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4

ht

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fl

un fi o z

uu rnil rr,i,rfi rir

eaJ

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n

?ruurn nu?nsdru Inryurn r:

riu,iu{0ryafi fi'nrfirnro16'anrryrn:ug fiood.r1:

fif ionrarfluhJl6'-jrnirrioulouyr'r t6:orr:ruri:n:-:r$oufildirrnr:i'ob?rflun:-rriouurntudrr6i (rcttrence

r?{:rrnrngruriolnrfluflfirn:ugfrrriour?rqd 'hJ

t:flrrrrrrruu

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n r:

qj

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d(

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r

od

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r

r

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t qsz fi o to

q

i

luntr:iirn:

a

r ab

ug frorJnfr

thi1d1unnrorrr:1l'urrr nu) nrnLdnrr{urio: ro'iduo,:,r r:

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consumption) rfi o6n


duva tnqvu, tnaun?N fr,1ulav j-

,

4

,

i;

c,

i,

i

nufiqrru (Behrman (1988)

or.

nr

:

iu

rJ

r

6'r

lu.rruii'oto.r ldo r ri r : rfi ur

rJi

rirL

rlril

or

m

Ya

NESDB

ti (

ou urno

yt

il

r.: Flt

il

nI

l r or fi u dr o r n r : fi ri r n': fi

.

eq

: il':^In

Io

fl

u

*tl il

rsss)'ldeil{ol#ii'neirurJiurarnr:riInnfi udru l n uldtn

iA

qH

n'j r rfl u n r : 6 n n r u n n

(1998)),fiuduun'tr,rJiultfiul:rd'l welfare

:st'itnitriou .i

e

l8-19)

Engel's Law (Kakwani and Krongkaew q

.ir

di

ryltilunrrutiluo5.:rnL 1un{nu

frfrqorrilrr.ro"r14r:ilrnilud:od'u1ufrdral{uto.:

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lurarvfr nr:BnnAfi til'onr: til5 ourfi or: vm'jr.:nfrtioulu#r.: tra

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(cross-sectional comparison) ortflntqHarfiu.:fl0 treilunr:nl3 uurfiuuarr ru q 4

J

J

r4t.

tt

l9l (substrtutron and Income

'r' n:2ltOUlJUOgnull.:ruA11-l{9llU5lfllltA3t'lATlilFllU:lU

cffects)

lutnrvfinr:6nflfl

oUtUtn il alt nr

l.tdru:

: f; nu

Engel's La*

lun:fi

rn r (substitution efecD

rt o r

"n

at v vi

rvi

rriu

uu'l6q

t': ru tio.:

cross-scctional corttparison,fiullri

rio

ry

a uo ; iG io

n?

trl

u

In

i)

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II

n

r fl I :

drrn:rvr{n:oun:-?" ludfi:-goruinr rirauol#l#{oryanr:ldiirooi.: iirrr itrfiu

fi '{lflu'

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ir

ornr: rnio.:rj.rriu fio{orfru" rrar1dililrJ:"'rnuriorynli.:b?

ri'uariooqjrarorrvrunr:lda:Lqer^gruto.:{ii't6.:firjrw:':rLd.:nr:fin6on!

Lngel's

La* 6'11u.:tuifi'oto.r NESDB dtu rfl u fi r rri u

o

u'ir nr:

in wel fare t

o.r n

frri

ou

io

0

ri

rfi

.:

CI'

I

n'l rrl d I ll I I

tt

I

0.1

ni':rioulunr:ra^onnJ6uuvrqnn::unr:liJnndolovb?ri-r:v6'l wcllarc fiq.rn-jr d': fl r l irr we fare i o a a u ry fi 'j r n :i ri o u d'o idq fi o n q n n r d n r o 6'r o

.:. .r

r

u

qi r r

or^

I

nr

i

:

rJ

i'o ri

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:

;fl

t; o u

dn r ?i

nr r

urno

il

" dorau ofi'il: rnno qjlu Recommendation

u r

t

uI

n0

or

s o r fr'u n r

u tfi

.z d.r rrrj

ou

rfr .:

rr'lii

:

fr'6 u1 u

n il fl 1 il

1

6'1

n

oro

#n :

ri u

I L u r il'n u t fi o

rt

r

"..the poverty measure should havc the tbllowing characterlstics:

o

The poverty thrcshold r!-prcscnt a budget fbr fbod, clothing, sheltcr (including utiiilics). and a small additional amount to allow for other nr'ctls (e.g., houschold supplies, pcrsona carc. non-work-relatcd transport.ll ion).

o

A threshold for

a reference

family should be developed using actual consunrcr cxpcnditure

data and update<t annually to reflect changes in expenditures on tbod, clothing, and shclter

over the nrcvious J vears."


nu orr orJovoor

rfi'.:xrnhildl#nrruiirri'qrionqor'n::Inr:

tb r ninqi mz u X fi t t

nI:oouI ro.:ni:rioud.rrflu rn5o':u*olunt:r: :rrtnt'lyn ?tilurn0ura0lnurqnrylun:dfi : tuldfi du&rorr: .i

116l (rras

aa

(permanent shocks ro i ncom e ) o u n :i rio u''[

l t : o rl r : r o'l d'l u o u r n l t l dri o u l d loor^irunr:fio'rLrrdrriooldfiurirunr:oorluournsr 6,:rl:;rdufiorrfiold'.irrflu :.j

dr

gr

lneiou6nrJ:vnr:10.:rrurfinfi1#:;d'u: ruld'rrvrufiryrflu:yd'rL:raiiurlflu6':rnJ:

ttnurit:vd'r werfare rro.:nirriou (orir.r1:finrunr:1d:ruiirunilioufifilnciou rri u riu n r : n n 16 o.: ii'u 1 u rJ : : rd u : r o 1 d'n i o : r o ii r u o d u o n rn u^o r o u rt Fr r o q

,nor',rfi) nr:io rnr':yn:rrurnou Inold:ru16'rfl ufi oht;fi ilqur overcsrimation lnfl n i:rf ou ur n r u a nr r : o ddu lu u r u fi : ru 1 6'fl n d r n ri r'rn'on ir r$ o u hi o Ejlu n r-: : n n -i nInam.tndurso (crcdit constraincd) rfl ufi rjlfiunro'jrlun:fi rJ:yrnalvrufr,:1r;il.:ru o t r.ly" : d ::/_..a--l * -i,,i Ttur6.:rl:cfrnri trvirfi{riuun:rl) fifinurlurio.ru rrerouti urTnatxrljullutrro?r 1u fr.:nufinrrr rfrfir?0.:u6o:; u dr.:r1nnn'lun: orniri.:fioqjxo ^nriu:yu'jr.:iy a u n r : r.iu l u ii'.: a

r'l

nunr:

b?n':

r t.r,i

r uru 6 o l u

u r

r

yr n

riu r n

il

r o s fi .: fi o

dtr.in I

ti d.: fi 0 1 d'-i r

lJll il1U].lU ilJO irl d lfl inlbnrrll socirl setr'rvncr

o. n?tilutnou

fi'rury

: nirra;n :

rlu tnoulouril-:'uurfi uu (absolure

and

relative povcrtv)

innlrrurnrulu.: ruir*uinurTrlilrilu nr: inn rruurrrouaurt: ui 6onr rl n n n u d,: u Lifi u o fi'u an ru y n r r u ril, u qin u u u u dr l lu r or ; iio r.,uo',,',ur le urili uurfi uu o; fiu oEj,irg rus lnurili ourfiurlu ri'.: nrx 0.:unn d J vt e4 't rlul drr''-irrurinnnwffrnir.rrqrrnau'rrrn'hiarrr:nuilnnuiuu:oroto,:fr.: n

urn0

fi

u

r

r:

or

ll nn n ln q

qj

nu'rirlrl' uiinnrrion: _

;.

_

,

oun:o.r d

dn u si y ii ii r n'nr il : r n r : u ffu r

or

i

nqn

rn: u g fi r 1 u n i.: fi 6 0 l d'ri r h?r nn j rir.r

nr:ril6ournlollunr: n:y r ro: ru'16'toln:-:riou (rqfiuriorru ) rlu'Iil r rrrrl,u

rl#r

'' ttulfrotn?tu0tnlu'iFruufiuurfiurfifillrrurrinbrrirrsildiunr:nrirrfi.rruiluuri.rfioror..ru",n Snrith (An lnquiry into thc Naturc and Cluscs ol'the Wcalth ol'Narions.

(l9ti9)

lflil

s)

rrnlrro'rrir6,,n:ilrrurjnrRrrrgnrrni:r.rioiulllar

Sprcaking". c)xlirrti Econoniic Papcrs 15.

l5l-i69. nrirtiir.:6.:1u

A. K

n;itrdti6i1il

Srr""r.u

Scrr ('.r,opr. Rclarr'cr'

Srrccrcn (tqxq) tn?r x)

rro;il

nrrufur[udriuttutfinrio.t rclarive inconrc hyporhcsis lunquflnr:uiJnrrrrayrrurrfnrrrrld preference rrullnrifiGun'it habir formation lurtr:oirrruri.lnqin::rrnr:ui'inrt,rrroorr rrnr nr: n.r11u1ur firrnintintol#rrrtlkirnju ou


rruia inclru,

fiautit,t rttutfrr

:cx'ir.:iJ tssz 6{iJ tsso druaorl#r#uodlu:rjd

z

{r.rrir.r Inorcr#uld'ir1u"Jr.:

riourfinrinqorflsH!fio riruurir:ru'l,inuon{uou;4oron'o'16''jrrflrnu'.fi'rnu',0' | J

4

usj

a

se

'

'i z) firrurhilrn'ruq.rfiunaonr':nr Inudrurni.: 16on{u{u:rold'fi : rra; + nrr:rJfi fi rfi ufiuro.rnun{rfi ldurornn1: ananxorriruuri.::ru'ld'rLoonu nrilfi :':ufi qn

tfu : r uldfi s) uriu d'r o r nrfi nri n q o' o u n 4, fi fi ltiir Ha n : r n u E u :.: d q o niu riu lnufiriruuri.::ru'ld'ona.rlurowfin{ru:ruld'dr triu:ru16'd r r,a, z) f,.rn.:fleiru q J ,rytr j 4 tt y J ,nyi .qy .,J a1 ' ttu'l:lu l9ltllulutanu0u fi{uufi]n 'nu0u'(ry{tuuflu tuYu:tu tFtll l) ty:lJ[[1J1J flr:uilnnnr:uilnnro':nui'unar.:rflud''rdruuer:s6'u 'n?r!111flrrflau' rornurrd: rr

r

n?rilurnnuIouril; oilrfi uufi #.:rn^qinqnfi

oc

an#ouno ua{ 16'

d z n r : nJd I u urJ a d u dr u uri{'r r u'l eiuu n n r u'itu : r u'l ei

; il

lrwq

t

I'F& O resrr

5n ,3

-1

2 turu'lIlt

inuiit

.llJfrlfi2

intdr

ull6I:il i

d

q

eq

d

' ' tufi Iru[lJ-1 t0o.:ilnnt3]11J1,0.: uYrn?luulJ1Fr\':?ruIurltotltlJFr?llJn:301I

inqnra:ugfioriodntrynrrrurnnuluil:snrn'lvro lerariuornnr:rrunuucl#rfiu6.: 919t9

otrrqfinolnrfinnrurrnnnr.:lutoaqrJil:g16ufiro,:iruid'o1uo6sr rra16.:rfiouI o.:u r dr n r: irn : ry rir rayi r r: aiHa n: r n u t o ri n q n rd: u g fi o ri o n ilio u ur n r u lu A y

3

i

uu11 n? t.11lu ry{0 1003

0uln9r

qrdr

r

tsluuu:

d q

.

ei

-

-

^3tptu [untsyn?0ur: o{tnu?fl

a d

uu-'" turyqa ngro'Iillu


nu

vu sun totirlb atninqi nt

uX

fi o ?

u::6nrqn:n Behrman, Jere, "Nutrition and Incomes: Tightly Wedded or Loosely Meshed?,"

a

paper in PEWCornell lecture series on Food and Nutrition policv. october I

988.

Citro. Constance F. and Robert T. Michael (editors), Measuring poverry: A New Approach, a report on study by the Panel on Poverfy and Family Assistance Concepts, Information Needs, and Measurement Methods, Commission on

Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995 Kakwani, N. and Medhi Krongkaew (1998)"Povert.v in Thailand : DeJining, Meusunng

and Analyzing", Working Paper No.4, Asian Devclopment Bank and Development Evaluation Division, NESDB

rur' n: o':rrfir rray il:

tfi

n:,

N, .ra'li1u iltymt'lna iJ zs t ails ilaz 2524,"'lrrdr:rfl:ugflrdnfr::rrflrflflf, f,urrnr 2sz8 fi u

"an rJy

fi ? 7y a 1 nn

u tray ni J il,s

0

Medhi Krongkaew, Pranee Tinakom and Suphat Suphachatasai, "Rural poverry Thailand: Polic-v Issues and Responses, " Asian Development Review,

vol.

rn 10,

no. l,1992 Meesook, Oey A., "lncome, Consunrption and Poverty in Thailand, 1962/63 to 197-5/

76," \Yorld Bank Staff Working paper no.364.1979. NESDB, "Povcrty and Inequality During the Economic crisis in Thailand," in Indicators of l{ell-Being and Polia,Analysrs, r.'ol J, 2o.1, Development Evaluation Division.

t999. Reyer, Celia, "Social Impact of the Regional Financial Crisis in the philippines," paper presented at

a

conference on

Monitoring social Impact of rhe Financial Crisis,

Thailand Development Rcsearch Institute, 1999 Isara Samtisart, "Socio-Economic Consequences of the

crisis", paper presented at the

Thailand Update : Thailand Beyond the Cnsrs, April 21,1999. Streeten, Paul P., "Poverty Concepts and Measurement," Discussion paper no. 6, Institute for Economic Deveelopment, Boston University, 1989.


fluya 8nEvu, tnaud2ll ntru?uv Thailand Development Research Institute, "Social Impact Assessment of Economic

Cisis in Thailand, " A synthesis report by the Natural Resource

and Environment

Program, 1999.

World Bank, "lncome Growth and Poverty Alleviarion in Thaitand: Resulrs of Some Speciat Studies, " Country Program Department, I980.

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