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VOL.2 APR19

PLURALI TY #233060


HKPASS2 0 1 8 1 9 : ENDOFANERA S i nc ei t se s t a bl i s hme nt i n1 9 9 9 , t heL ondonS c hool of E c onomi c sa ndP ol i t i c a l S c i e nc eS t ude nt s ’ Uni on HongKongPubl i cA ff a i r sa ndS oc i a l S e r v i c eS oc i e t y ( L S E S UHKP AS S ) s t r i v e st oa c t i v e l yc ont r i but eba c k t ot hes oc i e t ya ndc a l la t t e nt i ont obo t hpubl i c a ff a i r sa nds oc i a l s e r v i c ei nHongKong . Be i ngt hef i r s ts oc i e t yofi t sk i nd a nd ha v i ng r e ma i ne dt o be one oft he l e a di ng HKP AS S or g a ni s a t i onse v e rs i nc e ,L S E S U HKP AS Si si na uni quepos i t i ont oa dv oc a t ea c a de mi ce x c ha ng e be t we e ns t ude nt ss t udy i ng a br o a d on i s s ue s ha ppe ni ngba c khomei nHongKong . I be l i e v et ha t i ti sourut mos tpr i or i t yt oc a pi t a l i s eouri nf l ue nc e wi t hi ns oc i e t y ,bys e r v i nga sapol i t i c a l l yne ut r a l pl a t f or m f or s t i mul a t i ng di s c us s i ons a nd e nc our a g i ngourme mbe r st opa r t i c i pa t ei ns oc i a l s e r v i c e s . L ook i ngba c konour y e a r s e r v i nga st hec ommi t t e e ofs e s s i on2 0 1 8 1 9 ,weputourf oc usont hr e e t hi ng s :1 )r e a c hi ngoutt ot hewi de rc ommuni t y bo t hi nL ondona ndi nHongKong , 2 ) r e nov a t i ngon t hee x i s t i ngf r a me wor kofL S E S UHKP AS S ,a nd3 ) g i v i ngba c kt os oc i e t y . Wi t hwi de ni ngourpa r t i c i pa t i onbot hwi t hi na nd be y ondL SEa tt hehe a r tofoura g e nda ,weha v e hos t e dt he F ourAs i a nT i g e r s Conf e r e nc e ,i n c ol l a bor a t i onwi t ht hr e eo t he r L S E S Us oc i e t i e s . T he e v e ntha da t t r a c t e dne a r l y2 0 0a t t e nde e s , ma r k i ng t hi sourl a r g e s tc onf e r e nc et oda t e . Ont opof t ha t , wewe r ev e r yf or t una t et oha v et hes uppor t f r om1 8 uni v e r s i t i e st opa r t i c i pa t ei noura nnua l Ca nt one s e de ba t i ngc ompe t i t i on, t heL S EF or um2 0 1 9 , ma k i ng t hi sour l a r g e s t e v e r L S EF or um.

Ano t he roneofourma j org o a l st hi sy e a rwa st o r e s t r uc t ur ee x i s t i ngf l a g s hi ps .T ot hi se ff e c t ,we ha v er e v a mpe d ourpubl i c a t i on P AS SOn a nd pr oduc e dour f i r s t e v e r a c a de mi cj our na l , a si t i sour v i s i ont hi sy e a rt omov ea wa yf r om t heus ua l popul a r i s e da ppr o a c ha nds hiourf oc ust oc r e a t e mor ea c a de mi c a l l yor i e nt e da r t i c l e s . I tha sa l wa y sbe e noneofourt oppr i or i t i e st o e ng a g ea ndg i v eba c kt os oc i e t y .T hi sy e a r ,we s uc c e s s f ul l yr a i s e df undsf orourc ha r i t ypa r t ne r , Di a l og ue i nt he Da r kF ounda t i on Hong Kong , t hr oug hour v a r i ouse v e nt sl i k eour c ha r i t ys a l ea nd t hes oc i a ls e r v i c ef l a g s hi p“ Be a ut yi nt heDa r k ” . Addi t i ona l l y , weha v ea l s os t r i v e dt oc ont i nuet he s uc c e s sofourmos ta nt i c i pa t e df l a g s hi p— Hong KongMe nt or s hi pPr og r a mme ,c onne c t i ng6 0 +of ourme mbe r swi t hs omeoft hemos tpr omi ne nt a ndi nf l ue nt i a l f i g ur e si nHongKong . S t a ndi ng a tt he t wi l i g htofmyt e nur ea st he Pr e s i de nt of L S E S UHKP AS S2 0 1 8 1 9 , I woul dl i k et o g i v eape r s ona l t ha nk st oe v e r y onewhoha sa i de d us on t hi sj our ne y ,be i tours ubc ommi t t e e me mbe r s ,e x c ommi t t e eme mbe r s ,orv ol unt e e r he l pe r sa t our e v e nt s . Mos t i mpor t a nt l y , I woul dl i k e t oe x pr e s s my mos ts i nc e r eg r a t i t ude a nd a ppr e c i a t i ont omyf e l l owc ommi t t e eme mbe r s , f or a l l t heha r dwor kt he yha v eputi nt hr oug houtt he y e a r . Re a c hi ngi t s2 0 t ha nni v e r s a r y , I s i nc e r e l yhopet ha t L S E S UHKP AS Swi l l c ont i nuet ot hr i v ei nt hey e a r st o c ome . T ot hi se nd, I a mv e r ye x c i t e dt os e ewha t t he c ommi t t e eof2 0 1 9 2 0wi l la c hi e v ei nt hec omi ng y e a r ,a nd Iha v ee v e r yc onf i de nc et ha tour s uc c e s s or swi l l t a k eL S E S UHKP AS St one whe i g ht s .

Ot he rhi g hl i g ht si nc l udeoura nnua lChr i s t ma s F or um, hos t e dwi t ht hr e eo t he rL ondonHKP AS S e s a nd t heL a wS oc i e t yofHKU.T hec onf e r e nc e , f e a t ur i ng6honour a bl eg ue s t ss uc ha sDr J uni usHo a ndDrBe nnyT a i , wa sde di c a t e dt odi s c us s i ngt he e c onomi cpr os pe c t sa ndpr obl e msoft heGr e a t e r Ba yPr oj e c t .Oura nnua lde ba t ewi t ht heChi na De v e l opme ntS oc i e t y , he l da tt hee ndofF e br ua r y t hi sy e a r ,pr obe di nt ot hei s s ueofwhe t he rHong Be a t r i c eT s a ng Kongs houl doffi c i a l l ya doptBi l i ng ua l i s ma ndwe Pr e s i de nt of L S E S UHKP AS S , s e s s i on2 0 1 8 2 0 1 9 hopet ha ti tha sbe e na ni nt e l l e c t ua l l ys t i mul a t i ng di s c us s i onf or our a udi e nc e .


EDI T OR’ SNOTE “ Weal lge ts o c i al i z e do nc ebyo urpar e nt sand t e ac h e r s ,mi ni s t e r sandpr i e s t s .[ Re adi nggr e at bo o k s ]i sabo utge t t i ngas e c o ndc h anc e .I t ’ sno t abo utbe i ngbo r nagai n, butabo utgr o wi ngupa s e c o nd t i me ,t h i st i me ar o und asy o uro wn e duc at o r andgui de , V i r gi l t oy o ur s e l f . ” Ma r kE dmunds on Oft hema nypa s t i me st ha toc c upyus , r e a di ngi s notonet ha tr a nk shi g hont hel i s tf orma ny pe opl e . Asa nL SEs t ude nt , f i ni s hi ngt hee s s e nt i a l r e a di ng son my r e a di ng l i s ta l r e a dy s ounds i mpos s i bl e , not t o me nt i on r e a di ng e x t r a c ur r i c ul a rbook sl e i s ur e l y .We l i v ei na c ul t ur et ha t pr e f e r st heg l owof t hes c r e e nt obl a c k i nkonpa pe r . Andwhi l epa r tof t her e a s onf ort hi s l i e si nt he e ng r os s i ng na t ur e of mode r n t e c hnol og y ,a not he rr e a s on i st he i g nor a nc e ma nyha v er e g a r di ngt hebe ne f i t sof r e a di ng . I ti s r a t he ri r oni ct ha tP ASSOn i sonl ypubl i s he d e l e c t r oni c a l l y .Asme nt i one di nt he pr e v i ous v ol ume , I hopet oe nc our a g ec r i t i c a l t hi nk i nga nd oa de nt hepe r s pe c t i v e soff e l l owr e a de r sa nd br c ont r i but or s . Ma nype opl el a me ntov e ral a c kofg oodr ol e mode l sa nd bl a me t he i rpr obl e mson ne v e r ha v i ng be e nt a ug hthow t o de a lwi t hl i f e ’ s di ffi c ul t i e s .Butbyr e a di ng ,i tc a nhe l pmi t i g a t e s uc hde f i c i e nc i e s .Bi og r a phi e soffe rusa c c e s st o r ol emode l swhoe x c e e da nyonewea r el i k e l yt o me e ti nr e a l l i f e . Theg r e a twor k sof f i c t i onde pi c t t hehuma nc ondi t i on, a ndwa y st ona v i g a t ei t , i na wa yuns ur pa s s e dbya nyot he rme di um.Whi l e nonf i c t i onbook spr ov i deuswi t ha c c e s st ot he i de a sa ndwor l dv i e wsofs omeoft heg r e a t e s t mi ndsof hi s t or y . Es pe c i a l l ywhe nl i f eg r owss t a l e , i ti st ot heg r e a tbook swes houl dt ur nt odi s c ov e r ne wwa y sof e x i s t i ngi nt hewor l d. I woul dnots a y P ASSOn, a sas hor ta c a de mi cpubl i c a t i on, i son t hepa rwi t hc l a s s i cg r e a tbook s .Howe v e r ,by s pr e a di ngi de a s , ones t e pa tat i me , I s t i l l ma k ea pos i t i v ei mpa c t t ot hes oc i e t y . Pl ur a l i t y–t het he meof t hi sv ol umei swha tI f i nd i nt r i g ui ngi nma nywa y s . Thena t ur eoft hewor d g i v e sdi ffe r e nti ns pi r a t i onst odi ffe r e ntpe opl e . As

as t ude ntr e a di ngpol i t i c s ,oppor t uni t ypl ur a l i s m a ndc ompl e xe qua l i t yf i r s tc a mei nt omymi nd; a s f or l a ws t ude nt s , pl ur a l i t yv o t i ngs y s t e ma ndj udi c i a l di v e r s i t ymi g htha v eas t r ong e rc or r e l a t i on; ont he o t he rha nd,s omemi g htf i ndi tmor er e l a t e dt o r e l i g i on ordua l i s m/ moni s m i n phi l os ophy .Of c our s e ,t he s ea r ej us taf e we x a mpl e sf orust o e x pl or e .AsIme nt i one di nt hepr e v i ousv ol ume , P AS SOni sapl a t f or mf ort hee x c ha ng eofi de a s . I be l i e v e ,onl ybyc onv e r s i ng ,v e r ba l l ya ndt hr oug h wor ds ,t ha thuma nk i nd c a nt r ul yc ul t i v a t eour i nt e l l e c t ua l f a c ul t i e s , a nde mpl oyi naf ul l bl oode d unde r s t a ndi ngof t het r ut h. Mys e s s i ona st hee di t or i nc hi e fha sc omet oa n e ndt og e t he r wi t ht hel a s t v ol umeof P AS SOni nt hi s a c a de mi cy e a r . L ook i ngba c k , I ha v ea c hi e v e dal o t . Iha v er e c e i v e dc ompl i me nt sf r om ma nyofmy pe e r sa nde v e nme nt or si nt heHKMPr e g a r di ngt he ne wl yr e v a mpe dP AS SOn. No t hi ngha sma deme pr oude rt ha nmypubl i c a t i ona c t ua l l yma k i nga n i mpa c t ,t oc ha ng epe opl e ’ smi nd.I ti sunc e r t a i n whe t he r P AS SOnwi l l s t i l l c ont i nuea sa na c a de mi c j our na li nl a t e ry e a r s , butIhopet hee s s e nc ea nd pur pos eof our publ i c a t i onwi l l ne v e r c ha ng e . L a s tbutno tl e a s t ,Iwoul dl i k et oe x pr e s smy de e pe s tg r a t i t udet omyf e l l owpubl i c a t i ont e a m; e v e r ys i ng l ec ont r i but or ;myde a r e s tc ommi t t e e me mbe ra nds ubc ommi t t e eme mbe ra ndmos t i mpor t a nt l y ,Y OU,a l lt her e a de r sf orma k i ngt hi s ha ppe n. E nj oy ! Che e r s ,

L or r a i neT a ng Publ i c a t i onsOffi c e r of L SESUHKP ASS, s e s s i on2 0 1 8 2 0 1 9


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LSEFor um Ref l ect i on

Twi nkl eChow,PI CofLSEFor um 2019

Ourf i nalf l ags hi pev entoft hey ear-L SE For um 2019,wass uc c es s f ul l yhel don23r d Febr uar y .As our12t hc ons ec ut i v ey ear hos t i ng s uc h a pr es t i gi ous uni v er s i t y Chi nes edebat i ngc ompet i t i on,wehopet o pr ov i de a pl at f or m f or par t i c i pant st o ex pl or ec ont r ov er s i ali s s uesi nHongKong. ev er yhonour edt ohav eMi s sNoel Ng Wear f r om HKETO as our gr andf i nal adj udi c at or ,whooffer edv al uabl ei ns i ght s i nt ot heper f or manc eofourdebat er s . Or gani s i ng t he L SE For um 2019 was a t ough, y et ex t r emel y r ewar di ng ex per i enc e.Wear edeepl yi mpr es s ed by t heamountofeffor teac ht eam i nv es t edi n ex pl or i ngt opi c alaffai r sand t hepas s i on eac h debat er demons t r at ed when del i v er i ngt hei rs peec h. Al t hough eac h debat ei ss hor ti ndur at i on,t heex c hange ofi nt el l ec t uali deas pr ov okes pr of ound i deasont hedev el opmentofHongKong

s oc i et y .Thef or um c oul d nothav ebeen pos s i bl e wi t hout y our ent hus i as t i c s uppor t ,andofc our s e,j udgeswhower e wi l l i ngt ogi v ec ons t r uc t i v ec omment son t eams ’per f or manc e. Admi t t edl y ,t he at t ent i on t o det ai l s r equi r eddur i ngpr epar at i onandf l ex i bi l i t y i nr eac t i ngt o unex pec t ed c i r c ums t anc es ont hedaywer emuc hmor ei mmens et han wet hought .Ourev entwoul dnothav er un s os moot hl ywi t houtgoodc ol l abor at i on. Thus ,wi t ht hat ,t her ear es omet owhom wewoul dl i ket ogi v ees pec i alpr ai s e. To t he v er y dependabl e c oor di nat or , Jonat han,t hank y ou f orgoi ng t hr ough ev er ydet ai lwi t h me and managi ng t he t abbi ngs y s t em.Ihadagr eatt i mewor ki ng wi t hy ou and Iam s o gl ad t hatwe ar e al way sabl et os poteac hot her ’ smi s t akes andr ef i net hem t oget her !


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Toal lc ommi t t eemember s ,t hanky ouf or y ourt i meand effor t-f r om booki ngt he v enuest odes i gni ngpubl i c at i onmat er i al s . Thec onc er t edeffor tofal ls ubc ommi t t ee member si nt aki ng up t he c hal l engi ng r ol es ofc hai r per s ons ,t i mekeeper s and r unner si sal s oc r uc i alt oours uc c es s .We par t i c ul ar l yt hank y ou our Pr es i dent , Beat r i c eand t hef or merc oor di nat or sof L SE For um,f oral lt he adv i c ey ou hav e gi v enusandf ort r us t i ngus .

Forme,t hi si sabi t t er s weetmoment–t he endofL SEf or um c omeswi t has ens eof empt i nes s ,aswenol ongerhav et owor k ont hel ogi s t i c sanddoc ument s .ButIam al s o ov er j oy ed as I hav e been l uc ky enough t os er v east hec oor di nat orand wi t nes st he t al ent sofs t udent sf r om 18 uni v er s i t i es . We hope L SE For um wi l l c ont i nue t o s t r i v e as a pl at f or m f or par t i c i pant st ot hi nk c r i t i c al l y ar ound c ont ent i ousi s s uesi nHongKong.


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SSF L A GS HI P2 0 1 9 : BE A UT YI NT HEDA RK 《凝視,你》 Cha r ma i neMa PI Cof t heSSF l a g s hi p2 0 1 9 Thi sy e a r ,i ns uppor toft heDi a l og uei nt he Da r k( HK)F ounda t i on,L SESUHKPASShe l d i t sa nnua ls oc i a ls e r v i c ef l a g s hi pe v e nt : Be a ut yi nt heDa r k 《凝視,你》,wi t ht he a i mt oe nha nc eourunde r s t a ndi ngoft hos e whoa r ev i s ua l l yi mpa i r e d. I tha sbe e na t oug hy e tf r ui t f ulj our ne yt a k i ng on t hi s e nde a v orofpr omot i ngt hec ompa s s i ona t e a i msof t hef ounda t i on. I nor de r t omi r r or t heda i l yl i v e sof t hev i s ua l l y i mpa i r e d,t hee v e ntwa ss pl i ti nt ot woma i n s e c t i ons : as c r e e ni ngof “ Not e sonBl i ndne s s ” a nds i mul a t i onboot hs .V i s ua le ffe c t swe r e a dde d t o t he Emmy Awa r dwi nni ng doc ume nt a r yt oi mi t a t et heg r a dua lpr oc e s s of bl i ndne s s . Thedoc ume nt a r ywa sba s e don e r i e sofa udi oc a s s e t t e sJ ohnHul l c r e a t e d as t oma k es e ns eofhi se x pe r i e nc eofl os i nghi s v i s i on.Thr oug hut i l i s i ngt he s ev i s ua le ffe c t s s uc ha sa l t e r i ngt hec ol ourt onea ndbl ur r i ng , wehopet omi r r ort hes y mpt omsofRe t i ni t i s Pi g me nt os a ,t het y peofbl i ndne s st ha the e x pe r i e nc e d. Wehopet ha tt hr oug hs he ddi ng l i g htonJ ohn’ sj our ne y ,t hea udi e nc ec a n s y mpa t hi s e wi t ht hos e who a r ev i s ua l l y

i mpa i r e da nda l s obe c omei ns pi r e dt of ol l ow t he i ropt i mi s ma ndpe r s e v e r a nc ei nt i me sof di ffi c ul t i e s .I twa se x t r e me l yr e wa r di ng t o he a rt hepos i t i v ef e e dba c kf r omt hea udi e nc e a ndhowt he yha v eg a i ne dabe t t e ri ns i g hton v i s ua l i mpa i r me nt . Anot he rhi g hl i g htoft hee v e ntwa st heg a me boot hst ha twe r es e tupa c r os st hev e nue , whi c hwe r ede s i g ne dt omi r r ort heobs t a c l e s pos e dt ot he da i l yl i v e s oft he v i s ua l l y i mpa i r e da ndt oa l l ow t hepa r t i c i pa nt st o l e a r nmor ea boutbr a i l l e .Wewoul dl i k et o e x pr e s sourg r a t i t udet ot hes ubc ommi t t e e me mbe r swho ha v e de di c a t e dt he i rha r d wor ki nde s i g ni nga nde ns ur i ngt hes moot h ope r a t i onsoft he s e boot hs ,a l l owi ng our v i s i ont obe c omer e a l i t y . Wea l s ohe l dt he“ Be a ut yi nt heDa r kSi ng i ng Compe t i t i on,whe r ewehopet or e mov ea ny pos s i bi l i t y of s na p j udg e me nt s a nd c ont e s t a nt sc a nbee v a l ua t e ds ol e l yont he i r pe r f or ma nc e , wi t h no c ons i de r a t i on of a ppe a r a nc e , na me ,g e nde r ,e duc a t i ona l ba c k g r oundorot he ri mpl i c i tbi a s . Wewoul d


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l i k et oc ong r a t ul a t et hewi nne r ,V i v i a nL o onc ea g a i n, onhe rs pe c t a c ul a rpe r f or ma nc e . Thr oug h or g a ni z i ngt hef l a g s hi p,weha v e e nc ount e r e dnume r ousne wc ha l l e ng e s ,but i nr e t ur na l s og a i ne dv a l ua bl el e s s ons .Not onl ywe r ewea bl et ohoneours k i l l s , butne w f r i e nds hi psbl os s ome d.Asne wc ome r st o HKPASS,we s t e ppe d outofourc omf or t z one sa nd t ook on a n unf a mi l i a rr ol e , e x pe r i e nc i ngt hec opi ousa mountofwor k t ha t i sr e qui r e dbe hi ndt he s c e ne st oc r e a t ea s uc c e s s f ul e v e nt , whi c hwoul dnotha v ebe e n pos s i bl e wi t hout t he a s s i s t a nc e of t he c ommi t t e ea nds ubc ommi t t e eme mbe r s . I woul dl i k et oe x pr e s smys i nc e r eg r a t i t udet o t hec ommi t t e eme mbe r sf ort he i re ndl e s s s uppor tt hr oug houtt hepr e pa r a t i onpr oc e s s a ndf ore nt r us t i nguswi t hs uc hac ha l l e ng i ng r ol eof or g a ni z i ngt hef l a g s hi p. Wewoul da l s o l i k et ot ha nk ourt r e a s ur e r ,I c y Ma ,a nd s e c r e t a r y ,V a ne s s aL oc k ,f orput t i ng f or t h t he i rbe s te or ta nd a s s i s t i ng usi nt he ma k i ngoft hee v e nt .L a s tbutnotl e a s t ,I woul dl i k et ot ha nkJ a mi eY i p,myc oPI C.I t wa st hr oug hy ourde di c a t i ona ndi ng e nui t y , t ha twe we r ea bl et o wor kt og e t he rt o pr oduc es uc has uc c e s s f ul e v e nt .


p l u r a l

r a l i t y p l u r a l i t y


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Rel i gi ousPl ur al i s m andSoc i et y Mi c hel l eLam,Vi nc iCheng

Shoul d Chr i s t i an c ommuni t i es ai m t oc onver t emphas i son Chr i s t i ani t ybei ng uni que c oul d be peopl ef r omot herf ai t hs ? f ound: “ Di al ogue s houl d be c onduc t ed and i mpl ement edwi t ht hec onv i c t i ont hatt heChur c h… Di ffer entt heol ogi esofr el i gi onspr opos e di ffer ent al one pos s es s es t he f ul l nes s oft he means of bel i ef saboutt r ut h,s al v at i on,l i ber at i onandmi s s i on. s al v at i on” .Al t hought hePopedoesex pl ai ndi al ogue The mai n c aus es of t he dev el opment of c onduc t edwi t hhones t yandhumi l i t yc anov er c ome c ont empor ar y mul t i f ai t h s oc i et i es i nc l ude “ pr ej udi c e,i nt ol er anc eandmi s under s t andi ngs ” ,he gl obal i s at i on, pos t enl i ght enment mi nds et and al s oc omment sonhowot herr el i gi onsmi ghtc ont ai n mi gr at i on.Thi s di s c us s i on depends on whet her “ gaps ,i ns uffi c i enc i es and er r or s ” .I tc oul d be c onv er s i on i st he onl y pl aus i bl er es pons et o i nt er pr et edt hatas ens eofs uper i or i t yi spl ac edon mul t i c ul t ur al i s mac c or di ngt ot heChur c handbi bl i c al Chr i s t i ani t y ov erot herr el i gi ons ,when Chr i s t i ans t eac hi ngs , pr ov i ded t hat ot her r es pons es l i k e c onv er tpeopl ef r om ot herf ai t hst hr oughi nt er f ai t h i nt er f ai t h di al ogue and t he s c r i pt ur alr eas oni ng di al ogue. mov ement do ex i s t . Whi l e Chr i s t i ani t y i s ac knowl edged as a pr os el y t i s i ng r el i gi on,i ti s Si mi l ari deasc oul dbef oundwher eRes t r i c t i v eAc c es s wor t hwhi l e t o c ons i der whet her Chr i s t i ans ’ Ex c l us i v i s t shol dt hepur pos et oi nt r oduc eot her st o appr oac hesi nc onv er s i onar et ooex t r eme, endi ngup t hegos pel wi t ht hehopeofc onv er s i onandUni v er s al bei ngper c ei v edobj ec t i onabl ybyt hec ont empor ar y Ac c es sEx c l us i v i s t smai nt ai n onl yJ es uss av es .I n l i ber al s oc i et y . par t i c ul ar ,Kar lBar t hc al l sf orChr i s t i an t o ent er di al oguewi t hhumi l i t yandopennes s .Howev er ,i ti s ‘ Redempt or i sMi s s i o’ ( RM)i saPapalenc y c l i c ali s s ued ques t i onabl ewhet heri ti spos s i bl ef oranex c l us i v i s t byt heCat hol i cChur c hwi t ht hes ubj ec tofChr i s t i an Chr i s t i ant odi al ogueopenl yand hones t l ywi t ha mi s s i onar y wor ki n a mul t i f ai t h wor l dr emai ns Hi nduorMus l i m wi t hmut ualr es pec t .Ast heabov e es s ent i al . I tf i r s tc i t est heBi bl e-“ s al v at i oni sf oundi n nec es s ar i l ymeanst hatot herr el i gi ousper s pec t i v es nooneel s e, f ort her ei snoot hernameunderheav en ar er el egat edt os ec ondar yi mpor t anc e,whi l s tt he gi v ent omanki ndbywhi c hwemus tbes av ed” .The appr oac hi nc onv er t i ng ot her si shumbl e,i ts t i l l Cat hol i cChur c h bel i ev esChr i s t i ani t yi suni quei n c har ac t er i s esot herr el i gi onsas‘ l es s er ’ . Ther ef or e, i ti s offer i ngt hemeanst os al v at i on.I ti sex pl ai nedt hat t r uet hatev i dent l yi nt heBi bl eandt heRM, Chr i s t i ans empower edbyt heHol ySpi r i t s ,Chr i s t i anss houl d s houl d ai m t oc onv er t .Y et ,undeni abl y ,i ti s mak eeffor t st obr i ngot her st oChr i s t i anf ai t h,as under s t andabl ewhyChr i s t i anmi s s i onc oul ds t i l lbe c ommandedi nt heBi bl e:“ t her ef or egoandmak e s eeni nanegat i v eway , asi nt ol er antorc ondemnat or s di s c i pl esofal lnot i ons ,bapt i s i ngt he,i nt henameof ofot herr el i gi onsaerev al uat i ngt heappr oac hesof t hef at herandoft hes onandoft heHol ySpi r i t ” . How t heCat hol i cChur c hs t at edi nt heRM. RM s t at es“ ev er yper s onhast her i ghtt oheart he ‘ GoodNews ’oft heGod”r ei nf or c esChr i s t i anss houl d Oppos i ngt heCat hol i cChur c h’ sappr oac ht oc onduc t ai mt oc onv er tpeopl ef r omot herf ai t hs . i nt er f ai t hdi al oguewi t ht hehopeof c onv er s i on, Dav i d For dmi ghtc r i t i c i s et hes eChr i s t i ans . Ast hef ounderof RM f ur t herel abor at esont hepur pos eofi nt er f ai t h i nt er f ai t hpr ogr amme,For dwoul ds t r es si nt er f ai t h di al ogueasanoppor t uni t yf ormi s s i on, l eadi ngt ot he di al oguei saboutt heengagementwher edi ffer enc es c onv er s i on ofpeopl ef r om ot herf ai t hs .A s t r ong c anbedi s c us s edi nt hes pi r i tofc ol l egi al i t y .Thi s


12 etbot hi nc l us i v i s t sandpl ur al i s t swoul dbec r i t i c i s ed nec es s ar i l ymeansembr ac i ngt heot herr at hert han Y b y E x c l u s i v i s t s f o r w r o n g l y i n t e r p r e t i n g a n d d e f i n i ng al i enat i ngt heot her ,l i k ehow t heRM es t abl i s heda s a l v a t i o n , b e c a u s e S o l a C h r i s t u s , e x t r a e c c l e s i u m n u l l a s upr emac yf orChr i s t i ani t yov erot herr el i gi ons . s al l usandFi desexaudi t sar ei nt r i ns i ct oChr i s t i ani t y . T h i s me a n s s a l v a t i o n i s o n l y p o s s i b l e b y G o d ’ s g r a c e ur t her mor e,t her ear eChr i s t i answhodonotai mt o F hr oughChr i s tandmus tc omet hr ought heChur c h. As c onv er tpeopl ef r om ot herf ai t hs .For di sas t r uc t ur al t t h e N e w T e s t a me n t s t r e s s e s t h e i mp o r t a n c e a n d i nc l us i v i s t ,he woul d uphol ds al v at i on c oul d be u r g e n c y o f C h r i s t i a n mi s s i o n w i t h t h e a i m t o c o n v e r t pos s i bl ewi t hi n adi ffer entr el i gi oust r adi t i on.For o t h e r s , p e r h a p s i t c o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t C h r i s t i a n s i ns t anc e,s i nc er eMus l i msc oul d bec ons i der ed as houl dai mt oc onv er t ,buti nal es sex t r emeway ‘ anony mousChr i s t i ans ’bec aus et heyhav egenui nel y s d e g r a d i n g o t h e r r e l i g i o n s . t r i eds er v i ngGodt hr oughpr ay erandc ar edf orot her s , l i v i ngChr i s t i anl i v eswi t houtknowi ngt heywer edoi ng Shar i ngt heGos pel of Sal v at i on’ waspubl i s hedbyt he s o. Ther ef or e, i ti sunnec es s ar yt opr es s ur i s et hemi nt o ‘ C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d f r o m a t h e o l o g i c a l i n c l u s i v i s t bec omi ng Chr i s t i anst hr ough c onv er s i on asi ti s p o s i t i o n : “ t h e r e i s o n l y o n e w a y , b u t t h i s w a y i s o n e pos s i bl ef ort hem t oac hi ev es al v at i onwi t hi nt hei r t hati swi t houtbar bedwi r e” , enc our agi ngmember sof ownr el i gi ousc ont ex t . Cof Et obemor eopenandex pl i c i ti nt hei rf ai t h, e s p e c i a l l y i n w o r k p l a c e . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e i d e a o f Si mi l ar l y , pl ur al i s t swoul dar gueChr i s t i ani t yandot her C h r i s t i a n i t y s t i l l h a s a p l a c e o f p r i v i l e g e s o d i a l o g u e r el i gi onsar eequal l yv al i dpat hst oGod.Ther ef or e, oul dbel i mi t edandnott r ul yopenended.ButCof E t her ei snoneedf orChr i s t i anst oc onv er torc hange c C h r i s t i a n s h a v i n g t h e a i m t o c o n v e r t p e o p l e f r o m ot her s ’ r el i gi ousbel i ef s . J ohnHi c kput sf or war dev er y herf ai t hsc oul ds t i l lbel egi t i mi s edbec aus et hey r el i gi oust r adi t i oni ss hapedbyc ul t ur e,emphas i s i ng ot a c h i e v e c o mmo n g o o d b y p r o c l a ma t i o n . unl i k et heCat hol i cChur c h’ sv i ews ,t her ei snos i ngl e ‘ t r ut h’ :“ human hi s t or yand c ul t ur ehav el i k ewi s e s hapedt hedev el opmentoft hewebsofr el i gi ous c r eeds . . . whi c hweknow ast hegr eatwor l df ai t hs ” . Al l l ov i ng God wi l lgr ants al v at i on t o ev er y one uni v er s al l ys oi ti snotnec es s ar yf orChr i s t i anst o c onv er tot her s .


13 Chur c hofEngl ands ugges t st her ei snoc ont r adi c t i on bet weenpr omot i ngc ommongoodwi t hpeopl ef r om ot herf ai t hs( e. g.Wor kt oget hert os t ops l av er y )and bei ng “ c ommi t t ed, i n obedi enc et ot he gr eat c ommi s s i on” .TheGr eatCommi s s i ondoesemphas i s t he nec es s ar yai m ofc onv er s i on:“ go and mak e di s c i pl esof al l nat i ons , bapt i s i ngt hem. Asoppos edt o t r eat i ngChr i s t i anmi s s i onasamar k et i ngex er c i s e, Cof E Chr i s t i ansdo notc oer c e peopl e.Theyar e enc our agedt os har et hei rf ai t hbyl i v i ngasaChr i s t i an di s c i pl ef ort he good ofot her s .“ To go bey ond t ol er anc ei nt opos i t i v eengagementanddi al ogueand c hange”meansChr i s t i anss houl dmak eeffor t sby t el l i ngt heyar ewi t nes s esofs t or i es .Fori ns t anc e,t he ohnNewt onwr ot e‘ Amaz i ngGr ac e’ s har i nghow wayJ Chr i s t i anc onv er s i onhadc hangedhi mf r ombei ngt he c apt ai ni nt he s l av et r ade i nt oas uppor t erof abol i t i oni s m.Chr i s t i answi t ht heai m ofc onv er s i ons t hr oughpr oc l amat i ondonotmak ec l ai msaboutt he dar knes sandhopel es s nes st heyt hi nkawai t st hos e whos eekGodi nnonChr i s t i anway s , whi c hc oul dbea l es ss t r i dent appr oac ht hat wi l lnot be f ound i nappr opr i at ebyt hec ont empor ar yl i ber al s oc i et y .

I nc onc l us i on,Chr i s t i anc ommuni t i ess houl dai mt o c onv er tpeopl ef r om ot herf ai t hsbec aus et hi si s c l ear l yev i denc edt obepar tof ev er yChr i s t i an’ sdut yt o br i ngot her st oanex pl i c i tf ai t hi nJ es usChr i s tandt o enc our aget hem t obebapt i s edi nt ot heChr i s t i an Chur c h. Pr oc l amat i oni st hemos tappr opr i at ewayt o l ead mi s s i onar i esnott o beper c ei v ed negat i v el y . Bec aus e wi t hout s ac r i f i c i ng i ndi v i dual s ’ own di s t i nc t i v ebel i ef s , c ommongoodi spr omot ed, andat t hes amet i meChr i s t i anshast hel ov eofGodi nChr i s t ev i denti nt hei rl i v es , s us t ai ni ngt heai mof c onv er s i on.


14

Whi t e,mi ddl eagedmal e–t hi si swhatappear s on t he s c r een when y ou s ear c h “ j udges ”i n Googl eI mages .Thi ss ear c h r es ul thasr ev eal edas er i ousl ac kofj udi c i al di v er s i t y . I ti so enc ont endedt hatal ac kof di v er s i t yi nt he j udi c i ar yunder mi nest he democ r at i cl egi t i macyandpos esabar r i er t oequaloppor t uni t i esf ormi nor i t i esi ns oc i et y .Lor dNeuber gerc onduc t edanex per i mentonBBCRadi o4’ sLaw i nAc t i onpr ogr amme i n 2013 t oc hal l enge t he not i on t hatamor edi v er s ej udi c i ar ymakesadi ffer enc et oj udi c i aldec i s i onmaki ng. Ther es ul t der i v ed f r om t he ex per i ment was t ha peopl ec or r ec t l yi dent i f i ed t he genderof eac hj udgment wr i t erhal ft he t i me and wer ei nc or r ec thal ft het i me.Thi sex per i ment has pr ov ed t he s t er eot y pes t hat woment endt obemor eat t ent i v et oemot i onsandf eel i ngsandemphas i s i nggender equal i t ynott obeov er ti nt hes ens et hat t heyar enotr el i abl ei npr edi c t i ngt hes exof t hej udgment wr i t er si . e.j udges .Howev er , s houl dwet her ef or ef or got hebel i efofj udi c i aldi v er s i t y ?Ar et her eanymor epr obabl e benef i t st ot heper s i s t entdemandf orj udi c i aldi v er s i t y ?I nt hi sar t i c l e,wewi l ll ook i nt oi t ss i t uat i onofj udi c i aldi v er s i t yi nt he UKandas s es swhet hert her ei saneedf or ani nc r eas ei nj udi c i aldi v er s i t y .

af emal e–s hei sLadyHal e.Meanwhi l e,no ot heret hni cmi nor i t i eshav eev ers atont he Supr emeCour tbenc h.AsLadyHal es t at ed, “ [ I ] nt heSupr emeCour tt her ei ss t i l lonl y meandt heonl yet hni cmi nor i t i eswehav e ar et heSc ot sandt heI r i s h. ”Looki ngatt he bi ggerpi c t ur eoft hegener aldemogr aphi c s oft hej udi c i ar y ,ac c or di ngt ot heHous eof Lor dsCons t i t ut i onCommi t t ee,onl yonei n t went yj udgesi snonwhi t eandf ewert han onei nf ouri sf emal e.I ns pi t eoft hes l i ght i mpr ov ementi nl owerc our t s ,Is t i l lhav et o r egr et t abl ys ayt hatt heUKhaspoorj udi c i al di v er s i t y .

Thej udi c i ar ys houl dber epr es ent at i v e,and i tc anbeac hi ev edt hr oughi nc r eas i ngj udi c i aldi v er s i t y .Cur r ent l y ,hal foft hepopul at i oni nt heUKi sf emal eandnonwhi t epopul at i ont akesupar ound13perc ent .Howev er ,as ment i oned abov e,t hes e demogr aphi cf eat ur esar enotadequat el yr ef l e ed i nt he j udi c i ar y .Rec ents t udi eshav e s hown a c or r el at i on bet ween per s onal v al ues and dec i s i on maki ng i n t hes e c l os ec al lc as es ,wi t hSupr emeCour tJus t i c eswhoes pous es i mi l arv al uesr eac hi nga s i mi l ardec i s i on.Shoul dt hebenc hbemor e di v er s e,t hej udi c i ar ywi l lbet t err ef l ec tt he popul at i onoft hec ount r ywher et her ei sa di v er s i t y ofgender ,et hni c i t y ,di s abi l i t y , Des pi t et he di v er s e demogr aphi c s ,t he s ex ualor i ent at i on,et c .Henc e,opi ni ons Uni t ed Ki ngdom Supr eme Cour thas r e- andper s onalv al uesc anber epr es ent edby mai ned t he domai n oft he whi t e publ i c j udgesac r os st hedemogr aphi c s . s c hooleduc at edmal es .Mer el yoneoutof tobv i ousadv ant agef orj udi c i aldi t went ySupr emeCour tJus t i c eswhohav e Themos er s i t ywoul ddef i ni t el ybef ai r nes s . Thedi s hadaf ul l t i meappoi nt mentt ot hebenc hi s v


15 pr opor t i onat el yhi ghnumberofr epr es ent at i v eson t hebenc hi ndi c at est hatf emal e and BAMEgr oupsar ef ac i ngani mpr oper di s adv ant agef ort hei ri dent i t ywhi l emal e andwhi t epeopl ear eenj oy i ngani mpr oper adv ant age.AsLor dNeuber gers ai d,t hef ac t t hat80t o90perc entofj udgesar emal e s howst hatt her emus tbes omewomenout t her e who ar e bet t ert han t he l es sgood menwhoar ej udges .Gi v enanev endi s t r i but i onofj udi c i alt al ent sac r os sal lr el ev ant gr oups , t hei deals c enar i owoul dbet ohav e al lt hos egr oupspr opor t i onat el yr epr es ent edwi t hi nt hej udi c i ar yi ft her ei sanequal oppor t uni t yi nj udi c i alappoi nt ment .Thi s s c enar i oi l l us t r at est hati ti snec es s ar yt o i nc r eas ej udi c i al di v er s i t yi nor dert oens ur e equal i t yi noppor t uni t yi senj oy edbydi ffer entgr oupsi nt hes oc i et y . Mor ei mpor t ant l y ,enhanc edj udi c i aldi v er s i t ypl ay sar ol ei ni mpr ov i ngt hequal i t yof c our tdec i s i onsbyi nc l udi ngmor eper s pec t i v es .Wemus tf i r s tac knowl edget hev ar i anc ei ndec i s i onmaki ngpr oc es s esamong j udgesofdi ffer entbac kgr ounds .T aket he c ompar i s on bet ween mal e and f emal e j udges as an ex ampl e.Men j udi c i ar yi s l i kel yt o mi s souton i ns i ght sand ar gument st hatwomen j udgesmaybe mor e l i kel yt opr ov i deandt husmakebet t erdec i s i onsandl aw.Thet y pi c alj udgewi t ht he f eat ur esment i onedabov ehasf eweroppor t uni t i est oenc ount erdi ffer entbel i ef sand

v al ues ,t husmaki ngt hei rac c ept anc er ange ofbel i ef s ,ex per i enc esand at t i t udesnar r owert hant hatf oundi ns oc i et yasawhol e. Thi sdemons t r at est hatdi v er s eex per i enc e r ender st hel aw mor er epr es ent at i v eoft he v ar i et yofhumanex per i enc eswehav ei ns oc i et ybec aus eal l j udgesofv ar i ousl i f eex pe r i enc ebr i ngt hei rknowl edget ot hepr oc es s ofj udgi ng,bui l di ngont hei rabi l i t yt oappr ec i at et hec i r c ums t anc esofpeopl ef r om v ar i ous bac kgr ounds and c r a t he bes t r emedi es .Di v er s i t yoffer sanar r ayofobs er v at i onsandi ns i ght swhi c hal l owsnegl ec t ed pos i t i onsand ar gument st o bebet t er appr ec i at ed. Then, a pl ur al i s t i c dec i s i onmaki ng pr oc es s f os t er s dec i s i ons whi c hc anbet t err ef l ec tourc ommuni t yasa mxofv al uesandc ul t ur es .Thi sbenef i thas beenr ec ogni s edbyRut hOwanwhoment i oned t hatt heex pec t at i ononnont r adi t i onalbac kgr oundj udgest omakeadi ff enc ei nt hei rdec i s i onshel pspus hf or war d mor e adv anc ed c ons t i t ut i on pr omi s es . Howev er ,i ti sar guedt hatt her ei snodi ffer enc ei nj udi c i aldec i s i onsmadebydi ffer ent j udges ,f orwhat ev eraj udge’ sbac kgr ound orbel i efmaybe,t heyar et r umpedbyas et ofnor msand t r adi t i onsofj udi c i aldec i s i onmaki ngt hatal lj udgesf eelobl i gedt o f ol l ow.Howev er ,asMc Lac hl i ns ai d,“ j udgi ngi snotanex er c i s eofc ol dr eas ons ,unc ont ami nat edbyper s onalv i ewsandpr ec onc ept i ons . ”Heac knowl edgest hatj udges ar ehumanbei ngswhoc anbei nf l uenc edby


16 hi sownv al uesandbel i ef s .Fur t her mor e,i n R. D. SvTheQueen,t hec our tr es t at edt hat t her equi r ementf orneut r al i t ydoesnotr equi r ej udgest odi s c ountt hev er yl i f eex per i enc est hatmayqual i t yt hem t opr es i deov er di s put es .Tr uei mpar t i al i t yr equi r esj udges t obef r eet oent er t ai nandac tuponi nc om pat i bl eopi ni onswi t hanopenmi nd. Anot herpl aus i bl ear gumentf ori nc r eas i ng j udi c i aldi v er s i t ywoul dbel egi t i macy .Er i ka Rac kl eyar guedt hati ti snol ongers uffi c i ent f orj udgest oes t abl i s hl egi t i macyt hr ough l egalex per i enc e,t hej udi c i ar ymus tal s or ef l ec tt hec ommuni t yi ts er v es . Herar gument ec hoeswi t ht heopi ni on oft heHous eof dsCons t i t ut i on Commi t t ee:“ I ti sv i t al Lor t hatt hepubl i chav ec onf i denc ei nourj udi c i ar y .One as pec tofens ur i ng t hatc onf i denc ei samor edi v er s ej udi c i ar yt hatmor e f ul l yr ef l ec t st he wi derpopul at i on. ”The c ur r enti ns t i t ut i onalnat ur eoft hej udi c i ar y r ef l ec t san ongoi ng pr obl em ofs y s t emi c di s c r i mi nat i ont owar dsmi nor i t i esi ns oc i et y .The j udi c i ar y has bec ome anot her s y mbolofhi er ar c hyand per s i s t entex c l us i on. Wi t hs uc hi mpr es s i oni nmi nd, i ndi v i dual smayf eell i keanoddmanoutandt hus donott r us tt hec our tdec i s i onandev ent he j udi c i als y s t em.Mi nor i t i esi ns oc i et ymay dev el opani mpr es s i ont hatt heyar ebei ng j udgedbyas oc i et yt owhi c ht heydonot bel ong.Thi ss ens eofi s ol at i onf r om t hej udi c i ar ymakesi tdi ffi c ul tf ort hem t o ac knowl edge t he c our t dec i s i on r eac hed s i nc et he c our tmay be per c ei v ed as a bi as edonet hatonl yac c ommodat esal i m i t ed v ar i et y ofbel i ef s embr ac ed by t he whi t emen. Cons i der i ng t he benef i t si nl ong r un,by hav i ngahi gherdegr eeofj udi c i aldi v er s i t y , i tr ender saneduc at i onf unc t i onf orpeopl e i nt hes y s t em andt hos eout s i de.Cons i der t hes c enar i owher ef emal esar eappoi nt ed asj udgesi namal edomi nat edwor kpl ac e. Appoi nt i ngmor ef emal easj udgesnotonl y i n pr ac t i c ei mpr ov est he effec t i v enes sof

c our tdec i s i ons ,butal s oc ar r i esas y mbol i c meani ngofar ec ogni t i onoft henec es s i t yof equaloppor t uni t i esf orwomeni nl egalpr of es s i onwhoas pi r et os er v ei nt hej udi c i al offi c eandpr ov est ot hepubl i ct hatt hej udi c i alappoi nt ment pr oc edur ei sf ai r and nondi s c r i mi nat or y .When f emal ej udges wor ki nt hec our t ,t heywi l lc ont i nuedi s s emi nat et hemes s ageofant i s ex i s t sand pr ogenderequal i t yi nt hej udi c i ar yt omal e c ol l eaguesbehi nd t hes c ene.Whi l es ome maypr opos ear i s kofLi t t l eMer mai dSy ndr omewher ef emal ej udgesc onf or mt opr ev ai l i ngmas c ul i neet hos–pat r i ar c hyduet t hedes i r et of i ti n, i tc ans t i l lbear guedt hat bys i mpl yhav i ngmor ef emal esasj udges ,i t put sanendt ot heper c ei v eds t er eot y peof pot ent i alc andi dat est hatmi nor i t i esdonot s t andac hanc ei nj oi ni ngt hebenc h.Ther ef or e, ev eni ft heac t ualeduc at i onalf unc t i on t hr oughi nc r eas i ngmi nor i t i espar t i c i pat i on i si ndet er mi nat e,s uc hi nc r eas ei ndi v er s i t y i sembl emat i coft hepos s i bi l i t yofmi nor i t i esbec omi ngaj udge,whi c hi ss t i l lc onduc i v et ot hef ut ur edev el opmentofj udi c i al di v er s i t y . Tos um upt hedi s c us s i on,Iwoul dl i ket o quot ef r om LadyHal e–“ Ius edt obequi t e s c ept i c alaboutt hes e ar gument st hati t madeadi ffer enc e.Themor eIhav et hought andr eadabouti tandt hemor et hatIhav e ex per i enc edbei ngi nac ol l ec t i v ec our t ,t he mor eIhav et houghtt hat ,y es ,adi ffer enc e c anbemade.It hi nki tc oul dbemadeon any t hi ng. ”The j udi c i ar y makesdai l yi mpor t antdec i s i ons whi c h hav eas er i ous i mpac tonourl i v esnowandi nt hef ut ur e– whatj udgeshav edec i dedwi l lbec omec as e l awf orf ut ur er ef er enc e. Ther ef or e, weneed ov er tdemogr aphi cdi v er s i t yi nt hej udi c i a r y , s ot hatnotonl ywi l l i tr ef l ec tt hepopul at i ont heys er v e,butal s ober epr es ent at i v es oft hos eper s onal v al uesandt aket hem i nt o ac c ountwhenmaki ngc r i t i c alj udi c i aldec i s i ons .


17

The necessity of affirmative action in achieving social justice L o r r a i n eT a n g

Affi r ma t i v ea c t i oni snotunj us ta ndi sne c e s s a r y t oa c hi e v ej us t i c e .Al t houg hma nya r g uet ha t a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i on i si nc ompa t i bl e wi t hF a i r Equa l i t yof Oppor t uni t y , i tdoe snotme a nt ha ti t i sunj us t .Thi si sbe c a us ei ti spr obl e ma t i ct o a s s i g nal e x i c a lpr i or i t yt of a i r ne s swhe nt he s oc i e t yi sunf a i rt os t a r twi t h.I nj us t i c epe r s i s t s e v e n whe nf or ma le qua l i t yofoppor t uni t yi s uphe l d.He nc e ,a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i oni sr e qui r e di n a nunj us ts oc i e t yt oc ount e r a c tt hei nj us t i c e s . An i mpor t a ntdi s t i nc t i on be t we e nc ompe ns a t i ng s uppor ta ndquot a ss houl da l s obema de , a si ti s i na ppr opr i a t et og e ne r a l i z ea ffi r ma t i v ea c t i on– whe t he r i t i sj us t i shi g hl ys e ns i t i v et ot hec ont e x t oft hes oc i e t ya ndt hena t ur eoft hepol i c y . Thi s e s s a y wi l lf oc us on a r g ui ng c ompe ns a t i ng s uppor ti sj us t( whe nus i ngt het e r m‘ a ffi r ma t i v e a c t i on’ l a t e r , i tr e f e r st oc ompe ns a t i ngs uppor t ) . The c a t e g or i z a t i on of di ffe r e nt a ffi r ma t i v e a c t i onswi l l bedi s c us s e di nt hepr e mi s e .

c ons i s t i ng f i v ea ffi r ma t i v e a c t i on c a t e g or i e s r a ng i ngf r om we a k e s tt os t r ong e s t :Ca t e g or y1 . F or ma lEqua l i t yofOppor t uni t y ;Ca t e g or y2 . Ag g r e s s i v eF or ma lEqua l i t y ofOppor t uni t y ; Ca t e g or y3 . Compe ns a t i ngSuppor t ; Ca t e g or y4 . So Quot a s ;a nd Ca t e g or y5 .Ha r d Quot a s . ( Na g e l ,1 9 7 3 )Iwi l la dopts omec ompone nt sof t hi st a x onomyl a t e ri nt hee s s a ys i nc et he r ei sa ne e dt o ma k eac l e a rdi s t i nc t i on be t we e n c a t e g or i e sofa ffi r ma t i v ea c t i ons . Idonota g r e e wi t hNa g e l . Ca t e g or y1a nd2pol i c i e ss houl dnot bec ons i de r e da sa ffi r ma t i v ea c t i on–i nde e d, t he ya r ee s s e nt i a lc ompone ntofa‘ s y s t e m of l i be r t y ’ f oraj us ts oc i e t y . Thi swi l l bee l a bor a t e d l a t e r .I na ddi t i on,Ra wl s i a nv i e w ofj us t i c ei s a dopt e di . e . j us t i c ea sf a i r ne s s .

Ma nybe l i e v et ha ta ffi r ma t i v ea c t i oni sunj us ta s i ti snotf a i r .To a ns we rwhe t he ra ffi r ma t i v e a c t i oni sj us t ,wes ha l lde f i nej us t i c e .Ac c or di ng t oc ha pt e r4 7 ofThe or y ofJ us t i c e ," F i r s t Affi r ma t i v ea c t i oni sde f i ne da st he“ pr e f e r e nt i a l Pr i nc i pl e : Ea c hpe r s oni st oha v ea ne qua lr i g ht t r e a t me ntf ors oc i a l l ydi s a dv a nt a g e dmi nor i t i e s ” t ot hemos t e x t e ns i v et ot a l s y s t e mof e qua l ba s i c ( Ra wl s , 2 0 0 1 )The ya r epubl i cpol i c i e sa saf or m l i be r t i e sc ompa t i bl ewi t has i mi l a rs y s t e m of i be r t yf ora l l .Se c ond Pr i nc i pl e :Soc i a la nd of c ompe ns a t i on f or hi s t or i c a loppr e s s i on, l c onomi ci ne qua l i t i e sa r et obea r r a ng e ds ot ha t ne g a t i v edi s c r i mi na t i ons , a nds t e r e ot y pe s . Si nc e e he ya r ebot h:( a )t ot heg r e a t e s tbe ne f i toft he t he r ea r enume r oust y pe sof a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i ons , t e a s ta dv a nt a g e d,c ons i s t e nt wi t ht he j us t i ti si na ppr opr i a t et og e ne r a l i z ea ffi r ma t i v e l a c t i on–whe t he r i t i sj us t i shi g hl ys e ns i t i v et ot he s a v i ng spr i nc i pl e ,( Di ffe r e nc ePr i nc i pl e ,DP) ;( b) c ont e x toft hes oc i e t ya ndt hena t ur eoft he a t t a c he dt ooffi c e sa ndpos i t i onsope nt oa l l pol i c y .Thoma sNa g e lpr ov i de sa t a x onomy unde rc ondi t i onsoff a i re qua l i t yofoppor t uni t y .


18

( F a i r Equa l i t yof Oppor t uni t y , F EO) ”( Ra wl s , 1 9 7 1 ) Al e x i c a l pr i or i t yi sa s s i g ne dt o( b) F a i rEqua l i t yof Oppor t uni t y , ov e r( a ) Di ffe r e nc ePr i nc i pl e . Thi si s a l s ot heba s i sofs t r ongoppos i t i onv i e wson a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i oni nt hi spa r a di g m ofj us t i c e . Affi r ma t i v ea c t i on i si nc ompa t i bl e wi t hF EO be c a us e i t v i ol a t e s f or ma le qua l i t y of oppor t uni t y .F EO de ma ndsf or ma le qua l i t yof oppor t uni t y ,i . e .a r bi t r a r ydi s c r i mi na t i onsa r e s t r i c t l ypr ohi bi t e d. F ori ns t a nc e , e nt r yba r r i e r st o wome n or pe r s ons of c ol or , pr oc e dur a l di s c r i mi na t i on,e t c .Compe t i t i onsa r eope na nd f a i rt oe v e r yi ndi v i dua l ,di s r e g a r di ng t he i r ba c k g r ounds a nd r a c e s .( “ c a r e e r s ope nt o t a l e nt s ” ) Affi r ma t i v ea c t i on v i ol a t e sf or ma l e qua l i t y ofoppor t uni t y ,be c a us ei tg r a nt s pr e f e r e nt i a lt r e a t me nt st owa r dsmi nor i t i e sa nd s oc i a l l ydi s a dv a nt a g e dg r oups .F ore x a mpl e , offe r i ngf i na nc i a la i da ndbe t t e re duc a t i ont o pe r s onsofc ol or si ns omes t a t e si nt heUS. Affi r ma t i v ea c t i onsa r eg r oupba s e d pol i c i e s t a r g e t i ng g r oups ,whi c h de v i a t e sf r om t he e mpha s i soni ndi v i dua l . Thi sc a nber e g a r de da s at y peofr e v e r s ea r bi t r a r ydi s c r i mi na t i onwhi c h di s r uptt hef a i rs y s t e m ofc ompe t i t i on.J ohn Ke k e ss ug g e s t st ha ti mpa r t i a l i t yi se s s e nt i a lf or f or ma le qua l i t yofoppor t uni t y .Thes e l e c t i on pr oc e s ss houl di de a l l y be r a c e bl i nd a nd g e nde r bl i nd.“ I mpa r t i a l i t ya s s ur eope na c c e s s t ot he i ni t i a lpoolf r om whi c h pe opl ea r e s e l e c t e da nd s e l e c t i on i na c c or da nc e wi t h pr oc e dur a lr ul e s whi c ha ppl yt oe v e r y one e qua l l y . ”( Ke k e s ,1 9 9 5 )Affi r ma t i v ea c t i oni st he oppos i t eoft ha t ;t he r e f or e ,ma nya r g uet ha t a l l owi nga ffi r ma t i v ea c t i onl e a dst hes a mec a us e of i nj us t i c e pe r pe t ua t e ,s uc h t ha ti fi s i nc ons i s t e ntwi t ht hei nt e nt i onbe hi ndi t .

t oat r ul yf a i re qua l i t yof oppor t uni t y . Uphol di ng af or ma la nds y s t e ma t i cf a i rs y s t e mi spoi nt l e s s whe nt hes ubs t a nt i v epr obl e mse mbe dde di n t hes oc i e t yha v enotbe e npr ope r l ya ddr e s s e d. I t woul donl ya l l owi nj us t i c et ope r s i s t . Thi si ss e e n f r om ma nyr e a l l i f ee x a mpl e s . Al otofc ount r i e s ha v ea l r e a dyi mpl e me nt e d‘ Ca t e g or y1a nd2 ’ pol i c i e s .Ta k e OECD c ount r i e sa se x a mpl e s , mos t oft he m ha v ec ompl i e d‘ ( Ag g r e s s i v e ) F or ma lEqua l i t y ofOppor t uni t y ’ .The r ea r e a nt i di s c r i mi na t i on l a ws t o puni s h pr i v a t e di s c r i mi na t i onsa nde x t e r na lor g a ni z a t i onsf or moni t or i ng a nd e nf or c e me nt ,e . g .t he Equa l Empl oy me nt Oppor t uni t y Commi s s i on. Howe v e r ,i nj us t i c e spe r s i s t– a l otofs oc i a l di s a dv a nt a g e sa ndbi g ot r i e sa r enot c a pt ur e dby t hes y s t e m.

F ore x a mpl e ,c ul t ur a lbe l i e f s ,ma c hi s mo a nd mi s og y ny .The s ebi a s e sa r es ode e ps e a t e di n t hes oc i e t y .e . g .t heg e nde rwa g eg a pi nSout h Kor e ai s3 4 . 6 %,c ompa r i ng t o ot he rOECD c ount r i e sl i k eBe l g i um,whi c hi s3 . 7 %.Al otof Chi ne s epa r e nt ss t i l l be l i e v et ha tt he i rda ug ht e r s donotne e dt obes owe l l e duc a t e dbe c a us ei ti s not f a v or a bl e t o t he i r pa r t ne r s . Wi t hout a ffi r ma t i v e a c t i on, me mbe r s of t he di s a dv a nt a g e dg r oupsa r el e s sl i k e l yt og e t c e r t a i n pos i t i ons .Thi sl e a v e sa g r e ya r e a be t we e ns ubs t a nt i v e di s c r i mi na t i on a nd a n a nt i pr oc e dur a l di s c r i mi na t i on – onl y c ompe ns a t i ngs uppor tc a nc or r e c tt hi sa r e a . The r e f or e ,“ ma i nt a i ni ngt hei nt e r na lpr i or i t yof f or ma lov e rs ubs t a nt i v ee qua l i t yoppor t uni t y woul d ma k e a moc k e r y of bot h t he e qua l oppor t uni t yi de a la ndj us t i c ea sf a i r ne s s mor ebr oa dl y ,be c a us es uc hapr i or i t ywoul d e v e ntusf r om a ddr e s s i ngt hos eunde r l y i ng F i r s t l y ,r e g a r di ng t he i nc ompa t i bi l i t yt oF a i r pr d i s a d v a n t a g e s f a c e d b y w o me n , b l a c k s , a n d s o Equa l i t yofOppor t uni t yofa ffi r ma t i v ea c t i on-i t f o r t h i n o p e n c o mp e t i t i o n f o r o ff i c e s a n d i spr obl e ma t i ct oa s s i g ns uc hal e x i c a l pr i or i t yt o i t i onsi nt heba s i cs t r uc t ur e . ”( Ta y l or , 2 0 0 9 ) A F EOov e rDi ffe r e nc ePr i nc i pl e , whe nt hes oc i e t y pos d i a g r a m i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x t o v i s u a l i z e ha sne v e rbe e nj us ta tt hef i r s tpl a c e . Affi r ma t i v e t h e i d e a . a c t i oni sac or r e c t i v e , i ts hist hes oc i e t yc l os e r


19 Toput i t l og i c a l l y , t hei nj us t i c es oc i e t yi sf a c i ngi t a tt he i nput ,e . g .r a c i a lbi a s ,di s c r i mi na t i on a g a i ns t t he di s a bl e d, mi s og y ny , e t c . Compe ns a t i ng s uppor tc or r e c t ss ubs t a nt i v e di s c r i mi na t i on by a l t e r i ng t he i nput ;f or ma l e qua l i t yofoppor t uni t ypr e v e nt sa nde l i mi na t e s s y s t e ma t i c a nd pr oc e dur a l di s c r i mi na t i on; quot a sa l t e rt heout put , whi c hi snotwhe r et he i nj us t i c ei s( f or mor e de v e l ope ds oc i e t i e s nowa da y s ,c ompa r i ngt o6 0y e a r sa g o) .He nc e , unde rt he s a me pr e mi s e ,quot a sa r e not pe r mi s s i bl e be c a us e i ti s a s y s t e ma t i c di s c r i mi na t i on. The r e f or e ,t he i de a t ha t a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i onc r e a t e sunf a i r ne s si sde f e a t e d. Affi r ma t i v ea c t i oni sj us t ,a ndi ti sne c e s s a r yt o c ount e r a c te x i s t i ngi nj us t i c e s . Ont hec ont r a r y , i t i sha r dl yj us t i f i e dt onott a k ea na c t i ona ndl e t t hei nj us t i c epe r s i s t . Se c ondl y ,r e g a r di ng t he us e ofg r oupba s e d pol i c i e sa ndt hel a c kofe mpha s i soni ndi v i dua l r i g ht s–us i ngg r oupba s e dpol i c i e st ot a r g e t g r oupba s e ddi s a dv a nt a g e si snotpr obl e ma t i c . Thepr obl e mi st heg r oupba s e ddi s c r i mi na t i on a tt heor i g i n.I ns t e a dofa c c us i ngt hec or r e c t i v e t o be unj us t ,one s houl dt a c k l et he i ni t i a l pr obl e m.Tof ur t he rj us t i f yt heus eofr e v e r s e di s c r i mi na t i on,Iwoul dl i k et opoi ntoutt ha t a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i oni snotus e da s“ t her e dr e s s i ng ofpa s tpr i v a t i ons ,butr a t he ra sa wa y of ne ut r a l i z i ng t he pr e s e nt c ompe t i t i v e di s a dv a nt a g ec a us e dbyt hos epa s tpr i v a t i ons a ndt husa sawa yofr e s t or i nge qua la c c e s st o t hos e g oods whi c h s oc i e t y di s t r i but e s c ompe t i t i v e l y . ”( She r ,1 9 7 5 )Bl a c kpe opl ea r e pr e f e r e nt i a l l yt r e a t e d notbe c a us et he ya r e bl a c k ,butbe c a us eoft hes t e r e ot y pea ndr a c i a l

bi a s e st he yf a c e . Affi r ma t i v ea c t i on i snot a nt i c ompe t i t i v e ,i ns t e a d, i t ma k e st hos e “ s e e mi ng l y ”l e s sc ompe t i t i v ei ndi v i dua l smor e c ompe t i t i v e .I ti ss ol e l yama t t e rofr e s our c e a l l oc a t i on. F or e x a mpl e ,i mpr ov e me nt i n e duc a t i on t a r g e t i ngbl a c ks t ude nt sorc a r e e r pr og r a ms t a r g e t i ng wome n i n bus i ne s s . None t he l e s s , t hel a c kof e mpha s i soni ndi v i dua l i nt e r pr e t a t i on i s not a v a l i d r e a s on f or a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i ont obeunj us ta st het a r g e t e d i nj us t i c ei si nag r oupba s i s . L e t mee ndt hi sa r t i c l ewi t ha na na l og y : s oc i e t yi s ac hi l dwi t hc r ook e dt e e t h;a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i oni s br a c e s .I ti sunna t ur a l ,butt e mpor a l .Te e t hwi l l a l i g nbe t t e rwi t ht hec hi l d’ sg r owt ha ndt hehe l p ofbr a c e s . Wi t houti t , t hej a wmi g htg r owbi g g e r a nd t e e t h wi l lbe l e s sc r owde d,but t he f unda me nt a l pr obl e mc a nne v e rbec or r e c t e d. To c onc l ude ,a ffi r ma t i v e a c t i on i s not i nc ompa t i bl ewi t hF a i rEqua l i t yofOppor t uni t y . I t i sl og i c a l t oa c c us ei t somi s s i onof f or ma l e qua l pr oc e dur e . Howe v e r ,i ti s pr obl e ma t i ct o pr i or i t i z ef a i r ne s sov e r di ffe r e nc epr i nc i pl e , whe n t he s oc i e t yi sunf a i r .Bi g ot r y ,di s c r i mi na t i on, s t e r e ot y pe sa ndpr e j udi c ee x i s t ;t he s ea r et he f a c t or st ha t c ont r i but et oi nj us t i c ea t t hei nput of ac ompe t i t i on/ s e l e c t i on pr oc e s s .I na ddi t i on, t he s es ubs t a nt i v e di s c r i mi na t i onsc a nnotbe c or r e c t e ds ol e l ywi t ht hei mpl e me nt a t i onofa f a i rs y s t e m.I ns t e a d,t he y wi l lpe r s i s ti fno me a s ur et a r g e t st he s e de e pr oot e ds oc i e t a l pr obl e ms . At e mpor a r yus eof a ffi r ma t i v ea c t i on, i . e .c ompe ns a t i ng s uppor tc or r e c t st he s e pr obl e ms .I tr e e s t a bl i s he ss oc i a lj us t i c ea nd t r ul yF a i rEqua l i t yof Oppor t uni t yf ori ndi v i dua l s .

( a l l r i g ht sr e s e r v e dt oTa ngL ongY a nL or r a i ne )


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Dur khei m’ sac c ountoft hei ndi vi duali nmoder ns oci et y Vanes s aLock I n‘ Rul e soft heSoc i ol og i c a lMe t hods ’ ,Emi l e Dur k he i m de f i ne ds oc i ol ogya st hes t udyof obj e c t i v es oc i a l f a c t st ha t “ … mus t bes t udi e da s t hi ng s ,t ha ti s ,a sr e a l i t i e se x t e r na lt ot he i ndi v i dua l ”( Dur k he i m1 8 9 5 ) .Hea soneoft he k e yf i g ur e sofpos i t i v i s ts oc i ol ogy ,us e dt he oppos i ngf or c e sofi ndi v i dua la ndt hes oc i a la s t hema i ns our c eof c onf l i c t , t e ns i ona nde ne r gy i nhi st he or y .Thi se s s a yi sg oi ngt odi s c us s Dur k he i m’ sa r g ume nt s on t he ‘ powe r ’of s oc i e t a lf or c e s ,us i nghi sl i t e r a t ur eonSui c i de a nd Di v i s i on of L a bour , f ol l owe d by c ount e r a r g ume nt s oft he t wo a nd f i na l l y c omi ngt ot hec onc l us i ont owhyIbe l i e v et ha t s oc i a lr e g ul a t i oni nt e r msoft hea mounta nd s t r i c t ne s s of e nf or c e me nt i sr e l e v a nt t o i ndi v i dua l si nmode r ns oc i e t y ;y e t ,‘ pe r s ona l f a c t or s ’a l s o c a r r yas i g ni f i c a nt r ol ei n de c i s i onma k i ng ofi ndi v i dua la nd t ha tt he e x t e ntt owhi c hs oc i a lnor msa ffe c ti ndi v i dua l s a l s ode pe ndsupont he i ra g e sa ndt he i ra bi l i t y ot hi nkc r i t i c a l l y . He nc e , ha v i nga ni nf l ue nc eon t t heov e r a l l be ha v i orof t hemode r ns oc i e t y . Soc i a l s ol i da r i t y , whi c h r e pr e s e nt s t he c ohe s i v e ne s sa ndv i a bi l i t yof as oc i e t y , ba s e don s oc i a lr e g ul a t i ona nds oc i a li nt e g r a t i on;i sa pr i nc i pa lt he mei nt hewor kofDur k he i m on s oc i a lor de ri ns oc i e t y .Bys howi nghows oc i a l f or c e sov e r c omei ndi v i dua lf or c e sa ndc ont r ol i ndi v i dua l s , Dur k he i mde mons t r a t e dt hepowe r of s oc i a l , r e l a t i v et oi ndi v i dua l , f or c e sa nds ot he s c i e nt i f i cl e g i t i ma c yof s oc i ol ogy . Whi l s tt hea c t ofs ui c i dei sg e ne r a l l yc ons i de r e da sapa t e nt l y pr i v a t ebe ha v i ori ns oc i e t y ,Dur k he i m,i nhi s s t udy of‘ Sui c i de ’( 1 8 9 7 ) ,a r g ue dt ha tt he t e nde nc yt os ui c i dede pe nde dont hena t ur eof t hei ndi v i dua l ’ sr e l a t i ont os oc i e t y ,r a t he rt ha n i ndi v i dua l ps y c hol ogy . Hedi s t i ng ui s he ds ui c i de i nt o3ma i nt y pe sa c c or di ngt ot he i rc a us a t i on– a l t r ui s t i cs ui c i dewhe r et hei ndi v i dua li st oo s t r ong l yi nt e g r a t e di nt os oc i e t ya ndt ha tt he s oc i e t yr e qui r e st hei ndi v i dua lt os a c r i f i c ei t s l i f e ; e g oi s t i cs ui c i dewhe r et hei ndi v i dua li snot i nt e g r a t e di nt os oc i e t ye noug ha nd i s not s ubj e c tt ot hec ol l e c t i v ef or c e st opr e v e nts uc h a na c t ; l a s t l y , a nomi cs ui c i dewhi c hde pe ndson

t hes oc i a lr e g ul a t i onoft hei ndi v i dua l ’ sde s i r e a nda mbi t i ons . I nmode r nEur ope , t her a t e sof s ui c i dedi ffe r e dbe t we e nr e l i g i ousg r oup.t he r a t eofs ui c i dewa shi g he ri na r e a soc c upi e dby t hePr ot e s t a nt s ,c ompa r e dt oa r e a soc c upi e d pr e domi na nt l y by t he Ca t hol i c .Dur k he i m a r g ue dt ha tt hi swa sduet ohow r e l i g i oni s e mbe dde di nt ot heda i l yl i f eoft hei ndi v i dua l a ndt ha tt r a di t i ona l Ca t hol i c i s m di s c i pl i ne dt he l i f eoft hebe l i e v e rt hr oug he x t e ns i v er i t ua la nd t hemor ei nt e g r a t e dape r s onwa si nt os oc i e t y ; t he l e s sl i k e l ye g oi s t i cs ui c i de wi l loc c ur . Thr oug hhi sobs e r v a t i onont hes t a t i s t i c a l r a t e s ofs ui c i der e c or de dwhi c hr e ma i nc ons t a nti n di ffe r e ntpe r s pe c t i v ea ndt ha tt her a t e sf a i lt o s how a n obs e r v a bl ec or r e l a t i on be t we e n s ui c i da l r a t e sa ndps y c hopa t hol og i c a l r a t e s , he c onc l ude dt ha tdi ffe r e nc e si nr a t e sofs ui c i de c oul dnotbee x pl a i ne dbyi ndi v i dua l f a c t or s . Howe v e r ,Dur k he i m ha sbe e nc r i t i c i s e dwi de l y by s oc i ol og i s t sf or hi s me t hodol og i e s of a na l y s i ngt hei mpor t a nc eofs oc i e t a lf or c eon i ndi v i dua l s . F i r s t l y , i ns t i t ut i ona l i s e dr e l i g i onwa s us e da st hee x c l us i v eme t hodofbi ndi ngt he i ndi v i dua l t os oc i a l nor msa nds t r uc t ur e . Whi l s t t he g e ne r a l i s a t i on of r e l i g i ous pr a c t i c e s i mpl i f i e st he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s ,nume r ous a s s umpt i onsha v ebe e nma deont her i t ua l s a ndi nf a c tt hee ffe c t sofs uc hr e l i g i ousr i t ua l s a ndpr a c t i c e smi g hti nc urdi ffe r e nti mpa c ton


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e a c hi ndi v i dua l , de pe ndi ngont he i rupbr i ng i ng a ndpe r s ona l e x pe r i e nc e s . The r e f or e , i ti sunf a i r t o di r e c t l yc ompa r et he s ui c i de r a t e s of i ns t i t ut i ona l i s e dr e l i g i ons .JD Doug l a sa l s o que s t i one dt her e l i a bi l i t yoft heus eofoffi c i a l s t a t i s t i c sofs ui c i da lr a t e swhi c h ma yi nf l i c t s y s t e ma t i cbi a s e s .J e a nBa e c hl e ra r g ue dt ha t s ui c i dec a nnotbee x pl a i ne dwhol l yi nt e r msof e x t e r na l f a c t or sa nds oc i a l nor ms . Shebe l i e v e s t ha ts ui c i demus ta l wa y st oc e r t a i ne x t e ntbe e x pl a i ne dt hr oug h‘ pe r s ona lf a c t or s ’t ha ta r e uni quet oa ni ndi v i dua l .Sui c i dei s n’ tpur e l y c a us e dbys oc i a l nor msa si ti si mpos s i bl et obe pr ov e nt hr oug ht heus eof s t a t i s t i c sonl y . Whi l s t r s t a nd t ha ti ns t i t ut i ona lpr a c t i c e sa nd Iunde s oc i a lnor msha v ee nor mousi nf l ue nc eov e r i ndi v i dua l s ’l i f ea ndt ha tapa t t e r nofbe ha v i or doe so e ne x i s twi t hi ns t r a t i f i e dg r oupsa s i de nt i f i e dbyDur k he i m, I be l i e v et ha t‘ pe r s ona l f a c t or s ’pl a yas i g ni f i c a ntr ol ewi t hi ni t .Soc i a l nor msmi g htha v er e s t r i c t e dc e r t a i ng r oups r om ha v i nga c c e s st oc e r t a i noppor t uni t i e sor f s k i l l s .Howe v e r ,wi t hi nt he l i mi t s ,t he r ea r e c hoi c e st ha ti ndi v i dua l sc oul dma k e , a ndt he s e de c i s i ons a r e ma de ba s e d on pe r s ona l e x pe c t a t i ons ,e x pe r i e nc e s a nd i ndi v i dua l t houg ht sorbe l i e f . The s ec oul da l s oc ha ng ea s c r i t i c a l t hi nk i ngde v e l opst hr oug ha g e . F or e x a mpl e , i nHongKong , t het op5t r a di t i ona l l oc a ls c hool sa r ee i t he rCa t hol i corChr i s t i a n s c hool sa ndduet ot hes oc i a lnor m ofpa r e nt s c ompe t i ngf oras pa c ef ort he i rownc hi l dr e nt o s t udyi nt opi ns t i t ut i ons , t hema j or i t yof c hi l dr e n bor ni nf a mi l y wi t h hi g he x pe c t a t i ons a r e ba pt i z e di nor de rt os e c ur eas pa c ea ts uc h i ns t i t ut i ons . Whi l s ti ti st r uet ha ti ti sduet ot he s t r ongs oc i a lf or c e sa sr e f e r r e dbyDur k he i m whi c h ha v e ov e r c a me t he c hi l dr e n’ s unde v e l ope di ndi v i dua lf or c e s ,ma k i ngt he m be c omeba pt i z e d.The s ec hi l dr e nc oul di nf a c t e x e r c i s es ome de g r e ef r e e dom wi t hi nt he s y s t e m;f ore x a mpl e ,r e l i g i ouspr a c t i c es uc ha s t t e ndi ng we e k l y ma s s ,i s notc ompul s or y a wi t hi nt he s ei ns t i t ut i ons .Mor e ov e r ,i ti so e n t he c a s et ha ta si ndi v i dua l spur s ue f ur t he r e duc a t i onorpa r t i c i pa t ei nt hel a bourma r k e t ,

t he ydi s c ont i nuewi t ht he‘ be l i e f ’ofr e l i g i on v ol unt a r i l y .The r e f or e ,i ti st r uet o ac e r t a i n e x t e nt t ha t s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e sa ndf or c e sha v et he powe rt oi nf l ue nc ei ndi v i dua l si n mode r n s oc i e t y ,e s pe c i a l l ya tt hee a r l ys t a g e sofl i f e whe nc r i t i c a lt hi nk i ng s k i l l sa r e n’ tma t ur e . Howe v e r ,a sJ e a n Ba e c hl e ra r g ue d,c e r t a i n huma n be ha v i or sc a nnotbe e x pl a i ne d by e x t e r na l f a c t or sa nds oc i a l s t r uc t ur e ; he nc e , i ti s a r g ua bl yt r ue t ha ti ndi v i dua la nd pe r s ona l f a c t or ss t i l lpl a yma i nr ol ei nt heope r a t i onof s oc i e t ya sc hoi c e ss t i l l e x i s twi t hi nl i mi t a t i ons . Dur k he i m,i n hi swor k on ‘ The Di v i s i on of L a bouri nSoc i e t y ’( 1 8 9 3 ) ,wa sa l s oc onc e r ne d wi t hs oc i a lor de ra ndhowt hemode r ns oc i e t y f unc t i onwi t ht hee x i s t e nc eof i ndi v i dua l i s ma nd i ndi v i dua l a ut onomy . Or g a ni c s ol i da r i t y c ha r a c t e r i z e ss oc i e t i e swi t har e l a t i v e l yg r e a t di v i s i onofl a bourwhe r ei ndi v i dua l sf unc t i on i nt e r de pe nde nt l yi ns oc i e t ya ndt hi sf e a t ur ei s pa r t i c ul a r l yphe nome na li nmode r ns oc i e t ya s e c onomi ca g e nt si nc r e a s i ng l yr e l y on t he me c ha ni s m of l a bours pe c i a l i z a t i ont oi nc r e a s e e ffi c i e nc y .Ast hec ol l e c t i v ec ons c i ous ne s sof me c ha ni c a ls ol i da r i t yde c l i ne s , e a c hi ndi v i dua l i nmode r ns oc i e t yha sas e pa r a t es e toft a s k s whi c ht he y ha v et o pe r f or m.Ac c or di ng t o Ant hony Gi dde ns ,t he r ei sa “ f unc t i ona l i nt e r de pe nde nc ei nt hedi v i s i on ofl a bour … e x pa ns i onoft hedi v i s i onofl a boura r ehe nc e a s s oc i a t e d wi t h i nc r e a s i ng i ndi v i dua l i s m. ” ( Gi dde ns ,P . 7 7 ) .Dur k he i ma r g ue dt ha twhi l s t t he r ea r ei ndi v i dua la nddi ffe r e nt i a t e dg r oups , t t hes a met i me , s oc i a l s ol i da r i t ye x i s t s , but i na a ne wf or m.Unde rt he di v i s i on ofl a bouri n mode r ns oc i e t y ,s ol i da r i t y“ pr e s ume st he i r ( l a bor s ’ ) di ffe r e nc e ”( Di v i s i on, 1 3 1 ) . Ac c or di ngt o Dur k he i m, a s‘ i ndi v i dua l pe r s ona l i t y ’ ha s me r g e dt og e t he ra nd f or me da‘ c ol l e c t i v e pe r s ona l i t y ’ i nmode r ns oc i e t y , i ndi v i dua l snow de pe ndmor es t r i c t l yont heope r a t i onof s oc i e t y a sl a bour f or c e s be c ome mor e di v i de d. Dur k he i m us e dt hea na l ogyofa nor g a ni s m, c ompa r i ngi ndi v i dua l s ’ di ffe r e nc e sa sa nor g a n wi t ht he i rownf unc t i on; a ndt ha ti ti st heuni t y of t he s e‘ or g a ns ’ whi c ha l l owst he‘ or g a ni s m’ t o


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t he s e‘ or g a ns ’whi c ha l l owst he‘ or g a ni s m’t o f unc t i on. I nhi swor ki nTheDi v i s i onof L a bour , Dur k he i m ha sbe e nc r i t i c i s e dwi de l ybys oc i ol og i s t sf orhi s g e ne r a l i s a t i on of mode r n s oc i e t y . Whi l s t Dur k he i m’ sa r g ume ntofor g a ni cs ol i da r i t yon t hedi v i s i onoft hel a bouri ns oc i e t ydoe spi n down s ome c ha r a c t e r i s t i c st ha tha v et a k e n pl a c edur i ngi ndus t r i a l i s a t i oni nt hewe s t e r n wor l d, t he v a r i a t i on i ns oc i a l nor ms of noni ndus t r i a l i s e ds oc i e t i e si nt he mode r n wor l di snot c ons i de r e da sme nt i one dbyBr i t i s h l e g a lphi l os ophe rMi c ha e lCl a r k e .Soc i ol og i s t Robe r tMe r t on a l s o poi nt e d outt ha tt he me t hods a nd c r i t e r i a of phy s i c a ls c i e nc e a dopt e dbyDur k he i mt oe x pl a i na nde v a l ua t e t hemode r nwor l di sami s f i t . I a g r e ewi t hRobe r t Me r t on’ sa r g ume nt a s put t i ng t oo muc h e mpha s i s on t he i mpor t a nc e ofs t r uc t ur a l f unc t i ona l i s m,wi l ll e a dt ot he f a i l ur et o a c k nowl e dg ei ndi v i dua la g e nc ya ndc a pa c i t y f ors e l f c r e a t i oni nt hepr e s e nc eofdi v i s i onof l a bour i n s oc i e t y . The r e l a t i on be t we e n i ndi v i dua la nds oc i e t ys houl da l s obede ba t e d be f or ea s s umi ngt ha ts oc i a ls t r uc t ur e sa ndt he ‘ or g a ns ’r e qui r e dwi t hi ni t ,de f i nei ndi v i dua l i t y whe na s s e s s i ngt hea c c ountofi ndi v i dua l si n mode r n s oc i e t y . Es s e nt i a l l y , r e g ul a r i t i e s , c us t omsa ndr ul e se x i s ti ns oc i e t i e st og ov e r n huma n be ha v i our .Howe v e r ,mode r ns oc i e t y a nnote x i s ti nde pe nde nt l ywi t houti ndi v i dua l s ’ c di ffe r e nc e s .I ndi v i dua l huma n be i ng sa nd s oc i e t ywor kt og e t he rf ort hee x i s t e nc eofe a c h ot he r .The r e f or e ,i ns t e a d ofs oc i e t a lf or c e s g ov e r ni ngi ndi v i dua l s ’ be ha v i our s , I be l i e v et ha t bot he nt i t i e sof i ndi v i dua l sa ndmode r ns oc i e t y e x e r c i s e powe rov e re a c h ot he r .L a s t l y ,t he t hodol ogy ofpos i t i v i s m s houl da l s o be me que s t i one d. Dur k he i m, a sapos i t i v i s t , v i e wt ha t s oc i ol og i c a l phe nome nac oul dbee x pl a i ne dby us i ngt heme t hodsof na t ur a l s c i e nc e . Howe v e r , s uc h me t hod i nv ol v e sc e r t a i na s s umpt i ons , s uc ha st hes y s t e ma t i cbe ha v i ourofhuma n, whi c hc oul dbei na ppr opr i a t ef ort hes t udyof s oc i e t y . Ant i pos i t i v i s t s ,a l s o k nown a s i nt e r pr e t i v i s t s , poi nt e d out t ha t huma n be ha v i ouri ss ubj e c tt oc ha ng e s ,e s pe c i a l l y whe nt he ya r ea wa r eoft heobs e r v a t i ont a k i ng pl a c e .

The r e f or e ,t he ya r g ue dt ha ti n or de rt o unde r s t a nds oc i a la c t i ons ,i ti sne c e s s a r yf or s oc i ol og i s t st o de l v ei nt ot he r e a s onsa nd me a ni ng s be hi nd huma n be ha v i our .F or e x a mpl e , i nt hes t udyof c r i me , r a t he r t ha nus i ng qua nt i t a t i v eme t hodst oi de nt i f ypa t t e r nsa nd c or r e l a t i onsa swoul dha v ebe e ndonebya pos i t i v i s t ,a ni nt e r pr e t i v i s t woul ds e e kt o unde r s t a ndt hev a r y i ngde f i ni t i onofc r i mei n s oc i e t ybe f or ei de nt i f y i ngc r i mi na l si nmode r n s oc i e t y . Whi l s tI unde r s t a ndt hel i mi t a t i onsofa pos i t i v i s t a ppr oa c h i n s oc i ol ogy , s uc h qua nt i t a t i v e me a s ur e ha si t ss i g ni f i c a nc ei n i de nt i f y i ng t r e nds f orf ur t he ri nv e s t i g a t i ons . The r e f or e ,Dur k he i m’ ss t udi e sonbot hSui c i de a ndTheDi v i s i onofL a boura r es i mpl i s t i ca nd c oul dbet a k e nas t e pf ur t he r , c ons i de r i nghow i nt e r na l f a c t or sa ndpe r s ona l r e a s onsma ypl a y ar ol ei nbot hc i r c ums t a nc e si nmode r ns oc i e t y . T oc onc l ude , Dur k he i m’ ss t udi e si nTheDi v i s i on ofL a boura ndSui c i det oal a r g ee x t e ntha v e bot hde mons t r a t e dt hepowe rofs oc i a lf or c e s on i ndi v i dua l s i n t he mode r n s oc i e t y . Ne v e r t he l e s s ,t hepos i t i v i s ta ppr oa c hus e dby Dur k he i mc oul donl yi de nt i f yt hepa t t e r nsa nd e x i s t i ngc or r e l a t i onsbe t we e nr e l i g i ousg r oups a ndr a t e sofs ui c i dea nds uc hf i ndi ng sma ynot be s i g ni f i c a nt g i v e nt ha t hi sa c c ount of i ndi v i dua l s i n mode r n s oc i e t y l a c k c ons i de r a t i onofa nyot he rf a c t or swhi c hmi g ht ha v ec ont r i but e dt ohuma nbe ha v i our s . Whi l s tI a g r e et ha ts oc i a lf or c e sha v ea ni mme ns e i mpa c tonl i mi t i ngc hoi c e sofi ndi v i dua l s ,t he i r be ha v i our ne v e r t he l e s s i nv ol v e s pe r s ona l f a c t or sa sc hoi c e sa r enotc utoffc ompl e t e l y . The r e f or e ,i nor de rt oc omet oac onc l us i onof t hea c c ountofi ndi v i dua l si nmode r ns oc i e t i e s , awi de rwa yof r e s e a r c hi sr e qui r e d.


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Thef i r s ty earatL SEc anbedaunt i ng.Awayf r om homef ort hef i r s tt i mewhi l s tf ac ed wi t hi mmens ewor kl oadandpr es s ur eoni nt er ns hi ps ,t hes t r es sandanx i et yc anpi l e up.TheHongKongMent or s hi pPr ogr amme( HKMP)hashel pedeas es omeofmy wor r i esbypr ov i di ngmeapl at f or mt oc onnec twi t hal umnioft hes c hoolandl ear n mor eaboutmypot ent i alf ut ur ec ar eerpat h.Hav i ngt hepr i v i l eget omeetMr .Jat SewTongandMr . Al anLeongKatKi tt hr ought hepr ogr ammehav eal l owedmet ogai n adeeperi ns i ghti nt ot hewor kofabar r i s t er .Thi si st r ul ybenef i c i alt omeasal aw s t udentwhoi ss t i l lex pl or i ngmyc ar eeropt i ons .Thec onv er s at i ondi dnots t opt her e. Thet al kwi t hMr .Al anLeonghasex t endedt odi s c us s i ngt hedet er i or at i ngr ul eofl aw i nHongKong,ac ont r ov er s i aly eti mpor t antmat t ert hats omepeopl ei nHongKong ar ec onc er nedwi t hwi t nes s i ngt hegov er nment ’ sr ec ents t anc eonv ar i ousmat t er s .I t ac t edasar emi nderf ormet os t ayupdat edwi t ht henewsi nHongKong,t hepl ac eI c al lhomeandf or mul at emyownopi ni onwi t ht hel egalknowl edgeIhav eac qui r ed. Themeet i ngwi t hJatSewTongwasmor el i ght hear t edasher emi ni s c edabouthi sl i f e atL SEands har edwi t hust hef oodt hatweneedt ot r youti nLondon.I twasas hoc k t ousal lwhenwef oundoutt hatt heL SE’ sFi r s tY earCr i mi nalLawLec t ur ehasbeenon Monday910am s i nc ehi st i meatt hes c hool .Whi l s tIs t i l ldon’ tknowf orc er t ai nwhat l i esaheadf ormei nt hef ut ur e,HKMPwasawor t hwhi l eex per i enc et hatenabl edme t ol ear n mor e aboutt he s t or i esand s uc c es soft he al umni .I tal s o ac t sasa r eas s ur anc et o meatt i mesofhes i t ancyt hatIwi l lbeabl et o pul lt hr ough t he c hal l engi ngc our s east heyhav e.


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Par t i c i pat i ngi nt heHKMPpr ogr ammehasbeenar ewar di ngex per i enc ef orme,not l eas tbec aus ey ou gett o know t hes e pr omi nentf i gur es wor ki ng i n al ls or t s of pr of es s i ons ,butal s ot heunf et t er edi ns i ght st heyar ewi l l i ngt os har et oment ees .Bot h ofmyment or st hi sy ear-MrJatSewt ongandMrAl v i nY eung-hav ebeenex t r emel y f r i endl y ,appr oac habl e,andopent oanyques t i onswehav e.Thewayt hatmeet i ngsar e or gani s edal l owedi ndept hdi s c us s i onst obemadebet weenment or sandment ees , i ns t eadoft heol df as hi onedwayofhav i ngami ni l ec t ur e.Ic ans t i l lr ememberhow f ul f i l l i ngi twast oar guewi t ht hel eaderofapol i t i c alpar t yabouthi spar t y ’ spol i cy .I t maybei nt i mi dat i ngf orment eesatf i r s t ,y etwi t houtt hes eoppor t uni t i es ,Is hal lnev er benef i tf r om t hei ropi ni onsandc ons i deri s s uesf r om t hei rper s pec t i v es . Onapr ac t i c alnot e,HKMPmeet i ngspr ov i dedmewi t hani nv al uabl eoppor t uni t yt o hearaboutment or s ’adv i c eandex per i enc esbot hpr of es s i onal l yandper s onal l y .I twas l ov el yt ohearf r om MrJat ,f orex ampl e,abouthi ss t or i esatL SEandhowi tdr as t i c al l y di f f er sf r om our s .Af t eral l ,t hekeyt akeawayf ormyHKMPmeet i ngswast hatt heone t hi ngi nc ommonwast hatbot hmyment or swer ev er ypas s i onat eaboutt hewor kt hey ar epur s ui ng.Ibel i ev et hati st her eas onwhyt heyar es os uc c es s f uli nt hei rc ar eer s . Fur t her mor e,Iam ex t r emel ygr at ef ult obot hmyment or sandL SESUHKPASSf ort hei r c ont r i but i onsi nt heHKMP .


C O MMI T T E EO FH K P A S S2 0 1 8 1 9 Pr e s i de nt Be a t r i c eT s a ng

Publ i c at i onsOffi c e r Se c r e t ar y L or r a i neT a ng Che r y l L a u

e nt sOffi c e r I nt e r nal V i c ePr e s i de nt Ev Br i a nY u Nov aY u

T r e as ur e r St e pha ni eSo

Ex t e r nal V i c ePr e s i de nt Br e nda nHo Publ i cA ffai r sOffi c e r Re g i naL a i Soc i al Se r v i c eOffi c e r L a v i ni aL e e

E D I T O R I A LT E A M EDI TORI NCHI EF L or r a i neT a ng Publ i c a t i onsOffi c e r , L SESUHKP ASS2 0 1 8 1 9 CONTRI BUTORS V i nc i Che ng Mi c he l l eL a m J ona t ha nL a w V a ne s s aL oc k Be l l aMa k L or r a i neT a ng Cha r ma i neMa T wi nk l eChow DESI GNANDL AY OUT Cha r ma i neMa L or r a i neT a ng ( N. B. L SESUHKP ASSI SAPOL I TI CAL L YNEUTRALSOCI ETYANDANYVI EWSEXPRESSEDBEL ONGENTI REL YTOTHE A UTHORTHEMSEL VES. )


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VOL.2 APR19

Profile for LSESU HKPASS

PASS-On Vol. 2: Plurality  

PASS-On Vol. 2: Plurality  

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