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Bulletin

C A N A D I A N DA M A S S O CI AT I O N

CDA ACB

Fall 2009

Vol. 20 No. Vol No 4

THE BOUNDARY WATERS TREATY OF 1909 Also Inside: Thank you, Conference Sponsors The Design of Foundation Treatment Measures for Dams on Karst Foundations


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Over 98 per cent of Manitoba’s energy needs are provided by the clean, self-renewing water power produced at Manitoba Hydro’s 14 hydroelectric generating stations, such as Slave Falls on the Winnipeg River.

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Bulletin

C A N A D I A N DA M A S S O CI AT I O N Canadian Dam Association visit www.cda.ca Membership Membership is open to anyone with an interest in dam safety. The following fees are applicable, due September of each year, and are to be sent to: Wayne Phillips - Executive Director - P.O. Box 2281, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan S6H 7W6 Individual Membership ..............................$40 Corporate Membership – International ...... $700 Corporate Membership – National ...........$350 Student Membership .....................................$5 The association can only function if it has a large and active membership, including corporate members. If you wish to remain on our membership list and receive the Bulletin, please join the association. Editorial Committee Allan Kirkham allan.kirkham@opg.com Rick Carson rcarson@kgsgroup.com David Hansen david.hansen@dal.ca Marno Klein mklein@hydro.mb.ca Joanna Barnard joannabarnard@nlh.nl.ca Joe Groeneveld jgroeneveld@hatchenergy.com Marion Houston houston.marion@gmail.com Articles, information, or dates of upcoming meetings should be forwarded by mail to: Allan Kirkham, P.Eng. Section Manager - Hydrotechnical Hydro Engineering Division Ontario Power Generation 14,000 Niagara Parkway, R.R. #1 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario L0S 1J0 Phone: (905) 357-0322, ext. 5568 Fax: (905) 262-2685 E-mail: allan.kirkham@opg.com or by e-mail to a member of the editorial committee as listed above. CDA Website: Alan Boom Editor: Cathy Jones Project Manager: Alana Place Advertising Sales Director: Anook Commandeur Marketing: Allie Hansen Account Representatives: Brenda Ezinicki, Tracy Goltsman, Ralph Herzberg, Brian Hoover, Gordon Jackson, Dawn Stokes, Wayne Jury Sales Manager: Bill McDougall Layout & Design: Naylor (Canada), Inc. Advertising Art: Aaron Harper Contributing Writer: Jennifer Stertzer The Bulletin is published four times per year for the Canadian Dam Association.

Fall 2009

Vol. 20 No. 4

Contents Departments

7

Board of Directors

9

President’s Message

11

A Message from the Editorial Committee

29

Reminder Notice

30

Buyers’ Guide and Trade List

Features

12

The Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909

19

CDA Conference Thank You

20

The Design of Foundation Treatment Measures for Dams on Karst Foundations

Cover photo credit: ©www.isotckphoto.com/Jerry Moorman

Published by:

Naylor (Canada), Inc. 100 Sutherland Avenue Winnipeg, MB R2W 3C7 Tel.: (204) 947-0222 Fax: (204) 947-2047 www.naylor.com ©2009 Naylor (Canada), Inc. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of the publisher.

PUBLISHED SEPTEMBER 2009/CDA-Q0409/8833

CANADIAN PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT #40064978

Canadian Dam Association

12 5


Dam safety a top priority Ontario Power Generation operates 35 hydroelectric stations, a green power portfolio of 29 small hydroelectric plants, and more than 240 water control dams on 26 river systems across Ontario. Our clean, renewable and reliable hydroelectric production contributes about one-third of our total generation, virtually free of emissions.

The safety of our dams and the public who enjoy the benefits depends on a continuous process of inspection, testing, operations and maintenance. Towards this end, OPG actively participates in and supports the programs and safety objectives of the Canadian Dam Association.

For more information, visit our Web site at www.opg.com or contact the OPG Dam Safety office at (905) 262-2667.

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CDA-ACB BOARD OF DIRECTORS – 2008/2009 Sayed Ismail – President Hydrotechnical Specialist Consultant 494 Mansfield Street Fredericton, NB, E3B 2Z9 Tel: (506) 453-1991 Cell: (506) 260-9417 sayed@nbnet.nb.ca Joe Farwell – Vice President Grand River Conservation Authority 400 Clyde Road Cambridge, ON N1R 5W6 Tel: (519) 621-2763 ext. 221 Fax: (519) 621-4844 jfarwell@grandriver.ca Tony Bennett – Past President Ontario Power Generation 14000 Niagara Parkway, RR#1 Niagara-on-the Lake, ON LOS 1J0 Tel: (905) 262-2667 Fax: (905) 262-2688 tony.bennett@opg.com

Karyn Wog – Director, Alberta Alberta Environment. 9820 106 Street 8th Floor, Oxbridge Place Edmonton, AB T5K 2J6 Tel: (780) 644-7437 Fax: (780) 427-6334 karyn.wog@gov.ab.ca

Gilles Bourgeois – Director, Quebec GENIVAR 5355, boul. des Gradins Québec, QC G2J 1C8 Tel: (418) 623-2254 Fax: (418) 623-2434 gilles.bourgeois@genivar.com

Wayne Carlson – Director, Saskatchewan Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada/ Agriculture & Agroalimentaire Canada 408-1800 Hamilton Street Regina, SK, S4P 4L2 Tel: (306) 780-5125 Fax: (306) 780-6778 carlsonw@agr.gc.ca

Andy Small – Director, New Brunswick AMEC Earth & Environmental 75 Melissa Street Fredericton, NB E3A 6V9 Tel: (506) 455-6679 Cell: (506) 447-9300 andy.small@amec.com

Caius Priscu – Director, Manitoba Associate Geotechnical Engineer and Regional Technical Leader, MB/SK AMEC Earth & Environmental 440 Dovercourt Drive Winnipeg, MB R3Y 1N4 Tel: (204) 488-2997 Fax: (204) 489-8261 caius.priscu@amec.com

Bill Duncan – Secretary Treasurer Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 111 Fairford Street East Moose Jaw, SK S6H 7X9 Tel: (306) 694-3990 Fax: (306) 694-3944 bill.duncan@swa.ca

Byron Keene – Director, Ontario Quinte Conservation Authority 2061 Old Hwy 2 RR#2 Belleville, Ont K8N 4Z2 Tel: (613) 968-3434 bkeene@quinteconservation.ca

Charles Holder – Director, British Columbia BC Hydro 6911 Southpoint Drive, Podium A02, Burnaby, BC V3N 4X8 Tel: (604) 528-2418 Fax: (604) 528-8133 charles.holder@bchydro.bc.ca

Ellis O’Neil – Director, Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Power Inc. 25 Lakeside Park Drive Lakeside, NS B3T 1 M9 Tel: (902) 428-7553 Cell: (902) 237-3128 Fax: (902) 428-7564 ellis.o’neil@nspower.ca E. Gerard Piercy – Director, Newfoundland and Labrador Engineering Services Newfoundland & Labrador Hydro 500 Columbus Drive St. John’s, NL A1B 4K7 Tel: (709) 737-1714 Fax: (709) 737-1900 Cell: (709) 693-6718 gpiercy@nlh.nl.ca

Ronald Gee – Director, Yukon Yukon Energy Corporation P.O. Box 5920 Whitehorse, YK Y1A 6S7 Tel: (867) 393-5305 Fax: (867) 393-5322 ron.gee@yec.yk.ca Chris Gräpel – Director-At-Large EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd. 14940-123 Avenue Edmonton, AB T5V 1B4 Tel: (780) 451-2130 ext 516 Fax: (780) 454-5688 cgrapel@eba.ca Johanne Bibeau – Director-At-Large (ICOLD) Société d’énergie de la Baie James 888, boul. de Maisonneuve Est, 6e étage Montréal, QC H2L 5B2 Tel: (514) 286-2020 poste 2283 Fax: (514) 286-2031 bibeau.johanne@hydro.qc.ca Wayne Phillips– Executive Director P.O. Box 2281 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan S6H 7W6 E-mail: executive director@cda.ca Tel: (306) 631-0671

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CDA PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE

T

MOT DU PRÉSIDENT DE L'ACB

L

he summer months are normally a slow period when most of us are taking annual vacations to enjoy the warm weather after a long winter. The Board of Directors, however, has had a busy summer dealing with a number of issues that I would like to share with you. The position of Executive Director of the CDA was created in 2002 as a half-time position and has been held by Barry Hurndall since its inception. During this time, as a result of the growth of the association membership, the management of the affairs of the association has become more complex and demanding increased activities, involvement and interaction with other organizations and changes in financial procedures and bookkeeping. Over that period, the demands on Barry’s time and effort, which he gave willingly at the expense of his consulting engineering business, have increased. This summer, Barry has elected to concentrate exclusively on his consulting business and tendered his resignation in July. The Board has accepted, with regret, Barry’s resignation. Barry was more than Executive Director of the CDA; he is one of the founding fathers of the CDA (the former CDSA) and held the position of Secretary/Treasurer since its creation in 1990 until he assumed the position of Executive Director in January 2002. During his tenure, CDA has grown from a small organization with less than 100 members to a well-respected learned organization with a membership of more than 1100. On behalf of the CDA members, I would like to thank Barry for his long and dedicated service to the CDA and wish him every success in his future endeavors. In order to address the need for effective management of the affairs of the association, the Board of Directors has initiated a management study to identify the staffing requirements to achieve this goal. I will report to you with the progress of this study as it emerges. In the meantime, I am pleased to welcome Mr. Wayne Phillips to our team as interim Executive Director. Mr. Phillips has a long and distinguished management career in finance and administration. I am confident that Mr. Phillips will be a valuable asset to our team. Finally, I am pleased to report that the response to the CDA’s Gary Salmon Memorial Scholarship was very positive. The selection of a winner was difficult, as a number of well thought-out and promising research proposals were received. The scholarship will be awarded at the awards ceremony in conjunction with this year’s annual conference in Whistler, British Columbia. I look forward to greeting you all in Whistler.

es mois d’été sont habituellement une période creuse durant laquelle on prend des vacances pour profiter du temps chaud. Votre Conseil d’administration a eu cependant un été intense à traiter divers enjeux dont j’aimerais vous faire part. Le poste de directeur général de l’ACB a été créé en 2002 à mi-temps et c’est Barry Hurndall qui l’a occupé depuis le début. Pendant ce temps, avec la croissance de l’effectif, la gestion de l’Association est devenue plus complexe et elle a demandé plus d’activités, d’implication et d’interaction avec les autres organisations, de même que des changements de procédures fi nancières et de comptabilité. Tout cela a exigé plus de temps et d’efforts de la part de Barry, qui s’est dévoué aux dépens de son entreprise de génie-conseil. Cet été, Barry a décidé de démissionner et de se concentrer exclusivement sur son travail d’ingénieur. Le Conseil a accepté sa démission avec regret. Barry a été plus qu’un directeur général de l’ACB; il est l’un des pères fondateurs de l’ACB (ex CDSA) et a occupé le poste de secrétaire-trésorier depuis sa création en 1990 jusqu’au moment où il a assumé le poste de directeur général en janvier 2002. Durant son mandat, l’ACB est passée d’une petite organisation avec moins de 100 adhérents à une organisation bien respectée de plus de 1100 membres. Au nom des membres de l’ACB, je tiens à remercier Barry pour son service dévoué et lui souhaiter un franc succès dans ses futures entreprises. Afi n de répondre à la nécessité d’une gestion efficace des affaires de l’association, le conseil d’administration a entrepris une étude de gestion pour identifier les besoins en personnel pour atteindre cet objectif. Je vous ferai part des progrès de cette étude à mesure que nous les connaîtrons. Entre-temps, j’ai le plaisir de souhaiter la bienvenue à M. Wayne Phillips comme directeur général par intérim. Il a déjà une longue et distinguée carrière en fi nance et en administration. Je suis certain que M. Phillips sera un atout pour notre équipe. Enfi n, j’ai le plaisir d’annoncer que les réactions à la bourse commémorative ACB-Gary Salmon ont été très positives. Le choix du gagnant a été difficile, car on comptait beaucoup de propositions bien étoffées et prometteuses. La bourse sera remise durant une soirée des prix en marge du congrès à Whistler. J’ai hâte de vous y rencontrer tous.

Sayed Ismail CDA President

Sayed Ismail Président de l’ACB

Canadian Dam Association

9


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A MESSAGE FROM THE EDITORIAL COMMITTEE

WE ARE VICTIMS OF OUR OWN SUCCESS!

U

nlike many other trade association publications, the CDA Bulletin is flourishing – thanks in large part to our advertisers who have continued to support the Bulletin. Companies have been very eager to advertise in the Bulletin, and our publisher (Naylor) has been very successful in increasing the advertising base. This is definitely a benefit to the CDA in that a larger magazine brings in increased revenue. However, the downside is that we then require additional editorial content – in the form of articles. At present, the editorial committee constantly struggles to find enough suitable and interesting material for publication. This is where we need the help of all CDA members. The CDA Bulletin is an excellent forum to present your personal or corporate successes or interesting projects where they can be appreciated by all CDA members. To maintain the Bulletin as a very professional publication requires commitment and contributions from a broad range of the CDA membership, so we encourage each and every one of you to contribute in whatever way you can to your Bulletin. You may contact any member

of the Editorial Committee at any time with articles, or even suggestions of content that you would like to see in future publications. If available time is an issue, Naylor can provide writers to assist in preparing your article. One of the areas where the Bulletin has been enhanced lately is the introduction of the digital version. The digital version provides advanced navigation tools and enables you to download and forward articles and advertisements. Response to the digital version has been very positive, and if you haven’t seen this version yet, I encourage you to check it out by following the link on the CDA website at www.cda.ca. Both our publisher (Naylor) and our advertisers recognize the value of the CDA Bulletin and have made major contributions to enhance its value and relevance. It is now up to CDA members to step up to the challenge and provide an equal contribution to our outstanding publication. Thanks, and enjoy the current issue of the Bulletin. Allan Kirkham

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11


THE BOUNDARY WATERS TREATY OF 1909 By Jennifer Stertzer

“ … [B]eing equally desirous to prevent disputes regarding the use of boundary waters and to settle all questions which are now pending between the United States and the Dominion of Canada involving the rights, obligations, or interests of either in relation to the other or to the inhabitants of the other, along their common frontier, and to make provision for the adjustment and settlement of all such questions as may arise hereafter, have resolved to conclude a treaty in furtherance of these ends.” 12

2009 marks the 100th anniversary of the Boundary Waters Treaty. Crafted to guide the management of boundary waters, this important document is a model of efficiency and effectiveness, resolving environmental issues along the 8,891km/5,525 mile U.S.-Canada border consisting of not only land, but hundreds of rivers and lakes.

History In the late nineteenth century, several farmers in northern Montana began digging canals along the St. Marys River to divert water to the Milk River for Fall 2009


IJC-regulated structures located in, or partially in, the United States, along with location and year of construction, include: • Forest City Dam, St. Croix River, 1906; • Vanceboro Dam, St. Croix River, 1967; • Grand Lake Dam, St. Croix River, 1915; • Milltown Dam, St. Croix River, 1934; • St. Lawrence-FDR Power Project, Long Sault Spillway Dams, and Iroquois Dam, St. Lawrence River, 1960; • Compensating Works at Sault Ste. Marie, St. Marys River, 1921; • Prairie Portage Dam, Rainy Lake Basin, 1975; • International Kettle Falls Dam, Rainy Lake Basin, 1914; • Fort Frances-International Falls Dam, Rainy Lake Basin, 1909; • Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia River, 1941; • Osoyoos Lake Control Structure (Zosel Dam), Okanogan River, 1987.

A dam located in Whiteshell Provincial Park, Manitoba ©kreefax. Image from BigStockPhoto.com

irrigation purposes. Soon after, there were numerous diversion projects underway in Montana and Alberta and larger projects were being proposed and initiated. In Ontario, the Niagara River also was a point of contention as hydroelectric production in both countries threatened water levels. These types of environmental issues were typical of the time period; the late nineteenth/early twentieth century saw a huge jump in industrial and agricultural expansion, much of which depended on the availability of natural resources. Furthermore, population growth added to the stress on resources. Not surprisingly, the foundation Canadian Dam Association

IJC-regulated structures located in, or partially in, Canada, along with location and year of construction, include: • Forest City Dam, St. Croix River, 1906; • Vanceboro Dam, St. Croix River, 1967; • Grand Falls Dam, St. Croix River, 1915; • Milltown Dam, St. Croix River, 1934; • Grand Falls Dam, Saint John River, 1930; • Saunders Generating Station at Cornwall, Main Dam and Cornwall Dyke, St. Lawrence River, 1958; • Iroquois Control Dam, St. Lawrence River, 1957; • St. Lawrence River Ice Boom, St. Lawrence River, 1958; • Lake Erie-Niagara River Ice Boom, Niagara River, 1965; • Compensating Works at Sault Ste. Marie, St. Marys River, 1921; • Great Lakes Power Canal and Clergue Hydropower Plant, St. Marys River, reconstruction 1984; • Prairie Portage Dam, Rainy Lake Basin, 1975; • Kettle Falls (Squirrel Falls) Dam, Rainy Lake Basin, 1914; • International Kettle Falls Dam, Rainy Lake Basin, 1914; Fort Frances-International Falls Dam, Rainy Lake Basin, 1909; • Kootenay River Dykes, Kootenay River, 1928; • Corra Linn Dam, Kootenay River, 1932; • Waneta Dam, Pend d’Oreille River, 1954

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Seaton Creek Dam in the southern interior of British Columbia. ©suemcmurtrie. Image from BigStockPhoto.com

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of the conservation movement is grounded as well during this time period. Debates occurred often regarding timber extraction, land management, and conservation versus preservation theories. Such was the atmosphere when the idea of the need for serious discussion of boundary water management and possible subsequent treaty commenced. Boundary water management had been a topic of discussion and debate for quite some time, beginning with the Jay Treaty of 1794, though most resulting treaties primarily pertained to navigation. It wasn’t until delegates from the United States, Mexico, and Canada met in 1894 in Denver, Colorado and again in 1895 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that the issues of irrigation, diversion, and storage were seriously addressed. These meetings resulted in a recommendation, dated 13 December 1895, to the United States, suggesting “the appointment of an international commission to act in conjunction with the authorities of Mexico and Canada in adjudicating the conflicting rights which have arisen, or may hereafter arise, on streams of an international character.” The United States did not formally respond to this recommendation until 1902. However, it was well worth the wait – the River and Harbor Act of 1902 created an International Waterways Commission and requested the president of the United States: “ … to invite the Government of Great Britain to join in the formation of an international commission, to be composed of three members from the United States and three who shall represent the interests of the Dominion of Canada, whose duty it shall be to investigate and report upon the conditions and uses of the waters adjacent to the boundary lines between the United States and Canada, including all the Fall 2009


waters of the lakes and rivers whose natural outlet is by the river Saint Lawrence to the Atlantic ocean, also upon the maintenance and regulation of suitable levels, and also upon the effect upon the shores of these waters and the structures thereon, and upon the interests of navigation by reason of the diversion of these waters from or change in their natural flow ; and, further, to report upon the necessary measures to regulate such diversion, and to make such recommendations for improvements and regulations as shall best subserve the interests of navigation in said waters.” Both the Canadian and British governments accepted and the International Waterways Commission was established. The Commission, operating between 1905 and 1913, investigated numerous boundary water issues and developed recommendations. Because the body was non-governmental, implementing their ideas proved difficult. Nevertheless, success eventually came when the Commission’s call for the creation of principles to govern the management of boundary waters and a permanent body to oversee such took hold. Negotiations began in Washington, D.C. in 1907 and by 1909 a treaty had been written. Elihu Root, the U.S. Secretary of State, and James Bryce, British/Canadian Ambassador to the United States, signed the treaty on 11 January 1909 on behalf of the two countries. Not long after the Boundary Waters Treaty was signed, Root expressed his thoughts on the significance of the agreement, stating that “ … the public has no adequate conception of the tremendous scope and importance of the thing which has been done as a preventative of controversy in the future. The time will come, however, when this will be recognized.” It didn’t take long Canadian Dam Association

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for the importance and impact of the treaty to be ascertained by both countries.

The International Joint Commission One major component of the treaty was the creation of the International Joint Commission (IJC), “composed of six commissioners, three on the part of the United States appointed by the

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President thereof, and three on the part of the United Kingdom appointed by His Majesty on the recommendation of the Governor in Council of the Dominion of Canada.” The IJC was given jurisdiction over boundary water issues and problems, such as obstruction, diversion, and pollution. The construction of dams is also in the purview of the IJC. Article IV of the treaty states:

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“The High Contracting Parties agree that, except in cases provided for by special agreement between them, they will not permit the construction or maintenance on their respective sides of the boundary of any remedial or protective works or any dams or other obstructions in waters flowing from boundary waters or in waters at a lower level than the boundary in rivers flowing across the boundary, the effect of which is to raise the natural level of waters on the other side of the boundary unless the construction or maintenance thereof is approved by the aforesaid International Joint Commission.” Later in the treaty, however, “rules of principles” governing cases “involving the use or obstruction or diversion of the waters” were outlined. In fact, in the years since its creation, the IJC has overseen the construction of numerous dams (a complete list of IJC-regulated dams on page 13). In order to construct a dam, a company must file an application with the Commission, and if approved, the Commission can, for example, limit water levels and flow, as this can impact the ecosystem and other activities dependant on the water. Recognizing that lakes and rivers along the border support numerous activities, the Commission has set up more than twenty boards, made up of experts from Canada and the United States, to help effectively acquire knowledge and carry out responsibilities. One example of the need for a multi-faceted approach to water management is the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River system. Containing one-fifth of the world’s fresh surface water, this system is an integral part of the economy, environment, and culture of residents in the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, and the provinces of Ontario and Fall 2009


Quebec. The Commission has played an essential role in monitoring the quality of the waters in this system and has worked with both countries to implement pollution controls when deemed necessary. The Commission has also approved the construction of dams and hydroelectric power stations in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River system. The largest facility under the IJC’s jurisdiction is the R.H. Saunders Generating Station at Cornwall. Located on the St. Lawrence River, the Ontario Power Generation-owned station has the capacity to generate 1,045 megawatts of power. Planning for this station began in 1913. After much time and debate, the United States and Canada filed applications with the IJC in June 1952 for permission to change water levels in the St. Lawrence River for the purpose of generating power; the IJC approved the application in October of the same year, with construction concluding in 1958.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. State agencies in Maine, Minnesota, and Washington also perform inspections. Of the IJC-regulated facilities in Canada, none are owned or operated by the Government of Canada. Instead, two are owned by New Brunswick Power, one by Ontario Power Generation, and the remaining eleven are privately owned. According to the aforementioned

report, the Canadian federal government has stated “that the setting of regulations on dams, dam safety, and maintenance … fall within the purview of the provinces.” Though practices differ at each location, the facilities take ■ steps to self-regulate. Jennifer Stertzer is a freelance writer based in Charlottesville, Virginia.

International Joint Commission Facility Regulation Along the border, there are numerous dams in both Canada and the United States that are regulated by the International Joint Commission, though each country takes a different approach to oversight and implementation. According to a March 2006 report of the International Joint Commission, most IJC-regulated facilities in the United States are federally owned and inspected, or, are maintained and operated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). FERC is responsible for performing inspections as well as implementing safety inspections, maintenance, and emergency planning requirements. The remaining structures are inspected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation of the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Canadian Dam Association

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Remerciements

In Appreciation

O

n behalf of the members of the CDA, the Whistler Organizing Committee would like to thank the many companies and individuals who have supported the 2009 Conference through direct sponsorship, participation in the trade show exhibits, and presentations during the technical program. Also the biggest thank you goes to the delegates, who have taken the time to attend, learn, exchange ideas, and enjoy the company and the Whistler setting. The following companies were committed to the event:

A

u nom des membres de l’ACB, le Comité organisateur de Whistler souhaite remercier les nombreuses sociétés et personnes qui ont soutenu la Conférence 2009 par leur commandite directe, leur participation au salon et leurs exposés durant le programme technique. Notre plus profond remerciement est destiné aux délégués qui ont pris le temps d’assister à l’événement, d’apprendre, d’échanger des idées et de profiter de la bonne compagnie et du cadre enchanteur de Whistler. Les entreprises suivantes ont participé à l’exposition :

Sponsors

Exhibitors

Exhibitors

BC Hydro

BMT Fleet Technology

Inflatable Packers International

Hatch Energy

Canary Systems, Inc.

KISTERS North America Inc.

Golder Associates

CARPI USA, Inc.

LAR/I-Crane

RSW, Inc. Hydro Component Systems

LiDAR Services International Inc.

COH Inc. Con-Tech Systems Ltd.

Mud Bay Drilling/ Boart Longyear Inc.

Devine Tarbell & Associates, Inc.

MWH Canada Inc.

Durham Geoslope Indicator

North/South Consultants

Foundex Explorations Ltd.

Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc.

Brookfield

GKM Consultants Geokon

Pol-E-Mar Inc.

Manitoba Hydro

Golder Associates

Qualitas (Techmat)

RST Instruments

Hatch Energy

Roctest Ltd.

EBA MPE Engineering, Ltd.

Hydro Component Systems LLC

BPR Hatch Energy

Hydro-Innovation

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Worthington AECOM Columbia Power Corporation Klohn Crippen Berger AECOM

9:27:42 PM

RST Instruments Ltd. Terra Remote Sensing Inc. Worthington Products, Inc.

19


The Design of Foundation Treatment Measures for Dams on Karst Foundations By C. R. Donnelly1, S. Hinchberger1, E. Mohammadian2

ABSTRACT Well planned foundation treatment measures for dams constructed on karst foundations are essential. To be effective, these measures must be tailored to the specific problems of the individual dam site. At the Kavar Dam, an unusual combination of a surface membrane, coupled with a gypsum surcharge and other seepage control measures are planned to seal a highly karstic foundation.

Introduction Karsticity occurs as a result of a progressive disolutioning of carbonate rocks exposed to water and carbon dioxide. In pure water, at 25oC, the maximum possible concentration of dissolved calcium carbonate is in the range of 14 mg/L (Fookes and Hawkins, 1988). However, in the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide, maximum concentrations increase dramatically, accounting for the fact that seepage flowing from karst formations often contains up to 400 mg/L of calcium carbonate (James and Fitzpatrick, 1 2

1988). Therefore, a karstic formation implies the presence of a network of solutioned, often highly permeable, discontinuities which are, by definition, connected to the surface so that the free carbon dioxide necessary to allow the solutioning process to continue is available. This fact means that Karst foundations are usually associated with highly deformed, complex, rock masses that have pervious windows extending directly to the foundation surface. The difficulties involved in constructing a dam on a karstic foundation were first documented at Hales Bar dam that was built by private interests on the Tennessee River between 1905 and 1913. Although the existence of cavernous rock in the limestone foundation was postulated, geological theory at the time suggested that cave formation occurred only above the water table (T.V.A. Technical Report NO. 22, 1949). Therefore, very little foundation treatment was performed and, following construction, leakage under the dam of up to 48 m3/s was measured. Various remedial works projects were carried out at

the site over the 60 years that it was in operation until, in 1968, the dam was demolished. In the years following the construction of the Hales Bar dam the effects of solutioning have had adverse impacts on both reservoir water tightness and the structural integrity of many dams. Although there are few documented structural failures attributed to sinkhole collapse in karst terrain, there are numerous examples of problems associated with reservoir filling. For example, at the Lar dam in Iran (Uromeihy, 2000) it was not possible to impound to full supply level due to foundation leakage that reached two-thirds of the total river flow. A remedial grouting program, performed between 1985 and 1990, was only partially successful in reducing seepage and, to date, the reservoir remains partially filled. In the case of the Anchor Dam in Wyoming, constructed in 1960, an extensive system of sinkholes and faults have prevented any permanent storage of water, despite numerous remedial sealing attempts. (www.usbr.gov/cdams/dams)

Hatch Energy 4342 Queen St., Niagara Falls, ON, L2E 6W1 (Rdonnelly@hatch.com) Dezab Consulting Engineers, Farvardin Avenue, Golestan Road, Ahwaz, Iran

20

Fall 2009


As a result of experience gained from such dams, techniques have been developed to successfully treat even seriously karstic foundations. This paper describes current practice for the design of dams on karst terrain as well as some unique seepage control measures that are planned to mitigate risks associated with a highly karstic limestone foundation in Iran. These measures include the use of an engineered soluble fill and a surficial shotcrete membrane to seal the foundation surface.

ment loadings without excessive settlement. Improving Deformability Commonly applied techniques for improving the deformability and stability of karst foundation rocks include excavation/mucking of solution cavities followed by filling with a sand and gravel slurry, concrete and/or compaction grouting. For example, at the 21 dams that the Tenessee Valley Authority

(TVA) has constructed on carbonate foundations, Soderberg (1988) notes that foundation treatment typically includes consolidation grouting to ensure adequate bearing strength and to minimize settlements. Solutioned areas, in otherwise sound rock, are then mucked or excavated and filled with concrete. More recenty, compaction grouting has been used to treat karst features. This technique involves the injection of low-slump soil/cement

Current Practice The key to any successful construction on a karst foundation is a thorough understanding of the nature of the problems that must be treated. In the fi rst half of the 20th century, dams such as the Hales Bar, Wolf Creek and Great Falls were constructed on karstic foundations without adequate foundation explorations. All experienced either foundation leakage or piping problems. More recently, the problems at the Lar dam are likely related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of the depth of karst prior to the commencement of construction. On the other hand, if exploration and foundation treatment measures are carried out thoroughly, even a highly karstic foundation can be successfully treated. For example, advanced karst foundations beneath the 90 to 100 m high Pueblo Viejo and Punt Dal Gall dams were successully treated such that postimpoundment seepage has only been 25 and 50 l/sec respectively. In broad terms, modern practice for the successful treatment of karstic foundations requires a means of reducing the amount of seepage, techniques to prevent dissolution of soluble minerals that may be present in the foundation and methods to ensure that the foundation has adequate capacity to resist the post impound-

Canadian Dam Association

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grout to displace and/or compress the surrounding soils for greater strength (Fischer and Fischer, 1995). This typically results in hydraulic fracturing, extrusion and consolidation of clayey fillings within the sinkholes increasing strength, and resistance to seepage stresses. Welsh (1988) and Zuomei and Pinshou (1988) describe the use of compaction grouting to rectify sinkholes and caves filled with clay fillings and to build a seepage resistant barrier

in Karst terrain for the Wujiangdu Hydroelectric Project in China. Reducing the Potential for Dissolution of Soluble Minerals The most commonly occurring soluble rock minerals are calcium carbonate (limestone) gypsum, anhydrite and halite. In general, mitigation of the risk of solutioning in a foundation containing such minerals requires reducing the volume of seepage and seepage gradients. This,

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traditionally, had been accomplished on the basis of precedent practice. An analytical framework for assessing the solutioning potential of various forms of soluble rock minerals was first presented by James and Lupton (1978). James and Kilpatrick (1980) used these solutions to study seepage control measures for dam constructed on foundations containing the soluble rocks. They concluded that grouting, or the provision of an upstream impervious blanket, can control the solutioning of calcium carbonate rock. For foundations containing gypsum, conventional (sulphate resistant) cement curtain grouting was recommended. Mineral deposits such as anhydrite were found to require a more efficient cutoff, such as plastic concrete wall in combination with measures such as upstream blankets or other techniques designed to reduce seepage velocities. They recommended that halite, in its massive form, be avoided. However, it is of note that an active brine injection system has been used to treat foundations containing halite mineral deposits (Pokrovskii, 1994). Grouting For well developed karst foundations, a sulphate resistant multiple line grout curtain, with provisions to allow future grouting, is typically used to reduce seepage losses. For lower head dams, or for dams on less well developed karst, single or double line curtains are often used. However, all karstic foundations should be treated with caution. As shown on Table 1, very high seepages can be experienced for even low head dams if karstic conditions are advanced. On the basis of median grout takes reported at a number of precedent dams reported in the literature, triple line grouting can be seen to reduce post impoundment risks (Figure 2). It is also clear from Table 1 that a significant factor governing the performance of grout curtains in karst foundations is whether or not the curtain is “anchored” into an impervious base. For example, at Fall 2009


Table 1: Precedent Examples of Some Dams Built on Karstic Foundations Dam Type and Date

Project

Head (m)

Geology

No. of Grout Lines

2-4

J. Percy Priest Dam U.S.A

Earthfill/Concrete 1963-68

35.4

Thin-bedded limestone, solutioned jts, sinkholes

Sainte Croix Dam France

Arch 1971-74

72

Cavernous limestone

Quinson Dam France

Arch 1971-74

45

Grand Rapids G. S. Canada

Earthfill/Concrete 1962-64

Arnprior G. S. Canada

Seepage

Remedial Work

N. R.

N. R.

1

Negligible

N.R.

Cavernous limestone

1

Negligible

N. R.

36.5

Dolomitc limestone, sinkholes, solution channels

1

Minimal

None

Earth/Rockfill/ Concrete gravity 1972-76

21

Limestone, solutioned jts, voids 1 cm - 1 m wide

3-4

½ l/s

N. R.

Lar Dam Iran

Earthfill 1972-81

98

Limestone, advanced karst, caverns, voids

1

Extreme 9 m3/s

Yes (see text)

Stewartville Dam Canada

Concrete gravity/ Earthfill Completed 1948

41

Crystalline limestone open seams at depth

1

370 l/s

Yes. 3

Francisco Zarco Dam Mexico

Earthfill/Concrete Completed 1968

23

Limestone, solution channels, mode karst

3

1000 l/s

None

La Amistad Mexico/U.S.A.

Rockfill/Concrete Completed 1968

30

Limestone, caverns, sinkholes

1

Minimal

None

Sklope Dam Yugoslavia

Rockfill

80

Limestone, advanced karst, caverns

1-2

500 l/s

None

Globocica Dam Yugoslavia

Rockfill Completed 1965

80

Limestone, med. to adv. karst, solution channels

3

4 l/s

Yes. 4

Hales Bar Dam U.S.A.

Earthfill/Concrete 1905-1913 5

11.5

Limestone, solution jts., cavities, caverns

1

Max. 48 m3/s

Yes. 6

Great Falls U.S.A.

Concrete gravity Completed 1916

45.7

Limestone, solution channels, cavities

1

12 m3/s

Yes. 7

Normandy Dam U.S.A.

Concrete gravity/ Earthfill 1972-76

17

Limestone with shale, clay solution cavities

1 -2

Negligible

None

Pueblo Viejo Dam Guatemala

Rockfill 1977-83

92

Limestone & dolomite, advanced artesian karst

1-2

25 l/s

None

Punt Dal Gall Switzerland

Arch Completed 1969

100

Dolomite limestone, calcareous sandstone, deep karst, solutioned jts

1

50 l/s

None

La Bolera Dam Spain

Arch 1961-68

45

Limestone, advanced caverns

1

600 l/s

None

Sprinagarind Dam Thailand

Rockfill/Concrete 1974-80

113

Calcareous sandstone, limestone, solution cavities

3

25 l/s

N.R.

King Talal Dam Jordan

Rockfill/ Concrete gravity Completed 1977

100

Karstic limestone to 30 m below calcareous sandstone

1

63 l/s

None

La Angostura Dam Mexico

Rockfill/Concrete 1971-75

89

Limestone, clay seams and solutioned jts

2

100 l/s

None

3

Asphalt grouting in 1985 reduced leakage by up to 33 l/s Grout curtain extended in left abutment in 1974 5 Demolished 1960 6 Extensive in 1944 7 Cement and asphalt grouting performed 4

Canadian Dam Association

23


The Kavar Reservoir

Median post Impoundment

600

The Kavar site is situated in a mountainous region about 70 km south of Shiraz, Iran, in the Kavar valley. To provide irrigation water, a 60m high concrete faced rockfill dam is planned to impound the Qareh Aghaj River.

Seepage (l/sec)

500 400 300 200 100 0 0

1

2

3

4

N u m b e r o f G ro u t L in e s

Figure 2: Effect of Multiple Line Grouting on the Median Post Impoundment Seepage Reported for Some Selected Precedent Dams (ref. Table 1)

the 11.5m high Hales Bar dam, post construction seepage reached 48 m3/sec through the hanging curtain. Similarly, at the Francisco Zaro Dam, seepage flows in the order of 1000 L/sec through the hanging curtain were measured, despite the fact that a triple line grout curtain had been used. It is usually necessary to extend the grout curtain some distance along the dam axis into the abutments to reduce risks associated with end run seepage. The amount of extension required can be somewhat subjective, and is dependent on geological conditions such as the existence of an impervious boundary. However, for dams founded on a moderately permeable karstic foundation, a review of precedent would suggest that the amount of extension required to minimize risk varies logarithmically as a function of the hydraulic head (Figure 3). Ratio of Grout Curtain Extention into Abutments to Hydraulic Head

16 14 12 10 Open symbol indicates that remedial work or excessive seepage (>300 L/s) was reported.

8 6

Bedrock Geology The Asmari Limestone is highly permeable to great depths throughout the site area due to the existence of solutioned channels that formed along and across bedding planes. This has created an unpredictable system of interconnected flow channels and a rock mass permeability in the order of 100 Lugeons and higher. The characteristics of the Razak formation vary across the site. At the dam site, the Razak formation is highly deformed as a result of the intense folding that was responsible for the creation of the canyon itself. The geologic environment has produced gypsum formations along bedding planes as well increased hydraulic conductivities in the range of 10 to 50 Lugeons. In the upper reservoir, the Razak is generally undeformed and was found to be essentially impervious.

4 2 0 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Maximum Normal Hydraulic Head (m) Slightly Karstic (grout take 0 to 50 kh/m)

Karstic (grout take 50 to 400 kg/m)

Highly Karstid (grout take > 400 kg/m)

Grout take not reported

Figure 3: Precedent Examples of Grout Curtain Extension into Abutments

Asphalt Grouting When remedial grouting is required after impounding, the TVA and others have reported good results using hot asphalt grouting. In this technique, asphalt is melted and pumped through heated pipes into open cavities. On contact with the water, the asphalt cools and assumes a globular form that progressively blocks the solution channels. On various projects, the TVA has adopted a “wait and see” approach to the issue of reservoir watertightness using asphalt grouting for spot treatment after impoundment often followed by a program of cement grouting to ensure the long term stability of the seal. 24

Site Conditions As indicated on Figure 4, the project site can be characterized by two distinct regions, a broad upper reservoir and a lower reservoir. The lower reservoir is contained within a relativelly steep sided canyon where the dam is located. The elevated margins in the upper reservoir, and the steeply dipping right abutment of the lower reservoir at the dam site are composed of a strong, moderately to highly karstic limestone known as the Asmari formation. Weaker Razak marls are present, locally, within the base of both the upper and lower reservoirs and form the relatively shallow dipping left bank of the lower reservoir.

Overburden Conditions In the upper reservoir, overburden consists of a broad, deep deposit of lacustrine materials flanked on the margins by slopewash. Both the slopewash and lacustrine materials were found to be of relatively low permeability. In the immediate area of the river channel, coarse grained, pervious, river alluvium is present. However, it is completely surrounded by the relatively impervious slopewash or lacustrine materials. This distribution of overburden materials forms a natural impervious blanket, effectively isolating the pervious Asmari limestone formation from the future reservoir. At the dam site, there are no lacustrine deposits and the river alluvium can come in contact with, or be very close to, highly pervious bedrock. In addition, slopewash materials were found to be significantly more permeable than in the upper reservoir area due to the fact that these materials originated as a result of the mass movement of considerably steeper rock slopes, thereby producing a coarser material. Fall 2009


slopes exist due to the presence of the Razak formation, an overburden blanket, consisting of compacted impervious and erosion protection fills is planned. This treatment will cover the entire lower reservoir area, extending approximately 700-800 m upstream of the dam site to the upper reservoir where it will be connected into the natural impervious materials that exist there. Although unusual, as shown on Table 2, the use of shotcrete for sealing a dam or reservoir is not unprecedented.

Figure 4: Kavar Reservoir and Dam Site.

Groundwater Conditions In the lower reservoir valley, groundwater levels were found to be about 10m below the river level, confirming the pervious nature of the bedrock and the need to seal the reservoir.

Reservoir Treatment On the basis of the explorations undertaken at the site, a clear picture of the nature of the foundation conditions, and the problems that they presented, was developed. In the upper reservoir area most of the leakage would be forced, under a moderate head, through the impervious lacustrine materials and/or the low permeability slopewash that blanket the bedrock side slopes before reaching the pervious Asmari bedrock. Therefore, provided that local treatment of exposed Asmari outcrops in the upper reservoir was undertaken, losses would generally be minimal. On the other hand, in the lower reservoir area, leakage will occur under relatively high head through relatively pervious slopewash into the immediately adjacent pervious Razak bedrock and/or directly into the right abutment highly pervious Asmari formation. Limiting seepage losses to manageable levels in this area, therefore, required a comprehensive treatment plan to sealed the entire flooded canyon. Originally, it had been planned to use of a complex grouting scheme to tie the highly pervious Asmari into, what was assumed to be, impervious Razak bedrock using a technique similar to one that had been successfully employed at the El Cajun project. However, as the exploration program evolved, it became apparent that both the upper portion of the Razak, and the overlying slopewash materials, were significantly more permeable than had been previously assumed. To reduce concerns regarding subsurface unknowns, and the reliance on grouting to great depths to adequately seal the foundation, an alternative watertightness treatment using a surficial impervious surface membrane was developed as shown conceptually in Figure 5. On the relatively steep right bank where the Asmari outcrops, the membrane consists of a 120 mm thick, silica fume reinforced shotcrete membrane anchored into the slope. In the valley bottom, and over the left bank where relatively flat Canadian Dam Association

Figure 5: Conceptual Sketch of Selected Lower Reservoir Water Tightness Scheme

To further reduce the likelihood of any future problems associated with progressive dissolution of the gypsum beds known to exist above a depth of 50 m in the Razak formation at the dam site, a plastic concrete cut-off wall is planned. This will be supplemented by a double line grout curtain to reduce seepage gradients across the cutoff, and to further reduce the bedrock permeability. Details of the treatment measures planned at the dam site are shown on Figure 6. CONCRETE FACING EL. 1671 m EL. 1665 m (RESERVOIR LEVEL) IMPERVIOUS FILL

5 4A

UPSTREAM

SEMI-PERVIOUS FILL

DOWNSTREAM

EL. 1640 m

COFFERDAM

COFFERDAM

EL. 1626 m

ROCK FILL MIN. 5 METERS

1 EL. 1605 m

1

EL. 1595 m (ASSUMED DOWNSTREAM GROUNDWATER LEVEL)

GYPSUM SURCHARGE PLASTIC CONCRETE CUTOFF WALL

CONCEPTUAL LOCATION OF GYPSUM BED EL. 1535 m GROUT CURTAIN

Figure 6: Seepage Control Measures at the Kavar Dam

The Gypsum Surcharge Another unique feature of the treatment measures used at the Kavar site is a gypsum surcharge that is to be installed immediately upstream of the dam. The purpose of the surcharge fill is to cause water seeping through the fill to become saturated with dissolved gypsum at a concentration as close as possible to the solubility limit, 25


Table 2: Summary of Examples of Shotcrete Used for Water Tightness Treatment Project

Country

Date

Structure

Description

Length (m)

Height (m)

La Joie

Canada

1955

Timber faced rockfill dam.

Gunite used to seal deteriorated timber faced dam.

440

60.0

Leichhardt River

Australia

1957

Rockfill dam

Reinforced gunite used as sole impervious element for rockfill dam

260

26.5

Corella

Australia

1957

Rockfill dam

Reinforced gunite used as the sole impervious element

146

23

Hammam Grouz

Austria

1987

Concrete gravity dam

Shotcrete and clay blanket used to seal karstic limestone reservoir slopes

50

36.0

Tranavka

Czech

1988

Earth dam

Shotcrete and plastic membrame used for sealing

20.0

Jordan River

Canada

1989

Amberson buttres dam

Shotcrete used for sealing

29.0

Eastside Reservoir

USA

1998

Blasted rock Slopes

Shotcrete used for sealing the reservoir

250

50.0

26

Saturation

0.1m m PAR TIC LE SIZE

0.8

0.6 0.5m m PAR TICLE SIZE

0.4

0.2

0.0 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Contact Tim e (Days)

Figure 7: The Effect of Gypsum Particle size on the Contact Time Required for Saturation

The size of surcharge required is based on the design life of the project and the amount of time required to ensure that the seepage water flowing through the gypsum surcharge area is fully saturated with gypsum. To achieve the required contact time with a reasonable sized surcharge fill, a number of alternatives were considered, including: increasing the surcharge thickness, reducing the hydraulic conductivity of the impervious blanket within 100 meters of the upstream plinth and reducing the particle size of the gypsum. The most effective means of enhancing contact time was found to be reducing the particle size. For example, as shown on Figure 7, as gypsum particle size is reduced from 0.5 mm to 0.1 mm,

minimum contact times reduced from 200 to 40 days. On this basis, the Kavar surcharge was designed as a 5 m thick mixture of 40% (by weight) ground gypsum, with a maximum particle size in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mm, thoroughly mixed with a fine-grained soil. This produces an engineered fill with a dry unit mass of 1900 kg/m3 and a permeability in the desired range of 10-4 to 10-5 cm/sec. As indicated in Figure 8, for this design, the annual mass removal rate is expected to vary between 2 kg to 70 kg per square metre of surcharge. For the 3,800 kg Kavar surcharge, this will result in a service life of at least 50 years. 800 720

Mass of Gypsum Removed per Unit Surcharge Area (kg/sq. m)

1.0

Concentration Ratio (c/cs)

similar to a concept reported by Pokrovskii, 1994 in which salt solutions are injected into the foundation of dams constructed on rocks containing water-soluble salts (halite). To assess the gypsum requirements for the dam, the approach of James and Lupton for particulate forms of gypsum and anhydrite was used. Key parameters in the analysis included the density, D, of gypsum 2300 kg/m3, the initial linear particle size lo, the particle volume coefficient b (vol. =bl3), the particle area coefficient a (area= al2), the solubility rate constant K, and the solubility limit cs of gypsum. As a first step, flow nets were constructed to estimate the hydraulic flux through the gypsum surcharge. The thickness of the gypsum bed could then be designed by assuming advective transport only (i.e., neglecting diffusion). In this way, the dissolved mass of gypsum leaving the surcharge per unit area could be approximated by the product of the gypsum concentration and seepage flux per unit area of surcharge. The calculated flow rate through the gypsum surcharge was found to vary from 2.0x10 -6 to 9.5x10 -5cm/sec. Based on an assumed porosity of 0.3, seepage velocities through the gypsum bed were estimated to vary between 6.7x10 -6cm/sec and 3x10 -4 cm/sec.

640 560 480 400 320 240 160 80 0 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Time after Reservoir Impoundment (Years)

Figure 8: Estimated Mass Removal Rates for the Gypsum Surcharge at the Kavar Dam

Conclusions Techniques exist to treat even highly karstic foundations. However, for treatment measures to be effective, a thorough understanding of the site conditions is essential. At the Fall 2009


Kavar Dam, an unusual combination of a surface membrane, in combination with a gypsum surcharge and other seepage control measures, is planned to deal with the complex foundation problems that had been identified. ■ References Fischer, J.A. and Fischer, J.J., 1995. Karst site remediation grouting. Karst GeoHazards: Proc. 5th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst.Balkema, Roterdam, pp. 363-369. Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J.A. , 1979. Groundwater, Prentice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey., pp. 383-462. James, A.N. and Kirkpatrick, I.M., 1988. Design of foundations of dams containing soluble rocks and soils. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, Vol. 13, pp. 189-198. James A.N., and Lupton, A.R. 1978, Gypsum and anhydrite in foundations of hydraulic structures. Geotechnique, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 249-272. Pokrovskii, G.I., 1994. Combined methods of protecting saliferous foundation soils of hydraulic structures from dissolution. Hydrotechnical Construction Vol. 28, No. 10, pp 10-14. Soderberg, A.D., 1988. Foundation treatment of karstic features under TVA dams. Geotechnical Aspects of Karst Terrain, ASTM Geotechnical Special Publication No. 14, pp. 149-165. Uromeihy, A. 2000. The Lar Dam; an example of infrastructure development in a geologically active karstic region. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Elsevier Science , vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 25-31(7). Welsh, J.P., 1988. Sinkhole rectification by compaction grouting. Geotechnical Aspects of Karst Terrain, ASTM Geotechnical Special Publication No. 14, pp. 115-132. Zuomei, Z. and Pinshou, H., 1988. Grouting of the karstic caves with clay fillings. Geotechnical Aspects of Karst Terrain, ASTM Geotechnical Special Publication No. 14, pp. 92-104. Fookes, P. G., and Hawkings, A. B., 1988. Limestone weathering: its engineering significance and a proposed classification system. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, London, Vol. 21, pp. 7-31.

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