High Speed Train Station
Lesa Rozmarek MArch. 2010, Lawrence Technological University M.S. Architecture, 2008, Texas A&M University B.S. Architecture, 2002, Lawrence Technological University Paul Wang, Advisor
“Hank! Don’t you understand what this means? It’s the greatest revolution in power motors since the internal-combustion engine - greater than that! It wipes everything out - and makes everything possible. To hell with Dwight Sanders and all of them! Who’ll want to look at a Diesel? Who’ll want to worry about oil, coal or refueling stations? Do you see what I see? A brand-new locomotive half the size of a singe Diesel unit, and with ten times the power. A self-generator, cleanest, swiftest, cheapest means of motion ever devised. Do you see what this will do to our transportation systems and to the country - in about one year?” --Dagney Taggart, Atlas Shrugged, p289
Table of Contents Movement
Within Movement the discussion focuses on High Speed Rail in America and the introduction to the site, Arlington, Texas.
The contents of Connection bridges relationships between site, structure and users. Issues at a macro scale are studied solutions to urban creation are explored.
Further exploration of a designed urban environment is discussed in Place. The site at a micro scale is explored and potential solutions are analyzed.
At an intimate level, Experience, investigates the meaning of a train station within its own typography. Schemes work through design issues and the programming of the building to increase the density of the macro site is developed. A final in-depth solution is presented.
Introduction The exploration and implementation of high speed rail in America has become a popular topic and even a possibly for implementation in recent years. President Barack Obama in his 2010 State of the Union Address discussed the “call for the creation of a high-speed rail system as a way to generate green jobs, enhance economic productivity and reduce carbon emissions.” (Walsh, 2010) Cities and regions all over the United States are planning for and working on the installation of the infrastructure that is necessary for the operation of high speed rail. The map on the opposite page from the US High Speed Rail Association demonstrates anticipated high speed rail routes to be in operation by the year 2030. According to the map a good portion of the country will be connected by high speed rail. The implementation of a nationwide high speed rail system could transform how we get from point A to point B on a daily basis. Long and daunting commutes could be reduced by half the amount of time and the attraction of living near a high speed rail line could transform the growth of our cities and promote densification in urban areas. The design dialogue of this project assumes the position that if you build it, they will come. If high speed rail is implemented in areas where there is a demand for alternate transportation due to congestion, the station will act as a magnet for new development or will enhance current growth. This project focuses on a portion of a rail line that is estimated to be in operation by the year 2015. The line is referred to as the “Southeast Region”. (United States Department of Transportation, 2010) The State of Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), is aggressively studying the implementation of high speed rail to link its five major cities to each other, the rest of the state and beyond. The first portion of the line, seen on the opposite page, is a 2015 goal route that set a launch point for determining the next steps in site selection. In a draft copy of the Texas Rail Plan, released by the Texas Department of Transportation, the executive summary takes into account the estimated population growth from the years 1990 to 2040. (Texas Department of Transportation, 2009) This estimation of where the demand for the system over a fifty year span helped determine the rail line locations. During the site selection process, I took into account two items: the Texas Rail Plan 10
and personal experience. The information provided by the draft Texas Rail Plan showed continued growth in the Dallas/Fort Worth metro area (the Metroplex). My personal experience includes having lived in Texas for nearly two years in two separate regions of the State. I lived in both the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) region and in College Station, Texas. I continue to regularly travel to the DFW area to visit family. To understand where College Station is located, it is in the middle of the countryside that is formed by the triangle of San Antonio, Austin, and Houston. I have traveled via, car and air between all of the cities listed above and by far the Metroplex is the worst to be experienced by car. The ‘Metroplex’ refers to the area within Texas that consists of the major United States cities of Dallas and Fort Worth and their commuter suburbs. The metropolitan area encompasses roughly a 60 mile diameter circle. In the middle of the Metroplex is the City of Arlington. Twelve miles northeast of Arlington, is the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW). DFW sees approximately 56,030,457 passengers annually making it one of the top ten World’s busiest airports. (Airports Council International, 2010) In addition, roughly “65 percent of all international cargo in Texas is handled at DFW, some 308,069 tons in 2008.” (Dallas Chamber of Commerce, 2010 ) The Metroplex is home to the headquarters of 25 Fortune 500 Companies, including: Exxon Mobil Corp., AT&T, Texas Instruments, Southwest Airlines, Kimberly-Clark Corp., Fluor, and Dr. Pepper Snapple Group. (Dallas Chamber of Commerce, 2009) One of the biggest challenges facing the residents and visitors of the Metroplex is managing vehicular traffic. Specific to this investigation the travel time according to Google Maps, along the recommended route of I-30 to go from Dallas to Fort Worth (vice versa, approximate) is about 36.1 miles, will take you approximately 39 minutes without traffic and ideal driving conditions, but it takes approximately 59 minutes in traffic. “The frustration with the long traffic times is evident not only to myself through firsthand experience, but there are actually several websites were you can find commentary on just how insufferable the traffic situation is within the Metroplex. “I live just outside this loop a tad northwest of Dallas. I enjoy the metro very much in the things that can be found there to do. Tons of shows that come through…. great music and nightlife. There is always something going on there and most of it … world class. The most troubling thing about this place though, is the traffic. The rush hours are what is “brutal” to me. But, there again…. this place is not for “light weights”. We’re talking down right smack center of Texas here… and, if one doesn’t have their self in shape to handle it… well… there’s always… Billings Montana !!” (J7, 2009) The DFW are currently has a regional commuter train, the Trinity Railway Express (TRE), that travels from Fort Worth to Dallas through the northern suburbs, taking 12
Proposed:High Speed Rail Line Diesel Propultion Vehicle Average Speed: 110 MPH to 209 MPH Capacity: 304 Seats
DFW International Airport
Existing: Trinity Railway Express Diesel Propultion Vehicle Average Speed: 45 MPH Capacity: 96 Seats Macro Site
University of Texas at Arlington
14 miles | 20 min. drive: vehicle 7 min. 38 sec.: train
22 miles | 30 min.: vehicle 12 min.: train
1 Six Flags Over Texas
2 Ameriquest Field
4 Typical house in Macro Site
3 Eastern Star Home, historic site
5 University of Texas at Arlington
6 Cowboy Stadium
7 â€œdowntown Arlingtonâ€?
8 360 degree view across site and adjacent land 14
up to two hours to travel between the two cities during rush hours. (Trinity Railway Express, 2009) The proposed high speed rail line in the Metroplex spans from Fort Worth to Dallas cutting through the city of Arlington, Texas. The train that this project is based off of that is currently being used in New England for high speed service is the Acela Express. This train has a top speed of 150 miles per hour, a length of 663 feet, and has 304 seats. Compared to the TRE, which has a top speed of 79 miles per hour, and has a capacity of 96 seats. Arlington is home to many of the Metroplex’s main attractions, which include, the home of the Dallas Cowboys professional football team, Cowboy Stadium (capacity 80,000); the home of the Texas Rangers professional baseball team, Ameriquest (capacity 49,170) Field; and Six Flags over Texas amusement park. In addition, there is a General Motors Assembly Plant located in Arlington which employs roughly 2,280 UAW-represented production workers and 200 non-union management and engineering staff. The city is home to two colleges, Everest College and Arlington Baptist College, and one university, University of Texas at Arlington. There are approximately 154 students that attend Arlington Baptist College, 730 are approximately enrolled at Everest College and the University of Texas at Arlington has 24,825 students. Following World War II, Arlington’s physical development dramatically changed from a small town to a bustling city. In 1951, General Motors opened its manufacturing plant and the city bloomed. The main architectural style seen in the City is a combination of post-modern with heavy modern influence, executed in a brutalist manner. Meaning that the exaggerated lines of post-modern expression are melded with the refinement and proportion of modern design, but constructed primarily in large swaths of reinforced concrete or light colored brick. Currently, UTA has plans for massive expansion into the downtown Arlington corridor. The plans include: a $73 million, 190,000 square foot special events center, and $67 million / 450 student mixed-use residence hall. This initiative is being referred to as ‘College Town, UTA’. An Arlington Comprehensive Master Plan called ‘Arlington 2025’ is under development. This initiative will evaluate Goals and Objectives and contain a Future Land Use Map. The Strategic Plan for the City sets community goals as: 1. Downtown is a vibrant destination for the community and a thriving center of activity 2. Arlington is a pre-eminent convention and tourist destination 3. Arlington is a recognized leader of creative and effective economic development policies and practices 4. The City provides a balance between residential and commercial development and redevelopment that result in improved quality of life and a 16
favorable business climate. (City of Arlington, Tx, 2009) The development of a train station in the proper location within Arlington could help foster the above goals and turn Arlington into one of DFWs most desired locations to live, work, and play. The City Transportation Planning Department has determined that there is a need to reevaluate the current system to bring it into the 21st century. Their mission statement is, “Create a livable City with an efficient and innovative multi-modal transportation system, increased economic development opportunities, a unique character and a high quality of life.” (City of Arlington Texas, 2010) The transportation department is taking an active role in laying the foundation to the reinvention of Arlington. Embracing ‘Mobility 2030: The Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the Dallas-Fort Worth Area, 2009 Amendments, the City is motivated to participate in sustainable strategies to create a community for the future. According to the City’s Planning Department website: Sustainable development leverages the land use/transportation relationship to improve mobility, enhance air quality, support economic growth, and ensure the financial stability of the transportation system. By providing planning support for a diverse range of mobility options, such as rail, automobiles, bicycling, transit, and walking, this plan helps local governments present a range of development opportunities to the private sector. The plan recognizes four categories of sustainable development: • Strategic Urban Development • Integrated Land Use Planning/Urban Design • Transit-Oriented Development • Access Management (North Centeral Texas Council of Governments, 2009) 17
Evidence of Native American Settlement along the Trinity River
Arlington History Timeline
John Neely Bryan founds Dallas
Texas & Pacific Railway Co. purchases land to establish town site Arlington, named after Gen. Robert E. Leeâ€™s hometown
GM Assembly Plant opens Expansion of Industrial Park Six Flags Over Texas opens University of Texas at Arlington established Texas Rangers move into Arlington Stadium Texas Rangers move into Ameriquest Ballpark Dallas Cowboys move in
1951 1956 1961 1967
Arlington becomes major agricultural center
U.S. Congress approves charter for transcontinental railroad
Settlers begin moving to Arlington & establish agricultural business
First recorded AngloAmerican Settlement
http://www.uta.edu/studentaffairs/images/270.jpg; http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3165/2693172851_1ca90b3824.jpg http://nonjohn.com/Texas%20and%20Pacific%20Logo.gif http://blogs.dallasobserver.com/unfairpark/JNB photo.jpg
1950 : 7,692
1890 : 664
1960 : 44,775
1970 : 90,229
20 1990 : 261,721
1980 : 160,113
Arlington Population Growth
21 Unmanned Station
Minimal Amenities | No Services | Canopy | $ Ticket Sales
Quiet Suburban / Rural
Typical Suburban Station
Busy Suburban Station
Mainline Interchange Station
Types of Train Stations
Many Amenities | Services | Enclosed | $$$$ Ticket Sales
Relationships This design study is broken into three separate parts: Macro Site, Micro Site, and Building. In determining where in Arlington to locate the train station, I took into consideration proximity of the major attractions to the potential location for the rail line to bisect the city. The location that stood out above all others was a partially vacant tract of land located in the north east sector of the city. Within a 2 mile radius there is Cowboy Stadium, Ameriquest Field, Six Flags over Texas, Hurricane Harbor, the GM Assembly Plant, residential neighborhoods, U.S. Interstate 30, and TX Highway 360. The football stadium and the ballpark, the two major attractions that have the greatest numbers of potential visitors coming and going became two anchor points, with the third leg of the triangle being the train station. The visual linkage and the need to connect these three places to each other became a driving force for creating the visual identity of the train station and the motivator for a pedestrian based transportation system that works for the macro site. The majority of the macro site is currently covered by surface parking lots, with an apartment complex, trailer park, industrial parks, commercial buildings, non-chain motels, mini-McMansion neighborhoods, and a vacant historic medical building sprinkled in. The challenge for the macro site was to resolve the potpourri of uses and organize it in a way to meet the Cityâ€™s desire for this area to become a Transit Oriented District (TOD) with an entertainment overlay.
Site Analysis Further examination of the site, through a series of reports of flash flooding in Arlington and reviewing the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the site; I realized that a half my micro site and a good portion of the Macro Site was in a flood zone. The flood way, called Johnson Creek, has a small amount of water flowing through it year around, however, it is where all the surface water flows to during a precipitation event. In this area of Texas, bedrock is not far from the surface of the soil which makes flooding a regular occurrence. The macro site also has a nature trail dividing it in half where it runs alongside of Johnson Creek. This area is moderately wooded and natural. Winds blow predominately from the south in the winter and in the summer. There is currently an existing freight line that cuts through the macro site, which makes for an attractive location to run the designated high speed lines parallel to it. Vehicular traffic mainly enters the macro site from the north and the east where there are freeway on and off ramps, however, main traffic pattern is to move in an east-west motion.
to Interstate 30
rail freightline to downtown Arlington
to expressway I-360
to GM Assembly Plant
Existing Conditions Diagram 27
Macro Site Planning When planning the logic of how the macro site wanted to be organized and become a dense urban environment. It made sense to employ the traditional city grid to the inner pockets that were formed by existing curvilinear roadways. The logic revealed itself as the following: Logic • Vehicular traffic flow bisects the different events in the macro site. • Green system natural link between all parts of the site. • Retainage of green system provides opportunity to funnel people and water through the macro site. Design Rules • Pedestrian traffic needs to predominantly flow east/west • Green system is to be used for north/south pedestrian traffic. • Visual links need to connect stadium, ball park and trainstation. • Creation of retention ponds to handle flooding. Design Concept • The purpose of the greenbelt is to act as a natural filter • The idea of filtering of the pedestrians from vehicular traffic and their primary movement to occur through the greenbelt. • Parks to cut through the urban block form to aid in the movement of water and pedestrians to the greenbelt.
Macro Site Planning Logic Diagram Existing Rail Line to downtown Arlington 28
to expressway I-30
pedestrian path Ameriquest Field
to RT. 360
1 Mile Ra d i us
1/2 Mi le R adi us
Use Planning As previously mentioned, the majoring of the site was covered in surface parking. To urbanize the macro site, it is proposed that the majority of the surface parking be replaced with parking structures which house retail and commercial spaces at the sidewalk level. The structures become buried within functional buildings that provide retail at the base, commercial space in the middle, and housing at the upper levels.
Perimeter buildings become single use commercial buildings to buffer the housing buildings from busier roads like Collins, where commercial visibility is highly desirable for companies. Portions of the industrial park are retained, as this area for Arlington is currently a major “port of entry” for shipping and receiving goods. Completely eliminating this area would decimate an area of the local economy. Instead the approach is to make this function more efficient and make better use of frontage to roads. The Johnson Creek throughway is expanded and becomes a designed park. Designed retention lakes accept flood waters and expanding the creek bed to engage during storms becomes is the primary design intent. Secondary functions of a park and location of the pedestrian transport system follow the form of the primary function. The southern end of the macro site, south of the train tracks, where single family homes slot in the mix are transitioned from a high density area to a lower density area by buildings with lower level retail and upper level housing. The design intent of these buildings is for them to decrease in height – stepping down from the high density area to the lower density area – creating a small town feel for the residents. 30
Designed Urban The final site plan is heavily based upon the Rail Car Concept. Blocks and buildings are kept very linear and in a much regulated manner. The curvilinear line of the interior boundary road mimics language that is used in the macro site and the infill streets are urban block forms. The water can now flow between the buildings to the creek with minimal interference. The intent for logic of the use of the micro site is laid out in the same language that boarders the site. Moving from built environment to natural environment and from a passive use to an active use. This logic has created a site that is roughly 50% park and 50% developed. The existing location of the train line is maintained and the high speed rail line is place parallel to it. The rail lines are elevated as they run through the flood zone. They are elevated to allow for water to flow beneath them, as well as, to provide for a safer crossing for pedestrians and to keep vehicular traffic moving. Parking is hidden inside of interior parking structures and parallel street parking can now be utilized for short-term visitors. The train station, not complying with the regularity of the urban block form, now stands out as an iconic piece of architecture and gives identity to the micro site.
Flower Concept Concept Definition: • The idea of the “filter” positions buildings to all the east-west movement ntt of water to the greenbelt. • The train statiion as a show piece with organic “flower-like” roofs and pavilions below that contain programming.
Supports “filter” concept
Elevated pedestrian walk as parti • to organize activity and create ease of movement across busy roadways
Contrast in aesthetics between the train station and other buildings on the site supports iconic architecture
Other buildings on site have no rhythm to their organization Canopies idealistic
Filtering Concept : Moving through spaces to get to new spaces Pavilions and Train Station
Village Concept Concept Definition: • A curvilinear road adopts similar language from macro site. • Curvilinear road is boundary between the urban block form as an organic unregulated building form. • The grid is rotated within the urban block to create a sense of individuality within the micro site from the macro site.
Circulation egg might work well • to organize traffic
Parti (curvilinear road) is clumsy
Urban block organization more • successful than a random formation
Concept of “filtering” is not present
Integration of parks into the urban landscape is successful at breaking up the urban fabric to allow for water filtration
Urban Block Form
Integration of Parks
Rail Car Concept Concept Definition: • Idea of buildings as a “filter” for lateral water movement. • Nature begins to infiltrate man. • Pedestrian path is point of departure where as buildings approach and cross the path they have less impact.
Perhaps too much nature invading
Flexible positioning of outlying • buildings
Needs management of urban block positioning
Train station punctuates the site • and provides flexible space for community
Canopy needs to be brought into reality
Elevated Pedestrian Path
Irregular Form of the Train Station Puntuates the Site
Filtering Concept Support for Water and Human
Macro Site Design Logic The methodology for determining the layout of the micro site was slightly different from the methodology of the macro site. Where the macro site focused on traffic patterns, attractions, visual linkage, and urban principals; the micro site design process explored the impact of the flood zone and the necessity of draining the water away from the buildings and roads. By eliminating the industrial park at the southern end of the site, it opened up a transition area to address the lower density single family houses that boarder the southern end of the site. By creating a system of city blocks, plazas and parks; the water can properly drain to Johnson Creek and provide recreational space for the residents of that area. The micro site was examined through a series of three schemes that outlined different features that all derived from the concept of â€œfiltering.â€? Filtering the water. Filtering the people. Filtering the traffic.
t tree mS
Site Challenges Flooding Mitigation Strategies • Elevate Building • Floodable First Floor • Minimal Footprint • Xeriscape: Coordinated native planting designed to conserve water • Gray water from buildings to provide irrigation • No building footprint in floodway • Elevate Tracks • Creek flow control installations • Permeable paving solutions Train Noise Mitigation Noise Implications • Disruptive to surrounding environments Strategies • Berm/Wall between station and neighborhoods to the south • Shed roof • Place platform/train below grade or far above grade
As discovered by the FIRM maps, the building lies within a flood zone. Instead of moving the building to a part of the site that might not flood, I decided to take a proactive approach and plan for a building that was designed to flood. Through this series of sketches, I examined possible solutions for positioning the building in relationship to vehicular and pedestrian access, access to the trains, interior space, and water. The first sketch explores the un/loading zone at grade level with the building on stilts and the users have to elevate to the first floor and go up to access the trains. The second explores a floodable first floor of the building with functions like the bus station which would not be significantly impacted by flooding, like waiting areas and the bus station. The third sketch looks at moving the grade in a manner that you enter the building at the first floor with is outside of the flood zone range. Also, trains are noisy. This short series of sketches examines how to mitigate the noise pollution generated by the trains passing through the site. The first explores a train shed concept, while the second explores a sound absorbing wall that lines the tracks. 48
Relationships to the Site
Control Points Spatial Relationships Formally, the train station completes the visual triangle that desperately needs to be closed by the football stadium and the baseball park. A pedestrian walkway moves north and south through all areas of the site, providing access on foot to all of the areaâ€™s major attractions. Overall, visual linkages have been created to make a larger sense of place, a pedestrian movement system has been established to move people throughout the site and hierarchy has been created to guide use and physical size of new infill buildings.
Arrival System The main intersection for vehicular traffic is at Division Street and Stadium Drive. At this corner there is a stoplight to control traffic. The secondary intersection is at Abrams Street and Stadium Drive. There is also a stoplight at this intersection. Between these two intersections is the main vehicular entrance for access to the train station. If the timing between these two lights is coordinated, access to the station should be fairly easy. From each intersection you will be able to make a visual connection of where you need to go to access the station.
Green System Instead of looking at the flood was as a negative, I have embraced the floodway as a reason to create park land and designed retention areas to help mitigate the issue. The park, like the pedestrian walkway/movement system extends vertically the entire length of the site. The pedestrian movement system relies on the green system as its area of placement. People then get off the walkway and then filter into the site to their destination. The walkway is a combination of at grade paths and elevated walkways. The walkway is elevated approaching the train station from the north, but then rejoins us at grade level on traveling to the southern end of the micro site. 52
Stadium Dr. Abrams St.
Vehicular Circulation As described in the Arrival System section the main entry for vehicular circulation is off of Stadium Drive. The train tracks pass overhead and cars pass underneath. There is a circulation egg to keep traffic moving in counter-clockwise pattern to allow for drivers to drop-off passengers at the curb without crossing into traffic. A secondary route that could be used for the loading dock is off Abrams Street on the curvilinear road that boarders the park. Throughout the micro site smaller scale boulevards provide on-street parallel parking to encourage slower speeds and more cautious driving. Easier access and slower speeds should enhance visitor use of the businesses located within the micro site.
Pedestrian Circulation In the Green System section, the discussion of the pedestrian movement system started by discussing its integration into the park system. The big idea for the pedestrian movement system is to get pedestrians from the ball park to the stadium to the train station and to their home â€“ safely and efficiently. With one main north/ south artery, the path becomes the pedestrian expressway, thus making it more attractive to walk where you need to go versus driving. You can get off where you need to get to your destination in a lateral move. Through this dominate control of foot traffic; the pedestrian movement system becomes the life line of the entire site.
Train Circulation The train passes underneath the building to provide shelter to people standing on the platform. From the platform, passengers go up stairs or elevators to the ticketing area and can either exit the station by an escalator from the bridge or cross the bridge to an area with amenities and shopping. The access to the pedestrian movement system is located in the sector with the amenities, while vehicular access is available to by exiting at the bridge. 54
Programming Initially, this study only explored utilizing the northern half of the site above the train line, using the train line as the boundary. It was soon realized that in order to transition from high density to low density, that there needed to be a buffer zone, which become the southern half of the site, below the train tracks. One of the goals of this project was to create more density in the macro site. Being that we are embracing the flood zone, the building is not occupying the ground level. This pushes the program up into the air. The building essentially becomes a mini-city where you can live, work, and travel from. There are spaces for retail, commercial offices, a hotel, apartments, a floating front yard for people who live there and a fully functioning train station, and a community plaza that is protected from the sun and rain by the building above. The elevated building will protect a good portion of the plaza below, which under the extreme weather of Texas should be a popular location for public events.
Living Levels: • Hotel • Apartments Commercial Space: • Train Adminstrative Offices • Commercial Office & Retail Space • Hotel Public Functions
Elevated Green Space: • Vegetated Roof Deck
Core: • Restrooms • Retail • Waiting Area • Visitor Information • Security • Train Timetables • Pedestrian Entrance
Elevated Pedestrian Walkway Entrance
Street Level Pedestrian Entrance Vehicular Loading & Unloading Plaza: • Loading Dock • Public Plaza • Perfomance Space • Retention Pond • Passenger/Visitor Loading/Unloading • Park Space
Train Station Platform: • Ticketing • Ticket Control • Waiting • Train Platform
Facility Users There are a variety of potential users that would use the Intermodal Transportation Center. Commuterâ€™s are coming and going from Arlington to/from other suburbs/ Dallas/Fort Worth. Specifically, the location of the GM Assembly Plant is within a one mile radius â€“ there is potential for a shuttle service or public bus system to provide intermediary service between the plant and the Station. Additionally, there are several neighborhoods within walking distance that could see outgoing service from the residents of those neighborhoods. Parking is provided within the internal parking structures on site to accommodate users that do not use public transportation to commute to the station. University students, faculty, and personnel are also potential frequent users. While UTA is making efforts to provide more on-campus residential facilities, the university is predominately a commuter campus. Potential user groups of the facility include: sports fans, university students, business persons/commuters, GM Assembly Plant employees, families, and visitors to the DFW area.
Language of Train Station Design Though examining many existing train station designs, Iâ€™ve concluded that there are really three character defining features to a train station. 1. Strong sense of circulation pattern. 2. Long span roofs. 3. Spaces within spaces. The illustration at top on the opposite page demonstrates the main circulation paths that a user of the facility will experience. Elevator towers are the dominate mode of vertical circulation, while horizontal circulation at the train station level is experience through a series of platforms and bridges. The illustration at the bottom on the opposite page demonstrates the long span roofing form of the facility. The body of the building is designed to protect components of the facility below it and encapsulate part of the program, as well. A space within spaces is illustrated by the programming of the platforms beneath the building. Space that is seemingly useless is programmed in a way that kiosk structures fill in the platform and provide an area for retail and restrooms.
Long-span Roof 63
Spaces Within Spaces 65
1 Chunk 2 Towers
2 Chunks 1 Atrium
Program and Mass Study To begin to explore what programming in conjunction with massing and train station language would begin to look like; I constructed thumbnail models to explore different options. The first option (left to right), 1 Chunk 2 Towers explores containment of the train station function and commercial function within a bar and then the building as needed expands via towers into hotel and apartment/condo function. This option is explored further in the Schemes section of this book. The second option, 2 Chunks 1 Atrium, allows for the train station function and kiosk type commercial space to breathe in an open atrium space. The commercial space and hotel function are separated into two chunks that flank both sides of the atrium. The third option, 1 Atrium or 1 Pavilion, explore the buildings use only as a train station with few supporting amenities. The last option, 1 Bar w/ Pavilion and 2 Chunks on Top, is ultimately the variation on the scheme that I developed. The train station function is within the bar, with a covering or opens space of some type, with solid massing on top to hold different functions.
1 Atrium Variation: Pavilion
1 Bar w/ Pavilion 2 Chunks on Top
A closer look at program potential The three series of floor plan potential development on the opposite page begin to explore the programmability for two of the massing studies above and scheme 5 (on page 80-81). The simple forms serve as a starting point for the beginning of the thought process about square footages, height, foot print area, and building orientation. The first series (from left to right) has the train station function at the bottom and keeps the functions separated as you move to the top of the building. This series is heavily based on the pod concept which is explored later on in the schemes. The middle series begins to mix the functions together on the same floor and transitioning by using a mixed-use function to just a pure commercial function at the top floors. The last series brings in the living function and explores how it should be separated out from the other public functions. Eventually, the living portion is pulled out and rises above the public function.
Scheme 1 This scheme begins to explore the layering of programmatic elements in relationship to other site elements, establishing relationships and possible connections to the surrounding site elements.
Scheme 2 Taking the previous scheme one step further, this scheme looks at the melding of the program in a compact manner. It looks at the scale of the program in relation to the football stadium and the baseball park. Through this study, I gained a better understanding of how the program begins to interact with itself and the site.
Scheme 3 This option is a variation on the 1 Chunk 2 Towers schemes, which continues to resolve the issues of determining the appropriate scale for the building in relation to the stadium and ball park and within the plan of the micro site. It closely explores the formation of the program into a solitary structure. This study solidified the relationships of height and overlay of programs.
Condominiums • Tower Floors 21-30
Hotel & Office Space • Tower Floors 2-20
Scheme 4 Hotel Lobby & Urban Living Room • Hotel Check-in • Urban Living Room
Platform Level • High Speed Rail Platform • Elevated Tram Platform
Entry Level - Concourse • Private Condo Entry • Retail / Restaurant Space • Ticketing • Security Check Point • Waiting
Flood Level • Bus Terminal • Parking Garage • Shipping / Receiving
m 4p @ 21 4” ne 6’ -
Shade Double Wall Solid Surface
c. 21 25 @ 4 ’-0 ” pm
Scheme 5 To explore how the option of 1 Atrium could work and have more than just a train station function underneath it, I experimented with the idea of commerce pods. The pre-fabricated pod units would stack on top of each other and could be slightly modified to suit the particular tenant of the space. While interesting this approach was not particulary successful for this project due to the limitations of space for the program.
Scheme 6 & 7 The two schemes seen on the opposite page begin to seriously explore the 1 Bar w/ Pavilion and 2 Chunks on Top massing study. I was heavily influenced by the Stuttgart 21 project in the execution of this massing study. The Stuttgart 21 project utilizes a reinforced concrete vaulting system to span over the tracks and the cones are cut away in areas to allow for escalators to bring passengers onto the platform. On top of the shell is supposed to be a park like walkway that connects two buildings together. This project was supposed to start construction Spring of 2010. I was also influenced by Norman Foster’s atrium addition to the Smithsonian. The indoor/outdoor space created by the undulating roof captures a quality of whimsy between the regular forms of the masonry walls that brings the space to life.
The third project that influenced how I approached this massing study is the ING House in Amsterdam. The building is raised off the ground creating a sense of a floating building and encapsulates the first floor level provides a true public space for the function of the company. The separation of private company business and public company business is legible through the buildings architecture. The scheme to the left is the “roller rink” scheme. It thinks through having multiple functions on same levels and the relationship of the building components to each other and the site influences.
The scheme on the right is the “Lilly” scheme. It takes the design ideas from the previous schemes and takes it another step towards refinement. The vertical movement pattern begins to develop and the raised platform space beneath the building appears. The building is closer to its final form with the public plaza spaces under the building, raised train platform, bridging, and vertical circulation through mushroom columns. 82
Structure Studies The structural concept of the structure is to mimic that of a mushroom. The stem of a mushroom carried the nutrients up to the top where it blooms into shape that cantilevers from the stem. The entire head of the mushroom works together as a system and that is fastened to the stem. In a similar fashion, this train station is essentially five buildings connected together. Each is building representing the structure of a mushroom. The stem or core supports the building which is compiled of a massive truss system that forms a box. The building is then wrapped with a metal panel skin, which expresses the inherent organic form. To determine which mushroom the building wanted to be, I did some quick column studies. The deciding factors for which stem would be on the train station included, whiter or not the stem could efficiently house the required core components, if it enhanced the fluidity of the design, and proportion of the stem to the top.
Vertical Circulation The primary mode of vertical circulation contained within the columns of the building. I explored several different avenues of how the circulation could travel within a structural component of the building. I also examined how the columns wanted to be articulated to activate the space below the building. The evolution of this concept began with a simple wire column that had a random design to the wires. It left the middle of the cone empty to accommodate core components. The next evolution of the vertical circulation concept examined the fenestration of the column. The lacy elegant look of a column made from perforated metal which was structurally sound became a launching point for the design of the columns. The diagram at the far right expresses how the stair system and elevators are contained within the core and how they vertically perforate the building to tie all components of the structure together.
Each pod functions structurally on its own - like a mushroom.
Aerial view from intersection of Division Street and Stadium Drive - looking SW 95
Living 273,178 square feet 322 domiciles
Community (green roof) 113,972 square feet
Work 879,058 square feet
Transit 211,674 square feet
90’ 370’ 97
North Elevation 113
South Elevation 115
East Elevation 117
West Elevation 119
View from Elevated Pedestrian Walkway Looking South 121
View on Train Station Platform
View from Hotel Lobby Balcony 125
Southwest Perspective 127
View from Vehicular Approach - Stadium Drive 129
Graphic Index A. Google Earth B. US High Speed Rail Association, http://www.ushsr.com/ C. Google Maps D. Shutterbug4000: http://farm1.static.flickr. com/49/165662997_253926fbdf_o.jpg E. StevenM_61: http://farm1.static.flickr. com/166/376311514_2b029ba485_b.jpg F. http://www.preservationtexas.org/images/easternstar.jpg G. http://p.rdcpix.com/v01/15e6c3f42-m0m.jpg H. http://www.stateuniversity.com/assets/logo/image/344/large/txhallbig.jpg J. http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1230/836396609_669e802287.jpg K. Google Earth L. Google Earth M. Steve Carlton: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevencarlton/3735936303/ sizes/o/in/photostream/ N. Rondo Estrello: www.rondostar.com P. Q.
R. http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/img/v3/04-24-2009. NB_24plant.GFJ2K31A9.1.jpg S. http://www.uta.edu/senate/uta.jpg T. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:-IokyUaZ9YtuUM:http://www.candgnews.com/Homepage-Articles/2007/6-6-07/IMAGES/RL-Amtrak.EC2.jpg&t=1 U. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3237/2803370965_c80715c6af.jpg V.
W. National Railway Museum: http://farm3.static.flickr. com/2620/4205237781_0171eb88bd.jpg X. Guy Reynolds: Dallas News 130
Y. Abizern: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stompy/4857911/ Z. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/files/images/2009/09/auto_plant_ YVKE.jpg; AA. Unbowed: http://www.flickr.com/photos/unbowed/9286251/sizes/o/in/ photostream/ AB. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3355/3503939905_5a77030f4c.jpg AC. http://thetransitpass.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/stuttgart-21.jpg AD. Citta-vita: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3537/3633375190_473b69dfd8_b. jpg AE. http://www.brianmicklethwait.com/culture/INGHouse.jpg AF. http://www.mushroomthejournal.com/mhma/images/favorites/morels.jpg AG. http://www.mushroomthejournal.com/mhma/images/favorites/trumpet. jpg AH. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3167/2674929460_2d8f6ed4d0.jpg AJ. http://www.mushroomthejournal.com/mhma/images/favorites/hedgehog.jpg AK. http://www.mushroomthejournal.com/mhma/images/favorites/almond1. jpg
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LESA ROZMAREK 2010