EURNHQ RII
he Old Norse sagas have plenty of value as literature, but their use as primary sources is always subject to doubt. According to 14th century Icelandic writer Snorri Sturluson, the Christian king of Norway, Olaf II, fell in battle to the pagan king of Denmark, Cnut the Great, at Stiklestad in 1030. This paved the way for a Norse empire stretching across Scandinavia and Northern Britain. 7KHNLQJÂˇVERG\ZDVVHFUHWO\WDNHQIURPWKHEDWWOHĂ€HOGDQG buried in the sandy banks of the Nidelva River, where stories began to attribute miracles to the site. He was later declared a saint by a local bishop, and Olaf II was reinterred at St Clements Church in Trondheim, Norway. A century later St Olaf was moved again, this time to Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, and his original shrine was demolished and forgotten. In November 2016 archaeologists from the Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (NIKU) uncovered the remains of a wooden stave church, Ă€QGLQJVWRQHIRXQGDWLRQVDQGDUHFWDQJXODUSODWIRUPWKH\ believe may be the altar built over the saint-kingâ€™s grave. A well, which is believed to be a â€˜holy wellâ€™, was also found at the site, as well as evidence of an even earlier wooden church and a Viking Age settlement. Study will continue into 2017, with NIKU excavation director, Anna Petersen, explaining to Fox News that, â€œthis site has still not revealed all its secrets, and will continue to provide archaeologists and historians with much new information about events in Scandinavia during the transition from the Viking age to the Medieval age.â€?
The seeds of war are sown 28 January, Serbia 7KH SDQ6ODYLVW %HQHYROHQW 6RFLHW\ VXEPLWV SODQV IRU GXDOPRQDUFK\ XQLWLQJ 6HUELD DQG %XOJDULD XQGHU WKH UXOH RI 0LKDLOR 2EUHQRYLĂž 3ULQFH RI 6HUELD WR %XOJDULDQ QDWLRQDOLVW JURXSV LQ WKH 2WWRPDQ (PSLUH 7KHVH SODQV FRPH WR QRWKLQJ EXW UHSUHVHQW MXVW RQH IDFHW RI 2EUHQRYLĂžÂˇV EXOOLVK IRUHLJQ SROLF\ SXVK DJDLQVW 7XUNLVK GRPLQDQFH LQ WKH UHJLRQ 7KH )LUVW %DONDQ $OOLDQFH EHWZHHQ 6HUELD 0RQWHQHJUR DQG *UHHFH FUXPEOHV ZLWK WKH SULQFHÂˇV DVVDVVLQDWLRQ LQ EXW GHVWLQ\ LV deferred not defeated DV ZDU FRPHV WR WKH %DONDQV LQ DQG EHIRUH H[SORGLQJ DFURVV WKH JOREH LQ
The death of Olaf II, painted in Trondheim in the 14th century
& Black Magic Was witchcraft behind the fairy-tale marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville? Words WILLOW WINSHAM
he Spring day in 1464 was bright and fair as Edward ,9(QJODQGÂˇVĂ€UVW<RUNLVW NLQJURGHZLWKWKHKXQWLQ :KLWWOHEXU\)RUHVW. Whether his thoughts lay on his quarry, the weather or the tumultuous times that had brought him the crown, they were soon to be caught by another matter entirely. For there, standing beneath an oak tree, stood the most beautiful of women, a small boy clutching each hand as she watched him approach. Without hesitation she threw herself into his path, pleading with the king to intercede in a matter that would restore the dower lands that were rightly hers and keep her small family from poverty. In that moment the king was struck, not by the earthly arrow of the hunt, but by the arrow of love; a spell from which he would never be released.
That he wanted her there and then there was no question, and none other had before now resisted the handsome young monarch. He could not, however, persuade the vision of loveliness to concede so much as a kiss, and, when there was talk of taking what he desired by force, her protestations regarding her virtue and her honour so shamed the king that he fell on bended knee before her, swearing instead eternal devotion. The rest of the story is equally well known; so besotted was the king that he proposed marriage, and the pair were married in secret a short while later, much to the shock and consternation of the kingâ€™s council DQGVXEMHFWVDOLNHZKHQWKHIDFWZDVĂ€QDOO\UHYHDOHGLQ September of that year. So goes the popular legend of how the charismatic and womanising king Edward IV met, married and bedded Elizabeth Woodville, the woman for whom he was willing to give everything. The legend has been greatly embroidered and added to over the years, but one 14
Elizabeth Woodville b.1437-d.1492
Best known for her brazen marriage to Edward IV and unenviable role as mother to the tragic Princes in the Tower, Elizabeth had a tumultuous and uncertain position as queen consort of England.
tantalising question always remains: what was it that this turmoil, a man named Thomas Wake came forward made Edward so ready to risk both earthly and heavenly to accuse Jacquetta Woodville of witchcraft. He had in condemnation in order to make Elizabeth his? his possession an image in lead; shaped in the The answer, according to one theory, is simple: form of a man it had, he insisted, been made Edwardâ€™s commoner Queen snared and held by Jacquetta for nefarious purposes. Another her man not just through womanly wiles man, a parish clerk named John Daunger, alone, but through the more sinister and also came forward at Wakeâ€™s bidding, assured method of witchcraft. corroborating the fact that Jacquetta 7KHĂ€UVWUXPEOLQJVRIWKLV had also made two further images, accusation came in 1469 and did not one each of the king and queen. The involve Elizabeth directly, but her implication was obvious: Elizabethâ€™s mother, Jacquetta, the former Duchess mother had used the images and her of Bedford. It was a perilous time for the magical knowledge to bind the king to her family; Jacquettaâ€™s husband and son had been daughter in an unnatural fashion. summarily executed on the orders of Edward, Jacquetta was arrested and taken to Edward IV, imagined Earl of Warwick, of Kingmaker fame, while Warwick Castle. The entire matter stank of after his death by an Elizabeth and her children were uncertain as political intrigue and manipulation; Wake anonymous artist to their own future safety. Edward IV himself was, conveniently, a staunch supporter of the could offer no help, held prisoner by Warwick, the man (DUO 7KH\ KDGWULĂ HGZLWKWKHZURQJZRPDQKRZHYHUÂ˛ who had helped put him on the throne. In the midst of Jacquetta called on the support of the mayor of London
An engraving of Elizabeth, published in Mary Howittâ€™s â€˜Biographical Sketches Of The Queens Of Englandâ€™
LEFT Two witches add ingredients to their cauldron in this 1489 woodcut from Germany
DQGRWKHUVZLWKLQÁXHQFHDQGDOWKRXJK WKHFDSWLYH(GZDUGZDVIRUFHGWRFDOOZLWQHVVHV DJDLQVW KLVPRWKHULQODZWKHFDVHVZLIWO\IHOODSDUWZKHQWKH .LQJZDVRQFHPRUHKLVRZQSHUVRQLQ-DQXDU\ 'HWHUPLQHGWRFOHDUKHUQDPH-DFTXHWWDDFFXVHG:DNH EHIRUHWKH.LQJ·VFRXQFLORIKDYLQJPDOLFLRXVLQWHQWLRQV WRZDUGVKHUDQGLQIDFHRIKHUVSLULWHGGHIHQFHZDV DFTXLWWHGWKHIDFWPDGHSDUWRIWKHSXEOLFUHFRUGDV DJUHHGE\WKHNLQJDQGFRXQFLOZKLFKLQFOXGHG:DUZLFN $Q\IXUWKHUFRQQHFWLRQEHWZHHQWKH:RRGYLOOHIDPLO\ DQGZLWFKFUDIWUHPDLQHGWKHVWXIIRIZKLVSHUVDQG
ABOVE An illuminated manuscript shows the marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, from the Anciennes Chroniques D’Angleterre by Jean de Wavrin
´(GZDUG·VSRZHUKXQJU\EURWKHU KDGVHHQKLVFKDQFHWRVHL]HWKH WKURQHIURPKLVQHSKHZµ 17
UXPRXUVXQWLO$IWHUWKHVXGGHQDQGXQH[SHFWHG GHDWKRIWKH(GZDUG,9LQ$SULORIWKDW\HDUWKH DFFXVDWLRQRIZLWFKFUDIWRQFHDJDLQUHDUHGLWVXJO\KHDG ZLWK-DFTXHWWD:DUZLFNDQG(GZDUGDOOGHDGKRZHYHU WKHQHZWDUJHWZDV(OL]DEHWKKHUVHOIKHUDFFXVHUQRQH RWKHUWKDQ5LFKDUG'XNHRI*ORXFHVWHU(GZDUG·V EURWKHUKDGVHHQKLVFKDQFHWRDVFHQGWKHWKURQHDQG KHZDVGHWHUPLQHGWRRYHUWKURZWKHSRZHUKXQJU\ :RRGYLOOHVRQFHDQGIRUDOO 7KHVWRU\JRHVWKDW5LFKDUGDUULYHGLQJRRGVSLULWV WRDFRXQFLOPHHWLQJRQO\WRDEUXSWO\OHDYHWKHURRPD VKRUWZKLOHODWHU8SRQKLVUHWXUQKLVPDQQHUZDVPXFK FKDQJHGDQGZLWKDÁRXULVKKHSXOOHGEDFNKLVVOHHYHWR UHYHDOKLVDUPGHFODULQJLWEDGO\ZLWKHUHGDQGDFFXVLQJ (OL]DEHWK²´WKDWVRUFHUHVVµ²RIFDXVLQJKLVDIÁLFWLRQ 1RWRQO\WKDWEXWWKH'RZDJHU4XHHQKDGDFFRPSOLFHV RQHRIZKRPZDV-DQH6KRUHWKHEHVWNQRZQDQGLWZDV
said, best loved, of Edward IVâ€™s many mistresses. The DFFXVDWLRQZDVPDGHRIĂ€FLDOLQ-DQXDU\RIWKHIROORZLQJ \HDUZKHQ5LFKDUG,,,ÂˇVĂ€UVWÂ˛DQGRQO\Â˛SDUOLDPHQW SDVVHGWKHDFWRI7LWXOXV5HJLXVZKLFKFRQVROLGDWHGKLV SRZHUDQGKROGRQWKHWKURQHE\GHFODULQJWKHFKLOGUHQ RI(GZDUG,9DQG(OL]DEHWKLOOHJLWLPDWH7KHUHDVRQV JLYHQLQWKHDFWZHUHWZRIROGĂ€UVWLWZDVVDLGWKDW Edward had already been betrothed to Lady Eleanor %XWOHUDQGWKHUHIRUHKLVPDUULDJHWR(OL]DEHWKZDV invalid and the children of their union bastards. Second, DQGWKHSDUWWKDWKDVJULSSHGWKHSRSXODULPDJLQDWLRQ in the years that have followed, the accusation was PDGHWKDWWKHPDUULDJHZDVLQYDOLGEHFDXVHLWKDGEHHQ EURXJKWDERXWE\XQQDWXUDOPHDQVE\(OL]DEHWKDQGKHU PRWKHU-DFTXHWWD 3DVVHGRQ-DQXDU\WKHDFWGLGQÂˇWPLQFH ZRUGVWKHPDUULDJHZDVUHIHUUHGWRDVXQJUDFLRXVDQG SUHWHQGHGDQGE\ZKLFKÂ´WKHRUGHURIDOOSROLWLFUXOH ZDVSHUYHUWHGÂľ2QWKHZLWFKFUDIWFRXQWKRZHYHUOLWWOH HYLGHQFHZDVDFWXDOO\JLYHQRQO\WKHUDWKHUYDJXH DVVHUWLRQWKDWLWZDVWKHFRPPRQRSLQLRQRISHRSOH WKURXJKRXWWKHODQG7KHSROLWLFDOUDPLĂ€FDWLRQVRIWKH DFWZHUHDSSDUHQW5LFKDUGDVVXPHGSRZHUDQ\FODLPV WRWKHWKURQHRIWKHIRUPHUTXHHQÂˇVFKLOGUHQVTXDVKHG RQFHDQGIRUDOO'HVSLWHWKLV(OL]DEHWKGLGQÂˇWĂ€QG herself before the courts, and, with the intended outcome DFKLHYHGÂ˛WKHGLVDEOLQJRIWKHUHPDLQVRIWKH:RRGYLOOH SDUW\Â˛WKHUHZDVQRQHHGIRUWKHQHZNLQJWRSXVK PDWWHUVKLVSRLQWGULYHQKRPHORXGDQGFOHDU 7KHÂśSURRIÂˇWKDW(OL]DEHWKXVHGZLWFKFUDIWWRVQDUH WKHNLQJFRPHVIURPWZRFDVHVPDQ\\HDUVDIWHUHYHQWV WKHPVHOYHVERWKRFFXUULQJDWDWLPHZKHQLWZDV SROLWLFDOO\H[SHGLHQWWRGLVFUHGLWDQGGLVDUPWKHSRZHUIXO DQGHQYLHG:RRGYLOOHIDFWLRQ&RXOGWKHUHKRZHYHUEH any truth in the claims of her enemies? $OWKRXJKLWVHHPVRXWODQGLVKDQGXQEHOLHYDEOHWR PRGHUQVHQVLELOLWLHVORYHPDJLFZDVZLGHO\SUDFWLFHGDQG EHOLHYHGLQGXULQJWKHWKFHQWXU\DQGEH\RQG2IWHQ OLQNHGWRZLWFKFUDIWDFFXVDWLRQVWKHSUDFWLFHIRUPHGSDUW RIWKHZLWFKFUDIWDFWVRIWKHWKDQGWKFHQWXULHVDQG LWPXVWEHUHPHPEHUHGWKDWEHOLHILQPDJLFZDVDVVWDSOH DEHOLHIDVWKDWRIUHOLJLRQ,Q IRULQVWDQFHWDONRIHQFKDQWPHQW HQWHUHGWKHWDOHDJDLQDVRQ*RRG Friday, Edward IV rode out to meet WKHIRUFHVRIWKH(DUORI:DUZLFN DW%DUQHWIRUZKDWZDVWRSURYH WKHGHFLGLQJEDWWOHLQWKHRQJRLQJ FRQĂ LFWEHWZHHQWKHWZRIRUPHU DOOLHV7KHIRJZDVVDLGWREHVRWKLFN that it could not have come from any natural source, and therefore PXVWKDYHEHHQEURXJKWDERXWE\ witchcraft and enchantments. Elizabeth and her mother were also not the only women with royal connections to be touched by the accusation of witchcraft HLWKHUEHIRUHRUDIWHU:LWFKFUDIWZDVDSDUWLFXODUO\ OHWKDODFFXVDWLRQWRPDNHLWZDVRQHRIDVPDOODPRXQW
DJDLQVWZKLFKDZRPDQÂˇVUDQNRIIHUHGVFDQWSURWHFWLRQ -RDQRI1DYDUUHWKH'RZDJHU4XHHQRI+HQU\,9 ZDVLPSULVRQHGDOEHLWEULHĂ \RQDFFXVDWLRQVLQ 7KHQWKHUHZDVWKHODUJHVFDQGDODWWDFKHGWR(OHDQRU &REKDP'XFKHVVRI*ORXFHVWHUZKR IRXQGKHUVHOISHUIRUPLQJKXPLOLDWLQJ SXEOLFSHQDQFHEHIRUHEHLQJ VXEMHFWHGWROLIHLPSULVRQPHQWDOO EHFDXVHVKHKDGDOOHJHGO\SURFXUHG WKHVHUYLFHVRI0DUJHU\-RXUGHPD\QH WRPDNHWKH'XNHPDUU\KHU DQGDOVRGDUHGWRKDYHWKHNLQJÂˇV KRURVFRSHGUDZQXSWRVHHZKHWKHU WKH'XNHÂ˛KHLUWR+HQU\9,Â˛ZRXOG RQHGD\EHNLQJ$OWKRXJKPDWWHUV GLGQRWJRWKDWIDULQ(OL]DEHWKÂˇV case, both she and her mother would KDYHEHHQFKLOOLQJO\DZDUHRIWKH SRWHQWLDOFRQVHTXHQFHVRIDOLQN between their names and witchcraft. /RRNLQJDWWKHHYLGHQFHKRZHYHULWLVXQOLNHO\LQGHHG WKHUHZDVDQ\WUXWKLQWKHDFFXVDWLRQVDJDLQVW(OL]DEHWK
Â´,WLVXQOLNHO\ indeed there was any truth in the accusations DJDLQVW ElizabethÂľ
ABOVE An illustration of the titular spirit from the Jean dâ€™Arrasâ€™s popular romance Le Livre De MĂŠlusine (The Book Of Melusine), 1478
The price of love -XVW ZKDW PLJKW \RX Ă€QG LQ D0HGLHYDOORYHVSHOO"
Mandrake root Known for its properties as an aphrodisiac as far back as biblical times, mandrake remained a popular ingredient in love magic throughout the middle ages and is still used for that purpose in some areas of the world today. Said to resemble the human form, with both male and female plants, there was one drawback â€“ the plant was said to shriek when pulled up, causing madness or death to the seeker unless proper precautions were taken.
Human remains Powdered bone, pubic hair and menstrual blood were just some of the gruesome ingredients a love-seeker could be required to provide in order to ensure their spell was a success, and it was especially potent if something from both the seeker and the object of desire was included. One known spell required UDWKHU VSHFLĂ€FDOO\ ERWK WKH bone marrow and spleen of a murdered boy. Honey One of the sweeter and more palatable ingredients, honey or mead were often included in love spells â€“ the sweetness, LW ZDV H[SHFWHG WR LQĂ XHQFH the object of the seekerâ€™s desire favourably towards them and also to sweeten the relationship to follow. It had WKH DGGHG EHQHĂ€W RI PDNLQJ the concoction much easier to swallow.
Henbane With a sinister reputation, both for use by witches and also to deprive one of her powers, this herb was also thought to attract love when worn. It could be used to bind a couple together in love, and to ensure that the love would last. This ingredient should be used with great caution, however, as it was also known to cause delirium and death.
Worms Another gruesome ingredient, when mixed with powdered periwinkle and certain herbs, worms were believed to ensure love between a couple. The suggestion that it be taken with their meat may well have been due to the less than encouraging taste. Seemingly a strange choice, worms, due to their obvious link with the earth, were also a potent sign of fertility: a much desired outcome in many love spells.
Consecrated host The power of this vital element of the Holy Communion service was highly prized in the Medieval world, making it a much sought-after ingredient for a variety of magical purposes LQFOXGLQJ ORYH VSHOOV 'LIĂ€FXOW to procure, many inventive ways were devised to source a piece, with some resorting to keeping it under their tongue after it had been administered in church. Relevant words and incantations could then be written upon it depending on what was required.
ABOVE A young man buys a love potion in this original etching from Molière’s 17th-century comedy L’amour Médecin (Dr Cupid)
and Jacquetta. Much has been made by some writers of Jacquetta’s background and the family legend of descent from the mythical water spirit Melusine. It was through this connection, some say, that Jacquetta, and her daughter inherited their innate talent for witchcraft. It would not be a stretch to believe for her contemporaries – witchcraft, after all, was believed to run in families, passed down from mother to daughter across the generations, an idea that was likewise prevalent in the future witch trials of England. There is scant evidence, however, that either Jacquetta or Elizabeth held much stock in the family legend, and the fact of its existence is not evidence in itself that they considered capitalising on the story to enhance their prospects. Likewise, it has been asserted that Elizabeth and Edward were married on 1 May: traditionally known as Beltane, it marks one of the most important dates of the pagan calendar and is deeply linked in the popular consciousness with witchcraft. There are even some accounts that have the king himself joining in the unearthly frolics, cavorting away the night before his marriage with Elizabeth, her mother, and their fellow
â€œElizabeth was schooled, perhaps by her mother, to wait there that day for Edward to ride pastâ€?
witches. This is, of course, pure fabrication: true enough Edward was said to be exhausted after his wedding night, but there were no doubt more earthly and ultimately more satisfying explanations for that fact. With the seeming suddenness and unexpected nature of the kingâ€™s marriage, along with the less than positive response to the identity of his queen, it was perhaps easier for people to believe or to at least mutter about the possibility of mystical means being behind the match. Elizabeth attracted censure and hostility from the start; her good looks were much envied, and, combined with her lack of lands and titles when she caught the kingâ€™s eye â€“ she was in fact at that point the only Queen who had been plucked from the ranks of ordinary subjects to EHFURZQHGÂ˛VKHZDVLQDSULPHSRVLWLRQWRĂ€QGKHUVHOI the subject of rumours and stories. She was also seen by some as a grabbing, haughty social upstart â€“ a most unsuitable wife and queen for the King. Her mother was DOVRVHHQDVKDYLQJWRRPXFKLQĂ XHQFHLQVSLULQJKHU GDXJKWHUWRQRWRQO\VQDUHWKHNLQJLQWKHĂ€UVWSODFHEXW also to secure advantageous positions and marriages for various members of their large family. 21
Further reading Â‡ ' %DOGZLQ Elizabeth Woodville: Mother Of The Princes In The Tower 6XWWRQ 3XEOLVKLQJ Â‡ 6 *ULVWZRRG Blood Sisters: The Women Behind The Wars Of The Roses +DUSHU 3UHVV Â‡ 6 +LJJLQJERWKDP The Woodvilles: The Wars Of The Roses And Englandâ€™s Most Infamous Family 7KH +LVWRU\ 3UHVV Â‡ ' 0DF*LEERQ Elizabeth Woodville â€“ A Life: The Real Story Of The White Queen $PEHUOH\
Elizabeth says farewell to her son, Richard, in a Victorian illustration
It is highly unlikely however, though a good a story it might make, that Elizabeth and her mother dabbled in witchcraft to bring about the advantageous marriage. If there was anything other than chance at play then it was the possibility that Elizabeth was schooled, perhaps by her mother, to wait there that day for Edward to ride past, but there is precious little evidence even for that level of intervention. The allegations made against both Elizabeth and her mother are best viewed through the political lens of the day. Upon the unexpected death of Edward IV, there ZHUHWZRPDLQFRQWHQGHUVIRUSRZHUDQGLQĂ XHQFHÂ˛ Edwardâ€™s brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and the Woodville faction headed by the Queen. The Woodvilles posed a direct threat to Richard, favouring rule by the whole council while the young Edward V was in his minority, Richardâ€™s role as protector that of name only rather than granting absolute control over the young and impressionable monarch. Quite simply, Richard wanted Elizabeth and her children disarmed and out of the way. As for Richardâ€™s assertions that Elizabeth had withered his arm and stolen his breath, it is hardly surprising that he was unable or unwilling to carry these accusations further. Thomas More dismissed them as rubbish, citing Elizabethâ€™s well-known dislike of Jane Shore as reason enough to dismiss the accusation of the two women working together, while also pointing out that, in his opinion, Elizabeth was far too clever to have embarked upon such an unwise course of action as dabbling in witchcraft. Was Elizabeth a witch? The answer, from the evidence, would have to be no. Whatever one believes, the myth is, however, an enduring and popular one; the theory given renewed credence in recent literary and television adaptations of the story of Edward and Elizabeth that have proved all too well that the idea is not going to fade any time soon.
Edward IV & the First Yorkist Victory
How the Lancastrians were crushed by the passionate young kingâ€™s brute force at the Battle of Towton Words DEREK WILSON n 29 March 1461, an impressive phenomenon appeared on the English political scene. Englandâ€™s new king, a remarkably tall young man (almost two metres in height), not yet 19 years old, led an army across the snowswept Yorkshire uplands to make good his claim and overthrow his predecessor. He was about to win the bloodiest battle fought on English soil â€“ a victory that would mark him out as the strong, charismatic leader the nation needed. Almost exactly 22 years later, this same king, now overweight and weakened by self-indulgence, died. He was only 40. If we seek an explanation for this transformation it lies in one word: passion. Edward IV was not only tall of stature, he was â€˜bigâ€™ in every way â€“ extrovert, generous, enthusiastic; a man who enjoyed life to the full. He was very far from being unintelligent and he did bring his realm a measure RISHDFHDQGVWDELOLW\DIWHU\HDUVRIFKDRWLFĂ€JKWLQJ %XWIRUDOOWKDWKHZDVDVHULRXVO\Ă DZHGFKDUDFWHUD man whose passion could obscure his judgement. When LWFDPHWRDFRQĂ LFWEHWZHHQKHDGDQGKHDUWKLVKHDUW usually won. This made him a charismatic leader on WKHEDWWOHĂ€HOGDQGLQWKHFRXQFLOFKDPEHUEXWLWZRXOG eventually come close to destroying all he had achieved. 22
Edwardâ€™s entrance at the Battle of Towton provides a dramatic example of his character. He arrived as a man with a price on his head, a rebel against Henry VI and only referred to by his title of Earl of March. He arrived with points to be made and deaths to be avenged. (YHU\RQHRQWKDWIUR]HQEDWWOHĂ€HOGÂ˛IULHQGVDQGIRHV alike â€“ was asking the same question: â€˜How would young (GZDUGDFTXLWKLPVHOILQWKLVĂ€UVWWULDORIVWUHQJWK"Âˇ The root of the nationâ€™s problems was the weak rule of Henry VI, a vacillating and mentally unstable king whose power was propped up by his queen, Margaret of Anjou, and a coterie of Lancastrian nobles. Over the previous 40 years the English had seen their position in Europe gradually collapse. They had lost virtually all the continental territory ruled by earlier English kings and had seen their claim to the throne of France successfully challenged. Disorder at home was added to humiliation abroad. The man who had taken up the challenge of rescuing the nation from this ineffective regime was Richard, Duke of York. In 1454, parliament appointed him protector of the king and defender of the realm. Margaret was determined to balk Richardâ€™s ambition and the next few years witnessed the fortunes of the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions swing back and forth. The Wars of the Roses had begun. After decisively beating Margaretâ€™s army at the Battle of Northampton in July 1460, Richard took the king prisoner and
rd IV o gland 42-d.1483 461-1470, 71-1483 Yorkist king of , Edward IVâ€™s peaceful and likely to end of the Roses. s death, his rvived a mere o years.
King Edward IV painted c.1540 by an anonymous artist
LQVWDOOHGKLPLQKRQRXUDEOHFRQĂ€QHPHQWLQWKH7RZHU Edwardâ€™s Lancastrian rival, King Henry VI, of London. He used this position of strength to impose depicted here in 1540 DQDJUHHPHQWZLWKWKHRSSRVLWLRQKHZRXOGVXSSRUW by an unknown painter WKHNLQJRQWKHFRQGLWLRQWKHFURZQUHYHUWHGWRKLPRQ +HQU\ÂˇVGHDWK%XW0DUJDUHWKDGDQLQIDQWVRQDQGZDV GHWHUPLQHGQRWWRJLYHXSKLVELUWKULJKW6KHFRQWLQXHG to intrigue and campaign against the protector, primarily in the north of England. By the beginning of December 1460, Richard, secure LQWKHFDSLWDOUHDOLVHGKHZRXOGKDYHWRPDUFKQRUWK WRGHDOZLWKWKH/DQFDVWULDQWKUHDW+HVHQWKLVHOGHVW VRQ(GZDUG(DUORI0DUFKWRWKH:HOVKERUGHUWRURRW RXWSRFNHWVRIUHVLVWDQFHWKHUHZKLOHKHDQGKLVVHFRQG son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland, hurried to Yorkshire to confront the main Lancastrian army. He established his KHDGTXDUWHUVLQKLVFDVWOHDW6DQGDOQHDU:DNHĂ€HOG Unfortunately, he underestimated the size of the enemy host and, in the ensuing battle (30 December), he and (GPXQGZHUHHLWKHUNLOOHGLQWKHIUD\RUFDSWXUHGDQG H[HFXWHG7KHLUKHDGVZHUHGLVSOD\HGDW<RUNRYHUWKH 0LFNOHJDWH%DU5LFKDUGÂˇVDGRUQHGZLWKDSDSHUFURZQ :HFDQVFDUFHO\LPDJLQHKRZ(GZDUGIHOWRQ UHFHLYLQJWKHQHZVEXWWUXHWRIRUPKHGLGQRWIDLO WRUHVSRQG7KHĂ€UVW/DQFDVWULDQVWRIHHOKLVIXU\ ZHUH:HOVKDQG)UHQFKPHUFHQDU\FRPEDWDQWVXQGHU WKHOHDGHUVKLSRI2ZHQ7XGRU(GZDUGPHWWKHPDW 0RUWLPHUÂˇV&URVVQHDU/HRPLQVWHURQ)HEUXDU\ %HIRUHWKHEDWWOHWKHWURRSVZHUHDPD]HGDQG DSSUHKHQVLYHWRVHHWKHUDUHDWPRVSKHULFHYHQWNQRZQ DVDSDUKHOLRQLQZKLFKWKH6XQDSSHDUHGWREH DFFRPSDQLHGE\WZRFRPSDQLRQOLJKWV(GZDUGVHL]HG XSRQWKLVSKHQRPHQRQDQGWXUQHGLWWRKLVDGYDQWDJH telling his men the parhelion represented the Holy 7ULQLW\ZKRZHUHVPLOLQJXSRQKLVHQWHUSULVH)URP WKDWWLPHRQ(GZDUGXVHGWKHÂśVXQLQVSOHQGRXUÂˇDVKLV personal emblem. He and his men routed the enemy, before setting out for London. 0HDQZKLOH0DUJDUHWKDGEHHQWRXWLQJIRUVXSSRUW LQ6FRWODQGDQGZDVRQKHUZD\VRXWKZLWKDORFXVW ZDVHQWKXVLDVWLFDOO\DFFODLPHGDV(GZDUG,9$OWKRXJK KRUGHRI6FRWWLVKDQG(QJOLVKVXSSRUWHUVOLYLQJRII WKH/DQFDVWULDQNLQJZDVQRWZLWKRXWKLVVXSSRUWHUVLQ WKHODQGDQGWHUURULVLQJHYHU\RQHLQWKHLU ZDNH the city, most of the people recognised in the 7KH\WXUQHGWKHWDEOHVRQFHDJDLQE\ZLQQLQJ D UREXVW \HDUROGJLDQWVRPHRQHZKRDFWXDOO\ YLFWRU\DW6W$OEDQVDQGUHVFXLQJ+HQU\9, ORRNHGOLNHDNLQJDQGWKH\ZHOFRPHGKLP IURPWKH<RUNLVWFDPS+RZHYHUZKHQ HQWKXVLDVWLFDOO\7KHUHZDVQRZMXVWWKH Margaret reached London, she found little matter of Margaret and her host WKHJDWHVORFNHGDJDLQVWKHU7KH WRGHDOZLWK FLWL]HQVZHUHWHUULĂ€HGRIZKDWVKHDQG 7KHQHZNLQJORVWQRWLPHLQ KHUUDYDJLQJDUP\ZRXOGGRLQWKH KHDGLQJQRUWKIRUZKDWKHKRSHGZRXOG FDSLWDODQGWKH\KDGUHFHLYHGPHVVDJHV EHWKHĂ€QDOVKRZGRZQ+HNQHZWKDW IURP(GZDUGVD\LQJWKDWKHZDVFRPLQJ KHZRXOGEHĂ€JKWLQJWKH/DQFDVWULDQVRQ WRWKHLUDLG+HDUULYHGRQ)HEUXDU\WR D WKHLURZQJURXQG7KHRQO\VRXQGVWUDWHJ\ ZDUPZHOFRPH7KHVFHQHFRXOGQRWKDYH EHHQ ZDV WR FRQIURQWWKHPDVVRRQDVSRVVLEOHEHIRUH EHWWHUVHWIRU(GZDUGWRFODLPWKHWKURQH they had time to gather all their strength. A copy of a He grabbed his opportunity. On 3 March, he %\0DUFKKHKDGOHIWWKHFDSLWDOKDYLQJ 15th-century portrait summoned a council of leading magnates and VHQWRQDKHDGWKH(DUORI:DUZLFNZLWKSDUW of Edward IV SDUOLDPHQWDULDQVDQGFODLPHGWKHFURZQE\ RIWKHDUP\LQFOXGLQJDFRQWLQJHQWSURYLGHG right on the basis that Henry had forfeited his right by by the grateful Londoners. Margaret and her husband EUHDNLQJWKHUHFHQWDJUHHPHQW7KHQH[WGD\KHZHQWWR had taken up residence in York and dispatched their :HVWPLQVWHU+DOOWRRNKLVVHDWRQWKHUR\DOWKURQHDQG DUP\XQGHUWKHOHDGHUVKLSRIWKH'XNHRI6RPHUVHWWKH
â€œ7KHVFHQHFRXOGQRWKDYHEHHQ EHWWHUVHWIRU(GZDUGWRFODLPWKH throne. He grabbed his opportunityâ€?
RIGHT Henry VIâ€™s coronation as King of France illuminated in Anciennes Chroniques Dâ€™Angleterre
Margaret of Anjou, consort to Henry VI, places a paper crown on the decapitated head of Richard, Duke of York
Earl of Northumberland and Lord Clifford to face the Yorkists. Their superior force marched out and crossed the River Wharfe at Tadcaster, their objective being to make the Yorkists do battle on the open furrowed farmland plateau beyond. They posted a contingent at Ferrybridge where the Great North Road crossed the River Aire in order to impede the progress of the enemy. Edward, with the bulk of his army, coming up the road from London, halted at Pontefract and sent a IRUFHWRWDNHFRQWURORI)HUU\EULGJH+HUHWKHĂ€JKWLQJ UDJHGEDFNDQGIRUWKWKH/DQFDVWULDQVDWĂ€UVWORVLQJ then retaking, this strategic place. Edward eventually thwarted this strategy by sending a force under the veteran William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, to cross the Aire higher up at Castleford and take the Ferrybridge defenders from the rear, forcing them to fall back to rejoin the main Lancastrian army. During this action, Lord Clifford was killed. Thus, on 28 March, both hosts were moving towards the place appointed by fate for WKHLUĂ€QDOHQFRXQWHU The next day was Palm Sunday, when Christians remembered the entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem, riding on a donkey, but there was nothing â€˜meek and mildâ€™ about the approach of the opposing English armies, which marched across the frozen plough-ruts on that holy day in 1461. If we want to understand something of how fellow countrymen could set aside all considerations of humanity and compassion, throwing themselves on each RWKHULQKDWHĂ€OOHGIUHQ]\ZHPLJKWSHUKDSVFRQVLGHU 25
ABOVE Lord Fauconberg directing soldiers during the Battle of Towton. Initially allied to the House of Lancaster, Fauconbergâ€™s allegiance shifted to York during Henry VIâ€™s second bout of madness
current events in Syria. As has often been observed, there are few kinds of warfare more violent than civil war. The Lancastrians, led by the Duke of Somerset DQGWKH(DUORI1RUWKXPEHUODQGGHĂ€QLWHO\KDGWKH advantage. Their numbers were larger and they chose WKHVLWH,WLVLPSRVVLEOHĂ€YHDQGDKDOIFHQWXULHVODWHU to calculate the numbers of men engaged on both sides. Scant contemporary accounts suggest that the two armies consisted of more than 50,000 men, more than half of whom were killed in the fray. Historians are GXELRXVDERXWWKHĂ€JXUHVEXWWKHUHLV no doubting the fact that this was the ELJJHVWDUPHGFRQĂ LFWHYHUUHFRUGHG on English soil. Edward was hurried into the battle before his numbers were complete. He was still waiting for the arrival of a contingent led by the Duke of Norfolk. The battle ground was a level place south of Towton, close to the Great North Road. It was bordered to the east by marshy ground and to the west by a wooded slope falling steeply to Cock Beck, a watercourse currently in spate. These ERXQGDULHVPHDQWWKDWDQ\VROGLHUVWU\LQJWRĂ HHWKH DUHDZRXOGKDYHDYHU\GLIĂ€FXOWWLPHRILW The one factor the Lancastrians could not control was the weather. As day broke on a bitterly cold day, it began to snow. Having taken up their defensive position, the Lancastrian troops found themselves peering WKURXJKWKHĂ XUULHVWU\LQJWRPDNHRXW(GZDUGÂˇVPHQ
as they climbed the southern slope and emerged onto WKHSODWHDX:KDWPDGHPDWWHUVGRXEO\GLIĂ€FXOWIRUWKH defenders was that the wind was blowing from the south in their faces. This also had the effect of shortening the range of their archers while, at the same time, carrying the arrows of the opposing bowmen several metres farther. Details of the battle are scant, but we know that the archers of both sides began the action. )OH[LQJWKHLUIURVWQXPEHGĂ€QJHUV DJDLQVWWKHERZVWULQJVWKH\Ă€UHG volleys of arrows at the enemy. The objective was to deplete the ranks of their opponents in preparation for the hand-to-hand contest between the men-at-arms that would follow. Lord Fauconberg was quick to see the advantage the weather had given. He ordered his bowmen to advance a few SDFHVĂ€UHWKHLUDUURZVWKHQUHWUHDW The impact was devastating, as the swarm of Yorkist missiles rushed down out of the blinding snow. The /DQFDVWULDQUHWXUQĂ€UHIHOOVKRUWDQG GLGOLWWOHRUQRGDPDJH6HYHUDOWLPHV.LQJ(GZDUGÂˇV men were able to repeat the manoeuvre and were even able to replenish their own arrows from the Lancastrian shafts littering the ground. One intriguing recent DUFKDHRORJLFDOGLVFRYHU\DWWKHEDWWOHĂ€HOGVLWHLVVRPH handgun shot. Might it be that the Battle of Towton saw WKHĂ€UVWDSSHDUDQFHRIPLOLWDU\KDQGJXQVLQ%ULWDLQ" Sustaining heavy losses without engaging the enemy forced Somerset to initiate the next stage of the action.
â€œFlexing their frost-numbed Ă€QJHUVDJDLQVW the bowstrings, WKH\Ă€UHGYROOH\V of arrowsâ€?
Battle of Towton 29 March 1461 I Key LANCASTRIANS Main Army ttack on Ferrybridge ORKIST Main Army elief of Ferrybridge uke of Norfolk
As the main Lancastrian force takes up position south of Towton (A), a detatchment is sent to hold up the Yorkist advance at Ferrybridge (B). Edward IV reaches Pontefract and sends a division across the River Aire to take Ferrybridge (C). After fighting at Ferrybridge, both forces move to the site at Towton (D), while Edward’s main army is now able to march on Towton via the previous battle site (E). Meanwhile, Norfolk’s contingent is still some way off on the Great North Road (F).
B E C
As the fierce battle wages on, the stage looks set for Lancastrian victory. However, Norfolk’s reinforcements for Edward IV arrive from the south, which turns the tide. Lancastrian troops flee westward and northward.
© Rocio Espin
Surrounded on the right by marshy land and a steep slope on the left to Cock Beck, Somerset’s division of the Lancastrian troops may have attempted a flanking manouvre for concealment.
The meadow in which the Battle of Towton took place
“(GZDUGURGH EDFNDQGIRUWK HQFRXUDJLQJKLVIROORZHUVDQG GHWHUULQJDQ\ZKRWULHGWRUXQ IURPWKHIUD\” According to a contemporary chronicler, Jean de Wavrin, the Lancastrian commander sent a detachment via the ZRRGVRQWKHZHVWHUQÁDQNRIWKHEDWWOHÀHOGWRDWWDFN WKH<RUNLVWOHIW,IWKLVKDSSHQHGDQGVRPHKLVWRULDQV DUHVFHSWLFDODERXWLW WKHQLWZDVSUREDEO\RQO\LQWHQGHG DVDGLYHUVLRQDU\WDFWLF:DYULQGHVFULEHVWKH<RUNLVW UDQNVRQWKHOHIWEHLQJWKURZQLQWRFRQIXVLRQXQWLO (GZDUGSHUVRQDOO\URGHLQWRWKHLUPLGVWDQGSXWIUHVK KHDUWLQWRWKHP&HUWDLQO\WKHWDFWLFGLGQRWDIIHFW WKHJHQHUDOGULIWRIWKHEDWWOH7KH/DQFDVWULDQVZHUH IRUFHGWROHDYHWKHLUGHIHQVLYHSRVLWLRQ6RPHUVHWDQG 1RUWKXPEHUODQGWKUHZWKHLUFDYDOU\DFURVVWKHRSHQ JURXQG7KH\ZHUHVRPHZKDWKDPSHUHGE\WKHSULFNO\ FDUSHWRIVWUHZQDUURZV(GZDUG·VPHQZLWKVWRRGWKH FKDUJH7KH/DQFDVWULDQVIROORZHGLWXSZLWKWKHLUUDQNV RIIRRWVROGLHUV 1RZWKHEUXWDOFRQWHVWWKDWZDVWKH%DWWOHRI7RZWRQ EHJDQLQHDUQHVW7KHPHQDWDUPVIHOOWRKDQGWRKDQG ÀJKWLQJWKUXVWLQJVODVKLQJDQGKDFNLQJZLWKVZRUGV 28
KDOEHUGVDQGELOOV,WZDVDEDWWOHRIDWWULWLRQ$UPRXUHG PHQFODVKHGZLWKHDFKRWKHUVWXPEOLQJRYHUWKHERGLHV RIGHDGDQGZRXQGHG)RUKRXUDIWHUH[KDXVWLQJKRXUWKH ÀJKWLQJZHQWRQ6XFFHVVRUIDLOXUHEHFDPHDPDWWHURI HQGXUDQFHDQGHQGXUDQFHGHSHQGHGODUJHO\RQQXPEHUV 7KH/DQFDVWULDQVZHUHDEOHWRFDOOXSIUHVKVROGLHUVIURP WKHLUUHVHUYHVWRÀOOWKHJDSVLQWKHLUUDQNV(GZDUGURGH EDFNDQGIRUWKHQFRXUDJLQJKLVIROORZHUVDQGGHWHUULQJ DQ\ZKRWULHGWRUXQIURPWKHIUD\%XWKLVOHIWZLQJZDV EHLQJSXVKHGWRZDUGVWKHHGJHRIWKHSODWHDXDQGWKH VWHHSVORSHGRZQWR&RFN%HFN 7KHQDWODVWWKH'XNHRI1RUIRONDSSHDUHGIURP WKH/RQGRQURDGOHDGLQJIUHVKWURRSV7KHLU SK\VLFDOSUHVHQFHDQGWKHLULPSDFWRQ<RUNLVWPRUDOH WXUQHGQHDUGHIHDWLQWRYLFWRU\)DFLQJWKHHQHP\RQ WZRIURQWVWKH/DQFDVWULDQVIDOWHUHGWKHQFUXPEOHG,Q twos and threes, then in 20s and 30s they threw aside WKHLUFXPEHUVRPHZHDSRQVDQGUHWUHDWHGVRPHLQWKH GLUHFWLRQRI7RZWRQRWKHUVGRZQWKHVOLSSHU\LQFOLQH WRZDUGVWKHEHFN7KHLUZKRRSLQJIRHVIROORZHGFXWWLQJ WKHPGRZQDVWKH\UDQLQWKHLUUHVWULFWLQJDUPRXU7KDW VDPHDUPRXUZHLJKHGGRZQWKRVHZKRWULHGWRFURVV WKHULYHU7KH\VWXPEOHGDQGIHOOLQWKHZDWHURQO\WR EHSUHVVHGGRZQE\WKHLUGHVSHUDWHFROOHDJXHVZKRXVHG WKHPDVDKXPDQEULGJHWRUHDFKWKHIDUVLGH6RRQ &RFN%HFNZDVLQFDUQDGLQHZLWKWKHEORRGRIWKHVODLQ 7KRVHUXQQLQJQRUWKZDUGVIDUHGOLWWOHEHWWHU7KH\KDG WRPDNHIRU7DGFDVWHUZKHUHWKHURDGWR<RUNFURVVHG WKH5LYHU:KDUIH:KHQ6RPHUVHWUHDFKHGLWKHRUGHUHG
The birth of culture Inspired by the court across the Channel, Edward IV encouraged the arts when he returned to England
the bridge to be destroyed in order to stop the pursuing Yorkists reaching the place where Henry and Margaret lodged. By this act he condemned many of his own men to being trapped on the wrong side of the river. This area QRZEHFDPHDQRWKHUNLOOLQJÀHOG Just how long the Battle of Towton lasted and what its cost was in human lives are subjects still much debated. According to research by English Heritage, the actual clash of arms went on for three hours. If we include the pursuit, we must think in terms of the carnage going on much longer perhaps until nightfall. Only darkness gave survivors a reasonable chance of putting distance between themselves and Towton Field. 15th-century chroniclers put the death toll at between 28,000 and 38,000 but this is more likely WRUHÁHFWWKHKRUULÀHGUHDFWLRQRIZULWHUVWKDQDQ\ careful analysis. What cannot be denied is that 7RZWRQÀHOGZLWQHVVHGWKHZRUVWRI(QJOLVK0HGLHYDO warfare. The Wharfe and the Cock Beck ran red with blood and the escape route northwards was a corridor some six miles long and half a mile wide marked out by scattered bodies. Recent excavation of a mass burial
ABOVE An 1812 interpretation of English archers during the reign of King Edward IV BELOW Rose Noble coin of Edward IV, minted in 1464
The months Edward spent out of England were formative in that they fed some of his other passions. As Henry VI and Queen Margaret were supported by Louis XI of France, he turned to the French king’s arch-enemy (and his own brother-in-law), Charles the Bold of Burgundy. Charles was a major patron of the arts, and under his rule, what we call the Northern Renaissance flourished. Some of Europe’s finest painters, sculptors, manuscript illuminators and musicians were attracted to the Burgundian court. The wealth generated by Netherlandish merchants encouraged a variety of other crafts – tapestry makers, armourers, goldsmiths and tailors. Society’s leaders sumptuously adorned their mansions and themselves in the latest fashions. The phrase ‘conspicuous consumption’ well describes Charles the Bold’s elite. What Edward saw during his brief exile showed up the cultural poverty of English court life and inspired his own sensuality. He resolved that his household, when he regained the crown, would reflect not just royal power but taste, refinement and splendour. Once he had finally established Yorkist rule after the Battle of Tewkesbury in April 1471, he achieved this ambition. Within a few years, a foreign visitor could describe the court presided over by Edward and his queen as “the most splendid in all Christendom.” From the Low Countries they commissioned beautiful clothes, jewellery and furnishings. At Windsor, the King expanded the plans for St George’s Chapel, causing it to be built in the latest perpendicular style. But Edward’s dominant passion was for books and illuminated manuscripts. He ordered several volumes from leading continental craftsmen. One was Jean Wavrin’s Anciennes Et Nouvelles Chroniques D’Angleterre, a complete history of the kingdom up to 1471. Biographies and chronicles of great past rulers were of particular interest, but they served another purpose: they appealed to Edward’s love of luxury.
King Edward IV landing in Calais, France, illustrated in miniature in the memoirs of Philippe de Commyne, a French writer and diplomat
An etching depicting Margaret of Anjou
pit has revealed just how terribly many Lancastrians died. Their heads and limbs were brutally hacked, with unnecessary, gratuitous violence. These victims had been felled with animal savagery by soldiers whose blood lust had been roused by enduring a gruelling, fearsome combat that had lasted several hours. What gave the Yorkists the victory? Good leadership by seasoned campaigners of the stature of the Earl of Warwick, the Duke of Norfolk and Lord Fauconberg. The timely arrival of reinforcements was vital. But another factor was the inspiring presence of Edward IV. Here was a young king, in the midst of the fray, riding among his men who could see the royal banner, even if they could not glimpse the king himself. Here was a warrior king, in the mould of Henry V; a real king; the sort of king England needed after decades of ineffective rule. The contemporary Gregoryâ€™s Chronicle provides fragments of gruesome detail about the aftermath of the Battle of Towton: The Earl of Devonshire was sick and might not escape away and was taken and beheaded. And the Earl of Wiltshire was taken and brought to Newcastle to the king and there his head was smitten off and sent unto London to be set upon London Bridgeâ€Ś The king tarried in the North a great while and made great enquiries of the rebellions against his father, and took down his fatherâ€™s head from the wall of York and made all the country to be sworn unto him and unto his laws. Yet, astonishing as it may seem, this crushing defeat did not mark the end of Lancastrian ambitions. As long DV+HQU\ÂˇVLQGRPLWDEOHTXHHQZDVDEOHWRZLHOGLQĂ XHQFH as long as she had a son with a claim to the throne, as long as there were nobles who had linked their fortunes to the Lancastrian cause and could not or would not forsake Margaret and her witless husband, so long would Edward IV have to be on the watch for rebellion. As soon as he returned to London, his coronation was held. Soon afterwards, parliament proclaimed Henry and his supporters traitors. The ex-king took refuge in Scotland. His wife negotiated with James II of Scotland and Louis XI of France to provide aid in return for handing over Berwick and Calais respectively. This unsettled the border region and obliged Edward to return thither in 1464. In fact, the king spent many months on the move around England neutralising lingering Lancastrian sympathies. This did not always involve military action. The king preferred to win over potential trouble makers by magnanimous displays of forgiveness. In this way he made some disastrous mistakes. The worst was his generous pardon and rehabilitation of Margaretâ€™s JHQHUDOWKH'XNHRI6RPHUVHWZKRWRRNWKHĂ€UVW opportunity to return to his old allegiance. The charismatic hero of Towton held onto his crown for a decade. He achieved the distinction of never having
lost a battle. However, several of the Yorkist victories were won by Edwardâ€™s generals and not by the king in person. By the middle of 1465, any real resistance had been crushed. Unfortunately, the young king was, by then, beginning to alienate some of his own supporters. He was losing respect because he was more effective in dealing with his enemies than in holding in check his own passions. With peace and ease came decadence. Edward refused to listen to advice from older and wiser councillors. Men who had fought for the king in bloody battles particularly resented his marriage to a woman of low rank, Elizabeth Woodville, to whose family he now showed those marks of favour they believed to be theirs by right. Several of Englandâ€™s magnates resented the â€˜effeteâ€™ life of the royal court, which was marked by pleasure seeking, bordering on debauchery. At last Edwardâ€™s staunch ally, the Earl of Warwick, was driven to transfer his allegiance to the old king. In September 1470, the tables were turned. Now it was Edward who had to go into exile. Once more Henry VI was King of England (though effective power was in Warwickâ€™s hands). The Battle of Towton, it seemed, had been in vain. As it happened, Edward was out of the country for only six months. He returned in March 1471 and, within a few weeks, had defeated his enemies decisively. Henry VI and his son were killed. The last dozen years of Edwardâ€™s UHLJQZHUHUHODWLYHO\WUDQTXLODQG(QJODQGEHQHĂ€WHG from a welcome period of peace. But old resentments lingered and even affected the kingâ€™s brothers. Edward found it necessary to have George, Duke of Clarence, H[HFXWHGDIWHUĂ€QGLQJKLPJXLOW\RISORWWLQJDJDLQVWKLP Richard of Gloucester survived but, immediately after the kingâ€™s death, manoeuvred to replace his son and heir, Edward V. One stratagem Richard used was fostering the rumour that the boy and his brother were bastards, because Edwardâ€™s marriage was invalid. The king, it was claimed, had entered into a previous union with another ODG\ZKRZDVRIĂ€FLDOO\VWLOOKLVZLIH:KHWKHUWUXHRUQRW the story was easily believed by those who knew Edward IV and his passionate nature. If there is a moral to be drawn from a reign that started dramatically well at Towton, only to end by undermining the Yorkist dynasty, perhaps it is that anyone who aspires to rule over others QHHGVĂ€UVWRIDOOWREHLQFRPPDQGRIKLPVHOI
â€œThe young king was, by then, beginning to alienate some of his own supportersâ€?
Further reading Â‡ & 5RVV Edward IV <DOH Â‡ ' 6DQWLXVWH Edward IV And The Wars Of The Roses 3HQ DQG 6ZRUG 0LOLWDU\ Â‡ 3 5HLG Medieval Warfare 5RELQVRQ
A 1902 illustration of Edward IVâ€™s coronation ceremony
Royal Gallery 1910
Plucking The Red And White Roses In The Old Temple Gardens Henry Arthur Payneâ€™s painting for the East Corridor in the Houses of Parliament depicts the moment Richard, Duke of York, plucks the white rose to represent the House of York, while his enemy, John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, chooses the red rose as the symbol of the House of Lancaster. The mural is one of a series that celebrated the Tudor dynasty, presenting the start of a dynastic war from which the Tudors would rise to power.
TYRANT OF THE CONGO How Belgiumâ€™s Leopold II plundered the heart of Africa, triggering historyâ€™s most murderous cover-up Words NICK SOLDINGER
n October 1904, Leopold II, King of the Belgians, sent an investigative committee into central Africa to uncover the truth about claims of atrocities in the Congo â€“ the vast tropical region under his control. As the committee travelled deeper into this mysterious country, it discovered a land of shadows and nightmares where white pioneers had presided over a genocide in the name of progress, &KULVWLDQLW\DQGWKHSXUVXLWRISURĂ€W%\'HFHPEHU WKHFRPPLWWHHZDVLQ%DULQJDLQWKH8SSHU&RQJR ZKHUHDPDNHVKLIWFRXUWURRPZDVHVWDEOLVKHGDQGORFDO SHRSOHZHUHLQYLWHGWRJLYHHYLGHQFH$PRQJWKHPZDV &KLHI/RQWXOXRI%ROLPD2QHH\HZLWQHVVZURWH Lontulu is a remarkable presence. He carefully DUUDQJHVDKXJHSLHFHRIFORWKRQWKHĂ RRULQIXOOYLHZ of the judges. Onto the cloth Lontulu places a series of WZLJVZKLFKKHGUDZVIURPDFORWKEDJ0HWKRGLFDOO\ KHOD\VHDFKWZLJRQWRWKHIDEULF7KHUHLVQRWDQRWKHU VRXQGRQO\WKDWRI/RQWXOXVSHDNLQJDORXGWKHQDPHVRI PHQWZLJE\WZLJ -XGJH-DQVVHQDVNVâ€œWhat do these WZLJVUHSUHVHQW"â€? Â´7KHSHRSOHRIP\YLOODJHNLOOHGE\WKH%HOJLDQVÂľ Â´+RZPDQ\WZLJVDUHWKHUH"Âľ
Â´7KHUHDUHWZLJVÂŤÂľDQVZHUV/RQWXOXÂ´7KH\NLOOHG RXUPHQRXUZRPHQRXUFKLOGUHQEHFDXVHZHGLGQRW bring them enough rubber.â€? 7KHDUHDZHWRGD\FDOOWKH'HPRFUDWLF5HSXEOLFRI WKH&RQJRLVPRUHWKDQWLPHVELJJHUWKDQ%HOJLXP Â˛DFRXQWU\WKDWE\WKHODWHWKFHQWXU\ZDVDELW SDUWSOD\HURQWKHJUDQG(XURSHDQVWDJH)RUPHGLQ LWKDGLQYLWHG3ULQFH/HRSROGRI6D[H&REXUJ 6DDĂ€HOGWREHFRPHLWVNLQJ$VD6D[H&REXUJ/HRSROG ,Â˛DVKHEHFDPHNQRZQÂ˛ZDVFRQQHFWHGWR(XURSHÂˇV PRVWSRZHUIXOUR\DOKRXVH7KHWKURQHKHÂˇGEHHQJLYHQ KRZHYHUZDVIDUIURPLPSUHVVLYH%HOJLXPZDVQRW ZHDOWK\RUVWURQJDQGDVNLQJRIWKH%HOJLDQVUDWKHU WKDQNLQJRI%HOJLXPKHUXOHGRYHUDJURXSRISHRSOH not a land â€“ limiting his role as a constitutional monarch WRDODUJHO\FHUHPRQLDORQH 7KDWEXJJHG/HRSROG$OODURXQGKLP(XURSHÂˇVJUHDW SRZHUVZHUHDFTXLULQJRYHUVHDVSRVVHVVLRQVDQGEXLOGLQJ HPSLUHV/LWWOHROG%HOJLXPFRXOGRQO\ORRNRQHQYLRXVO\ /HRSROGPDGHVHYHUDOIDLOHGDWWHPSWVWREX\FRORQLHV EXWKHGLHGGLVDSSRLQWHG+LVGUHDPKRZHYHUOLYHGRQ LQKLVVRQ/HRSROG,,ZKRZKHQFURZQHGLQ'HFHPEHU PDGHLWFOHDUWKDW%HOJLXPZRXOGKDYHÂ´FRORQLHV 34
LEOPOLD II, KING OF THE BELGIANS
Leopold II, King of the Belgians b.1835-d.1909 1865-1909
Son of the first King of the Belgians, Leopold sought to realise his father’s dream of a Belgian empire. With no children, the Belgian crown passed on to his nephew, the loved and celebrated Albert I.
Leopold II of the Belgians became one of the nation’s PRVWUHYLOHGÀJXUHV
of her own.â€? Initially, Leopold IIâ€™s efforts to capture any possessions proved as fruitless as his fatherâ€™s. Attempts to grab Borneo, Abyssinia and bits of China all came to nothing. Then, in 1871 he began reading a series of newspaper reports that changed his fortunes â€“ and those of 20 million people living in central Africa â€“ forever. That was the year that journalist Henry Morton Stanley began writing about his epic quest into the African interior in search of adventurer Dr David Livingstone, who had vanished years before having gone in search of the source of the Nile amid a riot of publicity. The mystery surrounding Livingstoneâ€™s fate in â€œdeepest, darkest Africaâ€? had become an international cause cĂŠlĂ¨bre, and Stanley â€“ in the employ of The New York Herald â€“ was despatched to solve the riddle. He eventually found a very sickly Livingstone in present-day Tanzania. Like millions of others, Leopold II was captivated by Stanleyâ€™s heroic adventures and the world he described in his stories. But he also realised that central Africa â€“ that blank bit of the Victorian map â€“ could provide him with the colony he longed for. He would, as he put it, help himself to a â€œslice of this PDJQLĂ€FHQW$IULFDQFDNHÂľ/HRSROGODXQFKHGDGHYLRXV charm offensive designed to persuade the European powers that Belgium should access the heart of Africa in order to â€œciviliseâ€? it. At the Brussels Geographic Conference in September 1876, Leopold made his case to politicians and religious leaders alike. His
plan, he told them, was to set up a network of stations across the Congo staffed by doctors and missionaries in order to create â€œharmony amongst its chiefsâ€? and â€œpacifyâ€? the region. These stations would be funded and administrated by the International Africa Association ,$$ Â˛DQRWIRUSURĂ€WRUJDQLVDWLRQWKDWKHKLPVHOIKDG magnanimously established and would fund. It all sounded too good to be true, and so it was. As Leopold drew closer to his ambitions, the IAA became a front for his newly established company, the International Association of the Congo (IAC) â€“ a YHU\PXFKIRUSURĂ€WRUJDQLVDWLRQ By 1880, Stanley â€“ now on Leopoldâ€™s payroll â€“ had led a team of Belgian engineers and soldiers into the African interior. Along the way, theyâ€™d established a network of river steamers and built roads, bridges and even a small railway. With the means to get vast amounts of loot out of central Africa, Leopold now set about covering himself legally. He instructed Stanley to get local chiefs to sign a series of treaties. Through a mixture of bribery and skulduggery, Stanley did his masterâ€™s bidding with W\SLFDOHIĂ€FLHQF\HQVXULQJKXJHVZDWKHVRI&RQJROHVH land was unwittingly handed over to the IAC. Next on Leopoldâ€™s to-do list was persuading rival European powers to keep their noses out of what he had planned. It took him four years, but at the Berlin Conference in 1884, Leopoldâ€™s diplomatic machinations paid off when the great powers agreed to the wholesale handover of the Congo to Leopold. Needless to say, not one African representative was present. With a free hand, Leopold began to plunder what was now called the Congo Free State, which he declared himself King Sovereign of. On 1 July 1885, he issued a decree stipulating that all the â€œvacant landsâ€? belonged to the State. Other decrees in 1890 and 1891 went further, declaring that all the produce of the forests exclusively belonged to the State, and that the natives could only harvest them for the State. In a few short years Leopold had (legally) transformed a gigantic part of this planet into a forced-labour camp that served his personal greed. To enforce his rule, this Congoâ€™s new king created DQDUP\RIORFDOVOHGE\%HOJLDQRIĂ€FHUV&DOOHGWKH Force Publique (FP), it would, in time, grow to be 16,000 strong, and from the start it was equipped with the latest European weapons â€“ including machine guns. Despite the Congoâ€™s grand wealth, Leopoldâ€™s venture initially proved cripplingly expensive because it was harder than heâ€™d expected to plunder the land of all its riches. Then, in 1887, John Dunlop invented the worldâ€™s Ă€UVWSQHXPDWLFW\UHDQGUXEEHUÂ˛VRPHWKLQJWKH&RQJR had in abundance â€“ became one of the most sought-after materials on the planet. The FP unleashed a reign of terror on the Congoâ€™s inhabitants. Nigh-on impossible targets for rubber harvesting were set and violent
Under Belgian authority, many Congolese were forced into intense labour or risked severe punishment
â€œWith a free hand, Leopold began to plunder what was now called the Congo Free Stateâ€?
Leopold II, depicted in a 19th-century coloured engraving
Two children whose right hands have been brutally hacked off
LEOPOLD II, KING OF THE BELGIANS
Leopold’s legacy The tarnished memories of Belgium’s tyrant king
The cover of a pamphlet issued at the start of the 20th century by the Congo Reform Association, who aimed to draw attention to the struggles in the Congo
During his lifetime, Leopold II waged a ceaseless propaganda campaign to ensure his deeds in the Congo were viewed as entirely benevolent. This meant maintaining an international network of corrupt journalists, diplomats and dignitaries, who could be relied upon to sell Leopold’s African adventure as a mission to “civilise the natives”. Back in Belgium, meanwhile, it also meant using his ill-gotten gains to build the country’s sense of self-importance and his own reputation as a great and giving monarch, usually through extravagant architectural statements. One of the most powerful examples of this is the Cinquantenaire, a public park in Brussels’ Eastern Quarter. Hemmed in on three sides by grandiose buildings, Leopold begun work on this flamboyant project in 1880 to mark 50 years of Belgian independence. As his personal fortune grew, so did the size of this elaborate piece of theatre. In 1905, a centrepiece triumphal arc was erected to tower over what by then had become a 30-hectare park filled with gardens, statues and fountains. Elsewhere, just outside Brussels, he had the equally impressive Royal Museum for Central Africa created. Built in 1897 just in time for the World Exhibition his country was hosting that year, it was a purpose-built propaganda palace. Visitors started their tour by walking past a golden statue of a European missionary holding an African child and a plaque that read: “Belgium Brings Civilisation To The Congo” – an indication of the theme-park version of the truth the exhibition was hawking. There and elsewhere in Belgium, statues of Leopold are ubiquitous. Portraying him as kindly, protective and heroic, they have helped ensure that, in his own country at least, Leopold II is remembered not as one of history’s great evildoers but a king who gave un petit pays (a little country, as Leopold would often dismiss the land) a grand importance. Unsurprisingly, the statues he had erected of himself in the Congo’s capital Kinshasa have long been ripped down by locals.
A GROWING CHORUS OF CRITICISM
MOREL’S VOICE MAY HAVE BEEN LOUDEST BUT HIS WAS JUST ONE AMONG MANY DETERMINED TO STOP THE 20TH-CENTURY’S FIRST HUMANITARIAN DISASTER
OFFICIAL REPORT SLAMS KING’S TYRRANY 1903 Roger Casement,
The locals had endured such ill-treatment at the hands of the Government officials and soldiers that nothing had remained but to be killed for failure to bring in rubber or to die in their attempts to satisfy the demands.
MILLIONS DEAD, MORE TO DIE KING’S GREED TAKES OVER Mark Twain, 1902
In fourteen years Leopold has deliberately destroyed more lives than have suffered death on all the battlefields of this planet for the past thousand years. In this vast statement I am well within the mark, several millions of lives with the mark. It is curious that the most advanced and most enlightened century of all the centuries the sun has looked upon should have the ghastly distinction
of having produced this moldy and piety-mouthing hypocrite, this bloody monster whose mate is not findable in human history anywhere, and whose personality will surely shame hell itself when he arrives there – which will be soon, let us hope and trust. Beside Leopold, Nero, Caligula, Attila, Torquemada, Genghis Khan and such killers of men are mere amateurs.
The competitive greed of The King of Belgians… unleashed blood and torture in the Congo Free State. The Congo State had begun as… a real attempt at international compromise; it had been given over to an untrustworthy trustee and wrecked hideously by his ruthless profit-hunting.
CRIME OF THE CONGO
BAPTIST MINISTER APPEALS TO KING’S COMPASSION
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, 1909
[Leopold’s] Colony is a scandal before the whole world. The era of murder and mutilations has, we hoped, passed by but the country has sunk into a state of cowed and hopeless slavery.
George Washington Williams, 1890
Against the deceit, fraud, robberies, arson, murder, slave-raiding, and general policy of cruelty of your Majesty’s Government to the natives, stands their record of unexampled patience, long-suffering and forgiving spirit, which put the boasted civilisation and professed religion of your Majesty’s Government to the blush.
HG Wells, 1905
HEART OF DARKNESS DEPICTS HORROR OF THE CONGO Joseph Conrad, 1899
They grabbed what they could get for the sake of what was to be got. It was just robbery with violence, aggravated murder on a great scale, and men going at it blind – as is very proper for those who tackle a darkness. The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much.
LEOPOLD II, KING OF THE BELGIANS
ABOVE E D Morel, photographed here c.1905, campaigned tirelessly against slavery in the Congo Free State
repercussions promised for anyone failing to deliver. A madness then prevailed as villages were torched, and abundant rainforests rang with screams and the rat-aWDWWDWRIJXQĂ€UHDVWKRXVDQGVZHUH tortured, mutilated and murdered. These crimes, though, were not without their witnesses. Leopoldâ€™s declared intention to â€œciviliseâ€? the Congo had brought droves of Christian missionaries from all over Europe and the US into the country. Living among the locals, it was impossible for them not to see what was going on and it didnâ€™t take long for the ugly news to start leaking IURPWKHNLOOLQJĂ€HOGV Swedish pastor EV SjĂśblom was WKHĂ€UVWWRJRSXEOLF,QKH ZURWHDQDUWLFOHIRUDPLVVLRQDU\PDJD]LQHÂ´:KHQ, crossed the stream,â€? he wrote describing a journey heâ€™d WDNHQLQWKH8SSHU&RQJRÂ´,VDZVRPHGHDGERGLHV KDQJLQJGRZQIURPWKHEUDQFKHVLQWKHZDWHU$V, turned my face away from the horrible sight, one of the native corporals following us told us, â€˜Oh thatâ€™s nothing. $IHZGD\VDJR,UHWXUQHGIURPDĂ€JKWDQG,EURXJKW WKHZKLWHPDQKDQGVDQGWKH\ZHUHWKURZQLQWRWKH river. The commissioner has promised us that if we have plenty of hands he will shorten our serviceâ€™.â€™ What SjĂśblom had related wasnâ€™t an isolated incident. ,WZDVRIĂ€FLDOO\VDQFWLRQHG6WDWHSROLF\FDUULHGRXWE\WKH
gangs of armed murderers who now roamed the Congoâ€™s once-peaceful land. Before a raid, FP enforcers were each issued with a set number of bullets, and to prove to the ZKLWHRIĂ€FHUVWKDWQRQHKDGEHHQ wasted, each paid thug was required to bring back a hand for every cartridge heâ€™d discharged. Not every bullet scored a kill, of course, and so hands were often hacked from the living to avoid punishment for those rounds that missed their mark. Leopoldâ€™s response to SjĂśblomâ€™s accusation was loud and swift. He denied it in both the British and Belgian press, while in the Congo 6M|EORPZDVVXIĂ€FLHQWO\LQWLPLGDWHG by Leopoldâ€™s representatives never to open his mouth again. From the earliest days of his rule there, Leopold had ordered that the Congo be divided into separate districts, each under the control of a Belgian commissioner who oversaw a series of agents responsible for organising the rubber harvests as well as the local FP. Perhaps the most notorious of these governors was LĂŠon FiĂŠvez, who ran The Equator district. Nicknamed the Devil of the Equator, this brutal and sadistic man was known to demand baskets of severed hands be brought to him for inspection, for razing hundreds of villages, murdering thousands and committing such atrocities as forcing young men to kill or rape their own mothers and sisters.
â€œEach paid thug was required to bring back a hand for every cartridge heâ€™d dischargedâ€?
When asked what heâ€™d done to the surrounding villages in 1894 when theyâ€™d failed to supply his troops with the food he demanded, FiĂŠvez replied: â€œI made war against them. One example was enough: a hundred heads cut off, and there have been plenty of supplies at the station ever since. My goal is ultimately humanitarian. I killed 100 people, but that allowed 500 others to live.â€? Mass murderers like FiĂŠvez would have rightly been imprisoned back in â€˜civilisedâ€™ Europe, but far away in Africa they could live out their darkest fantasies with impunity. FiĂŠvez and men like him were the masterful operators of Leopoldâ€™s infernal machine whether they were motivated by murderous zeal or the chance to make a fast buck â€“ something Leopold used to his great advantage. Demonstrating that he was as much a canny entrepreneur as he was a megalomaniacal tyrant, he set up and personally controlled a system of commissioning that handed out bonuses to all his employees from governors to agents. The more rubber they sent him, the bigger the bonus they got, while other bonuses were also paid to agents who managed to recruit enforcers to the ranks of the FP. With no law to guide them on this, many agents simply press-ganged thousands of young Congolese males â€“ including children â€“ into indentured service in order to brutalise their compatriots. From 1895, Leopold also began granting companies rubber concessions in the Congo, which further increased KLVSURĂ€WVDVZHOODVWKHGHJUHHRIPLVHU\KHDSHGXSRQ the Congolese population. This was done in response WRDSROLWLFDOFULVLVWKDWKDGĂ DUHGXSWKDW\HDUZKHQ an Englishman â€“ Charles Stokes â€“ was hanged without trial for illegally trading in Congolese State territory. At the Berlin Conference, Leopold had duped other European nations into believing that they, too, would VKDUHDQ\SURĂ€WVFRPLQJRXWRIWKH&RQJR+HKDG however, gone on to enforce a stringent monopoly in the country â€“ which the Stokes Affair had brought to light with potentially problematic consequences. By issuing DVHULHVRIFRQFHVVLRQV/HRSROGKRSHGWRGHĂ HFWWKH FULWLFLVPEHLQJOHYHOOHGDWKLPE\VXSHUĂ€FLDOO\DOORZLQJ RXWVLGHUVWREHQHĂ€WIURPWKHFRXQWU\ÂˇVUXEEHUWUDGH,Q reality, however, all the concessions he awarded were to companies loyal to him, with the agreement he could SRFNHWSHUFHQWRIWKHLUSURĂ€WVDVSDUWRIWKHGHDO Such brutally raw capitalism produced a culture of unfettered exploitation as these new concession companies introduced another piece of State-endorsed terror to improve productivity â€“ the hostage system. This saw the wives of the rubber collectors taken hostage, DQGRQO\KDQGHGEDFNWRWKHLUIDPLOLHVRQFHVXIĂ€FLHQW quantities of rubber had been collected. The procedure was so institutionalised that each of the companies were LVVXHGDQRIĂ€FLDOKRVWDJHOLFHQFHDXWKRULVLQJWKHPWR detain women at will. Not surprisingly, sexual abuse reached epidemic levels. Leopoldâ€™s despicable regime, though, was about to be challenged. Not by a country, nor a monarch, but E\DVLPSOHRIĂ€FHZRUNHUZKRZRXOGHYHQWXDOO\EULQJ Leopoldâ€™s whole rotten system tumbling down.
The funeral procession of Leopold II on 22 December 1909
LEOPOLD II, KING OF THE BELGIANS
In 1900, a series of well-researched articles began appearing in London periodical The Speaker. The writer was a 27-year-old clerk called Edmund Morel, who had been employed by a Liverpool shipping line that had contracts to shift much of Leopoldâ€™s rubber cargoes. Morelâ€™s job had frequently taken him to Antwerp where much of the Congo trade came in, and it was here, while VWXG\LQJRIĂ€FLDOWUDGHGRFXPHQWVKHÂˇGVWXPEOHG across an ominous truth. Ships were arriving from the Congo teeming with rubber, but the only cargoes going back the other way were bullets, weapons and troops. As Morel later wrote, â€œIt was ike stumbling upon a secret society of murderers.â€? Morel now set about exposing Leopoldâ€™s system of forced labour in all its horror. He abandoned his job at the shipping line nd began a personal crusade gainst Belgiumâ€™s king. A man f enormous energy, Morel sent ut thousands of pamphlets, wrote thousands of letters and ithin a year raised enough funds o start his own newspaper, The West African Mail. Key to Morel xposing the truth was obtaining he testimonies of missionaries hoâ€™d witnessed the horror, but wasnâ€™t easy. The missionary cieties Morel approached were adverse to criticising Leopold for fear of being thrown out of the Congo. Africans may be dying in their thousands, so the warped logic went, but if Leopold expelled the missionaries, those being murdered would never get to heaven as proper Christians. Some brave individuals did, however, come forward, and slowly Morel began to build a compelling case. As the war of words escalated, Leopold hit back. He established PR agencies in Brussels, Frankfurt and the US to peddle his version of the truth. Meanwhile, a slew of pro-Leopold books were commissioned, a legion of journalists bribed, while a monthly magazine called The Truth About The Congo was circulated throughout Europe. Morel, though, would not be silenced and caused a sensation when he published an account by a missionary whoâ€™d travelled to a part of the Congo that didnâ€™t appear on any map. The region in question lay hidden inside Leopoldâ€™s private estate in the north west of the country. This hitherto invisible land was ten times bigger than Belgium. Leopoldâ€™s sinister business had begun there in 1886, and heâ€™d managed to keep its existence secret until 0RUHOH[SRVHGWKHKRUURUVLQĂ LFWHGWKHUHLQ Outrage against Leopold in Europe was reaching fever pitch, and the British government â€“ suspicious of his endeavours since the Stokes Affair â€“ took action. In 1903, Roger Casement, the countryâ€™s newly appointed consul to the Congo, was sent to uncover the truth. While Casement travelled the Congo, Morel, back in Britain, was turning up the heat on Leopold. In 1904,
KHVWDUWHGWKHĂ€UVWJUHDWKXPDQLWDULDQPRYHPHQWRIWKH 20th century â€“ the Congo Reform Association. Gathering support from famous writers including HG Wells, Mark Twain and Joseph Conrad â€“ whoâ€™d written about what heâ€™d witnesses in central Africa in his 1899 novella Heart Of Darkness â€“ it rapidly began attracting support across Europe and the US. Casementâ€™s report was published that year, too â€“ running at over 50 pages, it was damning indictment of Leopold and the hell heâ€™d created in the KHDUWRI$IULFD7KHWUXWKZDVĂ€QDOO\RXW Leopold made one last move, and it would prove to be fatal. To counter Casementâ€™s claims, he sent his own commission to investigate, believing heâ€™d be able WRPDQLSXODWHWKHLUĂ€QGLQJV+HZDVZURQJ(QTXLULHV were set up, witnesses called and evidence given in front of impartial observers, and the terrible truth was FRQĂ€UPHG1RWWKDWWKHNLOOLQJ ended. Before the commission even left the Congo, reprisals began. Chief /RQWXOXWKHGLJQLĂ€HGPDQZKRÂˇG used the simple device of twigs to demonstrate his communityâ€™s loss, ZDVDPRQJWKHĂ€UVWWREHPXUGHUHG When the commissionâ€™s report was published in 1905, Belgians began to openly criticise Leopold. Prosecution would, it was agreed, be politically disastrous, but if the country could assume control of the Congo from its king, the international outrage might just be placated. It was an option Morel himself argued for in KLVLQĂ XHQWLDOERRNRed Rubber, which reasoned that the immediate annexation of the Congo by the Belgian government would at least bring the immediate suffering to an end. By 1908, Morel had won the argument. The total wealth Leopold scammed from the Congo is unknown. What is clear is just how deadly one manâ€™s greed was, with modern estimates putting the Congolese death toll at 10 million people â€“ about half the countryâ€™s SRSXODWLRQ$IWHURUGHULQJDOORIĂ€FLDO&RQJRUHODWHG records be burned, Leopold eventually sold the Congo to the people of Belgium for 15 million Francs in 1908. When he died the following year, his funeral cortege was booed as it rolled through the streets of Brussels. In life he became one of Europeâ€™s richest men, by his death heâ€™d become of its most despised.
ABOVE Leopold was brutally satirised and ridiculed in publications across the world
Further reading Â‡ - &RQUDG Heart Of Darkness 3HQJXLQ &ODVVLFV Ă€UVW SXEOLVKHG Â‡ (' 0RUHO Red Rubber: The Story Of The Rubber Trade Which Flourished In The Congo For 20 years )RUJRWWHQ %RRNV Ă€UVW SXEOLVKHG Â‡ 7 3DNHQKDP The Scramble For Africa $EDFXV Â‡ $ +RFKVFKLOG King Leopoldâ€™s Ghost, A Story Of Greed, Terror And Heroism In Colonial Africa 3DQ
â€œSuch brutally raw capitalism produced a culture of unfettered exploitationâ€?
DISCOVER THE PAST! w w w.histor yanswer s.co.uk
Available from all good newsagents and supermarkets ON SALE NOW
Christmas origins O Assassins O Victorians O Vikings KEYEVENTS
BUY YOUR ISSUE TODAY
Print edition available at www.imagineshop.co.uk Digital edition available at www.greatdigitalmags.com Available on the following platforms
The ambitious merchants and bankers who turned themselves into royalty and changed Western Europe Words JUNE WOOLERTON
Motto The motto ‘Festina Lente’, translated as ‘Make haste slowly’, was adopted by Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany. It was previously used by Roman Emperors.
Fleur de Lis The French symbol of the gold Fleur de Lis on azure was incorporated into the family crest long before the family married into the royal house of France. This rare honour was granted to the Medici in 1465 by Louis XI, after they reduced one of his large debts.
Six palle The six palle, or balls, didn’t become a permanent feature of the shield until 1465. Before that, different members of the Medici had altered the number with the original using 12.
A romantic legend The Medicis were originally proud of their lowly origins but by the 16th century, legends sprang up to increase the prestige of their line. One was that the six palle on the family crest represented dents in a shield used by an ancestor as he battled a giant called Mugello – the name of the town the Medicis came from.
The mysterious ‘palle’ The palle were an instantly recognisable symbol of the Medicis for three centuries but their origins are a mystery. The most popular theory is that they represent money, symbolising either gold or Byzantine coins. Another is that they are actually pills – the Medici name originally meant doctor.
Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici b.1360-d.1429
The self-made man he Medicis had been known in Florence for over a century by the time Giovanni came to prominence, but they were a banking family and looked down upon by some for their lack of aristocratic lineage. *LRYDQQL ZDV RQH RI ÀYH VRQV WR VKDUH WKH LQKHULWDQFH RI $YHUDUGR GH· 0HGLFL RQ KLV GHDWK LQ DQG DOWKRXJK QRW SRRU KH ZDV KDUGO\ ZHDOWK\ %XW HDUO\ RQ KH VKRZHG WKH TXLHW FXQQLQJ WKDW ZRXOG WDNH KLV IDPLO\ WR JUHDWQHVV *LRYDQQL WUDLQHG ZLWK KLV UHODWLYH 9LHUL ZKR ZDV RQH RI )ORUHQFH·V PRVW VXFFHVVIXO EDQNHUV +H ZRUNHG LQ 5RPH IRU 9LHUL EXLOGLQJ XS FRQWDFWV DQG ERXJKW D SDUWQHUVKLS ZLWK KLP ZLWK WKH GRZU\ KH UHFHLYHG IURP KLV PDUULDJH WR WKH QREOHERUQ 3LFFDUGD %XHUL %\ KH ZDV LQ EXVLQHVV RQ KLV RZQ DQG ZLWKLQ \HDUV KLV 0HGLFL EDQN KDG EUDQFKHV LQ 9HQLFH DQG 5RPH DV ZHOO DV )ORUHQFH
:LWKLQÀYHJHQHUDWLRQVWKHIDPLO\RI*LRYDQQLGL %LFFLGH·0HGLFLZHUH*UDQG'XNHVRI7XVFDQ\7KH\ dominated Italy for centuries
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·V IDOO IURP SRZHUWZR\HDUV ODWHU *LRYDQQL EDWWOHG WRUHWDLQWKDWUROH :KHQ KH KDQGHG RYHU FRQWURORIKLVIDPLO\ EXVLQHVV WR KLV VRQV LQ LWZDVVHFXUH *LRYDQQL GLHG LQ RQHRIWKH ZHDOWKLHVW PHQ LQ )ORUHQFH$OWKRXJKKHKDG QR WLWOH RI KLV RZQ WKLV 0HGLFLZDVWUXO\WKH IRXQGHU RI D G\QDVW\
Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici b.1389-d.1464
Lord of Florence: 1434-1464
A king in all but name n his later years, Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici is reputed to have said, “I have done nothing else but earn money and spend money”, and he spent much of it on VHFXULQJLQÁXHQFHRYHU)ORUHQFH. The FLW\DQGLWVVXUURXQGLQJVDUHÀOOHGZLWK UHPLQGHUVRIWKHHQHUJ\&RVLPRSXWLQWR WXUQLQJWKH0HGLFLIURPDEDQNLQJJLDQW WRDSROLWLFDOSRZHUKRXVHDIWHUKHWRRNWKH UHLQVRIWKHIDPLO\EXVLQHVVIURPKLVIDWKHU *LRYDQQLGL%LFFLGH·0HGLFLLQ %\RWKHUIDPLOLHVLQ)ORUHQFH IHDUHGKLPVRPXFKWKH\SORWWHGWRUHPRYH WKH0HGLFL&RVLPRZDVFDSWXUHGDQG LPSULVRQHGE\WKHP6HQWLQWRH[LOHKHPDGH FRQWDFWVLQ9HQLFHDQGRQKLVUHWXUQKRPH LQKHHQVXUHGKLVSRVLWLRQZDVQHYHU FKDOOHQJHGDJDLQ&RVLPRRYHUVDZFKDQJHV WRWKHFRQVWLWXWLRQWRHQGIDFWLRQDOLVPDQG HQVXUHKLVLQÁXHQFH)ORUHQFHWKHQOHGWKH ,WDOLDQ/HDJXHWRYLFWRU\DJDLQVW0LODQLQ
WKH%DWWOHRI$QJKLDULLQHQVXULQJWKH FLW\·VGRPLQDWLRQIRUGHFDGHV+HZHQWRQWR PDNHDQDOOLDQFHZLWK0LODQIROORZLQJWKH ULVHWRSRZHURI)UDQFHVFR6IRU]DZKRUHOLHG RQWKH0HGLFLEDQNVIRUORDQV:LWKLQ \HDUVRIKLVH[LOH&RVLPRZDVXQGRXEWHGO\ WKHPRVWSRZHUIXOPDQLQQRUWKHUQ,WDO\ $IXWXUH3RSHZKRNQHZKLPFDOOHGKLP D´NLQJLQDOOEXWQDPHµ%XW&RVLPRDOVR VKRZHGKLVLQÁXHQFHWKURXJKFXOWXUH +HEXLOWWKH0HGLFL3DODFHLQ)ORUHQFH DQGÀOOHGLWZLWKDUW+HZDVSDWURQWR %UXQHOOHVFKL)UD$QJHOLFRDQG'RQDWHOOR DQGJDYH)ORUHQFHLWVÀUVWOLEUDU\+H VXSSRUWHGWKHKXPDQLVWPRYHPHQWDQG KLVGHVLUHIRUSHDFHDQGKLVJHQHURVLW\ KHOSHGWKH5HQDLVVDQFHWRÁRXULVK+HKDG LQFUHDVHGKLVSHUVRQDOSUHVWLJHE\PDUU\LQJ &RQWHVVLQDGH·%DUGLIURPDQROGQREOH IDPLO\DQGOHIWWKHLUVRQVKXJHSRZHUDQG ZHDOWKRQKLVGHDWKLQ7KHJRYHUQPHQW RI)ORUHQFHSRVWKXPRXVO\DZDUGHGKLPWKH WLWOH¶)DWKHURIWKH&RXQWU\· 46
Cosimo, painted by Jacopo Pontormo. Named as ‘Father of the Country’, Cosimo was a well respected man
ROYAL HOUSE MEDICI
Lorenzo, painted by Girolamo Macchietti. He enjoyed unrivalled power and wealth and became a patron of both Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo
Lorenzo the Magnificent b.1449-d.1492
Lord of Florence: 1469-1492
The most brilliant Medici RUHQ]RWKH0DJQLĂ€FHQWGRPLQDWHGWKH 0HGLFLIDPLO\LQWKHWKFHQWXU\DQG KDVGRPLQDWHGWKHLUHDUO\KLVWRU\HYHU VLQFHThe young Lorenzo was bright, but lacked the glamour of his only brother, Giuliano, four years his junior. The Medici family had spent generations hiding its rather lowly origins and the WZRER\VUHFHLYHGDQHGXFDWLRQĂ€WIRUSULQFHVOHDUQLQJ from humanist philosophers as well as being taught hawking, jousting and horse breeding. Even as a young man, Lorenzo showed the political acumen that would make his own rule so successful, and he got an early taste of diplomacy when his father sent him on various missions to Rome. Lorenzo and his brother, Giuliano, took over the family businesses on the death of their father, Piero, in 1469. The Medici were now all-powerful in Florence, thanks to Lorenzoâ€™s grandfather Cosimo, who had FUHDWHGDQHWZRUNRILQĂ XHQFHWKDWWLHGMXVWDERXW everyone who mattered in the city to him. Piero had lacked some of that brilliance, but Lorenzo found himself in charge of a banking empire that still enjoyed success and promised he would govern as his father and grandfather had. Outwardly, that meant following the constitutional processes of Florence. Lorenzo held no RIĂ€FLDOUROHEXWEHKLQGWKHGRRUVRIWKH0HGLFLSDODFHV his network made sure that his familyâ€™s word was law. +HZDVDOVRSRSXODU)ORUHQFHĂ RXULVKHGXQGHU Lorenzo and people thanked him for it. He in turn showed loyalty to them. This was never clearer than during the Pazzi conspiracy and its aftermath. The Medici family had found success partly through taking control of the papacyâ€™s banking, but their rivals, the Pazzi IDPLO\KDWFKHGDSORWDORQJZLWKWKH$UFKELVKRSRI3LVD to get rid of Lorenzo and Giuliano. The brothers were attacked at Mass on Easter Sunday in the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Giuliano was stabbed to death but Lorenzo escaped. Popular support for the Medici saw the plot to destroy the familyâ€™s power put down brutally, with members of WKH3D]]LNLOOHGDQGWKH$UFKELVKRSO\QFKHG3RSH6L[WXV IV, who had approved the plot, excommunicated Lorenzo and put Florence under interdict. He then ordered the ferocious King of Naples, Ferdinand I, to attack the city. Lorenzo led his people against the attack, but when he failed to secure victory, he offered himself as a hostage to Ferdinand while negotiations to end the war continued. Lorenzo returned to Florence even more popular than before, and it was no surprise when constitutional changes needed to increase Medici power were swept through with ease.
â€œLorenzo found himself in charge of a banking empireâ€? Lorenzoâ€™s greatest fame, however, came from his patronage of the arts. He was truly a Renaissance man, even writing poems in his native Tuscan. He expanded the library begun by his grandfather, Cosimo, and continued the family tradition of encouraging support for new and established artists. He brought Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli to his court and invited 0LFKHODQJHORWROLYHZLWKKLVIDPLO\IRUĂ€YH\HDUV7KDW family included his wife, Clarice Orsini, and their ten children. But his thirst for knowledge meant his reign ended with a more dubious legacy. In 1490, he invited the radical friar, Savanarola, to preach in Florence and his attack on corrupt authorities found a ready audience. Savanarola became a popular Ă€JXUHLQWKHFLW\DQGZKHQ/RUHQ]RGLHGLQ$SULO his power was still growing. Lorenzoâ€™s love of learning had released new challenges to the established order of which his Medici family were an integral part. 47
Catherine deâ€™ Medici b.1519-d.1589 Queen of France: 1547-1559
The queen who ruled three kings atherine ended up as one of the most LQĂ XHQWLDO ZRPHQ LQ (XURSHEXW VKH KDG WR Ă€JKW WR EH KHDUG. Born in Florence in April 1519 and orphaned within weeks, she ended up living in WKH PDJQLĂ€FHQW 0HGLFL 3DODFH RQ WKH RUGHUVRI3RSH Clement VII, a relative, until the city was occupied in 6KH ZDV VHQW WR FRQYHQWV ZKLOH FURZGVED\HGIRUKHU blood. As the siege dragged on, an 11-year-old Catherine FXW RII DOO KHU KDLU DQG ZRUH D QXQÂˇV KDELWLQRUGHUWR NHHS KHUVHOI VDIH 7KH 0HGLFL IDPLO\ ZHUH XVHG WR WKH XSVDQGGRZQV RI SROLWLFDO OLIH DQG ZKHQ )ORUHQFH ZDVIUHHG&OHPHQW immediately called Catherine to Rome so he could use KHU IRU D G\QDVWLF PDUULDJH 7KH IDPLO\ZKLFKKDG PDGH D IRUWXQH IURP EDQNLQJ ZDV VWLOOIURZQHGXSRQ IRU LWV ODFN RI QREOH EORRG EXW &OHPHQW VHFXUHGDPDWFK IRU &DWKHULQH ZLWK +HQUL 'XNH RI 2UOHDQVWKHVHFRQG VRQRI.LQJ)UDQFLV,RI)UDQFHDQGWKH\ZHUHPDUULHG LQ2FWREHU&OHPHQWGLHGWKHQH[W\HDUWKHGRZU\ he had promised disappeared and Catherine became an XQSRSXODUDQGORQHO\Ă€JXUH +HUKXVEDQGPHDQZKLOHZDVIDUPRUHLQWHUHVWHGLQ KLVPLVWUHVVHVDQGWKHUHZHUHFDOOVIRUKLPWRUHSXGLDWH &DWKHULQHZKHQ+HQULEHFDPHKHLUWRWKHWKURQHRQ KLVEURWKHUÂˇVGHDWKLQDVVKHKDGQRFKLOGUHQ6KH Ă€QDOO\JDYHELUWKWRDVRQLQ+HQULDQG&DWKHULQH ZHQWRQWRKDYHWHQFKLOGUHQLQWRWDODQGEHFDPH.LQJ DQG4XHHQRI)UDQFHLQRQWKHGHDWKRI)UDQFLV ,%XW&DWKHULQHZDVDSRZHUOHVVTXHHQ+HQUL,,ZDV EHKROGHQWRKLVIDYRXULWHPLVWUHVV'LDQHGH3RLWLHUVZKR FRQWUROOHGWKHFRXUW+HQULÂˇVGHDWKIROORZLQJDMRXVWLQJ DFFLGHQWLQPDGH&DWKHULQHÂˇVVRQ.LQJ)UDQFLV,, EXWVKHZDVWRRJULHIVWULFNHQWRVWRSWKHSRZHUIXO*XLVH IDPLO\JDLQLQJFRQWURORIWKH\RXQJPRQDUFKDQGWKH JRYHUQPHQW7KHQUHOLJLRQLQWHUYHQHG7KH*XLVHVKDG SHUVHFXWHGWKH3URWHVWDQW+XJXHQRWVEXWWKH3ULQFHRI CondĂŠOHGDĂ€JKWEDFN:KHQKHWULHGWRRYHUWKURZWKH *XLVHVKHZDVFDSWXUHGDQGVHQWHQFHGWRGHDWK:KHQ Francis II died, Catherine returned CondĂŠ to his brother ZLWKDQDJUHHPHQWWKDWVKHZRXOGUXQWKHJRYHUQPHQWRI )UDQFHIRUWKHQH[WNLQJKHUVRQ&KDUOHV 0XFKRIKHUUXOHIRU&KDUOHVZDVRFFXSLHGZLWKWKH WHQVLRQVEHWZHHQ&DWKROLFVDQG3URWHVWDQWV6KHKHOG negotiations with church leaders, but the massacre RI+XJXHQRWVE\WKH'XNHRI*XLVHLQOHGWRWKH )UHQFK:DUVRI5HOLJLRQ&DWKHULQHWULHGWRPHGLDWHEXW
Leo X by Raphael. A great SROLWLFLDQDQGDVWHHO\Ă€JKWHU Leo lost touch with popular feeling during his papacy
Leo X b.1475-d.1521
Lord of Florence: 1512-1513, Pope: 1513-1521
The Pope who spent, spent, spent iovanni di Lorenzo deâ€™ 0HGLFLZKREHFDPH 3RSH/HR;ZDV QHYHUIDUIURPDĂ€JKW WKURXJKRXWKLVOLIH. $SSRLQWHG D FDUGLQDOZKHQKHZDVMXVW KHUHWXUQHGWR)ORUHQFHLQ RQWKHGHDWKRIKLVIDWKHU/RUHQ]R WKH0DJQLĂ€FHQWDQGWZR\HDUVODWHU narrowly escaped the revolt, which OHGWRWKH0HGLFLVEHLQJH[SHOOHG IURPWKHFLW\,QKHOHGDSDSDO army against the city, then held by the 3LVDQVDQGHYHQWXDOO\VDZWKH0HGLFL restored to power. 2QHRIKLVĂ€UVWPDMRUDFWLRQVDV 3RSHKHZDVHOHFWHGLQ ZDVWR EHJLQDQH[SHQVLYHĂ€JKWWRUHJDLQ WKH'XFK\RI8UELQRIRUKLVIDPLO\ 7KH:DURI8UELQRLQOHIWSDSDO Ă€QDQFHVLQDGLUHVWDWH6KRUWO\ DIWHUZDUGV/HRDSSRLQWHGQHZ FDUGLQDOVDQGZDVDFFXVHGRIFKRRVLQJ VRPHIRUĂ€QDQFLDOJDLQ$VWKH:DU RI8UELQRFDPHWRDQHQG0DUWLQ
/XWKHUSXEOLVKHGKLVThe 95 Theses, which attacked the Church over the VHOOLQJRILQGXOJHQFHVÂ˛SURPLVHVRID speedier passage into heaven bought IRUKDUGFDVKRQHDUWK/HRVHHPHGWR take this assault on his power seriously E\VXPPRQLQJ/XWKHUWR5RPHEXW he then allowed him to meet a papal OHJDWHLQ%DYDULDLQVWHDG'LVFRQWHQW with the Church was growing in 6FDQGLQDYLDWRREXW/HRLJQRUHG these growing movements while he EHFDPHLQYROYHGLQDQRWKHUĂ€JKWWKLV WLPHWRGHFLGHWKHQHZ+RO\5RPDQ Emperor. This developed into costly battles, draining papal resources. In 1521, he took steps to stamp out /XWKHUÂˇVSRZHUE\H[FRPPXQLFDWLQJ him. But the movement had caught the SRSXODULPDJLQDWLRQ7KHĂ€UVW0HGLFL 3RSHGLHGRQ'HFHPEHUVR suddenly that it was rumoured he had EHHQSRLVRQHG+HOHIWDQRWKHUEDWWOH IRUKLVVXFFHVVRUVWRĂ€JKWDVWKH\ VWUXJJOHGWRFRQWDLQWKH5HIRUPDWLRQ 48
ROYAL HOUSE MEDICI
â€œCatherine cut off all her hair and wore a nunâ€™s habit to keep safeâ€? Huguenots tried to ambush Charles IX in 1567 and so KHUSROLFLHVPRYHGWRZDUGVUHSUHVVLRQ 7KDWZDVQHYHUFOHDUHUWKDQLQ$3URWHVWDQW leader, Gaspard de Coligny, was shot and injured in Paris RQ$XJXVW)HDULQJUHSULVDOVRUGHUVZHUHJLYHQWR kill the Huguenot leaders to stop them leading revenge DWWDFNV%XW\HDUVRIUHOLJLRXVWHQVLRQVSLOOHGRYHUDQG on St Bartholomewâ€™s Day, these targeted assassinations WXUQHGLQWRZLGHVSUHDGPDVVDFUH&DWKHULQHÂˇVH[DFWUROH is much debated, but there is little doubt she was involved in a political move that led, ultimately, to the deaths of WKRXVDQGVRISHRSOHDFURVV)UDQFH Charlesâ€™ death in 1574 turned Catherineâ€™s favourite VRQLQWR.LQJ+HQU\,,,7KHĂ€UVWRIKHUFKLOGUHQWR take the throne as an adult, Henry sent his mother on diplomatic missions and she continued negotiating EHWZHHQ&DWKROLFVDQG3URWHVWDQWV,QKHUVRQKDG the Duke of Guise killed before admitting his role in the GHDWKWRKHU&DWKHULQHGLHGDIHZZHHNVODWHU7KHWLPLG but cunning princess who had risen to great power knew WKDWVKHOHIWKHUDGRSWHGFRXQWU\LQDVWDWHRIFKDRV
Clement VII became Pope with a reputation as a shrewd adviser, but his reign was marked by constant indecision
Clement VII b.1478-d.1534
The indecisive Pope lement VIIâ€™s papacy was dominated by his indecision, which led to drastic consequences and a dubious legacy. It was a far cry from his early life, where typical Medici determination and ambition set him on WKHSDWKWRKLJKRIĂ€FH Born just weeks after his father was stabbed to death in the Pazzi conspiracy to wrestle power from the Medicis in Florence, Giulio deâ€™ Medici was declared legitimate despite his parents only being formally EHWURWKHGQRWPDUULHG In 1513, his cousin, Giovanni deâ€™ Medici, was elected Pope Leo X DQGVRRQPDGHKLPDFDUGLQDO7KH younger Medici became one of the new Popeâ€™s most trusted advisers, DQGVDZĂ€UVWKDQGVRPHRIWKHPRVW crucial moments in his reign, including the rise of the Reformation and War RI8UELQR*LXOLRZDVHOHFWHG3RSH Clement VII in 1523, but soon ran into WURXEOH,QWKHRQJRLQJZDUEHWZHHQ the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, and the French King, Francois I,
Catherine has been blamed, in part, for one of the most notorious events of the 16th century, the St Bartholomewâ€™s Day Massacre
Lord of Florence: 1519-1523, Pope: 1523-1534
&OHPHQWFKDQJHGVLGHVVHYHUDOWLPHV In 1527, Charles held the upper hand EXW&OHPHQWZDVDOOLHGWR)UDQFRLV 7KH,PSHULDOWURRSVZHUHPDUFKHGWR Rome and ended up ransacking the city, destroying churches and killing KXQGUHGVRISHRSOH&OHPHQWHVFDSHG to the Castel Sant Angelo, where he UHPDLQHGDSULVRQHUIRUDOPRVWD\HDU Meanwhile, Henry VIII asked him to annul his marriage to Catherine of $UDJRQDXQWRI&KDUOHV9&OHPHQW acted indecisively throughout this ORQJUXQQLQJHFFOHVLDVWLFDOEDWWOHDW Ă€UVWKHDJUHHGWRDFRPPLVVLRQWR hear the petition, before ruling that Henry couldnâ€™t marry again without KLVSHUPLVVLRQ7KH7XGRUPRQDUFK ended up ignoring the Pope, and the Archbishop of Canterbury granted the divorce, which Clement later declared LQYDOLGEHIRUHKLVGHDWK Humiliated by secular monarchs, &OHPHQWÂˇVKHDOWKIDLOHG,QKLV Ă€QDOPRQWKVKHFRPPLVVLRQHG Michelangelo to paint The Last Judgement on the ceiling of the Sistine &KDSHO,WZRXOGEHDJOLWWHULQJOHJDF\
Cosimo III deâ€™ Medici
Marie deâ€™ Medici was so notorious for scheming that her son was forced to banish her from court
b.1642-d.1723 Grand Duke of Tuscany: 1670-1723
The longest reigning Medici osimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, held power for 53 years but while his reign broke records, it was very far from a glorious success. Cosimo wasted money as other Medicis had made it, and he became obsessed with trying to ensure his daughterâ€™s right to succeed in a world that wasnâ€™t interested in a female ruler. Cosimo was the son of Ferdinando II and his wife, Vittoria, who barely got along and who rowed over his education almost from the moment of his birth in 1642. Ferdinando, very much a Medici, wanted his son to learn from modern minds but his mother won the day and implemented an old-fashioned regime. Cosimo grew up sullen and became obsessed with religion, spending hours in church or with monks. But as the heir to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, there was no chance of him entering holy orders. Instead, aged 19, he married Marguerite Louise dâ€™Orleans, granddaughter of Henri IV of France and Marie deâ€™ Medici. It was another unhappy royal marriage. The young couple had a son, another Ferdinando, in 1663 but by then they ZHUHFRQVWDQWO\Ă€JKWLQJ6RRQDIWHUWKHELUWKRIWKHLU daughter, Anna, in 1667, Cosimo went on several tours of Europe to escape his wife. This pattern of unorthodox behaviour might have continued but for the death of his father. Ferdinando II died on 23 May 1670 and Cosimo became Grand Duke of Tuscany. There was no grand inheritance for this Medici though. The Tuscan economy had been failing for years and was now in severe trouble. Once-famous towns like Pisa were falling into disrepair, while money lost its value and bartering became a way of life. Cosimo was just as good at spending cash as his predecessors, but lacked WKHLUPRQH\PDNLQJVNLOOVDQGĂ€QDQFLDOSUREOHPVZRXOG plague his reign. He turned to his mother for help and in the early SDUWRIKLVUXOH9LWWRULDZDVDQLQĂ XHQWLDODQGSRZHUIXO member of his court. His wife resented him even more as a result. They had another son, Gian Gastone, in EXW0DUJXHULWH/RXLVHĂ€QDOO\KDGHQRXJKDQGLQ 1674 she agreed to go and live in a convent. Cosimoâ€™s coffers were drained even further when he had to pay her compensation as a result. The new Grand Duke encountered more problems as he brought in a series of increasingly harsh laws. To try and solve his economic problems he brought in new taxes and many of the criminal offences he created carried ODUJHĂ€QHV+HEDQQHGPDUULDJHRUUHODWLRQVKLSVRIDQ\ kind between Jewish and Christian people and increased public executions. His obsession with morality led to new
Marie deâ€™ Medici b.1575-d.1642
Queen of France: 1600-1610
The scheming Queen Mother arie deâ€™ Medici was hardly a model mother. In her pursuit of power, she spent years conspiring and plotting against her son, King Louis XIII of France, and battling his chief adviser, Cardinal Richelieu, whom she had helped raise to power. At the age of four, her mother died, with her father subject to rumours he had killed her. He soon married his mistress but they both died in mysterious circumstances when Marie was 12. Her marriage to the 47-year-old King Henri IV of France in 1600, aged 16, plunged her into more intrigue â€“ she bore her husband six children but he gave power and prestige to his mistresses. Murder rumours followed Marie wherever she went. Her husband was assassinated on 14 May 1610, the day after she had been crowned Queen of France. Within hours, she was named UHJHQWIRUKHUVRQ/RXLV;,,,6RRQ whispers started that she had been
involved in the plot to kill the popular King Henri. Marie ignored them and began overturning foreign policy to suit her and her family under the LQĂ XHQFHRI&RQFLQR&RQFLQL6RRQ she had to buy off angry nobles. Her cause was helped by the appointment of Armand Jean du Plessis, later Cardinal Richelieu, to her council but in 1617 her son took control and banished her. Marie began scheming and was involved in a plot in 1619 to unseat Louis, with Richelieu negotiating a peace between them that gave the Queen Mother her freedom again. But Marie grew to resent the power Richelieu wielded over her son and in 1630, on the Day of the Dupes, she told him to choose between them. Richelieu ZRQDQG0DULHZDVH[LOHGDJDLQ6KH escaped and travelled around Europe, continuing to plot. However, despite royal links and her Medici heritage, Marie died in relative poverty in Germany in 1642. 50
ROYAL HOUSE MEDICI
“Cosimo III was good at spending cash, but lacked money making skills” laws against prostitution and even with men talking to women in doorways. However, as his reign progressed, his biggest obsession became the continuation of the Medici dynasty. Both his sons endured unhappy marriages and as time went on, it became clear that the chances of them having families with their wives were slim. Cosimo’s daughter, Anna, also remained childless. The Grand Duke began petitioning the powers of Europe to accept Anna as heir should neither of his sons have families, but he never wholly succeeded. In the last years of his life, he lost his elder son, Ferdinando, and then watched as other powers debated the future of his duchy. On his death, Cosimo left Tuscany with little money and with little chance of the Medici line continuing. His legacy was a set of harsh laws that his successor, Gian Gastone, soon repealed and a family life that ensured this famous dynasty was about to run out.
After enduring a miserable marriage, Gian Gastone was left without an heir, but the last Medici was popular with his people
Gian Gastone b.1671-d.1737
Grand Duke of Tuscany: 1723-1737
The Grand Duke who retired to bed he last Medici to hold political power in some ways ended as his illustrious ancestors had begun. Gian Gastone, Grand Duke of Tuscany, cultivated people outside the ruling elite – as the early Medicis had done. But his marital misadventures drove him to depression and brought four centuries of power to an end. A typical Medici future looked set for Gian Gastone when he was born in 1671, the second son of Cosimo III. There was talk of him becoming a cardinal but that came to nothing. Instead, his sister arranged a wedding in 1697 with a potential heiress, Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg, but the marriage was a failure. By 1708, Gian Gastone was back in Florence with the Medicis. He became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1723. His political rule was popular – he abolished harsh taxes and stopped public executions – but his personal
Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, battled for years to have his daughter accepted as an heir to his throne
life was a disaster. Relying heavily on his brother’s widow, Violante Beatrice, to carry out the public side of Medici rule, Gian Gastone retired to bed where he was kept company by the Ruspanti, a group of men whose aim was to please the Duke. Violante tried WROHVVHQWKHLULQÁXHQFHE\KROGLQJ huge banquets for Gian Gastone, but by then he was drinking heavily and his behaviour shocked his guests. His disastrous marriage also meant he had no heir and a succession crisis dominated his reign. He was powerless as the countries around him argued over the future of Tuscany. In the end, his throne became a prize in the treaty following the War of the Polish Succession. Gian Gastone’s death, on 9 July 1737, brought Medici rule to an end with Tuscany passing to Francis of Lorraine. One of his last acts was to erect a statue to Galileo, whose radical teachings he reintroduced to universities. Like many before him, he still had the power to shake things up.
Royal Gallery 1772-78
7ULEXQD 2I 7KH 8IÀ]L
Commissioned by Queen Charlotte, Tribuna Of The Uffizi was painted by Johann Zoffany depicting the Tribuna, an octagonal room in the Uffizi gallery renowned for showcasing masterpieces from the Medici collection. The gallery itself – initially state offices and archives – was commissioned by Cosimo I de Medici, and built by Giorgio Vasari, Alfonso Parigi and Bernardo Buontalenti, the latter of whom designed the Tribuna.
Jan Matejko depicts the ill-fated lovers intertwined in his 1867 scene
THE BRIDE AND THE BROKEN HEART
The& thebride broken heart After a loveless marriage, Sigismund II Augustus found his soulmate – but fate was against him Words CATHERINE CURZON nce upon a time in a kingdom far, far away, there lived a beautiful young widow with no intention of fading quietly into the background. She was Barbara 5DG]LZLããWKH /LWKXDQLDQ QREOHZRPDQZKRVH SDVVLRQDWH URPDQFHZLWK 6LJLVPXQG ,, $XJXVWXVWKHHYHQWXDO.LQJRI3RODQG ZRXOG FDXVH PRUHGUDPDLQDIHZVKRUW\HDUVWKDQPRVW RI XV PDQDJH LQDZKROHOLIHWLPH$JDLQVWDOOWKHRGGV WKHLUV ZDV D ORYHWKDWFRXOGQRWEHEURNHQDSDVVLRQ WKDW FRXOG QRW EHGLPPHGDQGRQHWKDWDOPRVWFRVWD ZLOOLQJ NLQJ KLV FURZQ<HWLQDWUDJLFWZLVWRIIDWHMXVW DV LW VHHPHG WKDW WKHSDVVLRQRIWKHVHVWDUFURVVHGORYHUV FRXOG LQGHHG FRQTXHUDOOIDWHZRXOGGHDOWKHPWKHFUXHOOHVW RI EORZV ,QNHHSLQJZLWKWKHYHU\EHVWURPDQWLF OHJHQGV PXFK RI%DUEDUD5DG]LZLãã·VHDUO\OLIHLVORQJ VLQFH ORVW LQ WKH PLVWVRIWLPH(YHQWKHGDWHRIKHUELUWK LV GLVSXWHG DQG WKRXJKLWLVZLGHO\EHOLHYHGWREHVRPH VRXUFHV DOVR OLVW2QHWKLQJWKDWDOODUHDJUHHG RQ LV WKDW VKH ZDV ERUQWRSRZHUDQGSULYLOHJHDVWKH\RXQJHVW FKLOG RI -HU]\ 5DG]LZLãã9RLYRGH:DUORUG RI7UDNDL DQG 9LOQLXV DQG %DUEDUD.RODQNDKLVZLIH +LVWRULDQVKDYHEHHQDEOHWRGLVFRYHU IHZ GHWDLOV RI %DUEDUD·VFKLOGKRRG\HWZLWKVXFKLOOXVWULRXV SDUHQWV WKH OLWWOHJLUOZDVGHVWLQHGWREHFRQVLGHUHG D PRVW HOLJLEOH \RXQJODG\LQGHHG+HUSURVSHFWVZHUH KHOSHG IXUWKHU E\WKHIDFWWKDWDVVKHJUHZDQGHQWHUHG HGXFDWLRQ %DUEDUDSURYHGKHUVHOIWREHQRWRQO\EHDXWLIXO EXW KLJKO\LQWHOOLJHQWDQGTXLFNZLWWHG6RGHVLUDEOH ZDV VKH WKDWZKHQ%DUEDUDZDVMXVW6WDQLVORYDV *RåWDXWDV 55
9RLYRGH RI1RZRJUóGHNFDOOHGRIIKLVHQJDJHPHQWWRKHU HOGHVW VLVWHUDQGPDUULHG%DUEDUDLQVWHDG 7R KHUQHZKXVEDQG%DUEDUDJDYHDQHQRUPRXV GRZU\ RI SUHFLRXVLWHPVOLYHVWRFNDQGMHZHOVZKLOH WR KLV ZLIH6WDQLVORYDVJDYHFROGKDUGFDVK,WZDVD JRRG PDWFKIRUERWKIDPLOLHVVWUHQJWKHQLQJG\QDVWLF WLHV EHWZHHQWZRDPELWLRXVKRXVHVDVWKHEHVWQREOH PDUULDJHVZHUHDOZD\VLQWHQGHGWR$VWXWHDQGZHDOWK\ WKH XQLRQPLJKWKDYHEHHQEXWLWZDVWREHVKRUWDQG MXVW ÀYH \HDUVDIWHUWKH\ZHUHPDUULHG6WDQLVORYDVGLHG DQG %DUEDUDZDVOHIWDFKLOGOHVVZLGRZ 3RODQG·V&URZQ3ULQFH6LJLVPXQG$XJXVWXV PHDQZKLOHZDVWUDSSHGLQDORYHOHVVDQGHTXDOO\ FKLOGOHVVDOEHLWG\QDVWLFDOO\VKUHZGPDUULDJHWR (OL]DEHWKRI$XVWULD8QKDSS\DVKHZDVWKDWGLGQ·W PDWWHU WRKLVDPELWLRXVSDUHQWV6LJLVPXQGWKH2OGDQG %RQD 6IRU]D6LJLVPXQG$XJXVWXVORQJHGIRUH[FLWHPHQW IRU SDVVLRQDQGWKHVRUWRIHOHFWULFLW\WKDWKLVG\QDVWLF PDUULDJHFRXOGQ·WSURYLGH)RUWKHNLQJDQGTXHHQ KRZHYHU WKHUHFRXOGKDYHEHHQOLWWOHEHWWHUSURVSHFWWKDQ WKH +DEVEXUJ(OL]DEHWKDFRUQHUVWRQHLQWKHLUSODQV WR H[WHQGWKHSRZHUDQGLQÁXHQFHRIWKHLURZQ+RXVH RI -DJLHOORQ$\RXQJPDQIXOORIHQHUJ\DQG\RXWKIXO HQWKXVLDVP6LJLVPXQG$XJXVWXVGLGQ·WFDUHDMRWIRU HPSLUH EXLOGLQJLWZDVWKULOOVWKDWKHFUDYHG:KHQKH PHW WKH EHDXWLIXOOLYHO\%DUEDUDLQVSDUNVÁHZ 7KH SUHFLVHGDWHWKDWWKHFRXSOHEHFDPHORYHUVLV GLVSXWHG EXWLW·VVDIHWRDVVXPHWKDW6LJLVPXQG$XJXVWXV WRRN %DUEDUDDVKLVPLVWUHVVGHVSLWHEHLQJPDUULHG WR (OL]DEHWK<HWZKHQDQHSLOHSWLFVHL]XUHFODLPHG (OL]DEHWK·VOLIHLQ-XQHQRWLQJFRXOGNHHSWKHORYHUV DSDUW )UHHRIDQ\RWKHUWLHV6LJLVPXQG$XJXVWXVDQG %DUEDUD VSHQWHYHU\PRPHQWWRJHWKHUUHYHOOLQJLQHDFK
ABOVE Lucas Cranach the Youngerâ€™s portraits of both Sigismund Augustus DQG%DUEDUD5DG]LZLĂŁĂŁ both of which are exhibited in Czartoryski 0XVHXP3RODQG
otherâ€™s company and leaving nobody in any doubt that they were much more than friends. They roamed the countryside near Vilnius, hunted as a pair and enjoyed private audiences to which no other was admitted. Soon, gossip began to circulate, claiming that a secret tunnel had been constructed between Sigismund Augustusâ€™ SDODFHDQG%DUEDUDÂˇVDQFHVWUDOKRPHRI5DG]LZLĂŁĂŁ3DODFH 7KURXJKWKHWXQQHOWKHFRXSOHZRXOGĂ LWWRHQMR\VHFUHW and passionate assignations, safe from prying eyes and gossiping courtiers. Sigismund Augustusâ€™ court and parents were keen for him to marry again and in their eyes, Barbara was simply not an option. They dreamed of the heady days of his marriage to Elizabeth of Austria and longed for another bride from similarly well-connected courts. 3HUKDSVWKHNLQJDQGTXHHQKRSHGWKH\PLJKWVHH another Habsburg at the altar or even a Bourbon. Yet Sigismund Augustus had already had one arranged marriage and he had eyes only for Barbara. For Bona, however, Barbara was a nouveau riche nobody with ideas ZD\DERYHKHUVWDWLRQ,I%DUEDUD5DG]LZLĂŁĂŁPDUULHGKHU son, it would be over her dead body. 7KHĂ€HUFHO\DPELWLRXVDQGRSLQLRQDWHG%RQDKDG UHFNRQHGZLWKRXWKHUVRQÂˇVHTXDOO\Ă€HUFHGHWHUPLQDWLRQ though, and in 1547, Sigismund Augustus and Barbara ZHUHVHFUHWO\PDUULHG:KHQWKH3ROLVKFRXUWDQG people found out about the wedding, they shared the horror of the royal family. To them, Barbara and her family were opportunistic fortune hunters, while for Bona, the marriage effectively shattered her plans of 56
dynastic expansion across Europe. By marrying without informing his parents or seeking their approval, let DORQHWKDWRIWKH3ROLVKSDUOLDPHQWWKH6HMP6LJLVPXQG Augustus had completely set aside accepted protocol. Barbara was considered neither a suitable match nor an HTXDORQHEXWDPDQLSXODWLYHZRPDQRIGXELRXVPRUDO Ă€EUH,QIDFWLQWKHORXGO\YRLFHGFRPSODLQWVDJDLQVW the marriage, the vast majority of blame and abuse was KXUOHGVTXDUHO\DW%DUEDUD Soon rumours were swirling that the marriage had been one of convenience, contracted when the couple ZHUHGLVFRYHUHGLQĂ DJUDQWHE\IDPLO\PHPEHUV$QRWKHU juicy bit of gossip claimed that Barbara was pregnant, leaving Sigismund Augustus with no choice but to legitimise the marriage. Though Barbara did suffer EOHHGLQJODWHUWKDWVDPH\HDUQRGHĂ€QLWLYHSURRIRID pregnancy or miscarriage has ever been discovered and WKLVUHPDLQVOLNHVRPXFKRIWKHVWRU\RIWKHVH3ROLVK lovers, pure conjecture. In each story though, Barbara was cast as a scheming tart whose seductions had left Sigismund Augustus powerless in her thrall. She was blamed as a Machiavellian schemer, setting out to ensnare a man, any man, so long as he had wealth and power. Ironically, considering the rumours of poisoning that abounded after her early death, Barbara was accused of preparing a potion with which to enslave 6LJLVPXQG$XJXVWXV3HUKDSVVRPHZKLVSHUHGLWZDV her sheer sexual allure, which her critics seemed to believe that she could wield like a superpower. Through all of it though, Sigismund Augustus stood by his wife,
THE BRIDE AND THE BROKEN HEART
At Nesvizh Castle, the grieving Augustus Sigismund invoked dark spirits to summon his lover back from the grave
“Through the tunnel the FRXSOHZRXOGÁLWWRHQMR\ passionate assignations”
Pan Twardowski summons the spirit of Barbara for her grieving husband, as depicted in 1886 by Wojciech Gerson
The fate of Sigismund Did the king really turn to magic to win back his love? When Sigismund Augustus lost Barbara after just a few short years together, he was utterly destroyed. He took numerous lovers in a search for comfort yet found no happiness, particularly with his third and final wife. Desperate to be reunited with Barbara, he allowed grief to claim him and, clad in black, passed long hours sitting in the room where she had died, gazing at the gowns she once wore. Bereft, alone and tormented by the memories of the woman he lost, the king eventually travelled to Nesvizh Castle, Barbara’s ancestral home. Here he was joined by Pan Twardowski, a Polish sorcerer famed throughout his homeland for supposedly making a pact with the devil. Legend has it that the two men summoned the spirit of Barbara from a magic mirror and Twardowski warned the king that he must neither move nor speak when she appeared. Overcome at the sight of her, Sigismund Augustus attempted to embrace the spirit, but she
supporting her against venomous claims of promiscuity and refusing point-blank to abandon the woman he loved. Even as Barbara revelled in his adoration, her health was already failing and the new bride soon began to complain of the stomach pains that would eventually overwhelm her and claim her life. On 1 April 1548, King Sigismund I the Old died and Sigismund Augustus returned to Kraków to take his place as the newly enthroned monarch. When news reached him that the pregnant Barbara had miscarried, he summoned her to his side and, perhaps predictably, all hell broke loose. Members of the Sejm argued passionately that Barbara must never come to Kraków and in the streets there was uproar. Once again the politicians and nobles called for an end to the marriage, and once again Sigismund Augustus dismissed such requests out of hand. He ignored warnings that there had been no pregnancy and no miscarriage, that the 5DG]LZLããIDPLO\ZHUHFUHDWLQJIDOVHVWRULHVDQGLQWULJXHV to further their fortune and keep him in the palms of their hands. When leading members of the Sejm fell to their knees and begged him to annul the marriage, the 57
disappeared. Legend has it that Barbara walks the hallways of Nesvizh still, clad in a jet black gown and weeping for her lost love. In the years that followed, the unhappy Sigismund Augustus continued to rule in Poland, making his name as a skilled diplomat. His third and final marriage was as childless as the first two had been, and he took mistresses that looked like Barbara, though none brought him any happiness. On his death, Sigismund Augustus was not buried beside Barbara in Vilnius, but at Sigismund’s Chapel in Wawel Cathedral, Kraków. His father had commissioned and financed the chapel and he too had been laid to rest there. It might be said that, in some ways, Sigismund Augustus also died in the moment that his beloved Barbara drew her last, agonised breath. Certainly, it was a day that he never forgot, the memory of the woman he loved following him to his own grave.
The mysterious death of Barbara Were sinister forces to blame for the death of the controversial queen? Just as she had been dogged by rumour throughout her life, so too did gossip and conjecture pursue Barbara to the grave and beyond. She was still a young woman when she died and her decline had been swift, agonising and unexpected. For someone with so many enemies and opponents, it is hardly surprising that conspiracy theories sprang up to explain her fate. Though the true cause of Barbaraâ€™s death has never been satisfactorily established, it is likely from her symptoms that she fell victim to cervical or ovarian cancer. At the time, however, the explanations offered were far more sinister and, it must be said, a whole lot more dramatic. Bona Sforza, Barbaraâ€™s mother-in-law, had been bitterly opposed to the marriage and, soon before Barbara fell ill, she finally warmed to the idea. Itâ€™s little wonder, then, that rumours of poisoning were soon doing the rounds, with the finger pointed straight at Bona Sforza. Bona was Italian by birth and, her
accusers murmured, there was little that Italian nobles didnâ€™t know about poison. Perhaps unsurprisingly, given the widely held belief that Barbara was a manipulative schemer, some of her critics preferred to lay the blame at her door. They suggested that she had employed herbalists to create a potion that would make her fall pregnant and this, inadvertently, had killed her. For WKH5DG]LZLĂŁĂŁVKRZHYHUWKHUHZDVDQHYHQPRUHVFDQGDORXV theory, and some of her own family couldnâ€™t help but wonder if it was, perhaps, a sexually transmitted disease that claimed her life. Perhaps ironically, given the rumours attached to Bona, the Dowager Queen in fact fell victim to poison herself. She was murdered by a courtier in the pay of Philip II of Spain, who had no intention of repaying enormous debts that he owed the mother of the king.
%DUEDUDÂˇVĂ€QDOLOOQHVVZDV DJRQLVLQJDQGKHUKXVEDQG VWD\HGE\KHUVLGHWKURXJKRXW DVGHSLFWHGLQ-y]HI6LPPOHUÂˇV SDLQWLQJLQ
THE BRIDE AND THE BROKEN HEART
king even went so far as to consider abdication, all the power in the world utterly meaningless to him without Barbara by his side. As kings often do, Sigismund Augustus eventually got his way. The new would-be queen arrived in KrakĂłw in February 1549 and set about making herself very much DWKRPH$VWKHKRUULĂ€HGQREOHVORRNHGRQ%DUEDUDOLYHG it up in style, spending cash with abandon and becoming custodian of vast amounts of territory, royal buildings and priceless treasures. She had everything money could EX\DQLQĂ XHQFHRYHUKHUKXVEDQGWKDWWKHSROLWLFLDQV and courtiers could only dream of, and the support of her own family members who also secured positions under Sigismund Augustus. Although Barbara herself cared little for the politics of Poland, there was one thing she wanted more than anything: the Polish crown. Sigismund Augustus and the Sejm were locked in a stalemate, with each refusing to give any ground. Preoccupied with living a life of luxury, Barbara did nothing to win the affection of the people who would be her subjects, relying instead on her husband to win her the title of queen. Compromises were offered and deals were rejected, and still the argument rumbled on as the Polish people, nobles and politicians grew increasingly disenfranchised. Mindful that he needed to conclude the unpleasant matter of his wifeâ€™s VWDWXVDVDPDWWHURIXUJHQF\6LJLVPXQG$XJXVWXVĂ€QDOO\ abandoned his diplomatic efforts and resorted to good old-fashioned skulduggery. Opponents of the marriage ZHUHFDMROHGEULEHGWKUHDWHQHGRUVLPSO\VKXIĂ HGRIIWR the sidelines, clearing a path to the throne for Barbara. When his own mother, Bona, refused to countenance any question of approving her sonâ€™s marriage, Sigismund Augustus shipped her away to Mazovia. Here, she could complain as loudly as she liked, for there were few people there to hear her. Soon the Sejm was in the palm of Sigismund Augustusâ€™ hand, and in September 1550, %DUEDUD5DG]LZLĂŁĂŁZDVĂ€QDOO\FURZQHG4XHHQRI3RODQG ,IWKLVZDVDZRUNRIĂ€FWLRQLWZRXOGFORVHRQWKLV happy ending. Real life, however, is frequently not so neat and less than three months after her coronation, Barbara was once again gripped by stomach pains. Unable to eat and with an enormous lump full of foul-smelling pus growing on her abdomen, the queenâ€™s health was in steep decline. Healers were summoned from across Europe, yet their efforts were to be in vain. When word UHDFKHG%DUEDUDLQWKDW%RQDKDGĂ€QDOO\DJUHHG to recognise her sonâ€™s marriage, the queen must have UHFRJQLVHGWKHLURQ\RIWKHDFKLHYHPHQW6KHKDGĂ€QDOO\ won the prize that she had dreamed of; she was a queen, recognised by her husbandâ€™s family, rich and powerful beyond her wildest dreams â€“ all as her life appeared to be drawing to a close. Sigismund Augustus remained at %DUEDUDÂˇVVLGHLQWKHĂ€QDODJRQLVLQJZHHNVRIKHULOOQHVV
praying for her recovery. She suffered through every waking moment, the palace full of the stench of sickness and decay as the queen, little more than 30 years old, writhed in agony. Desperate not to lose her, Sigismund Augustus made plans to take her to enjoy the warmer WHPSHUDWXUHLQ1LHSRĂŁRPLFHFHUWDLQWKDWLWZRXOGKHOS her recovery. Upon being told that the carriage required WRWUDQVSRUWKLVEHGULGGHQZLIHFRXOGQRWĂ€WWKURXJKWKH city gate, he had the gate torn down. It was all to no avail, for Barbara was destined never to leave KrakĂłw alive. It was here, in her adopted city, WKDWVKHGLHGRQ0D\$FFRUGLQJWRKHUĂ€QDO wishes, Barbaraâ€™s body was transported to Vilnius Cathedral, with her distraught husband walking behind her cortege, his head bowed in despair. In time, Sigismund Augustus would marry again and took for his bride the sister of his Ă€UVWZLIH/LNHWKDWĂ€UVWPDUULDJH however, the match was an unhappy one and he never recovered from the loss of the woman who had been his true soulmate. He took no pleasure in life, wearing mourning black to the end of his days and sleeping in a room that was still hung with black drapes in Barbaraâ€™s memory. The king, once so full of life and passion, grew old before his time. Withdrawn and sombre, he went through the political motions of a role that had lost any sparkle without the queen he had refused to abandon, no matter what his family and people wanted. He outlived his adored Barbara by 21 years, dying on 7 July 1572. Though their romance ended after a painfully short period of happiness and both went to their graves over four centuries ago, Sigismund II Augustus and Barbara 5DG]LZLĂŁĂŁKDYHQHYHUEHHQIRUJRWWHQ7KHGHYRWHGFRXSOH live on today in the memories of everyone who loves a WDOHRIURPDQFH,PPRUWDOLVHGRQĂ€OPDQGLQOLWHUDWXUH art and theatre, the story of the man willing to risk everything for the woman he loved continues to be told. Theirs is a story that endures; it inspires and lends truth to the notion that sometimes love can almost conquer all.
â€œAll the power in the world was utterly meaningless without Barbara by his sideâ€?
Further reading Â‡ & )OHLQHU DQG ( :RRGDFUH Virtuous Or Villainess? The Image Of The Royal Mother From The Early Medieval To The Early Modern Era 6SULQJHU Â‡ 1 'DYLHV Heart Of Europe: The Past In Polandâ€™s Present 2[IRUG 8QLYHUVLW\ 3UHVV Â‡ + /RXWKDQ DQG * 0XUGRFK A Companion To The Reformation In Central Europe %ULOO Â‡ $ 7HOOHU 0RQH\ 3RZHU $QG ,QĂ XHQFH ,Q (LJKWHHQWK&HQWXU\ Lithuania: The Jews On The Radziwill Estates 6WDQIRUG 8QLYHUVLW\ 3UHVV Â‡ $ %XWULPDV 5 -DQRQLHQH 7 5DÄ€LXQDLWH 0 ,UĂĽHQDV The Lithuanian Millennium: History, Art And Culture 9'$ /HLG\NOD
For King and Curry Behind the scenes of the greatest Medieval feasts Words TONI MOUNT ention a Medieval beef stew and what pops to mind? A sloppy brown bowl of sorrylooking sludge? A bland, unseasoned mass of LQGHÀQDEOHYHJHWDEOH DQGDQRQ\PRXVPHDW" Well, you would be sorely PLVWDNHQDVIRUWKRVH WKDWFRXOGDIIRUGWKH GLHYDOWDEOHZRXOGKDYH JURDQHG EHQHDWK EULJKWO\ FRORXUHGIRRGVWXIIVVSLFHG VHDVRQHGDQGZHOOÁDYRXUHGDQGVRPHWLPHVDVVHPEOHG LQWRIDQWDVWLFFRQVWUXFWLRQV :HNQRZWKLVZDVVREHFDXVHIURPWKHODWH WKFHQWXU\FRRNVEHJDQWRUHFRUGWKHLUUHFLSHVDQG QRWHKRZDUR\DONLWFKHQRXJKWWRIXQFWLRQThe Forme Of Cury7KH0DQQHU2I&RRNHU\ DFRRNERRNFRPSLOHG RQWKHFRPPDQGRI.LQJ5LFKDUG,,FLUFDVKRZV WKHLQFUHGLEOHUDQJHRILQJUHGLHQWVDYDLODEOHIURP SRUSRLVHWRSHDFRFNVDQGDOZRRGWRVDIIURQDQGOREVWHU WR/RPEDUG\PXVWDUG7KHDXWKRUGHVFULEHV5LFKDUGDV ´WKHEHVWDQGUR\DOOLVWYLDQGHURIDOO&KULVWLDQNLQJVµ VRDORUGRIÀQHWDVWHDQGGLVFHUQPHQWZKRZRXOG H[SHFWRQO\WKHKLJKHVWTXDOLW\RIGLVKHVWREHVHUYHG 8QIRUWXQDWHO\WKHFRRNZKRFRPSLOHGWKHERRNGRHVQ·W JLYHKLVQDPHEXW,VXVSHFWIURPKLVXVHRIWKHZRUG ¶D\UHQ·DGLDOHFWZRUGIRUHJJVWKDWKHFDPHIURPWKH FRXQW\RI.HQWVRXWKHDVWRI/RQGRQ&KURQLFOHUVRIWKH WLPHFODLPWKDW5LFKDUGZRXOGGLQHZLWKJXHVWVD GD\DQGLQRUGHUWRIHHGVRPDQ\HPSOR\HGFRRNV
Richard II â€“ painted here in the 16th century by an unknown artist â€“ had his chefs create â€˜The Forme Of Curyâ€™, a collection of his cooksâ€™ best recipes
Organising such a huge workforce must have been a nightmare of logistics, a subject on which The Forme Of Cury says little, but another excellent treatise, Du Fait De Cuisine (On Doing Cookery), written by Maistre Chyquart Amiczo, chief cook to Duke Amadeus of Savoy circa 1420, describes all that was required to be done when the Duke had royal visitors, in order to organise and prepare the most incredible feasts. Chyquart includes fantastic extras such as how to make a boarâ€™s head VHHPWREUHDWKHĂ€UHWRHQWHUWDLQWKH royal guests, a castle built of exotic foodstuffs on a litter carried by four men and his personal favourite: heraldic blancmanges. Forward planning was vital, so Chyquart insists that the stewards, kitchen masters and the master cook himself should have a meeting at least three or four months before a royal visit to decide how the work space should be organised, to order spices and other exotic ingredients and to decide which meats could be supplied from the Dukeâ€™s farms, which bought in and which the huntsmen would be required to seek out and bring down. Chyquart left nothing to chance for such a grand occasion but you have to wonder at Richard IIâ€™s cook doing this daily.
Chyquart requires the Dukeâ€™s poulterers to have 40 horses to go wherever necessary â€œto get venison, hares, conies (rabbits), partridges, pheasants, small birds, river birds, pigeons, cranes, herons and all wild birdsâ€? and says they should start thinking about this six weeks beforehand and send everything to the kitchens three or four days prior to the feast, so it can be hung and dealt with as it ought to be. From the butchers, he orders 100 well-fattened cattle, 130 sheep and 120 pigs, plus 100 piglets a day and 60 fattened pigs to produce lard and for making into soups. For each day the feast continued, there would be needed 200 kid-goats, 200 lambs, 100 calves and 2,000 chickens. Apart from the work force and the food, cooking equipment such as cauldrons, spits, frying pans and other utensils â€“ graters, sieves, wooden spoons and the like â€“ had to EHUHDG\WKHQFDUWORDGVRIĂ€UHZRRGDQGFDQGOHV brought in so the cooks could continue to work after dark. Also required were 4,000 vessels of gold, silver, pewter and wood, enough to serve two courses to lords and commoners, each according to his status, with those XVHGLQWKHĂ€UVWFRXUVHZDVKHGDQGGULHGGXULQJWKH second, to be ready to serve the third.
â€œConspicuous consumption was not something to be frowned at, as it is todayâ€?
A scene from â€˜Tacuinum Sanitatisâ€™, a 14th-century handbook on health
Picking cherries, as depicted in â€˜Tacuinum Sanitatisâ€™
Richard IIâ€™s recipe book By these standards, the weekly shopping list of the combined households of King Charles VI of France, his wife, Queen Isabeau, and their children seems modest. According to the â€˜Menagier de Parisâ€™ (the Goodman of Paris), writing a household instruction book for his bride in the 1390s, the weekly butchersâ€™ order of the royal family included 200 sheep, 28 oxen, 28 calves, 24 pigs DQGĂ€QDOO\VDOWHGSRUNVSHU\HDU7KHGDLO\SRXOWU\ order consisted of 900 chickens, 86 kids, 350 pairs of pigeons and 86 goslings. 7KHGLYHUVLW\RIPHDWVVHUYHGDWWKHUR\DOWDEOHZDVQÂˇW the only evidence of a rich manâ€™s status. Conspicuous consumption was not something to be frowned at, as LWLVQRZ,WZDVWKHDFFHSWHGHYHQUHTXLUHGVLJQLĂ€HU of wealth, position and responsibility. A great lord proclaimed his ability to feed hundreds of retainers and to entertain royalty by the products of his kitchens and the more exotic the ingredients, the more impressive the host. In 1263, Eleanor, sister of King Henry III and wife of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, was going to entertain two bishops and their retinues on Easter Sunday. Earl Simon wanted the bishopsâ€™ support, so it was vital that they were suitably impressed by his DIĂ XHQFH7RWKDWHQG(OHDQRUVHQWVHUYDQWVWR/RQGRQ to buy from the grocers there the luxurious spices and other expensive imported foodstuffs needed for the feast day dishes. Her shopping list and the prices, taken from her yearly accounts book, follows:
A 14th-century royal â€˜Douce Ameâ€™ (Delicious Dish) from â€˜The Forme Of Curyâ€™, compiled by King Richardâ€™s chief cook circa 1390 This is the recipe as originally written in the 1390s:
Take gode Cowe mylke and do it in a pot. Take parsel, sawge, ysope, saueray and oother gode herbes, hewe hem and do hem in the mylke and seeth hem. Take capouns half yrosted and smyte hem on pecys and do therto pynes and hony FODULĂ€HG6DOWLWDQGFRORXULWZLWKVDIURXQDQ serue it forth. As with all Medieval cookbooks, no measures or cooking times were given â€“ it was just a matter of the cookâ€™s previous experience and taste. But for those who fancy trying a historical royal dish, here is the modern version: 3-4 pounds of chicken, cut into pieces Half a cup of flour seasoned with salt and freshly ground black pepper 3 tablespoons of oil 3 cups of milk One-third of a cup of honey 3 tablespoons of chopped fresh parsley, 2 minced sage leaves (or a quarter of a teaspoon dried), 1 teaspoon hyssop and half a teaspoon of savory Half a teaspoon of saffron One-third of a cup of pine nuts Salt and pepper Dredge the chicken in the seasoned flour and brown the pieces in the oil in a large pan until golden. Combine milk, honey, herbs, saffron and seasoning and pour over the chicken in the pan, stirring to combine the meat residues with the sauce. Cover and simmer for 20 minutes or until the chicken is cooked and tender. Stir in the pine nuts just before serving.
6lbs of ginger, 15 shillings 8lbs of pepper, 18 shillings 8 pence 6lbs of cinnamon, 6 shillings 1lb of saffron, 14 shillings 12lbs of sugar (treated as a spice), 12 shillings 6lbs of powdered sugar mixed with mace, 6 shillings 1lb of cloves, 14s Half a pound of zedoary (like ginger), 2 shillings 1 box of gingerbread, 12 shillings 10lbs of rice, 15 shillings 3 pence 60lbs of almonds (used as almond milk, replacing dairy milk during Lent), 12 shillings 6 pence Most of these spices came from India and Indonesia, carried across the Indian Ocean by Arab dhows, around the Horn of Africa (Somalia), up the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez, then across the desert sands to Alexandria. There, the precious spices were bought by Venetian merchants who shipped them to Italy. Then they travelled by packhorse over land, through the Alps to Northern Europe, to be purchased by English merchants in Bruges or Lyon before crossing the English Channel to London. No wonder spices were so expensive. In their sales pitch, merchants would abbreviate the true story, simply saying that cinnamon, ginger, rhubarb, aloes and grains of paradise (a sweetish clove-tasting pepper) came Ă RDWLQJGRZQWKH5LYHU1LOHLQ(J\SWIURPWKH*DUGHQ of Eden. At least Medieval people had some idea where Eden was, whereas Indonesia was unknown to them. On 23 September 1387, King Richard II and his uncle, -RKQ'XNHRI/DQFDVWHUJDYHDPRVWPDJQLĂ€FHQWIHDVW at the Bishop of Durhamâ€™s townhouse in London. It consisted of three courses, each of a number of dishes. 7KHĂ€UVWFRXUVHZDVRIYHQLVRQIUXPHQW\VOLFHGPHDW in a sauce of boiled wheat), a pottage Viaundbruse (choice meats in a thick broth), boarsâ€™ heads, roasted haunches of meat, 50 roasted swans, roasted pigs and a Lombardy custard (custard with dried fruits, bone marrow and parsley, baked in a pastry crust), followed by a â€˜subtletyâ€™. The second course was a jellied pottage, a Blandesore pottage (chicken cooked in almond milk, with ginger, mace and cubebs â€“ a mild peppery berry Â˛WKLFNHQHGZLWKULFHĂ RXU URDVWHG pigs, cranes, pheasants, rabbits and herons, endored chickens (â€˜gildedâ€™ or made to look golden by painting with VDIIURQDQGHJJ\RONVWKLFNHQHGZLWKĂ RXU EUHDPWDUWV carved brawn and another subtlety. The third course was almond pottage, Lombardy stew, roasted venison, chickens, rabbits, quails and larks, payne puff (egg yolks, bone marrow, dates, raisins and ginger baked in a pie), MHOO\ORQJHIUXWRXUVFXUGVHJJVDQGĂ RXUIULHGFXWLQWR FXEHVDQGVSULQNOHGZLWKVXJDU DQGDVXEWOHW\WRĂ€QLVK
A 19th-century reproduction of a 15th-century miniature from romance of Renaud de Montauban
This feast began at about 11 in the morning and continued until the daylight faded â€“ a marathon of gastronomic consumption â€“ but at least the â€˜subtletiesâ€™ that signalled the end of each course were meant mainly for show. These were often works of art, feats of architectural daring constructed from marchpane (almond paste like marzipan but more brittle) and sugar work â€“ imagine the most fantastical wedding cake, minus the cake, made purely to impress. They might be formed into the heraldic devices of the king or honoured guests, as ships, castles or P\WKLFDOKHURHVDQGĂ€UHEUHDWKLQJ beasts. For the wedding feast of King Henry V and Katherine de Valois, daughter of King Charles VI of France, celebrated in 1420, the centrepiece subtlety was â€œa man on horseback stealing a tigerâ€™s cubsâ€?. Maistre Chyquart helpfully gives LQVWUXFWLRQVIRUFUHDWLQJWKHLOOXVLRQRIĂ€UHEUHDWKLQJ FUHDWXUHVÂ´ÂŤWRPDNHWKHPÂŤFDVWRXWĂ€UHIURPWKH throat, take a double-wicked candle and wrap it round with cotton soaked in ardent spirits (distilled alcohol) DQGSXULĂ€HGZLWKDOLWWOHFDPSKRUÂľVRLWVPHOOHGQLFH Chyquartâ€™s centrepiece, described in great detail, surpasses every other subtlety Iâ€™ve read about. He
â€œIt is just possible that Henry VIII might have had the opportunity to eat turkeyâ€?
Medieval feasts were often dramatic, showy affairs
constructed a castle that had to be carried upon a litter E\IRXUPHQ,WZDVWRKDYHIRXUWRZHUVIRUWLĂ€HGDQG crenellated, defended by crossbowmen and archers â€“ presumably made of icing and marchpane â€“ lit by candles and with trees bearing all manner of fruits, Ă RZHUVDQGELUGV$WWKHIRRWRIHDFKWRZHUUHVWHGD roasted meat: a boarâ€™s head, armed and endored, spitting Ă€UHDSLNHFRRNHGWKUHHZD\VDOVRĂ€UHEUHDWKLQJDV ZHUHWKHHQGRUHGSLJOHWDQGWKHVZDQVNLQQHGURDVWHG and reclothed, at the base of the other two towers. The WXUUHWVRIWKHFDVWOHZHUHGHFNHGZLWKEDQQHUV,QWKH FHQWUHZDVDÂ´IRXQWDLQRI/RYHÂľIURPZKLFKĂ RZHG rosewater and white wine, surrounded by doves in cages. %HVLGHWKHIRXQWDLQVDWDSHDFRFNURDVWHGDQGUHFORWKHG +RZHYHUZLWKLQWKHSHDFRFNÂˇVJRUJHRXVSOXPDJHZDVD URDVWHGJRRVHDVSHDFRFNLVQRWSDUWLFXODUO\WDVW\ But that was only part of this lavish display. In the FDVWOHÂˇVORZHUFRXUWVDWUHFORWKHGFKLFNHQVHQGRUHG KHGJHKRJVDQGPRXOGHGĂ€JXUHVRIKXQWVPHQZLWKGRJV chasing hares. To hide the bearers, curtains were hung around the litter on which the castle was carried, and WKHVHGUDSHVZHUHSDLQWHGZLWKZDYHVVHDĂ RZHUVDQGDOO NLQGVRIĂ€VK8SRQWKHZDYHVZHUHSDLQWHGVKLSVIXOORI SHRSOHFRPLQJWRDWWDFNWKHFDVWOHFOLPELQJXSVFDOLQJ ODGGHUVEHLQJSXVKHGRIIDQGNLOOHGE\DUURZV$OVR concealed beneath the curtains, Chyquart wanted four children playing musical instruments, singing beautifully as if they were â€œsirens in the sea.â€?
6RLIWKHVSOHQGLGORRNLQJSHDFRFNGLGQÂˇWUHDOO\ pleasure the taste buds, what else might be the Christmas or New Year centrepiece bird? Well, it FHUWDLQO\ZRXOGQÂˇWKDYHEHHQWXUNH\RQ.LQJ5LFKDUG IIâ€™s table in the 14th century, as they come from the $PHULFDVÂ˛GLVFRYHUHGE\&ROXPEXVLQ,WLVMXVW possible that Henry VIII might have had the opportunity WRHDWWXUNH\LQWKHODVW\HDUVRIKLVUHLJQDIWHUDERXW )RU5LFKDUGWKHIHVWLYHELUGPLJKWKDYHEHHQD swan. Swans were certainly a princely dish, but if they were to taste at all pleasant, preparation had to begin in -XQH$GXOWVZDQVKDYHYLUWXDOO\QRIDWRQWKHPVRWKHLU Ă HVKLVYHU\GU\WRXJKDQGWDVWHOHVV,WZDVWKHF\JQHWV that made good eating, but only if properly raised and IHG$VVRRQDVWKHF\JQHWVKDWFKHGLQ0D\RU-XQHWKH\ ZHUHWDNHQIURPWKHQHVWDQGIHGWZLFHDGD\ZLWKH[WUD JUDVVDVZHOODVWKHLUÂ´RWKHUIRRGÂľ$WWKHHQGRI$XJXVW the cygnets went on a diet of barley to fatten them up. $SSDUHQWO\DVVRRQDVWKH\RXQJVWHUVPRXOWHGWKHLU JUH\FKLFNIHDWKHUVWKH\FRXOGQÂˇWEHIDWWHQHGDQ\PRUH When their beautiful white plumage began to appear in December, they were ready for eating at Christmas. $FFRUGLQJWRUHFHQWVFLHQWLĂ€FDQDO\VLVRIKLVUHPDLQV DSSDUHQWO\5LFKDUG,,DWHDODYLVKGLHWDIWHUKHEHFDPH NLQJLQFOXGLQJÂ´VZDQFUDQHKHURQDQGFRSLRXVDPRXQWV of wine.â€? It sounds as though he had swan for dinner PRUHRIWHQWKDQMXVWDW&KULVWPDVVRLWLVDZRQGHUKRZ they were bred and reared to be edible all year round.
A man removes the livers of chickens in ‘Tacuinum Sanitatis’
The history of mince pies More than a Christmas nibble, the mince pie used to take centre stage Modern mince pies are a Christmas treat, but in Medieval and Tudor times the ‘Christmas Pie’ was more than just a tasty nibble: it was the centrepiece of the feast to be shared by everyone. The Christmas Pie contained the less choice cuts of beef, mutton, pork, goose, chicken or duck, shredded and mixed together with suet, sugar, spices and fruit – really whatever was available. The mixture was then baked in a pastry case, but the pastry was thick, hard and very salty and wasn’t meant to be eaten; more a purpose-made pie-dish. The Christmas Pie was usually oval and the pastry container was called a ‘cradle’ with a pastry Baby Jesus laid on the lid and the whole construction gilded with gold leaf to make it extra special. It was unlucky to cut this pie with a knife, so the complete
lid was lifted off and the contents dished out with a spoon, the first helping going to the youngest child who made a wish as he tasted the first mouthful. Christmas Pies remained popular until Cromwell’s Puritan regime decided that making a pastry image of Jesus was an act of idolatry. They even tried to abolish Christmas. To get over the ban, Christmas Pies changed shape – round instead of oval – and no more pastry babies. Over the
years, the savoury ingredients disappeared and the enormous dish for sharing was scaled down to individual, bite-sized mouthfuls including edible pastry. Perhaps the Medieval idea of leaving the pastry would be better for our post-Christmas waistlines.
Every young nobleman received full instructions on how to conduct himself courteously at table. A 15th-century etiquette book for high-born children, written by the poet John Lydgate, tells them: â€œHave clean QDLOVGRQÂˇWOHDYHJUHDV\Ă€QJHUPDUNVRQWKHFORWKGRQÂˇW drink from a shared cup with your mouth full, nor slurp your soup noisily. Donâ€™t pick your teeth with your knife, blow on your food â€“ which you may be sharing â€“ nor wipe your lips on the tablecloth. Clean your spoon properly (on your napkin), donâ€™t crumble bread into a shared bowl in case your hands are sweaty. Donâ€™t gnaw bones nor tear meat with your teeth. Scratching, spitting, belching and farting are not acceptable behaviour either.â€? But knowing not to blow your nose on the tablecloth or laugh with your mouth full of food were simply matters of courtesy, concerned for the enjoyment of shared food and harmony in living at close quarters with your fellows. Far more important for a nobleman were WKHOHVVRQVRQKRZWRÂ´GLVĂ€JXUHÂľD peacock or â€œsplatâ€? a pike, and the appropriate sauce to accompany HYHU\PHDWDQGĂ€VKThe Boke Of Keruynge (The Book Of Carving), printed in London in 1508, was an instruction manual that covered everything â€œfor the service of a prince,â€? from fancy napkin folding to helping your lord to bathe and dress, how to arrange the seating plan at dinner so as not to offend a cardinal or a marquis, and the duties of the butler who dealt with the drinks, the panter who saw to the bread, and how to conduct the ceremony of hand-washing before the meal. The most prestigious service a nobleman could perform for his king was that of carver, personally slicing WKHPHDWRUĂ€VKEHIRUHWKHKLJKWDEOHDQGSUHVHQWLQJLW with its proper sauce, to the sovereign. The carver had to learn how to correctly â€œbreakâ€? a deer, â€œliftâ€? a swan, â€œfrucheâ€? a chicken, â€œculponâ€? a trout, â€œtameâ€? a crab DQGGHDOZLWKHYHU\RWKHUPHDWĂ€VKRUIRZOHDFKLQLWV own particular way â€“ and woe betide the carver who presented his lord with a pork chop on the bone. To serve any meat on the bone was the worst insult: only the dogs ZHUHJLYHQERQHV:LWKWKLVLQPLQGWKHIDPRXVĂ€OP scene of Charles Laughton as King Henry VIII tearing apart a chicken and tossing the bones over his shoulder is SXUHĂ€FWLWLRXVQRQVHQVH+HQU\ZDVDFXOWXUHGPDQDQG wouldnâ€™t have behaved so unmannerly â€“ whoever served him the whole chicken, bones and all, uncarved, would KDYHEHHQĂ€UVWLQOLQHIRUWKHH[HFXWLRQHUKDYLQJGHHSO\ insulted the king. As The Book Of Carving says: â€œThese are indigestible: sinews, hair, feathers, bonesâ€Ś never set them before your lord.â€? Some of the accompanying â€˜saucesâ€™ were simple: PXVWDUGZLWKEHHIRUEUDZQIRUH[DPSOH2WKHUVZHUH PRUHH[RWLF&K\TXDUWUHTXLUHVÂ´DMDQFHÂľWREHVHUYHG
with chicken, made from clear beef broth thickened with HJJDQGEUHDGFUXPEVĂ DYRXUHGZLWKYLQHJDUJLQJHU grains of paradise and pepper, and coloured with saffron. Richard IIâ€™s cook prefers Saracen sauce with his chicken. This was made using seeded, boiled rosehips, almond PLONPDGHZLWKUHGZLQHĂ DYRXUHGZLWKFLQQDPRQ mace and sugar, and garnished with pomegranate seeds. With every course of the feast, along with the savoury PHDWDQGĂ€VKGLVKHVWKHUHZRXOGEHVHUYHGZKDWZH may think of as a dessert. As well as familiar sounding dishes, such as fruit slices, custard tarts and fruit purĂŠes, The Forme Of CuryKDVUHFLSHVIRUPRUHXQXVXDOĂ RUDO GHVVHUWVVXFKDVHOGHUĂ RZHUFKHHVHFDNHDQGÂśURVHHÂˇ7KLV dish was made with rose petals, almond milk, cinnamon, ginger, minced dates and pine nuts, thickened with rice Ă RXU DQG JDUQLVKHG ZLWKURVHV Food was always meant to appeal to all the senses, and garnishing with pomegranate seeds and roses, or â€˜endoredâ€™ meat, would certainly look attractive, but Maistre Chyquart liked to go a step further, for H[DPSOHE\FUHDWLQJKLVORUGÂˇVFRDWV of-arms in blancmange. He gives detailed instructions for producing the savoury blancmanges in the heraldic colours of or (gold), azure (blue), gules (red) and argent (silver). The plain white blancmange served for silver, the gold was coloured with saffron, the red was tinted with the herb alkanet and the azure with another herb, turnsole. King Richardâ€™s cook liked to use sandalwood as his red food colouring. Today we think of sandalwood as a fragrance, so it perfumed as well as coloured the dish. 7KHUHIRUHDIHDVWĂ€WIRUDNLQJZDVIDUPRUHWKDQMXVW a table laden with food. Equipping the kitchen and the logistics of provisioning it and hiring the labour force began the process months in advance. Recipes had to be selected to impress. The food must have not only been cooked to perfection but had to look, smell and taste wonderful: a dramatic spectacle to delight the audience DQGVXUSULVHWKHPDVZHOODVĂ€OOWKHLUVWRPDFKV7KH service had to be impeccable and courteous. And, if the FRRNKDGGRQHKLVMREWRWKHH[DFWLQJVWDQGDUGVRIKLV lord or king and beyond, he just might be asked to write it down for posterity, preserving the knowledge for us WRGD\VRZHWRRFDQVDPSOHUHFLSHVĂ€WIRUUR\DOW\
Further reading Â‡ % +HQLVFK The Medieval Cook 7KH %R\GHOO 3UHVV Â‡ /- 6DVV To The Kingâ€™s Taste 7KH 0HWURSROLWDQ 0XVHXP RI $UW Â‡ 0 %ODFN The Medieval Cookbook %ULWLVK 0XVHXP 3UHVV
â€œTo serve any meat on the bone was the worst insult: only the dogs were given bonesâ€?
DUTCH COURAGE As WWII ravaged the Netherlands and the Dutch found themselves living a nightmare under Nazi domination, Wilhelmina became a beacon of hope Words HARRY CUNNINGHAM
here are many remarkable things about Queen Wilhelminaâ€™s life and reign. If the IDFWRIKHUHYHUWDNLQJWKHWKURQHLQWKHÃ€UVW SODFHZDVQRWH[WUDRUGLQDU\HQRXJKÂ²EHFDXVHRIWKH VHPL6DOLFODZZKLFKJRYHUQHGWKHVXFFHVVLRQVKHZDV SUHFHGHGE\DQHOGHUEURWKHUDQGDJUHDWXQFOHÂ²WKHQ KHUÃ€HU\RXWVSRNHQFKDUDFWHULQDQDJHZKHQZRPHQ VWLOOKDGIHZULJKWVDQGSHRSOHIHDUHGWKHDEVROXWLVWSXOO RIDSROLWLFDOPRQDUFKZDVVXUHO\HYHQPRUHLQFUHGLEOH %XWSHUKDSVWKHPRVWUHPDUNDEOHWKLQJDERXWWKHYHU\ Ã€UVW4XHHQ5HJQDQWRIWKH1HWKHUODQGVZDVWKDWWKH LQVWLWXWLRQVKHHPERGLHGIRUQHDUO\\HDUVVXUYLYHGDW DOO:LOKHOPLQDÂ·VYROXQWDU\DEGLFDWLRQLQZDVDV PXFKDV\PERORIDPRGHUQSURJUHVVLYHPRQDUFK\DVLW ZDVDSRWHQWDFWRIWULXPSKDPHVVDJHWRWKHZRUOGWKDW KDYLQJZHDWKHUHGWKHWHPSHVWXRXVVWRUPRIH[WUHPLVP WKDWURFNHGWKHFRQWLQHQWDQGEURXJKWGRZQVRPDQ\RI KHUUR\DOQHLJKERXUVVKHZDVIUHHWROD\GRZQWKHFURZQ DWDWLPHRIKHUFKRRVLQJ :LOKHOPLQDZDVERUQLQZKHQWKH1HWKHUODQGV ZDVQRWDPDMRUSOD\HURQWKHZRUOGVWDJH7KHFRXQWU\ ZDVQHLJKERXUHGRQRQHVLGHE\DUHFHQWO\XQLÃ€HGDQG 68
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
NA OF THE NETHERLANDS
Wilhelmina b.1880-d.1962 1890-1948
The Netherlands’ longest reigning monarch and first queen is known for surviving one of Europe’s darkest periods. As is customary in Dutch culture, she abdicated due to deteriorating health, aged 68.
Wilhelmina was the 1HWKHUODQGV·ÀUVWTXHHQ and the longest reigning
Queen Wilhelmina with her mother, Queen Emma, who ZDVLQWKHĂ€QDOIHZ PRQWKVRIKHUUHJHQF\
In her autobiography, Wilhelmina recalls the day that Wilhelmina had a happy childhood. King William she succeeded to the throne: III was a doting father and by all accounts a kind man. â€œFrom that moment many things changed, However, he was gravely ill â€“ reading between the particularly in my own life. My undisturbed lines it appears he had dementia, though because of the sensitive nature of the condition, it was playing had come to an end; I had to be present not widely referred to or understood in the all the time when Mother received people terms it is today. As a result Wilhelmina who came to offer their condolences. gradually saw less and less of her father. And that deathly silence everywhere, At the same time, her chances of and the closed shutters, all those black inheriting the throne from her father Ă€JXUHVZLWKORQJYHLOVLQWKHKRXVH grew stronger. Prince Frederick, too, and, worst of all, Mother so sad Wilhelminaâ€™s great uncle â€“ her and wrapped in such a terrifying lot of grandfatherâ€™s brother â€“ passed away in 1881 crape! It was more than I could bear.â€? and in 1884 her own half brother Alexander, From the age of ten until she reached Prince of Orange, also died. Wilhelmina was the age of majority in 1898, the country was now poised to take over the throne. Sadly, left in the hands of Wilhelminaâ€™s mother, $SKRWRJUDSKRI however, King William was in no position to :LOKHOPLQDGXULQJ Queen Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, an the 1890s coach his daughter in the intricacies of how to exceptionally kind-hearted and strong woman be a successful monarch, training that she, more than who would become a role model for Wilhelmina. DQ\RWKHU'XWFKPRQDUFKFRXOGKDYHEHQHĂ€WHGIURP+H But Queen Wilhelminaâ€™s reign would be blighted died in 1890. and dominated by war. Although the Netherlands had 70
Queen Wilhelmina LQFRURQDWLRQUREHV 'XWFKPRQDUFKVDUH LQDXJXUDWHGQRW FURZQHGEXWWKH\GR ZHDUFRURQDWLRQUREHVWR WKHLULQDXJXUDWLRQ
WILHELMINA OF THE NETHERLANDS
stayed neutral throughout World War I, it was a feat only managed by commitment to international law. The army was mobilised and Wilhelmina herself had to be careful that her movements could not be interpreted as support for either side. As a result, when World War I came to an end and other European nations were recovering, the Netherlands, whose industries had not been completely obliterated, was able to capitalise on the trade opportunities. But because a policy of neutrality had worked so well for the Netherlands in World War I, many in the government believed they would be able to stay out of World War II, that is, right up until Hitler invaded Poland. Queen Wilhelmina herself writes in her book, how â€œonly at that moment did many people in Holland recognise the danger that threatened them. They had been quietly asleep on the pillow called neutrality.â€? Over the coming months Hitler and the Nazis, together with the Soviet Union, with whom they had signed a pact with in 1939, marched through Eastern Europe with unstoppable IRUFHVHWWLQJWKHLUVLJKWVĂ€UVWRQSDUWVRI6FDQGLQDYLD and then inevitably on Western Europe. Despite clear promises that Dutch neutrality would once again be maintained, German forces crossed the border on 9 0D\4XHHQ:LOKHOPLQDZDVVWD\LQJLQKHURIĂ€FLDO residence: the Huis ten Bosch Palace in The Hague. Paratroopers were dropped onto the city and an aircraft crashed into a nearby park. It was obvious that the Dutch royal family were the target. From an air raid shelter in the early hours of the morning on 10 May, Wilhelmina addressed her people: â€œI hereE\UDLVHDĂ€HUFHSURWHVWDJDLQVWWKLVXQH[DPSOHG YLRODWLRQRIJRRGIDLWKDQGRXWUDJHXSRQDOOWKDWLV SURSHUEHWZHHQFLYLOLVHGVWDWHV,DQGP\JRYHUQPHQW ZLOOFRQWLQXHWRGRRXUGXW\<RXZLOOGR\RXUV HYHU\ZKHUHDQGLQDOOFLUFXPVWDQFHVHDFKLQWKHSODFH KHRFFXSLHVZLWKWKHXWPRVWYLJLODQFHDQGWKHLQQHU SHDFHDQGGHYRWLRQZKLFKDFOHDUFRQVFLHQFHDIIRUGVâ€? It had always been Wilhelminaâ€™s plan to evacuate her daughter, Princess Juliana, and her children to safety in Britain, but Wilhelmina herself had hoped to remain in the country for solidarityâ€™s sake. Despite her being a constitutional monarch, according to Louis de Jong in The Netherlands And Nazi Germany, she â€œabhorred National Socialism,â€? naturally, so it was â€œunthinkable to her to ever be put in a position where she would have to bow to the demands of that brutal upstart Adolf Hitler.â€? On 12 May, a British destroyer took Princess Juliana, her husband Prince Bernhard and their two children to Britain, a risky mission since the ship did not have cover by the airforce. The following day when the Germans had virtually taken the country, another ship arrived to take Wilhelmina. But unlike her daughter, she had wanted to go to the south of the country, to
Zeeland Flanders. But by the time they had set sail the situation was so dire that Wilhelminaâ€™s safety could not be guaranteed if they landed in the Netherlands. Wilhelmina accepted this advice â€˜in tearsâ€™, according to de Jong, and the ship headed for Britain, where she was met by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth who invited them to stay at Buckingham Palace. Wilhelmina felt that it was her duty to stay in the Netherlands and was worried that her departure might cause resentment. As a monarch she had the privilege of being able to leave of her own free will, but many Dutch citizens, including many Jews, had no choice but to stay and bear the brunt of Hitlerâ€™s unimaginable regime. This disconnect between the monarchy and the people had already led to the overthrow and murder of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and
â€œQueen Wilhelminaâ€™s reign would be blighted and dominated by warâ€?
Wilhelmina graces the cover of â€˜The Graphicâ€™, pictured taking her oath during her inauguration
The Huis ten Bosch Palace in The Hague, where Wilhelmina was staying in the days leading up to the Nazi invasion
KLVHQWLUHIDPLO\LQDQGWKHĂ LJKWRI.LQJ$OIRQVR ;,,,RI6SDLQDQG.DLVHU:LOKHOP,,RI*HUPDQ\DPRQJ RWKHUV%XW:LOKHOPLQDZDVGHHSO\ FRQFHUQHGDERXWWKLVGLVFRQQHFWQRW MXVWEHFDXVHLWKDGWKHSRWHQWLDOWR MHRSDUGLVHKHURZQSHUVRQDOSRVLWLRQ DVPRQDUFKEXWEHFDXVHVKHNQHZ WKDWZLWKRXWDV\PEROÂ˛DEHDFRQRI OLJKWLQWKLVJUDYHVWRIFULVHVÂ˛WKHQ KHUSHRSOHPLJKWWXUQDJDLQVWRQH DQRWKHUDQGDOORZWKHGDUNSROLWLFV RIQDWLRQDOLVPWRSURVSHU ,QUHVSRQVHWRWKHVHIHDUV :LOKHOPLQDSXWRXWDVWDWHPHQWRI LQWHQWZLWKLQKRXUVRIDUULYLQJLQ %ULWDLQ7KHVWDWHPHQWH[SODLQHG KHUGHFLVLRQWRUHWUHDWWR%ULWDLQ UHDVVXUHGWKH'XWFKSHRSOHWKDWWKHJRYHUQPHQWZRXOG VWLOOIXQFWLRQLQH[LOHDQGH[SODLQHGWKDWWKHRYHUVHDV WHUULWRULHVZHUHVWLOOXQGHU'XWFKFRQWURO,WHQGHGZLWK WKHIROORZLQJURXVLQJFRPPLWPHQW
â€œThe Netherlands will recover its entire European territory with Godâ€™s help. Remember the disasters of former centuries which the country overcame, and do all you can in the best interests of the nation, as we shall on our part. Long live the Fatherland.â€? $IWHUWKHGHSDUWXUHRI3ULQFHVV -XOLDQDDQGKHUIDPLO\WR&DQDGD :LOKHOPLQDUHVLGHGĂ€UVWLQ(DWRQ 6TXDUHDQGWKHQLQ&KHVWHU6TXDUH ERWKLQ%HOJUDYLDZKHUHVKHVHW XSWKHJRYHUQPHQWLQH[LOH:LWK SDUOLDPHQWHIIHFWLYHO\GLVVROYHGWKH UHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKH&URZQ DQGWKHH[HFXWLYHZDVPRUHWR :LOKHOPLQDÂˇVOLNLQJZLWKRXWIHDURI EHLQJUHSURDFKHGRUFDXVLQJDFRQVWLWXWLRQDOFULVLVVKH FRXOGKDYHPRUHRIDQLQĂ XHQFHRQKRZWRWDFNOH+LWOHU +HUFRQVHUYDWLYH3ULPH0LQLVWHU'LUN-DQGH*HHUZKR KDGEHJXQDVHFRQGQRQFRQVHFXWLYHWHUPLQIHOW
Â´:LOKHOPLQD UHDVVXUHGKHU SHRSOHWKDWWKH JRYHUQPHQW ZRXOGVWLOO IXQFWLRQLQH[LOHÂľ
WILHELMINA OF THE NETHERLANDS
The heir in exile
The Dutch royal family in exile in Ottawa, Canada
During WWII Wilhelminaâ€™s daughter, Princess Juliana, took refuge in Canada Shortly after Wilhelmina joined her daughter at Buckingham Palace in Britain, plans were made to send Princess Juliana and her daughters to Canada in anticipation of a British invasion. Julianaâ€™s husband, Prince Bernhard, would join them in 1941. Wilhelmina would stay in London for as long as possible, where she would set up the government in exile. If Britain was invaded, Wilhelmina would try to join her daughter but if this was not possible, her private secretary had orders to shoot her. Juliana went to stay with Wilhelminaâ€™s cousin, Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, in Ottawa. At the time the Countessâ€™ husband, the Earl of Athlone, had just been appointed the Governor General. The Dutch royal family were worried that because they had fled their homeland, they would be seen as traitors to their country and antimonarchist sentiment might ensue. Juliana understood the importance
that the war was all but lost and that the government had to begin negotiating with Hitler in order to secure a favourable peace agreement. He and other members of the cabinet also believed that the government in exile should be moved to the Dutch colony of Batavia in the East Indies. Wilhelmina was not impressed. Soon after VKHLQIRUPHGKLPWKDWVKHQRORQJHUKDGFRQĂ€GHQFHLQ him. He resigned without resistance and she appointed Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy in September 1940. With a new premier in place, Wilhelmina set about trying to connect with her people in the Netherlands through a series of radio broadcasts on Radio Oranje, named after the royal house of Orange to which she belonged. The radio programme was also broadcast by the BBC. Wilhelmina felt that one of the biggest challenges of the war was that her people, like all those in Europe, felt a sense of hopelessness and despair. Such a feeling could have a detrimental effect on any resistance to Hitler. So, in order to boost morale and give the people something to look forward to, Wilhelmina devised a reform programme for the Netherlands with Gerbrandy that would be rolled out when the Allies won the war. She promised to listen to her people and create a new world IROORZLQJWKHOLEHUDWLRQ$QGVKHDOVRRIIHUHGVSHFLĂ€F proposals. For instance, she called for the colonies in the West Indies and elsewhere to be treated as equal partners with the Kingdom in Europe. For all her life, Wilhelmina had been constrained, muzzled by her role as a constitutional monarch, a VDFURVDQFWGRFWULQH$Q\Ă LUWDWLRQZLWKVWUDLJKWWDON
of reassuring her people, so in a radio broadcast made shortly after her arrival, Juliana spoke to reassure the Dutch people: â€œDo not give me your pity,â€? she said. â€œPity is for the weak and our terrible fate has made us stronger than ever before.â€? According to her obituary in The Telegraph, Juliana also made the effort to be visibly involved with the war effort from afar. She visited the Dutch colonies in South America and donated blood. In 1943, Juliana was heavily pregnant with her third child. This was a potentially complicated situation because if Juliana gave birth in Canada, the child would be granted Canadian citizenship, which would have proved highly complicated if the child was a boy and superseded Julianaâ€™s two elder daughters. The Dutch government found a solution by temporarily granting the maternity ward of the hospital â€˜international territoryâ€™ status.
Wilhelmina crossing the Belgian-Dutch border in order to go into liberated Dutch territory and join her subjects in 1945
Hitler’s Netherlands Life for Wilhelmina’s subjects under the Führer was unimaginably bleak As a Nazi invasion became a reality, thousands of Jewish people attempted to flee to Britain and join their queen. Those that didn’t get away in time either had to go into hiding – like Otto Frank and his family including his daughter, Anne, who hid in the secret annexe of the house where he worked – or try to resist the new regime. As Louis de Jong explains, at first, “The Nazis didn’t want any resistance; they insisted on compliance” and they created “a situation akin to the one that had been realised in Germany, in which the non-Jewish majority would take little notice of what happened to Jews”; one of the methods used to do this was by making assisting Jews – in any way – a crime. But the Dutch people did not give up. When the Nazis murdered 400 Jews in broad daylight, there was a huge public protest, involving virtually the entire workforce of Amsterdam. The protest lasted for two days. Realising they could not simply deport every Dutch Jew without a serious fight, the Nazi leadership began to rely on more devious tactics. De Jong explains how Nazi
officials deliberately understated the true extent of the Holocaust. They insisted that Jews were being deported to labour camps and not murdered en masse. Those already in the camps were ordered to write letters home, telling their families and friends that they were being treated well. This disinformation campaign was also used to persuade the Jewish Council and the churches to appease the regime in return for concessions for certain Jewish groups, though the Nazis often reneged upon these promises anyway. Although a highly organised resistance campaign, supported by the Dutch people, was quickly established, little could be done to save the Jewish population. Queen Wilhelmina even received intelligence that Hitler was planning to ‘liquidate’ all Dutch people because of their refusal to appease his sinister and oppressive regime. When the Netherlands was liberated in May 1945, the Dutch people had to come to terms with the fact that, despite their resistance, 112,000 Jewish people, most of the Jewish population in fact, had been systematically murdered.
The city of Rotterdam in ruins, taken during the invasion of the Netherlands in 1940
&URZGVÁRFNWRWKH streets on Liberation Day in 1945
WILHELMINA OF THE NETHERLANDS
hyperbole or controversy had always been overridden by the need for statesmanship and unity, and the burning Ă DPHRISROLWLFVWKDWVKLQHVVREULJKWO\LQXVDOOKDGWRDW least appear as if it had been permanently extinguished, however strong the sense of feeling. But now, united with her people by a common cause, Wilhelmina could become the queen and leader she had always wanted to be. She referred to Germans as â€˜the hunsâ€™ and gave frank advice about all aspects of war policy, including the decision of the Allies to align themselves with Russia. â€œToday it is Russia,â€? she said on 22 June 1941, the day Germany began Operation Barbarossa to breech their pact with Russia and invade, â€œbut we know that tomorrow or the day after, the mighty bulwarks of our civilisation and of the principles that are sacred to us, the British Empire and the United States of America, will face the full impact of Hitlerâ€™s war machine. For this reason, we VKDOODOVRĂ€JKWVLGHE\VLGHZLWKWKH people of Soviet Russia, wherever circumstances may demand it. We shall do this without denying our views of Bolshevism, which are based on our principles: for we must never forget that we reject the principles and practise of Bolshevism unreservedly.â€? The effect of these broadcasts was overwhelming. De Jong explains how â€œthose who had been lukewarm about the monarchy or who had even opposed it, changed their feelings and consequently their opinions. One might say that at last, virtually the entire nation accepted Queen Wilhelmina as their queenâ€?. In 1942, after the attacks on Pearl Harbor, Wilhelmina was able to visit the United States and meet President Roosevelt. With the US entering the war, the international treaties which prevented a neutral party entering into any lengthy discussion or offering assistance to the Allies were lifted. After perhaps one of the bleakest periods in European history â€“ in which Hitler seemed almost certain to win â€“ the tables had turned and things were looking up. It is not surprising, then, that as the fortunes of the Allies turned around and it became more apparent that the war would soon come to an end, Wilhelmina attempted to capitalise on her incredible public approval ratings by trying to secure more autonomy for herself. Wilhelmina reached out to the underground resistance movements, hoping they would form a government or at least stand for election as a new party, which would be more sympathetic towards her views. Dutch politicians were naturally against such a move but so too were members of the resistance, many of whom had differing ideas about how to proceed. The contempt the Nazis held for the Dutch people because of their part in obstructing the Third Reich cannot be overstated and, as liberation approached, Wilhelmina realised she would return to a country
devastated in ways she could not imagine. The optimistic, rousing tone of her broadcasts had never been more important. On 28 November 1944 she gave a speech decrying the cruelty and oppression of the regime but imploring the Dutch people to â€œhelp each other and go on helping.â€? She continued: â€œYou are aware of my JUHDWFRQĂ€GHQFHLQWKHGLVWDQFHRIRXUZKROHSHRSOHÂľ On Christmas Day 1944 she reminded her people of -HVXVÂˇVDFULĂ€FHDQGWKHPHVVDJHVRI&KULVWPDVDQGRQ February 1945 she read out the poem Not In Vain by the Dutch poet, Klaas Hanzen Heeroma, which features the poignant lines: But if I live to see the liberation And cheer the victory parade, God, tell me that this suffering, This sorrow shall not be betrayed And resurrect this nation, Ă€QHUZLVHU Than when it went to meet its fate. By 13 March 1945, Wilhelmina ZDVĂ€QDOO\DEOHWRHQWHUthe Netherlands. In her autobiography she writes: â€œWherever I went, the same emotion and enthusiasm. (YHU\ZKHUHĂ RZHUVSUHVHQWVDQG all sorts of attentions. In every town and village, resistance workers and widows and children of fallen XQGHUJURXQGĂ€JKWHUVZHUHSUHVHQWHG to me at my special requestâ€Śâ€? Wilhelmina also stopped at a bridge in Zeeland Flanders where just hours before the Nazis had executed some soldiers. It was a poignant stop. She got out of her car, took the marguerite (white daisy) off her coat and laid it down. Given everything that had happened and the desolate, even barren nature of the country that the Nazis had left behind, the atmosphere Wilhelmina describes was remarkable. By May 1945, as *HUPDQ\Ă€QDOO\IHOOWKH'XWFKJRYHUQPHQWKDGEHHQ restored and the people were able to begin the long, arduous journey to rebuilding their country. A year later a general election returned a parliament of virtually the same composition as 1939. Thanks to Wilhelminaâ€™s unwavering loyalty and her carefully delivered broadcasts, the spirit of the Dutch people remained strong throughout one of Europeâ€™s darkest periods, and when she relinquished her crown in 1948 in favour of Princess Juliana, after 57 years on the throne, she cemented her place as, arguably, the Netherlandsâ€™ greatest monarch.
Queen Wilhelmina making KHUĂ€UVW&KULVWPDVUDGLR broadcast since the Netherlands had been liberated, in January 1946
Further reading Â‡ +5+ 3ULQFHVV :LOKHOPLQD RI 7KH 1HWKHUODQGV, Lonely But Not Alone +XWFKLQVRQ &R Â‡ / GH -RQJ The Netherlands And Nazi Germany +DUYDUG 8QLYHUVLW\ 3UHVV
â€œThe optimistic, rousing tone of her broadcasts had never been more importantâ€?
Onze Uitplundering is the second book in a series of six from the series entitled Nederland In Den Oorlog Zooals Het Werkelijk Was (The Netherlands In The War As It Truly Was). The caption at the bottom reads “Germany’s food position and ours – The English blockade – Vegetables, fruit and potatoes sold out – The shortage of dairy – No means and no pleasure – Points and perils – The repercussion for the people’s health – Our transport – Paper – Kingdom Robber – Productieslag – The Hunger Winter.”
Oscarshall » Year built: 1852 » Time to build: 5 years » Style: Neo-Gothic » Location: Oslo, Norway
ROYAL RESIDENCE OSCARSHALL
Oscarshall A symbol of Norwegian craftsmanship, Oscarshall provided a summer recluse mere miles away from the heart of Oslo Words PHILIPPA GRAFTON
Oscarshall is mere metres away from the shores of the Oslofjord
Timeline 30 AUGUST 1847 Blueprints approved Johan Henrik Nebelongâ€™s blueprints of the main building are approved by the royal couple.
25 SEPT 1847 Official beginnings With Nebelongâ€™s contract signed the previous day, work to clear the site and dig the foundations begins.
SUMMER 1848 Work started The foundation stone of Oscarshall is finally laid.
21 AUGUST 1849 Topping out ceremony The roof is completed and the topping out ceremony is celebrated. At the event, the name of the building is announced by a workman.
SEPTEMBER 1851 Complaints made Lord Chamberlain Ferdinand Wedel Jarlsberg complains to King Oscar I about Nebelongâ€™s poor accounting as initial costs treble. Faithfully, the king continues Nebelongâ€™s contract.
18 MARCH 1852 Castle completed The castle is handed over by all those involved in its construction, barring one notable exception: Nebelong is ousted by Jarlsberg, replaced by Peter Christian Frederik Wergmann.
1863 Sold to the state Four years into his reign, King Karl IV, the successor of King Oscar I, sells Oscarshall to the state.
1881 Becomes a museum King Oscar II, successor of King Karl IV, decides to open Oscarshall as a museum.
2005 Restoration begins Oscarshall receives a fouryear total renovation, seeing the exteriors and interiors echoing Nebelongâ€™s original building.
13 JUNE 2013 Queen JosĂŠphine Gallery opens A gallery for fine art named after the commissioning kingâ€™s wife is opened by Queen Sonja.
estled in the woodland surrounding the Oslofjord rests Oscarshall, the summer retreat of the Norwegian monarchs. Overlooking the fjord, itâ€™s said that the location for the palace was scouted by the sons of King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway while they were on a sailing trip, WKHPRXQWXSRQZKLFKWKHFDVWOHZDVEXLOWUHĂ HFWHG pristinely in the calm waters. The castle became a personal project for the royal couple; King Oscar and his wife, Queen JosĂŠphine, funded the construction with their own money, using their choice of architects, artists and craftsmen. Between 1847 and 1852, Oscarshall â€“ then a nameless construction â€“ became a hub of Norwegian culture and FUDIWZLWKDUWLVWVDQGZRUNHUVĂ RFNLQJIURPDFURVV the country to be involved in the grandest show of Norwegian construction to date. 80
Yet despite its status as a symbol of Norwayâ€™s homegrown talent, the palace fell into a state of relative disrepair during the 20th century. Having been opened to the public as a museum in the late-19th century, the construction ultimately required dozens of repairs before it received a much-needed total restoration and renovation in 2005. In an attempt to truly bring the palace back to its heady glory days, the restoration involved investigations, tests and even research into contemporary receipts from craftsmen to uncover what the buildingâ€™s original dĂŠcor ORRNHGOLNHZKHQLWVGRRUVĂ€UVWRSHQHG)URPWKHFRORXU and plasterwork that adorned the walls right down to the RUQDPHQWVDUWDQGIXUQLWXUHWKDWĂ€OOHGWKHURRPVWKH HQWLUHVXPPHUUHVLGHQFHKDVĂ€QDOO\EHHQDWWKHFHQWUHRI the attention and care that it long demanded and never truly received.
ROYAL RESIDENCE OSCARSHALL
Adolph Tidemand was one of two artist commissioned to paint Norwegian scenes in Oscarshall
Keeping it in the country &UDIWVPHQ DFURVV 1RUZD\ Ă RFNHG to Oscarshall to turn it into a Norwegian masterpiece With Norwegian talent disappearing abroad at an astonishing rate and craftsmen taking their skills and wares to foreign lands in their droves, workers from abroad were called in to create the Royal Palace in Oslo. However, facing harsh criticism for its lack of Norwegian labourers, the royal couple ensured that Oscarshall would meet these demands. Norwegian artists and workers were called in to craft the building, and most prominent of all were the artists â€“ Joachim Frich, Adolph Tidemand and Hans Gude. Despite this, a Danish architect, Johan Henrik Nebelong, was called in, as well as a Danish decorative painter and a pair of Italian brothers who crafted the ornaments for the buildingâ€™s faĂ§ade.
Life at the Oslofjord With its temperate climate, thereâ€™s nowhere better in Norway to summer About 100 kilometres long and peppered with residences on all coasts, the Oslofjord has long been the perfect location to spend a summer in Norway. With its milder climate, the fjord experiences some of the warmest weather at the peak of summer, while the bite of winter is dulled. As well as its climate, the Oslofjord is considered one of the most popular places in Norway for water
activities â€“ itâ€™s said that the royal coupleâ€™s sons scouted the location for Oscarshall when they were sailing on the fjord in the summer of 1847. At the time of Oscarshallâ€™s construction, most of the BygdĂ¸y region â€“ then known as LadegaardsĂ¸en â€“ belonged to the royal family. However, today the region is predominantly an up-market residential as well as tourist destination.
Oscarshall is tucked into the Oslofjord landscape, overlooking the fjord that was â€“ and still is â€“ popular for sailing and rowing
Itâ€™s all in the name How much does Oscarshall deserve the QDPHLWZDVJLYHQ" Commissioned by King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway, his consort, Queen JosĂŠphine, was renowned for her passion and involvement in all state and personal affairs â€“ and that included the construction of Oscarshall. Itâ€™s said that JosĂŠphine fell in love with the wilderness surrounding the Oslofjord, which reminded her of the Bavarian mountains, and the palace on the shores of Oslofjord became an ode to the beautiful vistas of her homeland. In fact, Josephine was so involved in the creation of Oscarshall that when its name was announced in the topping out ceremony in 1849, many questions were raised about the moniker. Perhaps JosĂŠphineshall would have been a much more Ă€WWLQJQDPH"2YHUDFHQWXU\ODWHU in 2013, the Queen JosĂŠphine Gallery was opened by Queen Sonja â€“ to compensate for the palaceâ€™s PLVQDPLQJSHUKDSV"
The Vestibule A rich, vibrant aquamarine blue, the Vestibule is quite the entrance for visitors to Oscarshall. Built to echo a peaceful Medieval chapel, the Vestibule’s entire design continues the motif, with its rose window on the south wall, and the arched window on the north ZDOOÁRRGLQJWKHURRPLQOLJKW While the deep blue of the upper half of the walls attracts the eye, in its time the panelling of the lower half was the pride and joy of the room. In fact, the panels imitated a wood effect – they are really made from Portland cement, which features a graining technique that was immensely popular in Norway during the 1840s. The technique was relatively new at the time and involved painting a unique wood grain effect on a material, often appearing more realistic than wood itself. As well as the unique walls, several original features have survived the century and a half since Oscarshall’s creation. The armchairs and marbletopped table near the north wall remain from the palace’s inception, as well as the two bronzed-brass chandeliers. Even during its most recent renovations, electric lighting was never installed in Oscarshall, so the chandeliers still only function with candles.
ROYAL RESIDENCE OSCARSHALL
The Kingâ€™s Chamber Perhaps one of the more simple rooms of the castle, the Kingâ€™s Chamber exudes an understated elegance, with simple ornamentation on the ceiling and walls. The room features a personal touch, too â€“ the walls are lined with portraits, sketches and photographs of the royal coupleâ€™s family. A pair of portraits of King Oscar I and his wife, Queen JosĂŠphine dominate the walls, with four smaller SRUWUDLWVEHORZLQFOXGLQJWKUHHRIWKHFRXSOHÂˇVĂ€YH children, plus a portrait of JosĂŠphineâ€™s father, EugĂ¨ne de Beauharnais.
The Kingâ€™s Parlour Much like the rest of the palace, 0HGLHYDOWUDGLWLRQVKDYHLQVSLUHG the concept and creation of the Kingâ€™s Parlour. As well as the series of allegorical scenes depicting life in the heart of Norway painted by Norwegian artists, the Kingâ€™s Parlour features ornamentation in the form of heraldry on the ceiling surrounding WKHFKDQGHOLHUDVZHOODVDERYHWKH arched doorways. As was typical of Neo-Gothic sentiment, the exploration of heraldry represents the interest in heritage and genealogy. In other rooms of the palace, the heraldry IHDWXUHGRQWKHFHLOLQJVFRYHUVWKH royal family, as well as those intimately connected to the monarchs.
The Drawing Room Inspired by Medieval castles and architecture, the Drawing Room is an ode to the old Norse kings that have shaped the nation’s history. Four sculptures of Medieval kings stand atop pedestals in each corner of the room. Sculpted by Hans Michelsen, the statues include Harald Fairhair, Sverre Sigurdsson, King Olaf II of Norway and Olaf Tryggvason. These aren’t the only sculptures in the room, however – Christopher Borch was commissioned to create 20 busts that line the top of the walls around the room. Five different busts were commissioned to represent a warrior, a scribe, a statesman, a peasant and a clergyman, and these 0HGLHYDOÀJXUHVDUHUHSHDWHGIRXU times each.
The Tower Encased in large windows, the Tower at Oscarshall continues to embrace the idea of being close to nature. Featuring two layers of beautiful windows, the bottom layer echoes a simple Gothic arch with stained glass in the upper half, while the top layer of ZLQGRZVHPEUDFHVWKHÁDWWHQHG7XGRU arch, complete with stained glass that features so prominently in all the rooms of Oscarshall.
ROYAL RESIDENCE OSCARSHALL
The Dining Room
Visit Oscarshall Âť Entry fees: NOK 70 (concessions for seniors and children available) Âť Opening hours: May-August: Wednesday-Sunday 11am-5pm Closed for the winter season www.royalcourt.no
ÂŠ Jan Haug, The Royal Court, Oslo, Alamy
Annexed from the rest of the palace and its walls laden with art, the Dining Room epitomises the very purpose of the palace. To enter the Dining Room, you have to step straight into the outdoors, through the open loggia that overlooks the palace gardens. Even in the room the echoes of the outdoors continue, with the looming windows looking out upon the grounds, while the two series of paintings by Joachim Frich and Adolph Tidemand depict the traditional Norwegian countryside. Interestingly, the artists collaborated with the architect, Johan Henrik Nebelong, to create works that would complement each other. In a sense, Nebelongâ€™s embellished design for the interior, carved of wood, presents the entire room as an elaborate, three-dimensional frame to the works of art, while the art itself mimics windows overlooking the Norwegian mountains. Mirrors set into the walls H[DJJHUDWHWKHURRPÂˇVVL]HZKLOHUHĂ HFWLQJOLJKWWR really take the viewer closer to nature.
ENJOY MORE OF YOUR FAVOURITE HIS
& SAVE UP TO
ened? ally happ : What re 6 6 0 ! 1 EW N
r The warrioWI king m When Ger
rder and the Tudo rs
George V in World War I
How B itain’s king transformed his c on
es ' Great Battl nasties eens ' Dy Kings & Qu th I
Dynasties Great Batt
e Elizab The
n Virgein Que ? ly nce near rs Tudo nage roma How tee greatest of the ruined the
Britain’s most powe rful
ng an emp
an vision that reinv ented
l in Betrayale s il a s Ver
ak ke or bre court al could ma Louis XIV s in France’s roy reputation
Dracuelar’s Broth Im Vlad the that b
Kings & Queens 'D
The wife that live d
ily feud l ’ fam n blood
Tsarrs of thede sum me Lair the gild Great the Inside Catherine palace of i dd 1
Tudor sp ecial ed ition
en hilip II ISSUE 005
The scand the British alous truth that monarchy broug to its knees ht
Ga vs Frarinbaldi cis II
How did su vive Catherine Parr with herHenry VIII’s rage head inta s ct?
Why the chose the king of the Two pope over Sicili the peopes le
ost powerful ge to suit
The lovers of Wallis Sim pson
House of Savoy
agedy, Empress Elisabe the mirror for comfo th The Italian dynasty that rt fell in less than a centur
Princes & Pirates
creato s of
The unlik ely adve Rupert ntures of Mau ice of the Rhine and of the Pala tinate
Lover , gam bler,
Inside the i the heart
Sansso uci Palac e
Inside the romantic of Prus retre sia’s war ior king at 001 HOR_0
enry cruel tyrant ?
took his br transfor other’s wife an med En gland d Orange -Nassa u Crus ader qu S bylla ee of the Holy Jerusalem trad n
How the shruggedDutch roya fam ily off their Nazi links
ed heartbrea k
25/05/2 016 12:57
See more at: www.greatdigitalmags.com
TORY MAGAZINE FOR LESS WHEN YOU SUBSCRIBE!
Every issue packed withâ€Ś The rise and fall of some of the worldâ€™s most infamous royals in unrivalled detail From love affairs that brought down nations to the plots and conspiracies that threatened the balance of power How royal dynasties left their mark on the modern world Inside castles and places from history
Why you should subscribe... Save up to 36% off the single issue price Immediate delivery to your device Never miss an issue Available across a wide range of digital devices
Subscribe today and take advantage of this great offer!
Download to your device now
Reviews Medieval Europe by Chris Wickham 1,000 years of European history in one book Publisher Yale University Press Price ÂŁ25 Release Out now
The middle ages were a vital part of European history, typically sandwiched in between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. For this reason it is often overshadowed by what came directly before and immediately after, but itâ€™s by no means less fascinating. Chris Wickhamâ€™s Medieval Europe includes almost everything you need to know about the time between 550 and 1500, from the Carolingian Empire to the Hundred Yearsâ€™ War. Wickham, a professor of Medieval history at the University of Oxford and author of previous titles on the era, does a great job of looking at all the divided kingdoms that arose after the fall of the Romans, from east to west. The book kicks off with a look at several maps of Europe from the time period. This helps the reader get a sense of just how different European geopolitical boundaries were compared to today. Told chronologically, Medieval Europe covers all the major events of the era but never goes overboard in its detail. This is because the text best functions as an overview of the period rather than an in-depth look at one period, country or ruler. If youâ€™ve arrived WRĂ€QGDOOWKHVWDWVRQWKH%ODFN'HDWKRUD biography of Charlemagne or Justinian, itâ€™s best to look somewhere else. Every region of Europe is covered along with their kings, some more obscure than others. An entire chapter is dedicated to the Carolingian Empire and Wickham really gets across how instrumental it was to the growth of Western Europe. Thereâ€™s also a lot on the %\]DQWLQH(PSLUHZKLFK, as the reader discovers, was much more than just the remnants of the Eastern Roman Empire. Religion plays a large part in the book and the rise of both Islam and Christianity is included. Wickham explains exactly why for
long periods the East was boomin :HVWZDVĂ RXQGHULQJJURZWKVKD the aristocracy who were intent o expensive armies for their own pe interests. Itâ€™s also fascinating to se defunct lands like Rus functioned a king converting to Catholicism followed by swathes of his subject Europe was completely different t and that interesting topic carries IURPVWDUWWRĂ€QLVK 'HVSLWHHVVHQWLDOO\EHLQJDQRY Medieval Europe is heavy in places only appeal to those really investe studying the era. That said, the c isnâ€™t watered down despite its larg and is ideal for anyone interested middle ages were such a vital era importance should not be undere BELOW The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. After itâ€™s fall, the makeup of Medieval Europe would change VLJQLĂ€FDQWO\DQGQHYHUEHWKHVDPHDJDLQ
King Cnut And The Viking Conquest Of England 1016 by WB Bartlett A forgotten figure finally given his day in the sun Publisher Amberley Publishing Price ÂŁ20 Release Out now
When mentioning the word Viking, royalty and rulership arenâ€™t usually the Ă€UVW WKRXJKWV WKDW VSULQJ WR PLQG It might surprise some to know that one of their number, a Christian rather than a pagan, ruled England as king for a brief time. Cnut, famous for commanding the ocean to bow to him and instead getting wet feet, is an often forgotten player in the shaping of Britain. The author, WB Bartlett, states that the British people were probably only conscious of two successful invasion attempts, once by the Romans in 44 CE and again in 1066. However, 50 years before William the Bastard would sail across the channel to claim the kingdom, a Danish man was sitting on the English throne.
Bartlett has provided a detailed and nuanced biography of Cnut, from his actions in Scandinavia to his life in England. A striking point is that Cnut stands out as a statesman rather than a warrior. His claim for the English throne was never guaranteed and the author puts his actions into the context of the period. For example, as Cnutâ€™s claim to the throne was through military force, it paved the way for William to do the same in 1066. Bartlett weaves VLJQLĂ€FDQW events and the rise and fall of the Danelaw to give the reader a complete picture of the era. 7KLV ELRJUDSK\ FDQ Ă€OO LQ WKH EODQNV about a key player in British history, presenting Cnutâ€™s reign in both an equally engaging and informative fashion.
The Lives Of Tudor Women by Elizabeth Norton Bringing to life the experience of being a 16th-century woman Publisher Head of Zeus Price ÂŁ25 Release Out Now
Books of this kind present the author with a challenge: with a potentially LQĂ€QLWHEULHIKRZGRHVRQHGHFLGH where lines are drawn and topics either included or set aside? Tudor expert Elizabeth Norton has a canny solution. As she emphatically states in the opening words of her preface to The Lives Of Tudor Women: â€œThis is a biography.â€? In effect, her approach is to treat this as a study of the life of a Tudor everywoman, â€œâ€Śwho was born in 1485 and died in 1603.â€? Furthermore, she uses the device of Shakespeareâ€™s concept of the seven ages of man to provide structure. Although clichĂŠd on paper, it works very well in practice. Henry VII and Elizabeth of Yorkâ€™s second daughter, Elizabeth Tudor, born in 1492, has been largely forgotten by the history books, as she died at the age of just three. Even those who have read a fair amount on
the subject of Tudor history may not have encountered her too often, so this in itself is an important point of interest here. The central narrative of the book has a thoroughly scholarly tone, rich with research, but this is punctuated with entertaining and rather shocking vignettes that reveal the realities of life â€“ often brutally harsh, sadly â€“ for the women of the time. For instance, Norton reveals how women would seek to fall pregnant to preserve their own lives in case they were sentenced to be executed, an act known as â€˜pleading the bellyâ€™. Despite the fact that well over a century of turbulent English history is covered within these pages, nothing feels glossed over. Instead, a fascinating glimpse of Tudor life is presented, shot through with the authorâ€™s obvious passion for the period. This is a SRWHQWLDOO\GLIĂ€FXOWEULHIKDQGOHGZLWKJUHDW success and can be warmly recommended. 89
Mrs Keppel: Mistress To The King by Tom Quinn A tale of love verses status Publisher Biteback Publishing Price ÂŁ20 Release Out now
$OLFH.HSSHOZDVDVLJQLĂ€FDQWĂ€JXUHin royal history, not because she herself was royalty or even married to a monarch, but because she was King Edward VIIâ€™s favourite mistress (favoured also by his own wife) before and after his ascension to the throne in 1901, right up until his death in 1910. Mrs Keppel was accustomed to a certain way of living, and upheld her standards with her shrewd and businesslike approach to love,DFWLQJZLWKĂ€QHVVHDQGGLVFUHWLRQ From the offset it sounds as if the subject of the book might be an unlikable character ZLWKDĂ DLUIRUPDQLSXODWLQJWKHXSSHUFODVV but as Quinn explores her family tree and the kind of impact she had on her lovers, she is painted in a somewhat likeable light. Keppel is not a conventional character of Edwardian history but she is an interesting one. The author gives her new life in what is
an engaging read about her ability to quietly and respectfully advise the king on his nineyear reign over England. Keppel was not exclusively a mistress to the king, but also bankers and MPs â€“ those wealthy enough to contribute to her standing in society. This story of Mrs Keppel is a recommended read because of the wealth of knowledge accumulated and sources examined by the author about her life, and those who came after her including the current Duchess of Cornwall, Keppelâ€™s great granddaughter. At times the bookâ€™s tone is reminiscent of idle gossip, but a number of statements made by those closest to the characters allow for its scandalous and salacious nature. Quinn paints a very colourful picture of Edwardian aristocracy, which ultimately changed after Edward VIIâ€™s death, leaving Keppelâ€™s impact and life frozen in time in the face of a new king.
Four Princes by John Julius Norwich How four leaders born in one decade defined a century Publisher John Murray Price ÂŁ17 Release Out Now
Looking for the recipe for a great story? Take four large egos, add power and royal blood, mix in some warfare and sprinkle with a few beheadings, and voilĂĄ! You have the mesmerising concoction that intoxicated almost all of 16th-century Europe. Between 1491 and 1500, four princes were born that changed the fate of their countries: King Henry VIII of England, King Francis I of France, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the 0DJQLĂ€FHQWDQGWKH+RO\5RPDQ(PSHURU Charles V. Their great power, rivalry and LQĂ XHQFHPDGHWKHPWKHIRXUSLOODUVRQ which Europeâ€™s fate rested, each threatening to topple it over when their wildly different personalities clashed. In his 32nd book, John Julius Norwich tells the story of these four men in all its extravagant glory, from the pompous attempts to impress one another through celebrations and banquets to bloodthirsty 90
portrayals of cruelty and madness. Norwichâ€™s experience in television (over 30 historical BBC documentaries) is evident in his colourful and vivid descriptions, painting an individual picture of each (in)famous leader. Norwich doesnâ€™t particularly offer any new information or revelations, but rather a different perspective on a tumultuous time in history that included the High 5HQDLVVDQFHWKHJROGHQDJHRIWKH2WWRPDQ Empire in terms of art and culture, and WKH5HIRUPDWLRQ5DWKHUWKDQIRFXVLQJRQ each leader and each country individually, he retells history through their famous interaction, such as the extravagant summit between Henry VIII and Francis I on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Norwich is a storyteller, and this is where the book excels; it takes one of the most iconic centuries of all times and retells it through the relationship between four of its most powerful men.
First Of The Tudors by Joanna Hickson All alone on the throne
Publisher HarperFiction Price ÂŁ7.99 Release Out Now
With all its backstabbing, love affairs and political machinations, the royal court of England and Wales was certainly never a boring place to be under the reign of the Plantagenets. These ruling Welsh nobles saw the borders of Britain HEEDQGĂ RZDFURVVWKHPRWKHUODQGDQG )UDQFHOLNHDFHQWXULHVORQJWLGHHURGLQJ WKHVRYHUHLJQW\RIULYDOSHHUVRIWKHUHDOP only to deposit their power with others who EHWWHUVXLWHGWKHLUDPELWLRQV7KHPRQDUFKV RIWKLVG\QDVW\FRXQWDPRQJLWVUDQNVVRPH RIWKHPRVWIDPRXVUXOHUVRI%ULWLVKLIQRW worldKLVWRU\Â˛6KDNHVSHDUHZURWHPRVWRI KLVKLVWRULFDOSOD\VDERXWWKH3ODQWDJHQHWV and no less than three (three parts of one ODUJHSLHFHRIWKHDWUHDWOHDVW DERXW+HQU\ 9,3HUKDSVLWÂˇVWKLVVSHFLDODWWHQWLRQWKDWWKH %DUGKLPVHOISDLGWR(QJODQGÂˇVWURXEOHGNLQJ that has inspired bestselling author Joanna +LFNVRQDVPXFKDVKHU7XGRUIDUPKRXVH to pen thisVHPLĂ€FWLRQDOWULEXWHWRWKHHUD First Of The TudorsSODFHVXVQRWDWWKH VWDUWRI+HQU\7XGRUÂˇVUHLJQRUHYHQDWWKH GHFLVLYH %DWWOH RI %RVZRUWK DJDLQVW WKH ODVW
ABOVE The exceptionally well-preserved Pembroke castle, gifted to Jasper Tudor when he was made Earl of Pembroke by Henry VI
DWDSLYRWDOWLPHLQKLVSUHGHFHVVRU+HQU\ VIÂˇVĂ€UVWUXOHDURXQG:LWKWKH)UHQFK SXVKLQJKLVVROGLHUVRXWRI)UDQFHDQGOLWWOH LQWKHZD\RIFORVHIDPLO\WROHDQRQ+HQU\ ralliesKLVQHDUHVWDQGGHDUHVWWRKLP+LV WHHQDJHKDOIEURWKHUV-DVSHUDQG(GPXQG 7XGRUDUHEURXJKWPDQ\PLOHVWR/RQGRQ DQGUDLVHGWRKLJKVWDQGLQJDVWKH(DUOVRI 3HPEURNHVKLUHDQG5LFKPRQGUHVSHFWLYHO\ DQVZHUDEOHRQO\WRWKH.LQJDQGVKRXOGHUWR KRXOGHUZLWKWKH'XNHVRI(QJODQG:KLFK XVWKDYHLUNHGVRPHRI+HQU\ÂˇVQREOHV hough no one questionedLWDWWKHWLPH &LYLOZDULQWKHIRUPRIWKH:DUVRI KH5RVHVLVMXVWDIHZ\HDUVDZD\+HQU\ÂˇV HQWDOKHDOWKLVEHJLQQLQJWRFUXPEOHDQG VVSLULWHGTXHHQ0DUJXHULWHRI$QMRX VWLOOZLWKRXWFKLOGGHVSLWHVHYHQ\HDUVRI DUULDJH+LFNVRQKDVDORWRIPDWHULDO RSOD\ZLWKDQGPRUHWKDQDIHZJDSVLQ VWRULFDOUHIHUHQFHWKDWVKHFDQOHDYHWRWKH RXULVKRIDUWLVWLFOLFHQVH:KDWVHHPVOLNH broadly entertaining if pedestrian start XLFNO\VWHSVXSDJHDUDVWKHWZR\RXQJ DUOVVHWWOHLQWRWKHLUQHZSRVLWLRQV $QDXWKRUVKRXOGQHYHUXQGHUHVWLPDWH KHSRZHURIEUHDNLQJDUFKHW\SHVDQG XUSULVLQJWKHUHDGHUDWDVNXVXDOO\PDGH RUHGLIĂ€FXOWE\KLVWRULFDOFRQWH[WEXW LFNVRQLVVNLOIXOLQSDLQWLQJEHOLHYDEOH\HW RPSOH[FKDUDFWHUV,QFirst Of The Tudors HFDQHDVLO\LPDJLQHWKLV0HGLHYDOFRXUW PPHULQJZLWKVFKHPLQJDQGHPRWLRQ HQHDWKLWVYHQHHURIGHFRUXP%HUHDG\WR FN\RXUMDZXSRIIWKHĂ RRUDQGHYHQIRUWKH FFDVLRQDOFKXFNOHDV+LFNVRQEUXVKHVWKH XVWRII+HQU\ÂˇVWKURQHDQGEULQJVWKLVKLJK DNHVJDPHRIPXVLFDOFKDLUVWROLIH 91
Was A Man With Six Wivesâ€Ś by Mick Twister
History in bitesize chunks of poetry Publisher Pavilion Books Price ÂŁ9.99 Release 9 February 2017
Entire tomes can be dedicated to telling the tale of one monarch, but Mick Twister has devoted his latest work to summarising the reign of every British monarch LQWRĂ€YHOLQHVÂ˛WREHPRUHSUHFLVH into a limerick. <RXPLJKWZRQGHU KRZ\RXFDQFRQGHQVHVD\9LFWRULDÂˇV \HDUVRQWKHWKURQHLQWRĂ€YHOLQHV RISRHWU\EXWVRPHKRZ7ZLVWHU H[FHOVHYHQSHSSHULQJLQDVHOHFWIHZ (XURSHDQPRQDUFKV $GPLWWHGO\VRPHOLPHULFNVDUH EHWWHUWKDQRWKHUVÂ˛:LOOLDPWKH &RQTXHURUDQG/XGZLJ,,RI%DYDULD DUHDSDUWLFXODUIDYRXULWHVÂ˛EXW EHQHDWKHDFKOLPHULFNLVDJHQHUDO ELRJUDSK\LQSURVH SOXVDVWDWV VHFWLRQZLWKGHWDLOVRQWKHULVHUHLJQ DQGGHDWKRIHDFKPRQDUFK ,WÂˇVDFKDUPLQJFROOHFWLRQDQG \RXÂˇOOLQHYLWDEO\Ă€QG\RXUVHOIWKLQNLQJ LQOLPHULFNIRUGD\VDIWHU
Scourge Of Henry VIII â€“ The Life Of Marie De Guise by Melanie Clegg An overdue look at a rather forgotten but important figure Publisher Pen & Sword Price ÂŁ15.99 Release Out Now
How do you get around the slight commercial problem posed by writing about one of historyâ€™s less instantly recognisable names? Title it after one of historyâ€™s biggest celebrities, of course. Thereâ€™s a very good chance that you wonâ€™t have heard of Marie de Guise, but you will almost certainly have heard of her potential suitor, King Henry VIII. Despite the title, Cleggâ€™s book is in fact a fairly conventional biography â€“ and as biographies of de Guise are in rather short supply, itâ€™s one thatâ€™s most welcome. In choosing a subject who is not only overlooked but also fascinating â€“ she was born into the well-connected and powerful Lorraine family in France and married King James V (which was the second marriage for both of them) â€“ Clegg has given herself a head start, and the book is a success, but not exactly an XQTXDOLĂ€HGRQH
For some reason, the book feels a little dry, feeling slightly like an extended essay at times, and doesnâ€™t quite manage to paint the vivid picture the reader longs for or draw them in in the same way that the very best biographies do. At times, one wishes for the author to slow down somewhat and WKLVLVSHUKDSVUHĂ HFWHGLQWKHIDFWWKDWWKLV isnâ€™t exactly the longest bit of QRQĂ€FWLRQ ever written. The absence of footnotes or references may unsettle some readers, too. This is not to say that this book is without merit, however. De Guise is such a pivotal SHUVRQZLWKDVLJQLĂ€FDQWDQGFXULRXVO\ overlooked role â€“ Henry VIII had wanted her as his wife, before Francis I accepted the proposal from James â€“ that the subject matter itself ensures Cleggâ€™s book is hugely worthwhile and there are glimpses of its potential when she ceases to advance events DQGSDXVHVIRUUHĂ HFWLRQDQGFRQVLGHUDWLRQ
Prince Regent The life and times of George, Prince of Wales Distributor Simply Media Running time 400 minutes Release Out now
Finally released on DVD after it originally aired nearly 40 years ago, Prince Regent follows the life of George, Prince of Wales, heir to the throne of England and destined to become King George IV after his father eventually succumbed to madness. The eightepisode-long show follows his life from his time as Regent, a young and debauching man, wooing several ladies and marrying inappropriately through to when he was given a coronation. The show itself has a strong whiff of Blackadder about it, which doesnâ€™t feel intentional given that it was made in the 1970s; you half expect Hugh Laurie to come bumbling out as Prince George and Tony Robinsonâ€™s Baldrick to appear with an overlarge turnip. It even appears to use some of the same sets (or, rather, actual houses) as the parody follow-up. 92
Prince Regent is very much a product of its time. What would have been a very high-end, Downton Abbey-esque television drama in the 1970s, today has aged. While the acting at times seems a little hammy, the costumes continue to impress and it is clear why it won the BAFTA for Best Makeup, and was nominated for Best Design, Best Costume Design, and Best Television Cameraman (which stopped being awarded in 1989). In terms of its value, however, it does portray the life of George to a decent degree. From his marriages and his mistresses to his waiting on his father to give in to his mind. The writers often do a good job with the dialogue, but there are the occasional OLQHVWKDWIDOOĂ DW Prince Regent is a show that would be great for those who have a particular interest in the life of George IV, who donâ€™t mind watching something that is a little dated.
0DULH$QWRLQHWWHÂˇV&RQĂ€GDQWH7KH5LVH$QG )DOO2I7KH3ULQFHVVH'H/DPEDOOHby Geri Walton Step inside a world of power struggles and revolution Publisher Pen & Sword History Price ÂŁ25 Release Out Now
0DULH$QWRLQHWWHERDVWVRQHRIKLVWRU\ÂˇV PRVWUHFRJQLVDEOHQDPHVDQGWKLVERRN LVDIDVFLQDWLQJOLYHO\DQGHQWHUWDLQLQJ DFFRXQWRIKHULQWHUWZLQHGOLIHZLWKKHU IRUHPRVWODG\LQZDLWLQJ0DULH/RXLVH 7KpUqVHWKH3ULQFHVVHGH/DPEDOOH The dust jacket promises to â€œ[immerse] the reader into a world of titillating sexual rumours, blood-thirsty revolutionaries, and hair-raising escape attempts.â€? If this suggests that Walton is indulging more in the salacious side of the period ahead of serious study, fear not, as she has struck a winning balance between vivid storytelling and well-researched history. Non-Ă€FWLRQ is usually at its best when the authorâ€™s enthusiasm for their subject emerges clearly but yet remains tempered by scholarly study, and this is the case here. Itâ€™s not really a straightforward biography of either the Princesse de Lamballe or Marie Antoinette; in truth itâ€™s more of a general picture of 18th-century France and the Revolution that swept across the nation like DĂ€UHVWRUPGXULQJWKHFHQWXU\ÂˇVĂ€QDOGHFDGH Walton does a superb job of bringing events to life, and youâ€™llVRRQĂ€QGyour attention held; itâ€™s an addictive read thatâ€™s truly GLIĂ€FXOWWRSXWGRZQ Thereâ€™s a fairly substantial cast of characters here, and if youâ€™re a relative QHZFRPHUWRWKLVZRUOG\RXPD\Ă€QG yourself turning back to the cast of characters thatâ€™s helpfully included at the start of the book. Antoinette has been the focus of many myths, and Walton seeks to set the record straight concerning some of the more pervasive ones, such as the infamous â€˜Let them eat cakeâ€™. â€œThe Queenâ€Śâ€? explains Walton, â€œwas not completely unaware of the peopleâ€™s desperate plightâ€Ś The famous line often attributed to her was likely said by one of the Mesdames, although probably taken out of context.â€? The other oft-circulated rumour thatâ€™s looked at throughout the book is that of Marie Antoinetteâ€™s relationship with not only the Princesse de Lamballe but the pretty
Duchess of Polignac, who was Lamballeâ€™s â€œnemesisâ€?, managing to usurp Marie-Louise ThĂŠrĂ¨se as Antoinetteâ€™s favourite while the Princesse was suffering from measles. Such rumours resulted in the distribution of pamphlets that â€œaccused [Marie Antoinette] of the most repulsive, vile, and vicious acts,â€? and contributed to the fate of both Antoinette and Lamballe. The latterâ€™s grotesque death during the September Massacres is described here in fairly graphic detail, but it doesnâ€™t seem gratuitously portrayed by Walton. One of the authorâ€™s self-ascribed aims for the book was to redress common misconceptions about Lamballe, and this feels very much like a success. The book ends, as you would perhaps expect, with the execution of Marie Antoinette herself. This is history writing at its very best; vivid detail, characters colourfully brought to life and events clearly described. Anyone with an interest in French history, 18th-century Europe or the main SOD\HUVZLOOĂ€QGWKLVERRNKXJHO\DSSHDOLQJ Very highly recommended.
Waltonâ€™s book ends with the execution of Marie Antoinette in October 1793, as depicted in a 1794 painting by William Hamilton
The Tsarâ€™s Banker is available now for ÂŁ7.99. Head online to www.thetsarsbanker.com for more information or to buy a copy.
Stephen Davis The business journalist explains how the mystery of Nicholas IIâ€™s missing jewels inspired his first venture into historical fiction 7KLVLV\RXUĂ€UVWYHQWXUHLQWRKLVWRULFDO Ă€FWLRQÂ˛ZKDWSLTXHG\RXULQWHUHVW" I had always been interested in history and the Russian Revolution, its causes and consequences. Some years ago I read a quote from a past director of the Bank of England stating there had never been any money held for the Tsar, which was later contradicted. This was not the only contradiction and it fuelled me to want to discover more. 6RKRZGLG\RXGLVFRYHUWKHVWRU\RIWKH 7VDUÂˇVPLVVLQJIRUWXQH" 2QFH,IRXQGWKHĂ€UVWFRQWUDGLFWLRQWR the story I started to look out for others. Much of the story came from research in various areas, books, newspaper reports and court records. There seemed to be huge contradictions in the various accounts. I discovered that there has been speculation since 1917 of vast treasures in money and jewels that have been deposited in various banks throughout Europe by the Romanovs. Two banks were reported to hold money and property for the Tsar: the Mendelssohn Bank in Berlin and the Bank of England. In 1933, seven relatives of Nicholas II, the surviving members of the Romanov family, ZHUHJUDQWHGDÂśFHUWLĂ€FDWHRILQKHULWDQFHÂˇ for the funds held at the Mendelssohn Bank. The Bank of England, however, denied holding any assets for the Russian imperial family, despite a number of attempts by distant members of the Romanov family to establish if money or property existed. Sir Edward Peacock, director of the Bank of England, stated to the newspapers in 1960: â€œI am pretty sure there was never any
money of the imperial family of Russia in the Bank of England, nor in any other bank LQ(QJODQG2IFRXUVHLWLVGLIĂ€FXOWWRVD\ ÂśQHYHUÂˇÂľ3HDFRFNZDVPLVWDNHQRUZURQJ as there is evidence that money existed in England during World War I from letters to the Tsar from the Empress of Russia. Could it just be a coincidence that, after leaving the Bank of England, Edward Peacock was appointed receiver general to the Duchy of Cornwall, the principal property management arm of the British royal family? +RZGLG\RXĂ HVKRXWWKHP\VWHU\Â˛ZKDW VRXUFHVZHUHSDUWLFXODUO\XVHIXO" Various books written about the Russian royal family contain interesting information (The Fate Of The Romanovs by Greg King and Penny Wilson and The Romanovs: The Final Chapter by Robert K Massie) and some court records and legal papers. :KDWLVWKHDFFHSWHGLGHDDERXWWKH 7VDUÂˇVORQJORVWMHZHOV" The Bank of England denies it holds any money belonging to the Tsar or his family, and this might be true today. If there was one person who would have known of the existence of deposits by the Romanovs it would be Piotr Bark, who served as WKH7VDUÂˇVPLQLVWHURIĂ€QDQFHXQWLOWKH revolution. Bark escaped to England but maintained a discreet silence on the subject of the Romanov treasure. After the war he changed his name to Peter Bank and became the managing director of the AngloInternational Bank. What is strange is that he was knighted by George V for services
â€œThere is a conspiracy of silence surrounding the treasure and the jewelsÂľ 95
to banking. But what had the done that deserved a knighthood? Being managing director of a bank was hardly noteworthy, even then, or perhaps the knighthood was a reward for remaining silent about the Romanov fortune? It would seem that there is, and has been, a conspiracy of silence surrounding the treasure and the jewels. The question is why, after all these years? $QGZKDWGR\RXWKLQN" I consider that there was some money and property in England belonging to the Russian royal family and that this is, most SUREDEO\QRZPLVVLQJ,FDQÂˇWSURYHZKRWRRN it but think that the money was absorbed into the British Treasury and any jewels broken up and might now hang around YDULRXVODGLHVÂˇQHFNV7RNHHSWKHMHZHOVDV WKH\ZHUHZRXOGPDNHWKHPWRRLGHQWLĂ€DEOH It is possible that today you could walk down the Burlington arcade and unwittingly pass some jewels once owned by the Tsars. +RZPXFKRI The Tsarâ€™s BankerLVEDVHG RQUHDOHYHQWV" The locations, political events and 22 of the characters such as members of the royal Russian family and their courtiers mentioned in the book existed. At the end of the book I detail what happened to them and DGGLQIRUPDWLRQWKDWÂˇVQRWFRQWDLQHGLQWKH novel itself, some of it adding to the mystery. <RXÂˇYHFRQWDFWHGWKH%DQNRI(QJODQG DQGWKHUR\DOKRXVHKROGDERXWWKHMHZHOV :KDWZDVWKHUHVSRQVH" The letter from the Bank of England was interesting and in one area contradictory, so the story from that avenue continues. From Windsor Castle I received more information regarding a visit by Grand Duchess Xenia meeting George V and Queen Mary as well as a visit by Prince Yusopov in the 1950s.
On Sale 19 Jan
Thomas Cromwell Henry’s right-hand man )URPD3XWQH\SDXSHUWRWKHNLQJ·VFORVHVWFRQÀGDQWH
Anne of Cleves
A scandalous affair
Was the Henry VIII’s fourth wife really as revolting as he claimed?
The summer retreat of Austria’s infamous trickster
Ludwig I of Bavaria’s illicit romance with Lola Montez
PLUS House of Wessex Revolution in Portugal Relics of the Black Prince 96
([+V^UPUN:[YLL[7YPTL4PUPZ[LY ;OH[JOLY\YNLZ[OL(TLYPJHUZ[V JVU[PU\L[OL^HY 0U[OL5VY[O:LH/4:;LUHJPV\Z O\U[Z:V]PL[:\IZ 0U5VY^H`[OL:(:TV\U[ZHKHYPUN JVTTHUKVYHPKVUH:V]PL[OLSKHPYIHZL 0U.LYTHU`[OL)YP[PZO(YT`VM[OL9OPUL ÄNO[ZHTHZZP]LHYTV\YLKIH[[SL
(M[LY[OL)H[[SLVM[OL5VY^LNPHU:LH 5(;6PZKL[LYTPULK[VPU]HKL ,HZ[LYU, Y L (Z[OL(YT`VM[OL+H IS [OL<UP[LK:[H[LZNH[ LYZH HZZP]L ÅLL[PU[OL7HJPÄJ 4LHU^OPSL[OLZ[Y\ SL [ LU[OL OH^RZHUK[OLKV]LZYLHJOLZJYP[PJHSTHZZ HUK.VYIHJOL]TV]LZ[V[HRLJVU[YVS
0[»Z[^VTPU\[LZ[VTPKUPNO[PU World War 1990: Operation Arctic Storm
;OLIH[[SLTV]LZ[VJVTT\UPZ[[LYYP[VY`PU World War 1990: Operation Eastern Storm
AVAILABLE NOW New releases from
Celebrating UK Authors
10% OF F P U B L I S H I N G
‘At last, a biography of one of the most powerful and fascinating women of the Tudor period; the tragic and dramatic story of Margaret Pole, the last Plantagenet, has too long been overlooked’.
1,000th Anniversary and the first full biography.
LEANDA DE LISLE, author of ‘Tudors: The Family Story’.
W H E N YO U ORDER DIRECT F ROM A M BER LEY ON LI N E
Focuses more on his illicit relationships rather than on his role in the Wars of the Roses, he unearths some interesting new theories and evidence.
£16.99 800th Anniversary of his accession to the throne, his tumultuous reign and much forgotten king.
“this insight is so rare and so valuable...” PHILIPPA GREGORY
“thought -provoking and compulsively readable ...a beautiful portrait” GARETH RUSSELL
The Untold Story of Henry VIII’s Elder Brother.
£20.00 @amberleybooks facebook.com/amberleybooks
Leading the way with local and specialist history. Available in all good bookshops. Also available in Kindle, Kobo and iBook.
E. email@example.com T. +44 01453 847800
The Coronation Spoon This extraordinarily lavish piece of cutlery is the oldest part of the British Crown Jewels and survived the regicidal atmosphere of the English Civil War
Their destruction was an irreparable loss and one of the few survivors of this bejewelled apocalypse was the Coronation Spoon. 7KHVSRRQÂˇVH[LVWHQFHZDVĂ€UVW recorded in 1349 as being part of the regalia of Edward the Confessor, and even then, it was described as an â€œantiqueâ€?. Made of silver gilt, the spoon has details such as monstersâ€™ heads, interlaced scrolling and it is encrusted with pearls. This type of craftsmanship dates to the late 12th century and it is therefore a rare survivor, as it is the only piece of royal goldsmithâ€™s work to exist from that century. It was likely produced either for Henry II or his son Richard I. It would not have been used for eating or stirring and was seemingly always used for ceremonial purposes. Unlike the other jewels, which were melted down, the spoon was sold for 16 shillings to a certain â€œMr Kynnersleyâ€? in 1649, who
he Crown Jewels are the most famous of their kind and form the centrepiece of the coronation of a new sovereign. This glittering ceremony has been held in Westminster Abbey for every king and queen of England, apart from Edward V and Edward VIII, since Harold II in 1066. Everyone is familiar with the crown, orb and sceptre but although they may appear aged in appearance, they are comparatively young in origin, dating from the restoration of Charles II in 1660. The original Crown Jewels were destroyed under the orders of Oliver Cromwell, following the execution of Charles I in 1649, as they were considered redundant after the establishment of the republican Commonwealth. Many of these lost pieces were AngloSaxon or Medieval in origin and included the crowns of Alfred the Great, Edward the Confessor and Henry VII, as well as various items including jewellery, robes and even an Anglo-Saxon comb.
The Coronation Spoon is the Ă€QHVWVXUYLYLQJH[DPSOHRI (QJOLVKJROGVPLWKZRUNIURP WKHWKFHQWXU\ $OWKRXJKLWVSUHFLVHRULJLQVDUH GLVSXWHGWKHVSRRQPD\KDYH EHHQFRPPLVVLRQHGDWWKHHDUOLHVW E\+HQU\,,U WKHĂ€UVW $QJHYLQNLQJRI(QJODQG
subsequently returned it to Charles II in 1660 and it has been used ever since. The spoon is used during the anointing of the monarch, which is the most sacred part of the coronation ceremony. The archbishop of Canterbury pours holy oil from a vessel known as an Ampulla onto the spoon and anoints the sovereign on the hands, chest and head. This emphasises their spiritual status and the tradition has biblical origins, dating back to a similar ritual performed for Solomon by Zadok the Priest and Nathan the Prophet. Therefore, anointing with the spoon helps to FRQĂ€UPWKHPRQDUFK DV +HDG RI WKH Church of England.
The Destination for Militar y Histor y
War on the Gothic Line Superbly told through the eyes of the men and women who fought there, this tstanding book admirably recounts one of the bloodiest chapters in the longest military campaign of World War II.’ Carlo D’Este, author of Patton: A Genius For War
‘Jennings evokes with great narrative skill the triumph and tragedy of the brutal fighting in Italy. A vital contribution to a great gap in our knowledge.’ Paul Ham, author of Hiroshima Nagasaki
‘Vivid, enthralling and authoritative, At War on the Gothic Line is military history at its pacy best.’ John Hooper, Rome bureau chief for The Economist, and award-winning author of The Italians
F RO M O S P R E Y
Discover the connection between Great Britain and Germanyâ€™s Royal Houses. To explore the fascinating royal connections between the two countries, why not travel in the footsteps of the crowned British monarchy in Germany? Visit our website to discover the splendid towns, castles & gardens as well as the intriguing history of our Royal Heritage Route. Find out more at: www.germany.travel/royalheritage
Dresden: Elbe Riverbank ÂŠ Dresden Marketing GmbH, Frederik Schrader