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HOTEL

BHINNEKA

Indonesia’s Cultural Boutique Hotel

LOUISA SUTANTO

Final Thesis Fall 2013

School of Interior Architecture and Design

Academy of Art University


02


To the people of Indonesia, with gratitude for their inspirational cultures and pursuit for unity

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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION CONCEPT

04

RESEARCH 08

PRECEDENT STUDIES

14

10

SITE ANALYSIS

22

CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT

28

BUILDING ANALYSIS

30

CLIENT PROFILES

34

USER PROFILES

36


PROGRAMMING

DESIGN

ADJACENCY MATRIX

40

MAIN LOBBY

52

AUTOBIOGRAPHY

110

BUBBLE DIAGRAMS

41

AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS

62

RESUME

111

OCCUPANCY STUDY

42

REFERENCES

112

44

INDONESIAN RESTAURANT

74

FLOOR PLANS EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS

48

PRESIDENTIAL SUITE

86

ROOFTOP DECK AND COURTYARD

94

ABOUT

05


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

08

CONCEPT

10


INTRODUCTION

WE ARE

POOR IN A

RICH COUNTRY

08


Indonesia has always been known

among the Indonesians themselves,

as “The Emerald of the Equator”.

creating social issues such as cor-

This is without a doubt an appropri-

ruptions, discriminations, and op-

ate rendition for the largest archi-

pressions that affect the harmony

pelagic nation in the world. The lus-

of the entire nation. Due to these

cious green islands, neatly lay out

ongoing issues, they create nega-

across the equator will remind you

tive impressions to the interna-

of the precious green gemstone.

tional world. Looking at the bleak

The breathtaking sceneries from the

situation, this nation is in desperate

top of the mountains to the depth

needs of revival that might help in

of the seas will reveal the vastness

rejuvenating its pride toward the

of this country. More than 17,000

spirit of nationalism.

islands, 300 recognized ethnic groups, 430 languages, and a total

As a part of this big nation, I per-

population of 240 million people

sonally have a deep emotional at-

will promise you endless cultural

tachment with this diversity issue

experiences. Indonesia is incredibly

and feel the urgency to help build-

rich, both in its natural and human

ing up the nation. With my skills

resources, and diversity, therefore,

and knowledge in interior design,

has naturally become a precious

I wish to contribute to the country

thing that needs to be preserved

by designing a venue that will high-

among the people.

light how plurality and diversity in Indonesia are actually valuable as-

Being a rich and diverse nation can

sets that can be portrayed as the

both be a blessing and a ‘curse’.

nation’s strength. The venue will be

When the leaders of a country do

in the form of a cultural boutique

not fully comprehend the immense

hotel located in the heart of the

responsibilities to manage and cul-

capital city, Jakarta.

tivate that diversity, it can quickly become a boomerang for the whole

The ultimate vision is that this ho-

nation. The livelihood of 240 mil-

tel could become a platform in

lions people who come from vari-

displaying the true hospitality that

ous cultures, races, religious beliefs,

the Indonesians used to portray.

and social classes will be at stake.

In this way, the boutique hotel can become the pioneer in hospital-

The issue-at-hand today is that

ity design, showcasing the unique

these existing pluralities have been

culture of Indonesia and helping to

misrepresented and have created

elevate its potential in international

the lack of unity and tolerance

tourism. 09


CONCEPT

“It was [in] nationalism that Indonesia was established! Not the Javanese nationality, not the Sumatran nationality, not the Bornean nationality, Sulawesi, Bali, or other, but the Indonesian nationality, that together became the foundation of one nationale-staat (nation-state).� -- President Soekarno, the first President of Indonesia

10


GARUDA PANCASILA The core design of this boutique

Javanese epic poem, that loosely

hotel will be the celebration of In-

translates as “Unity in Diversity”.

donesia’s diversity. The ultimate representation of this idea in the In-

The second feature is the shield that

donesian context would be the na-

lays across the Garuda’s chest. This

tional emblem, Garuda Pancasila.

shield is divided into five sections,

This emblem was derived from a

in which each sections carries a

mythological creature in Hinduism

distinctive national principle. These

and Buddhism called Garuda, the

five principles have been the ideo-

king of the birds.

logical pillars that the country looks upon. They include: belief in God,

In the mythology, Garuda is de-

a civilized humanity, national unity,

scribed to have body and limbs of a

democracy, and social justice. And

man, but head, wings, talons, and

collectively, these principles are

beak of an a eagle. He is known as

known with the term “Pancasila”.

a god that has great hatred toward evil, and therefore, he has a great

The characteristics of the mythical

sense of responsibility to preserve

Garuda along with the five prin-

the cosmic order. All the symbol-

ciples of Pancasila will be the guid-

isms characterized by this mythical

ing forces in designing the cultural

bird: protection, strength, power,

boutique hotel. The potential guests

and glory, help to define the funda-

will be able to experience first-hand

mental philosophy of Indonesia as

the idea of “Unity in Diversity” not

a country.

only through the aesthetic designs, but also through the creative public

THE FIVE PRINCIPLES OF PANCASILA THE STAR

Aside from the stylized form of Garu-

spaces where they will be able to

da in the national emblem, there are

naturally engage with one another

two other significant features that

while experiencing the authentic

bear the wholeness of this idea

Indonesian cultures. And simulta-

of embracing diversity. The first

neously, to create a “safe haven”

one is found in the banner that

area within the same public spaces

THE BULL

Garuda carries. It is written on

where guests can have a sense of

--Democracy

the banner: “Bhinneka Tunggal

retreat and tranquility in the midst

RICE AND COTTON

Ika”, a phrase taken from an Old

of the hotel’s lively activities.

--Social Justice

--Belief in the One Supreme God

UNBROKEN CHAIN --A Just and Civilized Humanity

BANYAN TREE --National Unity

11


RESEARCH PRECEDENT STUDIES

14

SITE ANALYSIS 22 CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT

28

BUILDING ANALYSIS

30

CLIENT PROFILES

34

USER PROFILES

36


PRECEDENT STUDY

LOEWS HOTEL Philadelphia, PA

14


The first skyscraper ever built in the City of Brotherly Love is home to Loews Philadelphia Hotel. Contemporary décor and gracious hospitality make Loews Philadelphia one of Center City’s most inviting luxury hotels. The building itself was once a PSFS saving bank that experienced a decline in the early 1990s. With almost 85% vacancy and the increasing number of conventions held in the city, the idea to turn the skyscraper building into a hotel was instigated. In 1998, the PSFS building was converted into a Loews hotel and opened in April 2000, in time for the 2000 Republican National Convention. The original skyscraper contains 557,000 square feet with 36 floors, constructed with vertical piers of limestone and horizontal spandrels of matte buff brick, forming a T-shaped building. During its conversion, the decision to add another 40,000 square feet was deemed necessary in order to make Loews Philadelphia a successful convention hotel. This additional spaces were dedicated for ballroom and meeting spaces. Being in charge of the interior design of the new hotel, Daroff Design, Inc. decided that the original International design style would not provide the atmosphere that the hotel guests sought and therefore they turned to the Art Deco style. This move garnered both praise and criticism. On one side, critics appreciated Daroff’s approach with Art Deco that gave the original architecture its own identity and Daroff’s hers. Meanwhile, other would say that Daroff did not understand the International Style and cheapened the original building. But in Daroff’s own design process, her intention was to stay with the minimal design of the International style, imbued with a soft touch. Regardless of the public’s opinions, Loews Philadelphia’s bold movement to change an institutional building into a hospitality project has earned its outstanding reputation today because it successfully answered to the city’s development and the needs for appropriate hotel accommodation. 15


PRECEDENT STUDY

OLD FAITHFUL INN Yellowstone National Park, WY

16


“I built it in keeping with the place where it stands. Nobody could improve upon that. To be at discord with the landscape would be almost a crime. To try to improve upon it would be an impertinence.” Robert Reamer, the architect of the infamous Old Faithful Inn designed the space with this idea in mind. Being truthful to the spirit of Yellowstone National Park in preserving the surrounding nature, the result of his design is definitely an impactful one for the people of America. Construction of the Old Faithful Inn was begun in 1903 as a replacement of the Upper Geyser Basin Hotel, also known as the “Shack Hotel”. This new inn was scheduled to be completed by the opening of the tourist season in June 1904, requiring work to continue through Yellowstone’s severe winter. Reamer led the construction with a rustic camp style. He designed the lobby and the initial phase of the guest rooms, known as the Old House. The central feature of the Old House is a tall log structure housing the lobby, dominated by a deep, steeply-pitching shingled roof. The Old House is also being rotated 90 degrees with respect to the Old Faithful geyser so that a view of the geyser is framed by the entrance porch for arriving visitors. A porch roof is also available as a viewing platform for the infamous geyser. Throughout the years, the Old Faithful Inn is greatly appreciated for its rustic design, attracting the National Park visitors to stay, dine, or even just to stop by, and enjoy the beautiful architectural style that is in harmony with the grandeur of the surrounding landscape. It screams out a pride of genuine American design without the needs to imbue it with over-the-top decor or finishes. Its existence that lasts for more than a century has made The Old Faithful Inn as a designated National Historic Landmark, and greatly affecting the built environment in America’s national parks today. Its concept of multi-story lobby with a rustic style became an icon that has spread out in the mid 20th century even into the urban hotels. 17


PRECEDENT STUDY

RAFFLES HOTEL Singapore

18


The iconic Raffles Hotel is the jewel on the crown of Singapore’s hospitality industry. The former beach house was transformed into a hotel in 1887 by the Armenian Sarkies brothers. With its prime sea-front location, Raffles Hotel is a very popular accommodation for the European travelers during that time period. Over the course of its 120 years, the colonial style hotel has remained committed to be well-known for its distinct architecture and decor, implementing the highest standard for its luxurious accommodation, service, and fine cuisine. The hotel houses a tropical garden courtyard, a museum, and a Victorian-style theater. In addition to these functions, the hotel has continuously being improved with additional extensions of wings, veranda, ballroom, bar, and billiard room. With an impeccable service and accommodation, showcasing cultural events such as High Tea and Signature Moon Cake Shop ultimately adds the value of Raffles Hotel as a distinct cultural hotel that represents Singapore’s diversity. This hotel is also notable for its Long Bar where the famous Singapore Sling cocktail was invented. This cocktail drink has become an iconic beverage that draws people to come to the hotel just to enjoy it in the Long Bar. With its distinct cultural events, Raffles Hotel has successfully attracted not only tourists, but also the local Singaporeans to participate. In 1991, the hotel underwent a major renovation on its architecture and interior spaces with an emphasis on enhancing the experiential design. This improvement was considered significant in order to encounter the competitions from the more modern hotels that had sprung up in Singapore. Staying true to its unique identity, with the colonial and traditional designs, Raffles Hotel has proven that it is still a preferable choice for many of its guests who are looking for authentic Singapore experience. These include a long list of distinguished individuals such as members of royalty, political figures, and celebrities. 19


PRECEDENT STUDY

AMANJIWO Yogyakarta, Indonesia

20


Located in the rural heartland of Central Java, surrounded by natural limestones of Menoreh Hills, the Kedu Plain, and four volcanoes on the horizon, Amanjiwo definitely lives up to its name as a place for the “peaceful soul”. The resort is looking out onto Borobudur Temple, the largest Buddhist sanctuary in the world and it derives its design from the grand central stupa of the highest level of the temple. The resort’s interior is sparse and it does not have an ornate exterior which represents the concept of nirvana (liberation from desire and suffering). The whole design is rooted in the principles of minimalist style and ultimate luxury that is found in experience rather than decor. Therefore, local Javanese materials were used in the resort: paras Jogja stone (the local limestone) for the walls and columns, teak wood flooring for the restaurant, terrazzo flooring in the bedrooms, sungkai wood veneer panels, and alabaster for the windows. Silver, copper, and marble are also used to symbolically represent the commodities that are abundantly available in the island of Java. During its construction period, the design team also had to find ways in preserving the forest ecosystem, especially the running water from the hills. A solution to divert the river and allows the water to flow under the hotel was established. This results in the water goes into the surrounding farmland and not damaging the resort’s building foundations. Community outreach is another cornerstone of Amanresorts’ philosophy. In Amanjiwo, they cooperate with local farmers by buying their fresh produce. It is a mutual exchange where the farmers can make their livings, while the resort get a “borrowed” view of the amazing cultivated lands. Overall, the hotel design is admirable. Not just because of the spectacular views or its modern and beautiful design, but also or its consideration to the environment, community, and tradition of the local people. These are the key points in creating a successful hospitality design. 21


SITE ANALYSIS

THE CITY OF JAKARTA Situated on the Northwest coast of Java island, Jakarta is one of the prominent cities in Indonesia. It is the capital city of the country with a population of more than ten million people. Geographically, the city stands on a low flat basin, averaging 23 feet above the sea level, with an approximate area of 286 square miles. Due to its close proximity to the equator line, Jakarta has a hot and humid weather throughout the year, with tropical wet and dry climate. Two-thirds of the year will be the rainy season, and the remaining one-third will be the dry season. As the fastest growing city in Indonesia, Jakarta attracts many business ventures, both foreign and domestic, to participate in the city’s rapid social and economic developments. These developments are mostly signified with the existence of new and modern architecure buildings, such as skycraper office buildings, luxurious shopping malls, and contemporary public transportations. It also attracts a large number of newcomers from outer Jakarta regions each year where they will attempt to settle down and try their luck for better working opportunities in Jakarta. This influx of different sociocultural demographic expands the varieties of ethnicities, languages, religious beliefs, foods, and lifestyles. Based on these facts, Jakarta is a growing melting pot that embraces pluralities. It is the most dynamic and diverse city in Indonesia. It is the trendsetter of the current lifestyle that the rest of the nation looks up to. And for these reasons, it is only obvious to implement the design of the boutique hotel in a special part of this city called Old Town Jakarta. 22


23


SITE ANALYSIS

OLD TOWN JAKARTA The Crumbling Relic of Colonial Era Within the great city of Jakarta, there still exists a historical area called Kota Tua (the Old Town). This particular part of the city has become the witness of Jakarta’s developments since the Dutch colonial period. Containing all the glories and histories of Jakarta, this special area will become a prime location for the cultural boutique hotel. Dubbed as “The Jewel of Asia” and “Queen of the East” by the 16th century European sailors, the Old Town was once a center of commerce in Southeast Asia due to its strategic location and abundant resources. As a trading center, the area quickly became a melting pot for different cultures and ethnicities such as Malay, Javanese, Chinese, Dutch, Portuguese, Arab, and Indian. The Old Town today has become a historical tourist destination, largely due to the fact that the majority of the buildings surrounding the area are the Dutch colonization inheritances that display the architectural styles of the Dutch, Chinese, and the combination of both. Even though the area contains significant historical values, maintaining and preserving its vicinity as a tourist destination has always been a challenge for the Indonesian government. In 1972, the governor issued a decree that officially made the area into a heritage site. The decision was necessary in order to preserve the city architectural roots, or at least what was left of it. Despite the decree, this old town unfortunately remains neglected. The government has not done enough to protect and conserve the legacy from the Dutch colonial era. The idea to situate the boutique hotel in this area can potentially help to elevate its former glory and to attract more tourists. By providing the appropriate hotel accommodation, tourists would be able to dive directly into the existing cultural diversity and experience the hospitality of the local people. 24


JAVA SEA

OLD TOWN JAKARTA

WEST JAKARTA

MAP OF JAKARTA

OLD TOWN JAKARTA HISTORICAL TIMELINE

MAP OF INDONESIA

1526

The Sultanate of Demak declared ownership of the city

1619

The Dutch destroyed the city

1650

The Dutch rebuilt it as Batavia, the headquarter of the Dutch East Indies company

1942

The Japanese seized Batavia

1945

Indonesia’s independence

1972

Old Town Jakarta became a heritage site 25


SITE ANALYSIS

unda

To S

Ke

ART FINE AND MIC CERA UM E S MU

N TOW E AR SQU

ANG WAY UM E MUS

t

l Por

torica

His lapa

RTA JAKA RY O HIST UM E MUS

Lada

Train

on

Stati

Rd.

r

lyove

South

agi F

rP Pasa

tu St.

n Ba

ata Jemb

r Rd.

Besa

tation

Pintu

Bus S

North

K OF BAN ESIA N O IND EUM MUS

Pintu r Rd.

Besa

town

hina

To C

Museum Bank Mandiri Jakarta Old Town Area Residential and Mercantile Area

OLD TOWN JAKARTA - Nearby Tourist Destinations and Facilities

26

Bank of Indonesia Museum

200 feet

Shopping Malls

0.50 mi

Jakarta History Museum

0.37 mi

Hospital

0.75 mi

Wayang Museum

0.40 mi

Post Office

0.47 mi

Fine Art and Ceramic Museum 0.34 mi

Bus Station

0.05 mi

The Maritime Museum

0.90 mi

Train Station

0.10 mi

Chinatown

0.50 mi

Sunda Kelapa Historical Port

1.20 mi


A VISION FOR THE FUTURE “[The Old Town] is too valuable. If it is left to waste away, there will be no community to look after it.” --Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, Lieutenant Governor of Jakarta A new ray of hope for the historical area has come with the election of the new governor in 2012. A new master plan is under its way to return the cleanliness, security, and order in the Old Town area. This step is considered vital to the overall city’s growth and in order to attract business owners to invest in the historical area. A governmental budget of $15.5 million is ready to be launched in 2014 to establish a creative public zone in the area with spaces provided for creative industries such as fashion, food, and handicrafts. The government has also aimed to give the neighborhood a more exclusive feel, by attracting investors from high-end hotels, restaurants, and galleries. Furthermore, in order to show their seriousness in working the master plan, the government has also established diplomatic cooperation with the Dutch government in which they will help to revitalize the Old Town by using the data and the architectural map that they own of the historic colonial district. With their own previous experiences in a similar project, the Dutch will help in establishing ideas on how to utilize the cultural heritage as an economic bonus, ways to manage and develop it, and ultimately how to draw more people to come and explore the Old Town. With all these future plans, establishing an iconic cultural boutique hotel in the area will be a strategic contribution in the revitalization process. An existing historical building called Museum Bank Mandiri will be the venue of the future hotel. 27


CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT

PREVAILING WIND

R

ACK

D TR

OA AILR

RESIDENTIAL AND MERCANTILE AREA

LEGEND

RESIDENTIAL AND MERCANTILE AREA

Museum Bank Mandiri Main Traffic Flow Noise Flow

SOLAR AND WIND STUDY Due to its geographical location in the Southern hemisphere (6O12’S, 106O48’E), the sun in Jakarta takes a direction from the East, to the North, and sets in the West. In average, the sun will rise at 5:30 AM and set at 6:30 PM, with a relatively steep angles of sunlight directions. On June 21, the angle will reach 60.5O which is the lowest angle possible in a year. The highest angle of 85O usually happens around February 20. The steep angles of sunlight will allow natural light to penetrate into the majority

SOLAR CHART

of buildings in Jakarta area. Meanwhile, Jakarta has a dominant Southwest direction of prevailing wind that comes at an average of 9 mph. The less dominant wind direction will come from the East. 28

WIND CHART


Average Temperature (째c) Graph for Jakarta

CLIMATE AND TEMPERATURE

24

32

23

23

33 32

32

30

24

24

24

24

December

24

November

24

October

25

September

27.5

son, the city will have a slightly hotter and more humid

chance of rainfall will be unlikely during this season.

May

January

temperature will range between 25-34OC (77-93F). The

June

22.5

weather compared to the rainy season. The average

And due to the warm weather and little precipitation,

24

32

August

24

33 32

July

24

32

April

vember to June). During the four months of dry sea-

31

32

March

(from July to October) and wet/rainy season (from No-

31

February

plenty of rainfall. It only has two seasons: dry season

33 32.5

Temperature (째c)

Jakarta has a tropical climate with high humidity and

35

Average High Temp (째c)

Average Low Temp (째c)

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE

the dry season is considered to be the best time to visit

Average Rainfall (mm Graph for Jakarta) 125

the area.

perature stands at 32OC (89F), while the low temperature falls at 24OC (75F).

Precipitation (mm)

December

November

October

September

August

July

June

May

month. Throughout this season, the average high tem-

0 April

over, the city only receives 92 hours of sunshine in this

25

March

100 mm (the highest rate throughout the year). More-

50

February

of rainfalls with the rate of precipitation to be around

75

January

rainy season. In the month of January, the city gets a lot

Precipitation (mm)

The remaining eight months, Jakarta experiences the

Average Rainfall Days

100

Average Rainfall Days

RATE OF PRECIPITATION

MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION Getting around in the Old Town Jakarta is relatively easy due to the different types of transportations available for the public. While means of transportation such as private cars and taxis are easy to attain, the alternative to take the mass public transportation is also available for those who want to visit the area. People travelling from the inner city of Jakarta can get to the Old Town by utilizing the Transjakarta Bus, with its station being right in front of the Museum Bank Mandiri building. Those who travel from the outer region of Jakarta can take the train to Stasiun Kota (Kota Train Station) which is also conveniently located across the building. And since the tourist attractions in this area are close to each other, walking will be the better option to get around the neighborhood and experience its cultures.

TRANSJAKARTA BUS ROUTE 29


BUILDING ANALYSIS

MUSEUM BANK MANDIRI The new cultural boutique hotel will be implemented in a historical building within the Old Town area called Museum Bank Mandiri. This historical banking museum, completed in 1933, was originally a Dutch colonial bank. After Indonesia’s independence, the government claimed the ownership of the building and declared it as a national banking institution. It evolved into a museum in 1998, and since then, has been displaying the history and collections of the Dutch and the Indonesian banking activities. The four-story Art Deco style building has maintained its original construction to this day and has never been renovated. It only went some repainting throughout the years. In its day-to-day operation the museum is open for public visitations. However, its daily turnovers is considered quite low compared to the neighboring banking museum in the area. This gives an opportunity to creatively transform the purpose of this building into a boutique hotel. The museum itself can actually merge with the other banking museum to display a more comprehensive histories and collections of Indonesian banking systems. This idea of transforming the museum into a hotel is in alignment with the government’s future program and is also based on the fact that the Old Town Jakarta area does not have many existing hotel accommodations. Repurposing this particular building into a cultural boutique hotel can strategically create more and more opportunity to develop the neighborhood into a sophisticated tourist destination. 30


BUILDING OVERVIEW No of floors

:4

Lot size

: 107,000 sq ft

Building size

: 236,000 sq ft

Style

: Art Deco

Built in

: 1929

In operation

: 1933

Architects

: A.P. Smits

C. van de Linde

31


BUILDING ANALYSIS

EXISTING FLOOR PLANS

Office

Side Entrance Parking Lot

Gift Shop

Ticketing

Tools and Machines Storage

Negotiable Instrument Room Operational Room

Courtyard Storage

Office

Storage

Office Children Playground

Prayer Room

Storage Archive Room

Contemporary Display Room Front Entrance

Safe

BASEMENT LEVEL

32

LEVEL 1


Director Office

IT Development Room

Library

Art Center

The Big Meeting Room

Art Center

Art Center

Archive Center

Employee Room

LEVEL 2

Art Center

Office

LEVEL 3

33


CLIENT PROFILES

HOTEL OWNER

PT. Bank Mandiri Tbk. The historical building of Museum Bank Mandiri is currently under the ownership and management of one of Indonesia’s largest private banks, Bank Mandiri. The idea to establish a mutual business relationship between Bank Mandiri as the owner of the hotel and Hotel Sahid Jaya as the future day-to-day hotel operator could smoothly drive the transition of the property from a museum into a boutique hotel. Since a part of the hotel programming also dedicates some areas to be an art and historical gallery, it is only appropriate for Bank Mandiri to be the entity that is in charged of the space due to its past experience managing the historical

Budi Gunadi Sadikin --President Director

museum and its continuous pursuit in aiming its core values of TIPCE: Trust, Integrity, Professionalism, Customer Values, and Excellence.

HOTEL OPERATOR

PT. Hotel Sahid Jaya International PT. Hotel Sahid Jaya International is a notable hotel chain in Indonesia, established in 1953. To this day, the company has opened 27 hotels all across Indonesia. The hospitality of Sahid hotels is always infused with the same trademark, “Sahid Hotels: Where Tradition, Culture, and Service Merge.” It is with this philosophy that Mr. Sukamdani Sahid Gitosardjono strives to develop his hotels into professional ones that support creativity, innovation, and productivity. The hotels have managed to conform to the international standard, without neglecting the values and self-esteem of the Indonesian cultures. It is with this philosophy that Sahid Hotel will be an

Sukamdani Sahid Gitosardjono --Chief Commissioner

34

appropriate choice to be the day-to-day operator of the Indonesia’s new boutique hotel, Hotel Bhinneka.


PARTNERSHIPS

Teater Koma The prolific and reputable Indonesian theatrical group, Teater Koma, has performed for the Indonesian public for 36 years. Nobertus Riantiarno has led this group to perform both traditional and contemporary theatrical performances that touch the social and political conditions of the nation. The group’s vision is to build a bridge between the people of Indonesia and eventually to create an honest and humane society. Through the performances, Riantiarno also hopes to bring forth the mirror of truth to the Indonesian public as one of the ways to return to our pure and healthy conscience. It would be an honor to house Teater Koma at Hotel Bhinneka, to work together in establishing the hotel’s auditorium for performing arts and at the same time promoting the national cultural heritage.

Nobertus Riantiarno --Founder of Teater Koma

Kembang Goela Restaurant Lily Atmodirdjo is an Indonesian restaurants owner that is well-known for her strategy in experiential design that emits the unique Indonesian ambiance. Partnering with her will enable the hotel to serve the authentic Indonesian food in a traditional and elegant manner. Lily Atmodirdjo has also been known for not creating chains for her restaurants, but instead always attempts to establish completely new ones. Providing great services both to the customers and even to the employees has become her business style. Her attention to the employees’ careers and welfares positively motivate them to excel even better. This can only result in one thing, a better working environment within the restaurant and exquisite service to the guests.

Lily Atmodirdjo --Restaurant Business Owner

35


USER PROFILES

THE TOURISTS AND THE TRAVELERS Jakarta as a metropolitan city attracts visitors to stay and experience the various activities it offers. The same case goes for its Old Town area where tourists and travelers, from different cities in Indonesia and around the world, visit the historical district for the sightseeing experience and also diving into the rich cultures of the local people. The cultural boutique hotel will primarily serve these tourists and travelers, and accommodate them with the unique Indonesian ambiance that they are looking for. According to the statistical data of Jakarta’s tourism, a monthly average of 1.5 million Indonesians from the outer Jakarta region and 89,000 foreigners travel to visit the city. These number have continuously increased throughout the years, creating a desirable probability that they will have the chance to visit the Old Town area. However, their length of stay in the city is considerably short. With an average length of hotel stay of 1.76 days for the domestic guests, and 2.09 days for the international guests, accommodating them with the appropriate hotel functions will be the key in ensuring their relatively short visits to be satisfying ones. Taking into account the numerous different interests that the guests might have, the cultural boutique hotel would particularly appeal to those who have enthusiasm in experiencing the various lifestyles and customs of the local people. These include interests in the local arts, cultures, and histories of Indonesia.

36


TOWARD A BETTER SOCIETY As a boutique hotel that envisions to celebrate the diversity of Indonesian cultures, engaging as many guests as possible would be the ultimate goal. People of all ages and of different backgrounds are all welcome. However, to be able to narrow down on a specific type of target market will help in orienting the purpose of this cultural boutique hotel into a distinct one. The idea to appeal more to the younger generations can be seen as a promising future investment to the society, both in Indonesia and around the world. With a variety of innovations and advancements offered to our society today, the younger generations have become more engaged in individualistic activities rather than to be socially and culturally driven. In order to spark some cultural interests in them and eventually break this pattern of being individualistic, the boutique hotel will specifically aim those who are in their 20s and 30s. Within the scope of Indonesia’s population itself, this particular age group is considerably high in number, forming one-third of Indonesia’s total population. Being able to make the boutique hotel attractive for this age group will create the opportunities to introduce them to the hidden potential of Indonesian hospitality and tourism. In terms of occupations, these individuals will most likely range from college students to working professionals who will enjoy amenities best suited for their young and active lifestyles, such as the restaurants, cafe and bar, or live music.

37


PROGRAMMING ADJACENCY MATRIX 40 BUBBLE DIAGRAMS

41

OCCUPANCY STUDY 42 FLOOR PLANS 44 EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS 48


MATRIX AND DIAGRAMS

ADJACENCY MATRIX LEVEL 1 Main Lobby Indonesian Restaurant Auditorium for Performing Arts Courtyard Back of House LEVEL 2 Auditorium for Performing Arts Art and Historical Gallery Gift Shop Bar and Live Music International Restaurant Multifunctional Room Conference Room LEVEL 3 Rooftop Deck Guest Room Junior Suite Presidential Suite Guest Communal Area Spa and Fitness Housekeeping LEVEL 4 Guest Room Junior Suite

Desirable

Presidential Suite

Undesirable

Guest Communal Area Spa and Fitness Housekeeping

40

May or may not be Not important


BUBBLE DIAGRAMS Multifunctional Multifunctional Public Multifunctional Room Room Restrooms Room Loading Dock and Employee Parking

Back of House Public Restrooms

Courtyard

Conference Room

Back of House

Conference Room Conference Room

Auditorium for Performing Arts

Auditorium for Performing Arts

Conference Room Administrative Office

Main Lobby Art and Historical Gallery International Restaurant with Bar and Live Music

Indonesian Restaurant Public Restrooms

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

Rooftop Deck (Accessible from Level 2) Housekeeping Area

Housekeeping Area

Housekeeping Area

Housekeeping Area Junior Suite

Junior Suite Auditorium Catwalk

Junior Suite

Guest Rooms Junior Suite

Guest Rooms Guest Rooms

Junior Suite

Guest Rooms

Presidential Suite

Presidential Suite Accessible Guest Room

LEVEL 3

Guest Rooms

Guest Rooms

Guest Rooms Spa and Fitness

Spa and Fitness

Presidential Suite

Presidential Suite

Junior Suite

Guest Communal Area

Presidential Suite

Presidential Suite

Guest Rooms

Accessible Guest Room

Accessible Guest Room

Junior Suite

Presidential Suite

Guest Guest Rooms Communal Area

Presidential Suite Accessible Guest Room

LEVEL 4 Street Entrance Primary Circulation Secondary Circulation

41


OCCUPANCY STUDY OVERALL HOTEL PROGRAMS

QTY

GROUP

AREA

OCCUPANCY

(SQ FT)

(PEOPLE)

Level 1 Main Lobby Indonesian Restaurant Auditorium for Performing Arts Courtyard Back of House

A-3 A-2 A-1 A-3 -

6370 10570 10255 9550 12500

221 242 300 612 41

Level 2 Auditorium for Performing Arts Art and Historical Gallery International Restaurant with Bar and Live Music Multifunctional Room Conference Room

A-1 B A-2 A-2 A-2

5170 2900 5800 3800 2900

253 29 387 193 253

A-2 R-1 R-1 R-1 R-1 A-2 B S-1 -

6000 400 500 650 1200 1850 3300 1250 1100

282 32 4 6 24 123 33 4 3

R-1 R-1 R-1 R-1 A-2 B -

400 500 650 1200 1800 1200 300

44 4 12 24 120 12 1

Level 3 Rooftop Deck Guest Room Accessible Guest Room Junior Suite Presidential Suite Guest Communal Area Spa and Fitness Auditorium Catwalk Housekeeping Level 4 Guest Room Accessible Guest Room Junior Suite Presidential Suite Guest Communal Area Spa and Fitness Housekeeping

42

16 2 2 4

22 2 4 4


FOCUS AREAS

AREA

OCCUPANCY

(SQ FT)

(PEOPLE)

B B A-2 A-2

270 3350 1750 1000 6370

3 34 117 67 221

B B A-1 A-3 A-2 S-1

3500 150 3330 1550 225 1500

35 2 245 310 15 5

A-1 B A-3 A-2 B B

1200 1500 600 550 320 1000

68 15 120 37 3 10

S-1

1250 16675

4 869

3. INDONESIAN RESTAURANT Main Dining Area Private Dining Area Outdoor Dining Area Bar Area Waiting Area Kitchen TOTAL

A-2 A-2 A-2 A-2 B -

4800 1400 1000 700 170 2500 10570

118 30 48 22 12 12 242

4. PRESIDENTIAL SUITE

R-1

1200

6

A-1 A-3 A-3

1000 1800 6750

143 360 1350

A-2 A-2 S-1 S-1

1800 2400 1500 150 150 15550

120 160

1. MAIN LOBBY Reception Desk Lobby Waiting Area Lounge Area Outdoor Lounge Area TOTAL 2. AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS LEVEL 1 Lobby Ticketing Seating Area Stage Green Room Loading Area and Storage LEVEL 2 Seating Area Concession Rehearsal Studio Dressing Room Audio Control Room Office LEVEL 3 Auditorium Catwalk TOTAL

5. COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK LEVEL 1 - COURTYARD Amphitheater Seating Open Stage Area Outdoor Area LEVEL 3 - ROOFTOP DECK Rooftop Bar Rooftop Lounge Swimming Pool Bar Storage Tool Shed TOTAL

GROUP

1 1 2134

43


FLOOR PLANS

8. 10.

7.

9.

6. 4.

2.

5.

3.

1.

LEVEL 1 FLOOR PLAN

44

0’

16’

32’

48’

64’

Main Lobby

1.

Administrative Office

6.

Storage

Auditorium for Performing Arts

2.

Female Employee Locker

7.

Trash Collection

Indonesian Restaurant

3.

Employee Dining Area

8.

Receiving Area

Courtyard

4.

Male Employee Locker

9.

Loading Dock

B.O.H

5.

Security

10. Employee Parking Space


9.

OPEN TO BELOW

OPEN TO BELOW

1.

8.

2.

5. 4.

3.

7. 6.

LEVEL 2 FLOOR PLAN

0’

16’

32’

48’

Auditorium for Performing Arts

1.

Gallery Exhibition Area

6.

Outdoor Dining Area

Art and Historical Gallery

2.

Storage

7.

Main Dining Area

International Restaurant

3.

Office

8.

Kitchen

Conference Rooms

4.

Gift Shop

9.

B.O.H - Laundry Room

Multifunctional Rooms

5.

Bar and Live Music

64’

45


FLOOR PLANS

9.

9.

8. 7. 5.

6. 3.

5.

5. 2.

4.

1.

1.

LEVEL 3 FLOOR PLAN

0’

16’

32’

48’

64’

Presidential Suite Junior Suite

1.

Accessible Guest Room

6.

Couple Treatment Room

Guest Rooms

2.

Spa And Fitness Reception

7.

Spa Lounge Area

Guest Communal Area

3.

Female Locker Room

8.

Spa Outdoor Lounge Area

Spa and Fitness Facility

4.

Male Locker Room

9.

Housekeeping Area

Rooftop Deck

5.

Treatment Room

Auditorium Catwalk 46


5.

5.

4.

2.

3.

OPEN TO BELOW

1.

1.

LEVEL 4 FLOOR PLAN

0’

Presidential Suite

1.

Accessible Guest Room

Junior Suite

2.

Fitness Studio

Guest Rooms

3.

Storage

Guest Communal Area

4.

Gym Area

Spa and Fitness Facility

5.

Housekeeping Area

16’

32’

48’

64’

47


ELEVATIONS

NORTHEAST ELEVATION NORTHEAST ELEVATION

NORTHWEST ELEVATION 48


49


DESIGN MAIN LOBBY

52

AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS 62 INDONESIAN RESTAURANT

74

PRESIDENTIAL SUITE 86 COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK

94


MAIN LOBBY

BANYAN TREE National Unity A united nation is a strong nation. This idea of national unity in Pancasila is represented by the banyan tree, an enormous tree that has its roots sprung out from different directions, below and above the ground, and even across its branches. This symbolizes the various different cultural roots that exist in Indonesia, but they are standing firm together as one entity. The design of the main lobby will follow this idea of unity. As guests enter the space, the first impression that they should attain is the sense of

harmony

and

togetherness.

This is mainly represented with the opening in the center of lobby that instantly creates a connection between the public space in the first and second floors. The opening, pillared by the illuminated columns, will lead the eyes to the light installation that is hanging down on the second floor ceiling, bringing the attention back to the ground. 52


LEVEL 1

4.

5.

3.

6. LEGEND 1. Entrance 2. Waiting Area 3. Lounge Area 4. Outdoor Lounge Area 5. Administrative Office 6. Reception Desk 7. Men’s Restroom 8. Women’s Restroom

2.

8. 7.

1.

0’

8’

16’

24’

32’

53


MAIN LOBBY

54


55


MAIN LOBBY

56


57


MAIN LOBBY

58


59


MAIN LOBBY

60


61


AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS

THE BULL Democracy One of the biggest advancement in our role as citizens is to be able to practice democracy. Unfortunately, although this principle is laid out in the national emblem, the freedom to express individual thoughts and ideas in Indonesia still has some limitations in its practice, creating frictions between different parties. To bridge this gap, a restoration of understanding must be put forward, that a nation’s democracy is of the people, by the people, and for the people. With this understanding, creating bold and expressive design elements across the auditorium will imprint a statement that complements the message of the theatrical performances. The highlight of this space will be the two levels of seating area, in which the main design strategy is to enhance the acoustical quality with ceiling and wall panel designs, without forsaking the integrity of the historical building. 62


9. 8. 10.

7.

OPEN TO BELOW

6.

LEVEL 1

5.

LEGEND 1. Lobby 2. Ticketing Area 11.

5.

4. 4. 3.

3.

2.

12. 13.

1.

AUDITORIUM LEVEL 1

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Women’s Restroom Men’s Restroom Seating Area Stage Green Room Loading and Storage Area Dressing Room and Shower Rehearsal Studio Audio Control Room Concession Area Office

0’

8’

16’

24’

32’

AUDITORIUM LEVEL 2

63


AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS

64


AUDITORIUM LEVEL 1

65


AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS

66


AUDITORIUM LEVEL 1

67


AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS

68


AUDITORIUM LEVEL 2

69


AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS

70


AUDITORIUM LEVEL 1

71


AUDITORIUM FOR PERFORMING ARTS

72


AUDITORIUM LEVEL 1

73


INDONESIAN RESTAURANT

RICE AND COTTON Social Justice Pancasila also addresses the importance to practice social justice. This precept in the emblem is represented by rice and cotton which symbolize the primary basic needs that every citizens in Indonesia should have: food and clothing. This symbol reminds us that the country is blessed with abundant resources that should have been utilized to ensure the people’s welfare, and therefore giving everyone an equal opportunity to live decently. This idea of abundance and equality inspire the design for the Indonesian Restaurant. The goal is to have the guests experience the richness and the authenticity of Indonesian culinaries in a traditional setting. The design elements, such as the shapes, material finishes, and color palette, are arranged to emanate nostalgic feeling toward the farmland and harboring a sense of gratitude toward the people who work on that land. 74


LEVEL 1

8.

7.

6.

5. 2. 1.

3.

4.

LEGEND 1. Waiting Area 2. Bar Area 3. Main Dining Area 4. Private Dining Area 5. Women’s Restroom 6. Men’s Restroom 7. Kitchen 8. Outdoor Dining Area

0’

8’

16’

24’

32’

75


INDONESIAN RESTAURANT

76


RIJSTTAFEL, a Dutch word that literally translates as “Rice Table”, will be the name of this Indonesian Restaurant. This term, Rijsttafel, was commonly used during the Dutch colonization period in Indonesia. At that time, the Dutch would hold a banquet and introduce a wide array of Indonesian dishes at a single setting to impress their guests with the exotic abundance of their colony. The banquet could consist up to forty dishes, assembled from different regions in Indonesia, served in small portion and accompanied by rice. A line of sarong-clad waitresses would then ceremoniously serve the marathon meal on platters. This lavish banquet has practically disappeared from Indonesian restaurants today, due to the sentiment that rejects the Dutch colonial culture and customs. However, a handful fine-dining restaurant in Indonesia still try to serve this meal in their own renditions to their customers. Regardless of different opinions that the public might have, Rijsttafel has been a part of the nation’s culture and history. It is undeniably a type of sumptuous banquet, but when we consider it in a different perspective, Rijsttafel actually testifies to the richness of Indonesia’s cultural diversity. And it will be a waste if it is completely forgotten by the people of Indonesia.

77


INDONESIAN RESTAURANT

78


79


INDONESIAN RESTAURANT

80


81


INDONESIAN RESTAURANT

82


83


INDONESIAN RESTAURANT

84


85


PRESIDENTIAL SUITE

THE STAR Belief in the One Supreme God This particular principle in Pancasila touches the aspect of belief system that might be considered as a sensitive issue for the evolving Indonesian society. With a wide range of existing religious belief systems, it is only appropriate to find a universal language about God that is applicable to all parties. In the Indonesian context, the general consensus is that God is the perfect, greater being that creates the earth and all its content. And with this consensus, all values that the country holds will be in alignment with the nature and noble characteristics of God. Therefore, the primary focus in designing the presidential suite would be an interpretation of the noble characteristics of God. These will include the idea of creating the spaces in a graceful and refined manner that combines intricate detailing and elegant material finishes to exude a regal quality within the residential portion of the hotel. 86


LEVEL 3

6.

7.

8. 5.

1.

3.

2.

4.

LEGEND 1. Living Room 2. Kitchen 3. Dining Room 4. Master Bathroom 5. Master Bedroom 6. Balcony 7. Bedroom 8. Bathroom

0’

4’

8’

12’

16’

87


PRESIDENTIAL SUITE

88


89


PRESIDENTIAL SUITE

90


2.

2.

1.

1. 91


PRESIDENTIAL SUITE

92


2.

3.

1.

1.

2.

3.

93


COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK

UNBROKEN CHAIN A Just and Civilized Humanity Being able to live together handin-hand demonstrates our ability to be civilized with one another. This notion of being in peaceful coexistence is another integral part of Pancasila, symbolized by the unbroken chain. This chain is depicted with individual rings that are continuously intertwined to one another. In designing the courtyard and the rooftop deck based on this precept, the main idea is to orchestrate a visual connection between the two areas. Waterfall becomes an appropriate choice due to the 35 feet height difference between the spaces. The water will start from a pathway on the rooftop, where some will spill over to the swimming pool and some will come down into a designated pond area in the courtyard. The pond is designed with a series of green islands, adorned with tropical trees and indigenous plants that will provide some shades under the hot tropical sun. 94


9.

10.

8. 7. 6. 5.

LEVEL 1

5.

LEGEND 1. Lobby Outdoor Lounge 2. Restaurant Outdoor Dining

ROOFTOP DECK - LEVEL 3

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

4. 3.

1.

Amphitheater Seating Open Stage Waterfall Feature Swimming Pool Tool Shed Bar Storage Area Rooftop Bar Rooftop Lounge Area

2. 0’

8’

16’ 24’ 32’

COURTYARD - LEVEL 1

95


COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK

96


COURTYARD - LEVEL 1

97


COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK

98


COURTYARD - LEVEL 1

99


COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK

100


ROOFTOP DECK - LEVEL 3

101


COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK

102


ROOFTOP DECK - LEVEL 3

103


COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK

104


ROOFTOP DECK - LEVEL 3

105


COURTYARD AND ROOFTOP DECK

106


ROOFTOP DECK - LEVEL 3

107


ABOUT AUTOBIOGRAPHY

110

RESUME

111

REFERENCES

112


AUTOBIOGRAPHY

An “average” girl, growing up in an “average” family, leading an “average” daily life, until one day she crosses path with the foreign world of art. I think that is an appropriate expression to describe my life so far. Growing up in Indonesia, in a family where logic and facts are the common languages, it was only natural to foresee that my career path would be built upon the fields of science and/or business. Choosing a complete opposite field such as art and design would be beyond my wildest dream. Little did I know that the “wildest dream” has actually become a reality. Pursuing a future as an interior designer has suddenly become an integral part of my life. And it all started with a simple moment of realization back home with my 85-year-old grandmother who was on a wheelchair. Unlike in big countries, such as the United States, where building codes are strictly observed, building accessibilities in Indonesia are not commonly established during the construction, leaving those who need that access stranded, and slowly but surely, choose not to be in the public spaces anymore. This experience made me realized that there is something wrong in the system. And therefore, I decided that I want to be a part of the solution. Expanding my knowledge in the field of interior design has opened up my eyes to various different opportunities that I can be a part of. My greatest expectation is to gain some working experiences in interior design firm in the United States. This will be a great outlet and training ground for me to demonstrate the skills that I have acquired and to learn the work ethics of a professional interior designer. In the long run, I wish to go back to my home country and work professionally as an interior designer, bringing a fresh approach to the industry in Indonesia. Working on projects that are centralized for the local people will be the ultimate experiences where I can grow even more, collaborating with other designers to create honest, strong, conceptual, and sustainable designs that can help to elevate the future infrastructure and the living qualities of the people in Indonesia. 110


RESUME

LOUISA SUTANTO

EDUCATION

INTERIOR DESIGNER 1219 Lombard St. San Francisco, CA 94109 512.508.1203 louisa.sutanto@gmail.com

2010-2013

Academy of Art University - San Francisco, CA Master of Fine Arts in Interior Architecture and Design

2004-2008

University of Texas - Austin, TX Bachelor of Science in Mathematics

EMPLOYMENTS June 2009-July 2010 Austin Community College - Austin, TX Mathematics Tutor

Assisting students for mathematical problems in one-on-one basis, ranging from Algebra to Calculus

Explaining mathematical concepts to effectively generate appropriate solutions for the problems

May 2008-August 2008 Sinarmas Life Insurance - Jakarta, Indonesia Actuarial Department Intern

Generating probability calculations and statistical data, that include insurance premium, benefit, and profit, for life insurance products

Managing spreadsheet database for existing clients and their life insurance products

SKILLS

Autodesk: Revit Architecture, Auto CAD, 3DS MAX Adobe: Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign Microsoft Office: Word, Excel, PowerPoint

LANGUAGES

Indonesian, English

111


REFERENCES Abe, Burhanuddin. “Business Potential in Hotel Industry.” 29 Oct. 2010. The Jakarta Post. “Amanjiwo Resort.” http://www.reefrainforest.com/d128p331/amanjiwo-resort-java.html. “Borobudur Like No Other.” http://www.traveljournals.net/stories/2380.html. BPS-Statistics Indonesia. “Trends of Selected Socio-Economic Indicators of Indonesia.” Feb. 2012. BPS-Statistics Indonesia. “Demography of Jakarta.” http://www.kependudukancapil.go.id/index.php/statistik. Elegant Resorts Travel Experts. “The History of the Raffles Hotel Singapore - 125 Years of Luxury.” 7 Sep. 2012. Elegant Resorts. http://community.elegantresorts.co.uk/the-history-of-the-raffles-hotel-singapore-125-years-ofluxury/. “Garuda Pancasila.” http://ideologipancasila.wordpress.com/garuda-pancasila/. “History of the Old Faithful Inn.” http://www.yellowstone-notebook.com/innhist1.html. “Jakarta.” http://www.jakarta.go.id/web/. “Jakarta Sun Chart.” http://solardat.uoregon.edu/SunChartProgram.html. “Loews Philadelphia Hotel Puts Visitor in the Middle of History.” http://www.city-data.com/articles/Loews-Philadelphia-Hotel-Puts-Visitors.html. “Master Plan Pengembangan Museum Bank Mandiri.” Courtesy of Museum Bank Mandiri. Martokusumo, Widjaja. “The Old Town Jakarta: Perspectives on Revitalization, Conservation, and Urban Development.” School of Architecture, Planning, and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung. “Penetapan Bangunan-Bangunan Bersejerah di Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Sebagai Benda Cagar Budaya.” Keputusan Gubernur Kepala Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta No. 475 Tahun 1993. Sanyal, Sumanta. “Garuda.” 3 Mar. 1997. Encyclopedia Mythica. http://www.pantheon.org/articles/g/garuda. html. “Sahid Hotels Overview.” http://www.sahidhotels.co.id/home/page/en/Sahid%20Hotels%20Overview

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“Sejarah Teater Koma.” http://www.teaterkoma.org/ Tambun, Lenny Listia. “A New Hope for Jakarta’s Kota Tua.” 24 Feb. 2013. Jakarta Globe. Tambun, Lenny Listia. “Dutch Offer Help in Revitalization Plan for Kota Tua.” 22 Feb. 2013. Jakarta Globe. “The Overview of National Tourism and Transportation in August 2013.” “The World Factbook: Indonesia.” https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html. Tjokro, Susanna. “Kembang Goela: Savor the Delights of Colonial Indonesia.” 31 Jul. 2005. The Jakarta Post. “Wind and Weather Statistics Cengkareng Airport/Jakarta.” http://www.windfinder.com/windstats/windstatistic_cengkareng_airport_jakarta.htm.

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HOTEL BHINNEKA - MFA Thesis Academy of Art University