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Memories fueled by the science of smell.


"I will instruct you and teach you in the way you should go; I will counsel you with my eye upon you." Psalm 32:8 1 I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my friends and family. The completion of this study could not have been possible without them. Special thanks to:

John Tawadrous Abd-el Messih Boulos Hanan Soliman Rana Roufail Meray Daoud Fady Andraws Mervat Ebram Ayad Carol Ayad David Ayad Nada Tadros Marina Ibrahim


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Explored the five senses and how often we unnoticeably use them during the day.


The Sensory Workshop

This workshop explores the human being’s five senses and their ability to help us experience the world we live in, navigate through it and connect our minds. The aim of this workshop is to explore ways of using sensory stimulation to express oneself, calm oneself and evoke positive feelings and bringing back memories. In hope to improve one’s mood, self-esteem and well-being through the activity.

Your grandmother’s chocolate chips cake… the perfume smell of a loved one… the sound of a favorite song…These memories are what makes each one of us as unique as snowflake. We live in the present and look forward for the future, but our experiences, knowledge and understanding of how to live life, is tied to our past. Imagine a life where a human being can’t talk, see, hear, smell or touch anything. It is simply meaningless.

The aim of the workshop is to study how the brain store, process and retain memories. Humans interact/experience the world through their senses. By introducing objects during the workshop that stimulates different senses, I was able to create an atmosphere that makes clear of what memories we remember… how we remember them... whether they are positive or negative…

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Imagine a life where a human being can’t talk, see, hear, smell or touch anything. It is simply meaningless.

https://www.pinterest.ca/

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Insight 1: Senses & Memory

Memories I experimented on interactions with our senses and noticed that they instantly evoke memories from our past. Studies show that connecting a memory to something, increases the chance you will remember it later. The context of which the memory is in, matters a lot. We have 5 senses that correspond to five sensory organs (sight – hearing – smell- taste – touch). But science recognizes as many as 21 different senses. Humans use their five organs to experience the world they live in. Research explains an effective technique to use your senses to improve your memory called the ‘memory palace. When trying to remember something, you need to visualize it in a familiar place. The study gives the example of remembering a shopping list. It says, “So, if you need to buy eggs, you might imagine a hen laying eggs on your coffee table. Or if you’re out of orange juice, you might picture it splattered up the wall.” “The trick, Buzan explained saying, “make it colorful, crazy, juicy, surreal, aromatic, sexy, sensual, active, moving, funny, ridiculous, cartoonish, fantastical,” when cr eating your memory palace. Your grandmother’s chocolate chips cake… the perfume smell of a loved one… the sound of a favorite song…These memories are what makes each one of us as unique as snowflake. We live in the present and look forward for the future, but our experiences, knowledge and understanding of how to live life, is tied to our past. Imagine a life where a human being can’t talk, see, hear, smell or touch anything. It is simply meaningless.

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Gaps Can replicating the context of which a memory happened in, improve someone’s memory

https://www.pinterest.ca/

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Insight 2: Smell & Memory

I noticed during the workshop that memories evoked by smell had a powerful connection and meaning to the person more than all the other senses. WHY Studies show that smell is closely connected to the hippocampus (the part of the brain responsible for memory). However, other senses path from organ to a relay station called the thalamus before passing on to the rest of the brain. This pathway delays the processing of the brain, while with smell, information travels directly to the major site of processing, the olfactory bulb with nothing is between. A study performed by psychologist Silvia Alava called “Smells and Emotions� showed that people remember 35% of what they smell and only 5% of what they see. Studies also show that when you smell a perfume, that scent is registered in the brain, but it is also registered with an association to an emotion that we are feeling at that very mome

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Gaps Why are smells not used as much as visuals to retain memory (classrooms; education) when they are proven to show a higher rate of success

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Research about smell and memory

Anosmia can lead to depression. Patients with olfactory dysfunction have symptoms of depression that worsen with severity of smell lost. Certain smells can ameliorate depression and anxiety Kodonia: sensory therapy is a ground-breaking new therapy for wellness and relaxation. A machine that uses light and aroma to calm a person Research showing studies proving the effects of lemon used as an antidepressant Vanilla has positive associations, usually with childhood treats and is known for its calming effect Damages to the temporal cortical region of the brain – the site of memory – does not affect the ability to detect smell but prevents the identification of the odor, we identify a smell because we remember it Whole memories complete with all associated emotions, can be prompted by smell –this is entirely unconscious BUT studies shown that recall can be enhanced if learning was done in a presence of an odour and that same odour is presented at the time of recall (exam revision)

https://timsmell.blogspot.com/p/smell-mood.html

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“Robin et al measured autonomic parameters (heart rate, skin temperature, resistance and potential and respiratory rate) and correlated these with hedonic ratings for a number of odours. They concluded that vanillin affected the autonomic parameters in a way that indicated an induced state of happiness. To counter anxiety in a clinical setting Redd et al. used heliotropin, a vanilla-like fragrance that had been rated previously as relaxing and pleasant in pilot tests. They gave 30 seconds bursts to patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. This is a claustrophobic and stressful procedure, requiring patients to remain still for 1hr. The heliotropin reduced anxiety by 63% in patients who liked the smell.�

https://best-alzheimers-products.com/alternative-therapy-for-alzheimers/sensory-stimulation-for-alzheimers

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Insight 3: Sharing Memories

During the workshop, participants hesitated to share memories at first. Once I started sharing, I was interrupted by others that suddenly wanted to share as well. Participants were influenced and encouraged to share, when others did. Perhaps, hearing someone else’s memory reminds you of your own. Ironically, participants shared very similar stories. Research proves that memories are changed by all kinds of things. Nostalgia plays a role in how we remember. It is easy to instill false memories in people. A team of scientists at Princeton, let by Uri Hasson, discovered a new neuroscience study that shows that when you listen to stories and understand them, you experience that exact same brain pattern as the person telling the story. You can transfer experiences directly into another person’s brain. They feel what you feel. They empathize. The study also explains another phenomenon of story-telling; story-stealing. People accidently share someone else’s story, as if it is theirs. The reason behind that is when they hear the story, they feel as If they were there, but it was only vicariously through the person telling the story. Daniela Schiller, professor at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine explains that our memory fails us a lot. Each time we remember a memory, we remember it a little bit different. A wired writer Jonah Lehrer adds to her point explaining that when we tell a story, we simply pick out the good parts and ignore what we don’t like, replacing it with our fiction to make it sound better.

https://timsmell.blogspot.com/p/smell-mood.html

Gaps personally your own to implement to improve and make feel

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hacking brain good memories your mood you happier.

happier. happier.

Another experiment done by Dr. Loftus explores hacking other’s people’s memories. one experiment, Loftus tested the credibility of eyewitness accounts in car accidents. When study participants were asked to recount exactly what they'd seen take place, they offered details as best they could, some vague and some more specific. Yet when Loftus prompted these same individuals, asking them if they saw either "a" broken headlight or "the" broken headlight on one of the vehicles involved, those who heard the word "the" changed their story, admitting that they remembered "the" broken headlight. However, no broken headlight existed.”

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Insight 4: Emotions & Memory

While participants shared their memories, it was very rapid to experience different emotions jumping from one story to another. Emotions are believed to play a role in determining whether we can recall a stored memory at the time we try to revisit it. Thus, putting yourself in the mood you were experiencing the event, has been found to have a positive effect on our chances of recalling specific details. Participants shared happier memories than sad stories. This is because good memories cause the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with feelings of pleasure. Tania Clasuen, clinical social worker suggests that happy memories can also positively affect our mental health and can be used therapeutically to reduce the symptoms associated with bad memories. Participants shared memories from their past, revolving mostly about relationships – friendships – food – celebrations – health – nature.

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An experience that helps improve your mood. A customized experience that uses augmented reality, aromas and materials to bring you back to a specific memory...

https://www.pinterest.ca/

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Research: Sensory stimulation on Alzheimer’s and Dementia

While all dementia and Alzheimer’s patients seem to respond well to some forms of sensory stimulation, whether or not a particular type of stimulation “works” well with a patient is a highly individualize question and directly related to the stage of a loved one’s condition Providing appropriate sensory stimulation for Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia has been shown in studies to decrease agitation (state of anxiety) and restlessness as well as improve sleep. Somatosensory cortex (Sensory Homunculus) is the part of the cortex that accepts and translates information coming in from the touch receptors all over the body. This stimulation improves brain function by creating new neural connections. This is what we call the sense of touch, and include pain, pressure, temperature, etc.

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“In a related study published in the American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, Janet M. Witucki and Renee Samples Twibell reported a decrease in psychological discomfort levels in subjects who were in the advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were fifteen residents of long-term-care facilities who engaged in three sensory stimulation activities. Recorded music that was known to be pleasing to each subject was used as auditory stimulation. Hand massage using lotion provided tactile stimulation, and the sense of smell was stimulated using odors of coffee, orange, cinnamon, chocolate and flowers, each presented individually. Psychological discomfort was measured before and after each sensory stimulation activity using the Discomfort Scale for Dementias of the Alzheimer Type (DS-DAT), and the results compared. According to the authors of the study, “It can be concluded, however, that all three sensory stimulation activities, as presented with social interaction, lowered DS-DAT levels to a similar extent, indicating an increase in psychological well-being of participants during the activities.” There are two important observations are shared by most of the research. Sensory stimulation for Alzheimer’s is effective treatment for anxiety, depression, and the other behavioral symptoms associated with dementia. The other is that sensory stimulation is without the adverse effects that almost always accompany the drugs often prescribed to treat”

https://best-alzheimers-products.com/alternative-therapy-for-alzheimers/sensory-stimulation-for-alzheimers

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Workshop summary

Territory: Facilitate (verb/activity) communication (what? Interaction) and performance (what? Interaction) of everyday life activities (activity), to provide elderly (user) with dementia (further description of user state) and Alzheimer’s means of self-expressions/retaining memory of their life including (context in which activity happens) others, through sensory stimulation (further description of interaction) to calm oneself and evoke positive feelings.

1 Facilitate the experience of remembering a memory and the story-telling of it by using our senses to image a situation we could have potentially been in in our life.

Using a variety of aroma to improve one’s wellness, evoke positive feelings, improve focus and memory and reduce stress. an experience that helps improve your mood. A customized experience that uses augmented reality, aromas and materials to bring you back to a specific memory

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3 Are classrooms, patient’s rooms, hospitals, companies taking advantages of the therapeutically use of smell? Focus on the sense of smell to help kids learn better Moving away from patients with dementia?

Patients forget a lot, so the people dealing with the most stress, are people who are taking care of them. A watch product that is between the nurses and the patients. the watch reminds the patient of what is happening. So, it will light up and food symbol will come up. This will remind them that it is lunch time.

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5 Giving patients things around their rooms that triggers stimulations to remember important milestones in their life. A product that makes them aware of what they did during their day and what they will do later Gives them recommendations of what they can to spend their time

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Ideations and initial prototypes


Beyond Medicine Design Intent 1: iReminder Facilitate communication and performance of everyday life activities, to provide elderly with dementia and Alzheimer’s means of self-expressions/retaining memory of their life and others, through sensory stimulation to calm oneself and evoke positive feelings.

MUST Part of a routine Easy to use, read Fit to existing systems Call to action/reaction Customized

SHOULD Interactive Clear communication Teach through use Invoke their memory

COULD Involve sensory reminders (sound, smells, etc. instead of visuals)

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Beyond Medicine Design Intent 2: Shades of Memory Provide caregivers and people with loved ones who suffer from Dementia and Alzheimer’s, an interactive poetic play experience which concentrates on delivering an imaginative awareness and understanding of what memory loss through a game.

MUST Abstract Interactive Questioning Challenging Poetic Play

COULD SHOULD Involve augmented reality Story-telling Suggesting an alternative to the norm Education through interaction

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Beyond Medicine Design Intent 2: Aromaessory Provide elderly suffering from Dementia/Alzheimer’s therapeutic treatment through sensory stimulation by incorporating specific smells to accessories, with the goal of evoking positive feelings and calming oneself.

MUST Stimulating Uses different senses Part of a routine Not challenging

SHOULD Familiar Physical Desirable Call for reaction

COULD Thought provoking Integrated in everyday objects Objects as conversation starters

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Feedback

Opportunity for the patient and his/her family to connect how to give the family and the patient an experience to connect over? (Shared activity, empathy game) Understanding of Alzheimer’s disease while the family doesn’t necessarily have to go through an experience of forgetting memories, how can one understand it? Transferring schedule through smell triggering specific smell at specific time to make a connection between the activity/people and the smell Process of producing smell Family members visiting patients explore visiting hours and offering activities to make the environment comfortable for the visitors Aromaessory who is going to remind them to wear it? Perhaps accessories that trigger the smell on its own? iReminder: many apps exist already. Go beyond

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Why do relationships fall apart and fail when one is faced with an illness? Hearing the word illness automatically puts a barrier between us and our loved ones.

Our lack of understand of diseases causes us to be put in uncomfortable situations where we are uncertain what is the right thing to do dealing with the patient, or what triggers anger and frustration. We prefer to avoid the situation rather than exploring it further and work on improv-ing the relationship. The relationship changes from an intimate one to a service one, where family members only care about the financial and legal work.

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Market Research

Taste+: This spoon helps those who have lost some of their sense of taste by electrically stimulating their taste buds.

The Genius of Caring is a web based interactive story sharing project that features documen-tary portraits of those whose lives have been touched by Alzheimer’s and other caregiv-ing intensive diseases.

Memory Maps: This system, using GPS technology, lets those with early-stage cognitive issues and their families record memories and then coordinate them to a map with the real-world locations where they took place.

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A Walk Through Dementia is a unique Google Cardboard app designed to put you in the shoes of someone living with dementia. Watch how it came together.

The Mirror Table by Sean Wang helps users relearn simple tasks by mimicking the actions of others.

Research shows that even though a person with dementia may no longer recognize a loved one, their time together has a lasting, positive impact. According to the World Health Organization, 36 million people suffer from dementia worldwide. By 2050, that number is expected to triple. So, we are bound to face either ourselves dealing with the illness or experiencing a loved one go through it. 26


Experimenting

I started experimenting with different smells and their effect on my family members. I started by mixing different things and boiling them, then freezing them into ice cubes.

“It smells like vanilla cake, it is not making me hungry per se, but I like the smell”

“Our home always smells like this whenever your mom cooks”

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Imrpoved prototypes


How is smell affecting our emotions and memories

We intentionally take and keep looking at pictures of loved ones. We purposely listen to old songs to evoke memories. What if we start treating scents similarly? How can we intentionally connect certain things in our lives to specific smells?

Vanilla Peppermint Baked cookies Soap Lavender Laundry coffee Fresh air Petrol Bedsheets Jasmine Perfume Flowers Wood Candles

Spicy Eggs Fresh Salad BBQ Babies Matches Sea breeze Pheromone scent Passion fruit Floral After shower Garden Park Hotel Hallway Partner’s smell

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Memories powered by the science of smell

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Concept 1: ReminiScent

With a growing and aging population, the number of Canadians living with dementia is rising tremendously. The current medicine trajectory projects us into a future where medicine is one option, but beyond medicine, lies creative innovative resources that could improve the wellness of the patient. This project aims to introduce the sense of smell as an aid for Patients with Dementia living in a longcare facility. The sense of smell is particularly linked with memory, allowing people to be able to think of smells that evoke particular memories. This is achieved through experimenting different scents on users and their instant and eventual reaction, what comes after sniffing smells and its effects on the environment

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FEATURES

BENEFITS Remini•Scent bridges the gap between two very powerful methods; counselling and aroma therapy. In hope to capture smells which are very intimate to the patient, evoking childhood memories.

There is a need to go beyond medicine. Healthcare is developing different methods and alternatives to the traditional medicine for advancement and innovation. There is a huge wave of interest in the methodology of recreational therapists, story-telling, exercising, etc.

FEARS the timeframe to produce/capture a specific scent and the trials the patients will go through to collect scents that evoke good and not sad memories.

EXPERIENCE

WANTS The patient and their loved ones will implement this in their life to better improve the state of the patient and work on the relationship between the patient and his/her loved ones

Through dialogue and sniffing, between the therapists, patient and family members, the patient’s brain will actively reenergize the olfactory bulb (brain’s smell center) and simultaneously, better the hippocampus (part of the brain responsible for memory)

BARRIERS degenerative sense of smell smoking affects ability to smell

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Headspace Technology

“The headspace equipment involves a hollow dome or sphere-like objects which forms an airtight seal and surrounds the objects of interest. Inert gases are passed into the space containing the object or a vacuum is established such that the odor compounds are removed from the headspace. These compounds are in turn captured using a variety of techniques among them cold surfaces, solvent traps, and adsorbent materials, with the latter techniques capable of longer periods of collection. The samples can then be analyzed using techniques such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, or Carbon-13 NMR” The aim of this project is to bring back scents that instantly take us back to childhood memories. We are not able to explain them, or describe them, yet, they have the power to bring memories we didn’t think of for years. Memories of our first love, first soccer game, kindergarten classroom, grandma’s house… I am investigating into using this or a similar technology to capture these intimate, familiar and memorable scents.

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Exploring 3 ways of showing

1 In the life of an Alzheimer’s patient living in a long-term centre, it is an environment of unknown, fear and unfamiliar. The building seems new, every day. New faces, new doctors… The use of the sense of smell aims to create a therapy session to aid patients remember memories of their childhood memories to calm the patient and guarantees a peaceful period

2 Places have smells. Activities are associated with certain scents. Yet, because of our lack of knowledge about scents, the vernacular around it is limited. This project introduced the smell clock. Patient living in a long-term center will be reminded of specific activities/places to be during the day by scents.

3 A game to provide a family with a calm, fun and enjoyable experience to explain the 7 stages of Dementia. The game’s aim is educational through an indirect way, where kids and grandparents can spend an pleasurable time together after the family receives the news about the patient suffering from Dementia.

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Headspace Technology

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Primary Research Relaxing - tea Going to school - smell of street & smoke

Straightening hair - burning

musky, damp towel when showering

Smells x Activities An Initial survey circulated where 20 participants were asked to associate smells to 10 of their daily activities. Describe their 3 favorite smells and reflect on whether they are put in situations where smells around them evoke old memories. The aim of the survey was to discover if there are common scents that people associated to the same activity. It was proven that this is correct.

spice when cooking

studying in library - old books Waking up- coffee

Brushing teeth - mint

Sleep - fresh sheets

Breakfast - smell of eggs

Hiking - fresh rain

take a walk- grass

Driving - Air Freshener

Gym - sweat

Fueling my car- gas station

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Petrol, candles, matches laundry, aunt's perfume, fresh salad

peppermint, floral, spicy

What is your facourite smell?

Perfume, barbeque, fruits

Body lotion, eggs, fresh air mint, mahogany, lavender

Coffee, soap, rain

Sea breeze, fresh mint, leaves

my partner's smell, smell of my favourite food, smell of babies

The smell of winter, fresh sheets, smells of my family (ie pheromone sent)

Chocolate , jasmine, coconut

“I remember how my favourite kindergarten teacher smells but not how she looks. Sometimes when I walk in a public setting someone walks by and they would be wearing similar perfume as her and I jump back to memories on the carpet sitting in a circle with the rest of the kids or running around on the playground during recess.”

“When visiting my grandmas house and she makes us her vegetable soup, it reminds me of the times when we used to sleep over at her house and that’s what we would eat all the time.”

‘Sometimes my own pheromone sent reminds me of when I was little and my grandma would take care of me and read Arabic comics to me.”

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Word Generator

Communication Connection Storytelling Listening Imaginative Blue-sky Dreamy Fanciful Curious Poetic Illusory Smell Aroma Incense Scent Folktale Fairytale Narrative Memoir Record Informative Autobiography

Family Relationship Generation Parentage Siblings Relatives Friends Caregivers Forgetful Escape one’s memory Talking Chattering Conversing Repeating Intercommunicate Dementia Alzheimer’s Illness Disease Mental health Enjoyable Entertaining

Educational Geometric shapes Images Imaginative Group team Age difference Visiting hours Visitations Awareness Memory Childhood Laughter Revive Relight Renew Kindred Spending time Common interest Trial & error Game Descriptive Long-term care

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Can smell bring us back to our childhood memories?

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Maps, user-journey and impact


Interaction

This is Alysia, a 35 year old, mom of 2, a wife and a daughter.

Alysia lives one floor down from her parents, where she cares for them on a daily basis. Tedora (grandma) is in her early stages dementia and John (grandpa) is having arthritis problems.

A while later, Tedora’s (the grandma) situation worsens and Alysia seeks help. She reviews her options and moving both parents to a long-term care facility sounds like a logical solution.

Alysia helps to settle her parents in, took care of all the paper work and promised to visit every now and then.

Alysia and her family kept their promise to visit for the first while, but lately, life got busy and there was no motivation for the family to go visit as often. Kids also got bored and there was nothing much to do.

The problem lied within the fact that Alysia no longer needed to cook, clean or to look after her parents, but to solely spend meaningful time with them and she realized that she doesn’t know how to do that.

As her way out from a visit with her family, herself and her family saw an experience installation at the hospital’s doors. The kids asked if they can take a look, so they all headed there.

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Alysia and her family enjoyed the experience a lot and wanted to know more, so they read about it in the brochure and were introduced to the smell workshop that happens every week. They decided to give the workshop a try.

Alysia and her family came back the next week to attend another therapy. They enjoyed spending meaningful time as a family, the kids loved hearing stories about their family and other families, and they connected to a bigger community that is going through the same thing as them. They were able to spend meaningful time as a family regardless of what was happening around them.

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Micro journey map

Family visits patients

Notices the situation and informs family of smell therapy Smell therapy happens in a big hall where family and patients come together to share stories and memories

Patient passing time in room Nurse comes in the room to give patient medication Time passes and kids start getting bored

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Big hall is filled with parents, kids and patients

People start sharing memories reminded by the smell

Kids enjoy listening to stories as getting to know their grandparents more

Families are encouraged to pass on the stories (either the ones written down or recorded) to loved ones Send a letter with/out the voice recording to someone that was involved in the story

Family decided to give it a try

Therapists start passing around containers of smell

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The 5 E’s

As families come in and out of hospitals and long term care homes, the art installation will be something that catches their eyes. Hospitals will also advertise about it through social media and their innovation teams.

1

Entice

2

As they enter the experience, they will have a feeling of curiosity. Which smell should they pick? What is inside the room? There will be no instructions other than picking a smell and experiencing the journey. Enter It is a walk of memory.

3 4 5

Engage

Exit

Extend

Participants will engage in the experience by reading the stories/memories shared by other people. They will reminiscent about their memories and whether being in such experience evoke any memories. The combination of fogginess, colours and light will leave them astonished, curious and ready to explore.

As they exit, they are asked to share one of their stories to be publically displayed, like the ones they read.

The experience will now be associated with the smell, and hopefully smelling the scent will always remind the participants with that experience. It will be recommended for them to attend a smell therapy workshop, where they can share and hear more stories.

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Impact

This project ‘s main objective is communication through story telling using the sense of smell. My three concepts work together to deliver an experience to its user to spend time with their loved ones, share meaningful memories and build a community around common grounds (caring for a person with Dementia). The relationships built during this project will greatly affect the mental being of the patient, and as well the family. It will strengthen the connection between kids and grandparents, which in this context is something that is usually lost unfortunately.

COMMUNITY

RELATIONSHIP

SHARING

FRIENDSHIP

LEARNING

The increase in meaningful visitation will foster the health and wellness of the patient, which will consequently, ease the nurse and therapist’s jobs. There will be less frustration and short temper from the patient, because of the meaningful time they spend with their family.

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Final phase Memories fueled by the science of smell.


Facts

As of today, there are over half a million Canadians living with dementia - plus about 25,000 new cases diagnosed every year. By 2031, that number is expected to rise to 937,000, an increase of 66 per cent. More than 50 percent of residents in assisted living and nursing homes have some form of dementia or cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's. Available research indicates that about 67 percent of dementia-related deaths occur in nursing homes.

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Dementia

Dementia is an overall term for a set of symptoms that are caused by disorders affecting the brain. Symptoms may include memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem-solving or language, severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. A person with dementia may also experience changes in mood or behaviour. Dementia is progressive, which means the symptoms will gradually get worse as more brain cells become damaged and eventually die.

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Re indle

Memories fueled by the science of smell.

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Rekindle

Rekindle is a project that focuses on using the sense of smell to rekindle relationships lost between families and patients with Dementia. As the population continues to age, the number of Canadians living with dementia is rising tremendously. As a result, patients are moving away from their homes to live in long-term care centres, receiving less family visits and even more frustration. Visits, on the part of the patients’ families, become a burden rather than a desire. Rekindle uses smells to evoke the patient’s childhood memories, so their family gets time to “reminiscent”. Share special moments, spend quality time and have fun together.

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Users

“I’m lonely, my family never comes to visit.”

“I try to visit, but there is nothing for me to do and we end up wasting time.”

“I miss grandma, but whenever we visit, my mom is always stressed and in a rush.”

Dementia patients living in long-term care facilities in their early stages of Dementia

Family member, specifically, ones that were once the caregiver

Kids that had a strong relationship with their grandparents before the illness

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Rekindle Cycle

General kit used at hospital Rekindle is introduced at long-term care facilities by nurses to families

Follow up session with facilitator Intro sessions is offered with a facilitator to educate family about Rekindle and introduce how it can be used

Personalized kits Families can then order their own personalized kits, with scents that are intimate to the patient

Subscription to monthly scents Families have the option of subscribing to receive monthly scents

Collected data Collected data is being recorded to pinpoint common triggering scents

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System’s map WANTS/NEEDS: Regular visits Meaningful conversation Someone to listen Family time Entertainment Feeling of being wanted

DESIGNER FACILITATING AN EXPEREINCE for patients and families to come together and reminiscent over childhood memories through the sense of smell. By using combination of smells, experiences, story-telling and therapy

Recreational therapy

CURRENT WAYS

CURRENT WAYS

Visitation hours

Adaptive swimming

Field trips

Art therapy

Skyping

Story-telling session

Painting

Pet therapy Dance Gardening & flowering

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Cooking

Music therapy

Skype

USER: Dementia Patient x Family & loved ones

Treatments used currently at hospitals and long-term care facilities

Ways for family members and loved ones to visit and connect with the patient

Adaptive sports Going for a walk

Pictures Going on walks Travelling

Concept 1 ReminiScent Experience; placed in the entrance of Baycrest hospital for families to expereince

Talking on the phone

Reading

Daily care

Watching the news

Events

Simple games

Watching T.V

Watching T.V

Talking

HOW MY PROJECT AFFECTS THE FEELING OF THE USER

PATIENT’S & LOVED ONES FEELINGS HAPPINESS JOY BELONGINGNESS CHEERFUL ENTERTAINED SERENITY GRATITUDE LOVE

Memory Box HOW THE PATIENT’S FEEL WHEN THEY DONT SPEND OFTEN TIMW WITH THEIR FAMILY

PATIENT’S FEELINGS Lonliness Boredom Confusion Unawareness Forgetfulness Scared Neglected Frustration Waiting for time to pass

Helping in daily activities Constant back and forth between maker and installation to update storoies that are being shared by participants

Concept 2 Reminiscent; involves both the patient and the family in baycrest hall room MAKER

Indirect stalkholders that deal more with the maker/designer and the product/experience offered

Direct stalkholders that have a relationship with the users and focus on the person

Aromascope Jungle Essence Aroma therapists Neurologists Industrial designers Graphic designers Installation designers Experience designers Government Donars

Dementia Patients STALKHOLDERS

INVOLVED IN THE EXPEREINCE Therapists, facilitators and doctors will direct the experience by sharing their own memories and keeping account of the effects of different kinds of smells on the patient (ones that trigger good/bad memories)

Family members Loved ones Nurses Doctors Therapists Paid companions Story-tellers Kids Workers at the hospital

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Sources https://exploringyourmind.com/memories-evoked-five-senses/ https://www.psychologistworld.com/emotion/emotion-memory-psychology https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/remember-bad-times-better-than-good1.htm https://www.element14.com/community/community/designchallenges/designforacause/blog/2018/09/13/cue-system-for-anosmia-and-smart-wheelchair-11-machine-learning-and-going-live https://www.livemint.com/Leisure/OfwbfgHqP8UlXuAESojrhM/Why-it-is-tough-to-digitally-transmit-scents.html http://www.kodobio.com/ https://timsmell.blogspot.com/p/smell-mood.html https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/deception https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/you-illuminated/201106/why-sharing-stories-brings-people-together https://lifehacker.com/why-your-memory-sucks-and-what-you-can-do-about-it-596782066 https://www.businessinsider.com/sleep-memory-brain-lost-time-2016-9 https://openlab.citytech.cuny.edu/helmsley/2017/03/08/the-five-senses-and-memory/ https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/how-remember-anything-memory-palace-trick-tips-guide-not-forget-a8224921.html https://mind-hacks.wonderhowto.com/how-to/implant-false-memories-into-other-peoples-heads-why-you-should-0164661/ https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/design-alzheimers https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301589/ https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301582/ https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301563/ https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301549/ https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301466/ https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301539/ https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301521/ https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301503/ https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/482025966366301465/ http://www.fifthsense.org.uk/psychology-and-smell/ https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/brain-babble/201501/smells-ring-bells-how-smell-triggers-memories-and-emotions https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/08/06/smells-trigger-memories.aspx http://www.sirc.org/publik/smell_emotion.html https://sites.tufts.edu/emotiononthebrain/2014/12/07/smell-and-emotion/ https://experimentalperfumeclub.com/link-scent-memory-emotions/ https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/do-scents-affect-peoples/ https://www.livescience.com/60813-sense-of-smell-emotion-alexithymia.html https://www.forbes.com/sites/rogerdooley/2012/11/08/people-can-smell-emotions/#cba75d56fc5f

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Sources 2 https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/basics/memory https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-dementia https://www.homeinstead.qc.ca/en/news/5-types-of-dementia https://dementiahelp.ca/get-information/what-is-dementia/ https://myhealth.alberta.ca/Health/pages/conditions.aspx?Hwid=uf4984 https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-alzheimers https://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/guide/alzheimers-disease-stages https://alzheimerscareresourcecenter.com/wednesday-workshop-how-alzheimers-disease-affects-the-5-senses/ https://www.healthgrades.com/conditions/how-dementia-affects-your-senses https://best-alzheimers-products.com/alzheimers-affects-perception.html https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/blog/could-senses-help-diagnose-dementia https://www.alzstore.com/shop-alzheimers-store-s/2054.htm https://alzheimer.ca/en/Home/We-can-help/Resources/Shopping-for-assistive-products https://www.mindcarestore.com https://www.livescience.com/60752-human-senses.html http://idahoptv.org/sciencetrek/topics/senses/facts.cfm https://baleinesendirect.org/en/whales-of-the-st-lawrence/life-and-evolution/the-five-senses/ https://exploringyourmind.com/memories-evoked-five-senses/ https://legacybox.com/blogs/analog/memory-and-the-senses-which-one-is-strongest http://www.human-memory.net/types_sensory.html

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