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European Agency for Reconstruction

PREPARATION OF A MID TERM PLAN FOR EXISTING COAL MINES AND A MAIN MINING PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SIBOVC MINE EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

FINAL REPORT

Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Part I

Basic Investigations

June 24, 2005 prepared by:

Vattenfall Europe Mining AG

VATTENFALL

Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Key Experts of Project Team

Ullrich Höhna VEM Team Leader, Senior Expert Mine Planning

Hans Jürgen Matern VEM Senior Expert Mining Operation

Thomas Suhr VEM Senior Expert Computer-Aided Mine Planning Applications

Stephan Peters Senior Expert Geology

DMT

Helmar Laube VEM Senior Expert Soil Mechanics

Joachim Gert ten Thoren DMT Senior Environmental Expert

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

List of Contents 1 Summary ........................................................................................ 10 2 Introduction.................................................................................... 20 2.1 2.2

Allocation / Geographical Overview and Historical Development ......................... 20 Approach / Methodology ......................................................................................... 21

3 Coal Demand and Fuel Supply Strategy........................................ 22 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Existing Power Plants............................................................................................... 22 New Power Plant Project(s) ..................................................................................... 22 Coal Supply by Independent or Captive Lignite Mines? ......................................... 23 Power Generating Programm for Comparing Various Mining Variants ................. 25 Coal Demand Forecast for the detailed Main Mine Plan (Part II) ........................... 26

4 Geological Conditions ................................................................... 28 4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 28 4.2 Regional Geological Situation ................................................................................. 29 4.2.1 Geological Work Performed ............................................................................ 32 4.2.2 Geological Data Available ............................................................................... 33 4.2.3 2D Reflection Seismic...................................................................................... 34 4.3 Assessment of Data Base ......................................................................................... 38 4.3.1 Elaboration of Borehole Database.................................................................... 38 4.3.2 Assessment Methodology ................................................................................ 40 4.3.3 Stratigraphic And Lithological Borehole Data................................................. 41 4.3.3.1 Sibovc........................................................................................................... 41 4.3.3.2 D-Field ......................................................................................................... 41 4.3.3.3 “South-Field” ............................................................................................... 42 4.3.4 Coal Qualities from Borehole Data.................................................................. 42 4.3.4.1 Assessment of Borehole Data ...................................................................... 42 4.4 Geological Model..................................................................................................... 43 4.4.1 Modelling Procedure ........................................................................................ 43 4.4.2 Structural Model............................................................................................... 45 4.4.3 Coal Quality Distribution Model...................................................................... 47 4.5 Other Aspects influencing the Geological Situation ................................................ 48 4.5.1 Former Underground Mining ........................................................................... 48 4.5.2 Uncontrolled Coal Fires ................................................................................... 50 4.5.2.1 Development and locations of coal fires ...................................................... 50 4.5.2.2 Counteractive measures................................................................................ 52 4.5.2.3 Prevention of coal fires ................................................................................ 52 4.6 Geological Resources............................................................................................... 53 4.7 Hydrogeological Situation........................................................................................ 53 4.8 Further Exploration in the future Fields................................................................... 56

5 Overview of Potential Future Mining Fields................................. 56 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

General Aspects and Bedding Conditions................................................................ 56 Sibovc-Field ............................................................................................................. 57 D-Field ..................................................................................................................... 58 South-Field ............................................................................................................... 59 Page 3 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

5.5

Valuation of the Mining Fields ................................................................................ 61

6 Alternatives of Mining Equipment -Various Mining Methods..... 63 6.1 Bases for a Comparison of Alternative Mining Methods ........................................ 63 6.2 Description of the 4 Alternative Mining Methods ................................................... 64 6.3 Calculation of Average Cost per Unit ...................................................................... 65 6.3.1 General Data for Cost Calculation ................................................................... 65 6.3.2 Calculation of Operating Cost Positions .......................................................... 65 6.3.3 Actual Costs ..................................................................................................... 66 6.4 IRR, average Cost per Unit ...................................................................................... 66 6.5 Sensitivity Analysis.................................................................................................. 68 6.6 Result / Evaluation of new Equipment..................................................................... 69 6.7 Use of existing Equipment and Refurbishment Strategy ......................................... 72 6.8 New or Used Equipment? ........................................................................................ 74

7 Alternatives of Opening-up and Mine Development Scenarios.... 75 7.1 General Mine Design and Criteria of Evaluation..................................................... 75 7.2 Description of the Main Mine Scenarios.................................................................. 77 7.2.1 Var.1: Development of the Sibovc Field as sole Supplier of the Power Plants77 7.2.1.1 Variant 1.1: Operation from South to North ................................................ 77 7.2.1.2 Variant 1.2: Operation from North to South ................................................ 81 7.2.2 Variant 2: Development in den Opencast Mine Field of Sibovc and D-Field . 84 7.2.3 Variant 3: Separation of the Sibovc-Field in East-West-Direction.................. 88 7.2.3.1 Variant 3.1: Separate Opening-up in the Middle of the Sibovc Field.......... 88 7.2.3.2 Variant 3.2: Separate opening in the North of the Sibovc field ................... 94 7.2.4 Variant 4: Splitting of the Sibovc Field in North-South Direction .................. 95 a) Western Part (Company 1)....................................................................................... 96 7.2.5 Selection of Preference Variant...................................................................... 100 7.2.5.1 Single Coal Mine Variants ......................................................................... 100 7.2.5.2 Independent Coal Mines Variants .............................................................. 101

8 Environmental Aspects ................................................................ 103 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9

General Ecological Effects of Lignite Coal Exploitation....................................... 103 Hydrological Conditions ........................................................................................ 104 Surface Waters Run-Offs and their Qualities......................................................... 110 Groundwater Situation ........................................................................................... 113 Soil Qualities .......................................................................................................... 113 Waste Water Purification and Re-utilization ......................................................... 114 Environmental Monitoring and Management Structures ....................................... 114 Environmental Aspects of Mining Fields Alternatives .......................................... 115 Environmental Ranking of Alternatives................................................................. 118

9 Final Remarks of Part I ................................................................ 120

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Content of Tables Tab. 3.1-1 Tab. 3.4-1 Tab. 3.5-1 Tab. 4.2-1 Tab. 4.4-1 Tab. 4.4-2 Tab. 4.5-1 INKOS) Tab. 5.4-1 Tab. 5.5-1 Tab. 6.3-1 Tab. 6.4-1 Tab. 6.6-1 Tab. 6.6-2 Tab. 6.7-1 Tab. 7.2-1 Tab. 7.2-2 Tab. 7.2-3 Tab. 7.2-4 Tab. 7.2-5 Tab. 7.2-6 Tab. 7.2-7 Tab. 7.2-8 Tab. 7.2-9 Tab. 7.2-10 Tab. 7.2-11 Tab. 7.2-12 Tab. 7.2-13 Tab. 7.2-14 Tab. 7.2-15 Tab. 7.2-16 Tab. 7.2-17 Tab. 7.2-18 Tab. 7.2-19 Tab. 7.2-20 Tab. 7.2-21 Tab. 7.2-22 Tab. 7.2-23 Tab. 7.2-24 Tab. 7.2-25 Tab. 7.2-26 Tab. 7.2-27 Tab. 7.2-28 Tab. 7.2-29 Tab. 7.2-30 Tab. 7.2-31 Tab. 7.2-32 Tab. 7.2-33

Existing installed TPP Capacity....................................................................... 22 Summarized coal demand assessed by the consultants.................................... 25 Defined Coal Demand for the detailed Main Mine Plan.................................. 27 Existing Geological Database .......................................................................... 33 Sibovc, D-Field, „South-Field“ – Structural Characterisation......................... 46 Univariate Statistics, Coal Qualities from Geological Model Grid ................. 47 Coal production of old underground mines within area investigated. (source: 50 Comparison of Coal Content and Overburden Removal South-Field.............. 60 Valuation of the Mining Fields ........................................................................ 61 Operating Cost Position ................................................................................... 65 Comparison of average Unit Cost .................................................................... 66 Average Cost per Unit (new Equipment)......................................................... 69 Expenses over whole project life time ............................................................. 69 List of BWE and Spreader ............................................................................... 72 Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 1.1.................. 78 Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Variant 1.1.......... 79 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 1.1 .................. 79 Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 1.1................................................................. 80 Coal Quality Var.1.1 ........................................................................................ 80 Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 1.2 .................. 81 Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Variant 1.2.......... 83 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 1.2 .................. 83 Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 1.2................................................................. 83 Coal Quality Var.1.2 ........................................................................................ 84 Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 2..................... 85 Development of overburden removal Variant 2............................................... 86 Development mining according to sectors. Variant 2 ...................................... 86 Overburden : Coal ratio. Variant 2................................................................... 87 Coal Quality Var.2 ........................................................................................... 87 Main criteria for evaluating the mining development Var.3.1 (Southern Part) 89 Development of overburden removal. Var. 3.1 (Southern Part) ...................... 91 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.1(Southern Part) 91 Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 3.1 (Southern Part) ....................................... 91 Coal Quality Var.3.1 ........................................................................................ 91 Main criteria for evaluating the mining development Var.3. (Northern part).. 92 Development of overburden removal. Var.3.1 (Northern Part) ....................... 93 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.1 (Northern Part)93 Overburden: Coal ratio Var. 3.1 (Northern Part) ............................................. 93 Coal Quality Var.3.1 ........................................................................................ 93 Development of overburden removal Var.3.2 (Northern Part) ........................ 94 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.2 ........................ 94 Overburden: Coal ratio Var. 3.2....................................................................... 95 Coal Quality Var.3.2 ........................................................................................ 95 Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Var.4 (West) ............... 96 Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Var. 4 West ........ 97 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 4 West ............ 97 Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 4 West........................................................... 98 Page 5 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Tab. 7.2-34 Tab. 7.2-35 Tab. 7.2-36 Tab. 7.2-37 Tab. 7.2-38 Tab. 7.2-39 Tab. 7.2-40 Tab. 7.2-41 Tab. 8.3-1 Tab. 8.9-1

Coal Quality (West) ......................................................................................... 98 Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Var.4 East ................... 98 Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Var.4 East........... 99 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var. 4 East .................. 99 Overburden: Coal ratio. Var.4 East.................................................................. 99 Coal Quality Var.4 East ................................................................................. 100 Comparison of Single Coal Mine Variants 1.1 and 1.2 ................................. 100 Comparison of the Independent Coal Mines Variants ................................... 101 Comparison Water Qualities .......................................................................... 113 Environmental Impact .................................................................................... 119

Contents of Figures Fig. 2.1-1 Location Map of the Mines .................................................................................. 20 Fig. 4.1-1 Mining Concession Areas .................................................................................... 28 Fig. 4.2-1 Stratigraphic Standard Profile of the Kosovo Basin (KEK 2003) ....................... 29 Fig. 4.2-2 Geological Map of Kosovo. Limits of the Kosovo Basin are marked in red...... 31 Fig. 4.2-3 Coal seam in the western border area of the Sibovc field.................................... 32 Fig. 4.2-4 Seismic Location Map And Interpreted Structural Features............................... 35 Fig. 4.2-5 Tectonic „Collapse Structure“ and Reverse Faulting on Seismic Lines 01 and 02, South of Hade............................................................................................................. 37 Fig. 4.3-1 Spacing of the active boreholes............................................................................ 40 Fig. 4.4-1 Lignite Thickness vs. Depth Plot ......................................................................... 46 Fig. 4.5-1 Arial photography showing the area of the D-Field with regularly aligned collapse structures (more or less round holes) in consequence of former underground mining. The highlighted area indicates zones with still stable galleries. ......................... 48 Fig. 4.5-2 Collapsed gallery of old underground mining.................................................. 49 Fig. 4.5-3 Coal fire at a base of a dump................................................................................ 51 Fig. 4.5-4 Coal fire in old mining structures......................................................................... 51 Fig. 4.7-1 Complemented Extract from Hydrogeological Map............................................ 55 Fig. 5.1-1 Potential Mining Fields ........................................................................................ 57 Fig. 5.4-1 Two Variants in the South-Field .......................................................................... 59 Fig. 5.4-2 Outside Dumps on the South-Field ...................................................................... 60 Fig. 6.5-1 Results of economic comparison of mining methods –equipment alternatives ... 68 Fig. 6.6-1 Result of economic comparison of the four mining equipment variant............... 70 Fig. 6.6-2 Current mining RAC with loan for 80% main equipment with 6% interest ........ 71 Fig. 7.2-1 Var. 1.1 (Development from South to North) ...................................................... 77 Fig. 7.2-2 Var.1.2 (Mine Development from North to South).............................................. 81 Fig. 7.2-3 Development D-Field - Var.2............................................................................... 85 Fig. 7.2-4 Development South to North Var.3.1................................................................... 89 Fig. 7.2-5 Mine Development Var.3.1 (Northern Part) ........................................................ 92 Fig. 7.2-6 Mine Development Var.3.2 (Northern Part) ........................................................ 94 Fig. 7.2-7 Mine Development Var.4..................................................................................... 96 Fig. 8.2-1 Long term Distribution of monthly Precipitation............................................... 105 Fig. 8.2-2 Monthly Range of Precipitation ......................................................................... 106 Fig. 8.2-3 Daily Precipitation.............................................................................................. 107 Page 6 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Fig. 8.2-4 Fig. 8.2-5 Fig. 8.2-6 Fig. 8.3-1 Fig. 8.3-2 Fig. 8.3-3 Fig. 8.5-1 Fig. 8.8-1

Distribution of Temperatures ............................................................................. 108 Monthly Temperatures ....................................................................................... 109 Direction and Velocity of Wind ......................................................................... 110 Catchment Areas ................................................................................................ 111 Characteristic water quality values for river Sitnica (INKOS Institute) ............ 112 Characteristic Drainage Water Quality .............................................................. 112 Soil Map ............................................................................................................. 114 Areas of potential risk of toxic waste deposits................................................... 118

List of Annexes (Part I) I/ 4.4-1 I/ 4.6-1 I/ 4.6-2 I/ 4.6-3 I/ 4.6-4 I/ 4.6-5 I/ 4.6-6 I/ 4.6-7 I/ 4.6-8 I/ 4.6-9 I/ 4.6-10 I/ 4.6-11 I/ 4.7-1

Interpreted Seismic Lines01 and 07 Linjat Sizmike 01 dhe 07 Depth Structure Map: Top Lignite Seam [m] Harta e Strukturës së Thellësisë në pjesën tavanore të qymyrit [m] Depth Structure Map: Base Lignite Seam [m] Harta e Strukturës së Thellësisë në dysheme të qymyrit [m] Overburden Thickness [m] Trashësia e Djerrinës [m] Overburden-To-Coal Ratio [cu m/t] Raporti Qymyr - Djerrinë [cu m/t] Seam Thickness [m] Trashësia e Qymyrit [m] Overburden-To-Coal Ratio [cu m/t] and Seam Thickness [m] Raporti Qymyr - Djerrinë [cu m/t] dhe Trashësia e Qymyrit [m] Top Lignite Seam: Structural Dip [Degrees] Thellësisë në pjesën tavanore të qymyrit: Strukturor ngjyej [°] Geological Cross Section I to III Profilet Gjeologjike I deri III Lignite Fm. - Total Sulphur [%] Qymyri Fm. - Sulfuri Total [%] Lignite Fm. - Low Calorific Value [kJ/ kg] Qymyri Fm. - Vlera Kalorike [kJ/ kg] Lignite Fm. - Ash Content [%] Qymyri Fm. - Përqindja e Hirit [%] Stations of Overburden Excavation Areas and Assumed Extension of Underground Mining Stacinet e shfrytëzimit të tokës me daljen në sipërfaqe të minjerës së re dhe Zgjerimet e Supozuara te Minjerava te Vjitra

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

List of Abbreviations a bcm bcm/h EN EnO ESTAP GWh IPP kt mt lcm m m² m³ mbcm mlcm MME mMSL mt NCV OCM RAC sqm TOR TPP TPS `000 bcm `000 lcm

year bank cubic meter bank cubic meter per hour European Norm Energy Office Energy Sector Technical Assistance Project Gigawatt-hours International Power Provider thousand tonnes million tonnes loose cubic meter million square meter cubic meter million bank cubic meter million loose cubic meters Main Mine Equipment (BWE, belt conveyor and spreader) meter above Mean Sea Level million tonnes Net Calorific Value Open Cast Mine Real Average Costs square meter Terms of Reference Thermal Power Plant Thermal Power Station thousand bank cubic meter thousand loose cubic meter

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Glossary of Statistic Terms Minimum 25%-tile Median 75%-tile Maximum Midrange Midrange Range Interquartile Range

Median Abs. Deviation

Mean Trim Mean (10%)

Standard Deviation Variance

Coef. of Variation

Coef. of Skewness

minimum value lower quartile; 25 percent of the values are smaller than this number and 75 percent of the values are larger middle data value, 50 percent of the data values are larger than this number and 50 percent of the data are smaller than this number upper quartile; 75 percent of the values are smaller than this number and 25 percent of the values are larger than this number maximum value the value halfway between the minimum and maximum values = (Minimum + Maximum) / 2 separation between the minimum and maximum value. Range = Maximum - Minimum separation distance between the 25%-tile and 75%-tile.This shows the spread of the middle 50 percent of the data, similar to standard deviation, though this statistic is unaffected by the tails of the distribution Median Absolute Deviation is the median value of the sorted absolute deviations. It is calculated by 1. computing the data's median value 2. subtracting the median value from each data value 3. taking the absolute value of the difference 4. sorting the values 5. calculating the median of the values arithmetic average of the data Trim Mean is the mean without the upper five percent and lower five percent of the data, therefore, extreme value influence is removed. If there are fewer than 20 data points, the minimum and maximum data points are removed instead of the upper and lower five percent. square root of the variance

The Coefficient of Variation is calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean. If a "-1" is reported, the coefficient of variation could not be computed. The Coefficient of Skewness is calculated by

If a "-1" is reported, the coefficient of skewness could not be computed. The coefficient of skewness is computed only for the Z values.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

1 Summary According to the Terms of Reference the main goal of the study is: “To provide security, both in the technical and economic terms, of future electrical power production in Kosovo, as defined in the “White Paper”1, through the guarantee of the coal supply security and economical viability over the entire life of the existing power plants and the new power plants (approximately 30 years).” The text of the Terms of Reference is attached as Appendix D. As a result of the agreed final comments on the draft Main Mine Plan (MMP) of May 2005 the project documentation consists of: • • • • • •

Summary Part I Part II Part III Part IV Appendices

(of all Parts) Basic Investigations Technical Planning Environmental Impact Study Economical and Financial Analysis A, B, C and D

While the Part I addresses different scenarios of mining developments the Parts II up to IV deal with the chosen mining variant (which starts from the existing mines Mirash/ Bardh and northwards within the Sibovc Concession Area). The work for the Part I of the main mine plan was mainly focused on: • • • •

Evaluate options of future coal supply to the existing and new power plants, compareing different mining equipment alternatives, developing different opening-up scenarios and assessing costs for various mining developments.

The project was conducted in two stages: 1st stage: In the first stage (MMP-Part I) it was focused on developing different scenarios of mine development and to draw conclusions for the mining development of Sibovc on that basis. The objective was to obtain information on alternative developments in the mining sector and to make a decision on how to supply the power plants. In addition to the Sibovc Field, alternatives like „D-Field“ and the „South-Field“ have been evaluated. 2nd stage: The second stage (MMP-Part II, III and IV) was focused on the detailed mine planning of coal extraction in Sibovc including determination of the required workforce and the accruing investments and costs.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Summary and Conclusion from 1st Stage (MMP- Part I) Power Plant Concept and Coal Demand The current coal consumption level of the power plants amounts to 6-7 mt/a. This level is not sufficient to secure the demand for electricity in Kosovo. In the coming years, the production could increase only insignificantly (to approx. 8.7 mt according to the Mid Term Plan). In order to fullfill the future power demand, UNMIK committed to launch a project for the establishment of a new power plant. At projects´s launch,the detailed concept and the coal demand of the new power plant were not available at the time, when the work on the study had begun. It was the aim of the first stage of the study preparation to obtain information about the quantity and sequence of time coal can be supplied to the power plants and/or seems to be economically reasonable. The investigation of the above originates from the fact that • in Bardh / Mirash equipment resources have been bound till 2007 and partly even until 2011 • so far no significant preparatory works have been made for the new Sibovc mine • planning, permits and operating licenses for a new mine and power plant have been missing • a quick resettlement of Hade is problematic and • high investments will be required for the opening-up of Sibovc Under consideration of the above, it was worked out that a new power plant could not be commissioned earlier than 2012. The demand for fuel should moderately increase to avoid a too high investment peak. Thus costs (in particular financing costs) could be kept low. This concept was used for the cost comparison for pre-selection. According to that the first coal from Sibovc was planned for 2010 and the assumed coal supply amounts to approximately 15 mt per year from 2014 onwards. In view of the high investment costs both in the mining and in the power sector, it would be advisable to have private investors. They could work parallel to KEK. Issues a main question is: One or two mines? The main beneficiary as well as World Bank and the Department of Mining and Minerals (DMM) raised the question of “having independent or captive mines in the future?” How reasonable is it to have more than only one mine? We investigated the options for splitting the Sibovc mine field into parts to be operated by independent mines (the mine development variants 2, 3 and 4). The main findings were: two independent mine operators having two independent mining licenses could operate in the Sibovc mining field at the same time. What is better? – To have captive or independent mines? Technically, both options are possible. According to our economic modelling a new independent mine for the new IPP/TPP shows real average costs in the range from 7 €/t subject to financial conditions. The existing KEK Coal Production Division was requesting for about 8.5 €/t transfer price for lignite delivered to the existing power plants when we started the project. Page 11 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Captive mine (production out from only one mine) might have scale effects. Problems could occur since the mining operator would be a monopoly supplier. One important question will be: is this operator able to ensure the expected efficiency and able to provide the necessary investments for the expansion of mine capacity? Independent mines would be favourable in terms of compliance to a desired market economy environment with competition as a main driving force: This would help to attract private investments to close the investment gap in the energy sector. The decision is therefore decisively influenced by the fact, Whether the financial resources can be made available.

Geology In the first months of the project implementation major activities were undertaken to provide additional geophysical exploration works, process new and existing geological and exploration data, making field observations and setting the geological database. More than 1000 boreholes were digitally recorded, digitised and validated to become part of the database. All existing geological reports and interpretations were studied and screened as a basis for the new geological model. The 2D reflection seismic lines totals up to 10460 m. Finally, a revised geological model was generated. The geological setting is summarized as fallows: The basement of the Kosovo Basin and the exposed surrounding areas are built up by Palaeozoic to Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The basin fill consists of Upper Cretaceous strata which are unconformably overlain by Tertiary clays of Pliocene age in which lignite is interbedded. Subordinated, Tertiary volcanites (andesite-dacite rocks) are distributed in Northeast of the basin. The Pliocene sediments can generally be subdivided in coal unproductive areas in the north and south and a coal productive central area. The central area, the “Coal Kosovo Basin”, is extending over approximately 300 km². Simplified, the succession can be subdivided by grey (altered to yellow clay within the weathering zone) on top, the underlying Lignite Formation and at the bottom the green clay. The geological and hydrological evaluation and interpretation was conducted over an area of some 92 km2. It encompasses the mining concession areas of Sibovc, the D-Field and an open acreage area to the south of the existing open cast mines, here introduced as the “SouthField”. The structural model integrates all available sources as surface observations, borehole and seismic data. The structural setting is shown on depth structure maps at Top and Base Lignite, on a seam isochore map, overburden thickness and overburden-to-coal ratio maps. A coal property distribution model for the coal properties as relevant for the mine plan, i.e. ash content, net calorific value and total sulphur, has been developed on length weighted borehole averages and are presented on average maps. A generated 3D Block Model of the Net Calorific Value for the Sibovc Concession Area is described in the MMP- Part II. In the Sibovc Concession Area the structural dip at top lignite is low with overwhelming values below 5º. Steeper dipping is indicated along two SW-NE alignments which are believed to represent erosional channels. The erosion is also seen on the depth structure map at Top lignite, the isochore map and even expressed on the low CV map. Page 12 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

The mapped area is characterised by a NNW-SSE striking basin. Along the axis the seam thickness reaches up to 70-80 m. The coal basin is delineated to the West by a series of stepping fault blocks which separate the Tertiary fill from the Mesozoic basement. The lignite pinch-out to the NE appears to be a unconformal without recognized boundary faults. Cross-faults which strike roughly perpendicular to the basin axis are developed in the North of Sibovc and to the South of Hade. There is clear evidence that subsidence and faulting took already place during the lignite deposition. The geological resources of the lignite deposit were computed in accordance with the UN International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources of 1997 (UNFC). The volumetric calculation of geological resources for the Sibovc, D-Field and “South-Field” resulted in the following figures: • Sibovc 990 mt over an area of 19.7 km2 • D-Field 395 mt over an area of 7.8 km2 • Northern Part of “South-Field” 537 mt over an area of 8.0 km2 For the Sibovc Concession area the volumetric split according to the area-of-influence method and structural uncertainties is reported in the Main Mining Plan – Part II. Due to the wile hole spacing in the “South-Field” the resources are mostly categorized as inferred. For further seismic exploration work in context of opening-up the new Sibovc mine it is concluded that reflection seismic will detect and describe tectonic structures which would remain ambiguous from the interpretation of borehole data alone. Due to the experienced signal deterioration outside “maiden” subsurface conditions it is recommended that future seismic surveys should be carried out before any mining activities in the areas of interest.

Alternative Mining Fields Within the framework of the available study the Sibovc mining field was investigated not only under the aspect of a single opencast mine; alternative possibilities of coal supply were also considered. The alternative possible mining fields as: • Sibovc mining field • “D-Field” • South-Field were roughly evaluated (see map below).

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

The summarized result of the evaluation is: 1. The mining of the lignite field of Sibovc offers the most inexpensive alternative to supply coal to a newly built power plant (if >600 MW). 2. The mining of the Southfield is definitely the most expensive one due to the more unfavourable geological conditions, especially the relatively high O:C ratio and the problematic outside dumps – therefore this alternative shall not be considered further. 3. A new power plant can only be erected with a capacity of up to 600 MW owing to the limited coal reserves. In contrast to this the supply of the existing power plants is assumed possible. Economic utilization will not be applicable if the construction of the motorway via the field will block off 30% or even more.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Alternatives of equipment The evaluation of lignite fields has been provided for the Concession Areas of the Sibovc Field and in addition to the D-Field and the area to the South of the Bardh-Mirage OCMs (“South-Field”). The main findings substantiated the selection of the Sibovc mining field as the most appropriate for the future coal supply of the new power plants. D-Field has been recognised and considered as a very interesting option for the future supply of the existing power plants. After having analysed various main mining equipment solutions and mining methods the following four alternatives have been recognised as suitable: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Conventional bucket wheel excavator (BWE), belt conveyors and spreader Compact BWE, belt conveyors and spreader Truck and shovel (mobile equipment) Combination of BWE belt conveyors, spreader and truck and shovel

An economic model was developed and used in order to compare the efficiency of the four alternatives. The main equipment has been planned and dimensioned, output capacity has been calculated and the annual investment and operating costs were estimated for the mentioned alternative mining methods.

Cost for lignite extraction in Sibovc for various alternatives: Using new equipment: The average costs per unit were calculated by means of the Discounted-cash-Flow method (DCF) assuming a discount rate of 12 % and based on real values (i.e. for personnel cost and additional increase of ca. 2 % is assumed as against the international inflation rate). With real average cost of 6.8 €/t the Variant 4 is the most favourable. The other alternatives 1, 2 and 3 have higher real average costs amounting to subsequently 7.2, 7.4 and 7.7 €/t.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations Current Mining RAC Euro/t 2012 to 2041 8.00

Sensitivity of discount rate 11.00

7.72

7.42 7.21

6.76 7.00

10.00

6.00 9.00

RAC in €/t Lignite

RAC in €/t Lignite

5.00

4.00

8.00

7.00

3.00

6.00 2.00

5.00 1.00

4.00

0.00 Alternative 1 Personnel Maintenance Recultivation & Roads Total

Alternative 2

Alternative 3

Power Taxes & Royalties specific Invest costs

Alternative 4 Fuel Other financing costs

4% Alternative 1

6%

8% Alternative 2

10%

12% Alternative 3

15%

20%

Alternative 4

Please note: the financial model also is based on significant productivity gains in the near future. This has to be reflected in the future owner/operator structure. It is important to notice, that all variants are based on these productivity gains and are consequently comparable.

Using existing equipment: The cost will be less if the existing main mine equipment will be used. In case of bypassing Hade with a mine starting from the Southern part of Sibovc the RAC have been calculated to 6.8 €/t (coal production 7 mt/a). If all production will be concentrated in one mine with an output level of about 16mt/a the cost could be reduced up to 5.9 €/t – provided a labour productivity as in the other alternatives. There is a cost differential between a one mine and a two mines scenario of 5.9 €/t for one mine with 16 mt/a and 6.8 €/t when running two mines. The difference will decrease if: 1) the total output of coal would be higher 2) the output only from the second mine would be higher 3) there would occur problems during resettlement of Hade (higher cost) 4) The second mine (private, new equipment) would have access to buy existing (old) Bucket Wheel Excavators or spreaders (seems possible) and particularly 5) the restructuring of KEK would not be finished until 2007 with impact to higher operational cost Further: historical liabilities from KEK mines are not subject for the financial model and there fore not included in the cost!

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Opening –up / Mine development For the mine development and the opening up of the Sibovc field six variants have been investigated. For a single mine development only two main variants can be compared (see below): • •

Variant 1.1 Variant 1.2

Mining Sibovc from South to North Mining Sibovc from North to South

Var.1 is applicable, if the mine operator will take over the supply obligation for both the existing and the new lignite-fired power plants.

Variant 1.2 has its advantage from: • technically requirement for a very late resettlement of the village centre of Hade • a better overburden : coal ration in the first years after the opening-up. Variant 1.2 has disadvantages in most of the evaluation criteria as against Variant 1.1. Most important disadvantage is the fact that Variant 1.2 would be a green field project with additional land withdrawal and higher impact to the environment. It is doubted if the permits will be granted in time. It is supposed to be better to work in an area which has already been influenced by mining activities instead of unnecessary claiming of other additional areas. Moreover, mining development from the South has a shorter transport distance to the dump and dumping is intended to contribute to shaping the residual pit of Bardh/Mirash. The latter facts discussed above favour Var.1.1 if the total resettlement can be done in time. In case of a competitive two mines scheme for an independent coal supply to the existing and the new TPP the following principle variants have been assessed and evaluated: • Var. 2 Parallel mine development in Sibovc and D-Field • Var. 3.1 Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle) • Var. 3.2 Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (North) Page 17 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Var. 4

Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line

We recommend that the private investor for the new TPP (IPP) should get the license for the Northern part of the Sibovc field according to the Variant 3.2. Consequently, the question is raised, how KEK should organise the supply of the existing power plants after the depletion of the remaining reserves in the existing mines. According to the TOR future coal supply for the existing and the new TPP (IPP) should be ensured from the Sibovc mining field. If closely following this requirement and considering the Hade resettlement situation as problematic KEK should develop a small mine into the Southern area of Sibovc with shortened coal face, i.e. to bypass Hade. Variant 4 demonstrates that the Sibovc field could be opened up from the Southwest part a small compact mine without the resettlement of the entire Hade village. Such mine would be sufficient to feed the existing power plants. In this variant with bypassing of Hade, maximally up to approx. 10 mt/a could be mined economically. Alternatively, it might be useful to consider the Variant 2 for KEK (instead of moving into the West part of Southern field of Sibovc) to go into the D-Field. The overburden : coal ratio comes to 0.9 to 1 m³/t by taking the ash dump into account. However, the excavation process for the mining of D-Field has reserves for optimization. This for example refers to the coal quality. The average heating value for the raw coal improves if coal horizons with especially low quality will be cut off by selective mining. The overburden to be removed specifically will not be higher in D-Field than in the South-West part of Sibovc. Due to the objective of the study and the time available we have not been able to carry out more detailed investigation of the mine D-Field.

Environmental aspects Having in mind that the whole district is historically influenced by mining and wider parts of the landscape are determined by the mines and power plants all variants discussed are judged to be feasible, if appropriate actions are taken to diminish the effects. Combining the environmental aspects mentioned in this report a matrix is presented balancing the degrees of impacts. A first judgement scale with 1 to 7 points is used describing the growing strength of impact between the variants. A balancing between the impacts themselves is not performed. Effect Population Changes Local Roads and Transportation Water and Air Flora, Fauna, natural Heritage Soil, Natural Resources and land use Sum

Var.1.1

1.2

3 3 1 2 3 12

4 4 2 3 4 17

Var.2 D-Field 1 1 6 1 1 10

3.1

3.2

4

6 6 3 6 7 28

5 5 4 5 6 25

7 7 5 4 5 28

SouthField 2 2 7 7 2 20

Following this ranking usage of D-Field (Variant 2) shows the smallest expected impact. From the environmental point of view opening the Sibovc-Field with one mine (Variant 1) Page 18 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

should be given the preference rather than working with two mines. Using the South-Field seems to be minor suitable because of the developed and adjusted fauna and flora and the need of canalling river Sitnica.

Main Conclusion and questions of the 1st Stage – Part I To attracting a sufficient investment there are good reasons to develop a new independent coal mine in the North of the Sibovc field. In this case the Mine Plan should be based on the selected equipment alternative Variant 4 – Combination of BWE, belt conveyor, spreader and truck and shovel. The mine development and opening up as well as license issue should be based for the selected Northern part of the Sibovc field according to the preference Variant 3.2. The obvious variant to continue the current KEK operations is the development into the South of Sibovc. If developing two mines it should be considered: Effects of scale cannot be realized with a two mine scenario. Technically one large mine has the potential for the best production cost. The financial model shows about 0.90 €/t or 12-15% cost advantage. But economically this can be compensated by benefits i.a. arising from the owner/operator structure, i.e. competition. After presenting the first results (described in the “Interim Report” and “Short Presentation Paper”) decisions had to be made regarding the following issues: a) Level of Power generation and yearly coal demand b) Possibilities regarding the Resettlement of Hade (safety zone and total) c) Number of mines supposed to supply the TPPs d) Selection of the mine design scenario (variant of mining development)

It was decided to elaborate a mining plan similar to Variant 1.1 for the Main Mine Plan for new Sibovc mine (see Part II – Technical Planing).

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2 Introduction 2.1 Allocation / Geographical Overview and Historical Development The Kosova lignite deposits are located between the cities of Mitrovica in the North and Kaqanik in the South. The total estimated resources of Kosovo’s lignite deposits are approximately 10,000 Mt (Carl Bro; 2003), thus forming one of the largest lignite deposits in Europe. As being one of at least four major deposits the Kosova Coal Basin covers about 85 km from North to South with an average East – West extension of 10 km. Hence the deposit comprises some 850 km².

Fig. 2.1-1

Location Map of the Mines

Morphologicaly, the Kosova Coal Basin forms a extended valley where the differences in elevation do not exceed 80 m. Around the river Sitnica stretches a central plane part followed by a more hilly terrain nearing the mountains Çicavica Golesh and Sharr. The basin is surrounded by an elevated relief with Kopaonik massive, Kozic, Zhegovc Lisic in the East, Montenegro massive in the South and Çicavica, Golesh, Carnaleva as well as

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Sharr mountains in the West and Northwest. The mountains around reach elevations from 900 to more than 1600 m. The resources were discovered more than hundred years ago and the first small-scale utilisation was started in the 1920’. According to more information first utilization started with underground mining in at least five locations. Underground exploitation was ongoing until the year 1966 followed by large scale surface mining at Bardh and Mirash mines. Large-scale utilisation was already decided in the 1950’ties and the first mine “Mirash” started coal production in 1958. Power generation started at Thermal Power Plant Kosovo A (TPP A) in 1962. Kosovo A was extended in the period 1962 to 1975 to the current capacity. A second Thermal Power Plant Kosovo B (TPP B) was commissioned in 1985. Coal exploitation from surface mines in the first period mend that the overburden excavated had to be dumped outside the excavation holes. Hence, at least seven outside dumps were installed today surrounding the mines.

2.2 Approach / Methodology After several fact finding activities at the site and the main beneficiaries the following start situation has been recognized: • confirmed future coal demand available till 2007 only • a new geological model had to be created • geotechnical data for the stability calculations of the slopes and slope systems only partly available • poor data situation regarding the environmental situation and resettlement • important legal regulations are in transition phase between the previous laws of former Yugoslavia and a new laws not yet established According to this situation and pursuant to the TOR the project work during the first stage has been mainly focused on the following activities: 1) 2)

3)

4)

Assumption of the future lignite demand Preparation of geological model including - Analysis of available borehole and other exploration data - Localization of cracks and geological faults, - Calculation of mineable reserves Comparison of mining- and equipment application alternatives including - Selection of most preference future field, - Selection of opening-up position, - Selection of the main equipment Financial calculations for comparison the basic alternatives

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

3 Coal Demand and Fuel Supply Strategy 3.1 Existing Power Plants Kosovo has no important fossil fuel resource but it is rich in lignite. There is no natural gas import nor gas supply infrastructure. Kosovo has no oil refinery and depends entirely on imported liquid fuels. The hydroelectric potential is very modest. Therefore the backbone of the power generation and the energy sector of Kosovo are the lignite fired thermal power plants Kosovo A and Kosovo B located near Pristina. The installed capacities of both existing lignite fired plants are set out in the table below. Tab. 3.1-1 TPP

Existing installed TPP Capacity Gross Power Net Power

Kosovo A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5

[MW] 800 65 125 200 200 210

[MW] 722 58 113 182 182 187

Kosovo B B1 B2

678 339 339

618 309 309

Available Net Power [MW]

Start of Operation

30 - 40 0 130 - 145 120 - 145 135 - 150

1962 1964 1970 1971 1975

230 - 250 230 - 250

1983 1984 (Source: KEK)

Year

Due to the low availability and unreliable base load plants KEK needs to import peak power. The increased net imports had to be paid for in cash very often. This led to inadequate supplies and frequent power outages. Real time balancing of the demand and supply is managed partly by exports and imports and partly by planned and rotating load shedding.

3.2 New Power Plant Project(s) UNMIK has published on August 03, 2004 a press release: “UNMIK committed to launch a project for the establishment of a new power plant and lignite mine of sufficient size. The aim is to meet future domestic and industrial as well as export demands. Kosovo must use its primary natural asset: great quantities of the best quality lignite in Europe. This asset needs to be used to attract investment and create new jobs. A reliable power supply is essential for further economic development and will boost investors’ confidence in Kosovo’s economy. Planning and tendering for such a project will be done in close cooperation with the PISG. The need for a new power plant had already been jointly identified by the PISG and UNMIK in the context of a World Bank study.” Page 22 of 120


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The World Bank further wrote: “Electricity produced using such low cost lignite should be very competitive in SEE REM. The demand in SEE REM countries is expected to grow at 2% per year calling for capacity additions of the order of 4.5 GW through 2012, thus providing Kosovo an excellent market for exports. An export oriented 1000 MW unit in Kosovo could generate export revenues of the order of Euro 224.25 million or 16.7% of its present GDP. Other benefits to Kosovo would include increased royalties on lignite, corporate taxes on profits, employment in the mines and power plant, and import of modern management and methods. Thus energy sector could become an engine of growth instead of being a drain on public resources as at present.” The Kosovarian Government (incl. Ministry of Energy and Mining) shares this view and so one aim of the study is to help to proceed in the preparation of a new project to increase the energy production based on lignite.

3.3 Coal Supply by Independent or Captive Lignite Mines? This question has been discussed in the latest World Bank Report ENERGY SECTOR IN KOSOVO - ISSUES AND PROSPECTS dated January 2004 as follows: “1. Similarly the strategy envisages that the investment needed to develop and operate the new lignite mine would also come from the private sector. Discussions with Kosovo officials indicate that they envisage one private sector investor operating all lignite production in Kosovo and one or more IPPs contracting with him for fuel supply. Implicitly they also seem to believe that KEK will give up mining business, buy its lignite from the mine operator, and that the price of lignite could be regulated as the production would be from a private monopoly. These aspects need further review. First, pending the resolution of the legal status of Kosovo, private investors would be reluctant to consider investment in Kosovo, even though the lignite deposits are extensive and economic to extract, the quality of lignite very good and prospects for electricity exports are bright. Second, the prospect of price regulation (regulatory risk) would act as a serious disincentive for investment. Regulation of lignite prices would be messy, as vested interest groups would push the competing principles of, actual cost of supply versus opportunity costs and endless arguments about depletion premium. The declaration in the strategy that the advantages of low cost lignite production in Kosovo would be used to ensure low cost power supply to captive consumers is likely to complicate the regulatory process. Third, the quality of lignite is such that it cannot be transported over any long distance and can be used only in a power plant located close to the mine to enable transport by a conveyor belt. Thus investor in a stand-alone mine faces a market risk. Fourth, the power plant designed for this lignite can not easily or economically change over to alternate fuels, so that the IPP without his own captive lignite mine will face a serious fuel supply and fuel price risk, which would further dampen his enthusiasm to invest. 2. Instead, it may be advantageous to pursue the concept of each IPP having its own captive lignite mine and have more than one entity carrying out the mining operations. This would enable the existing generating units of KEK to continue to use its captive mines Bardh and Mirash with the needed additional areas in the Sibovc area for which it is believed to have already an exploratory license and where it has done a considerable amount of drilling. Kosovo basin is large and even Sibovc has more than 1.72 billion tons of reserves, enabling Page 23 of 120


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orderly exploitation by two or more mining entities. Under financing from the European Agency for Reconstruction (EAR) a study is expected to be carried out during 2004 to decide on (a) the best method of operating the existing mines without jeopardizing the proposed new mine, and (b) the optimal and rational mining plan for the new mine. The proposed mining study must thus focus on how to enable KEK and at least two IPPs to have mining leases for various parts of Sibovc and develop it in an orderly way. Such a course of action would obviate the need for price regulation of lignite. KEK’s generating units with a public supply obligation would find it advantageous to have their own captive mines than having to buy lignite from a private mine. Finally, if the private investment fails to materialize as discussed in the earlier paragraphs, the fall back position would be supported by the development of KEK’s own part of the Sibovc mine. Thus the strategic approach to lignite mining should favour captive mines for power companies and multiple mining entities in Kosovo operating without the need for price regulation.”

The position of the World Bank in this matter seems very reasonable and leads to the main questions of future development of Kosovo: Is the direction of economic development of Kosovo towards market economy? Will competition be considered as a main principle of the economy? Will the attraction of private investments be approved as strategy to close the investment gap in the energy sector? If the Kosovo government gives positive answers to all three questions than an approach would be recommended of having independent mines with the condition that the KEK Coal Production Division remains able to operate in case of failing or postponing the private energy sector investment in Kosovo. The TOR of our contract for the preparation of the Main Mine Plan for the Sibovc Field are setting out that we have to develop one Main Mine Plan for the Sibovc Field for one mine which ensures fuel supply to the existing and newly constructed power plants. It demands to develop the Main Mine Plan for Sibovc according to the captive mine approach. It seems to be clear that the license for the Sibovc South-Field should be given to KEK CDP in order to enable KEK to expand mining operation from the existing mines without separate opening-up and interruption of coal supply to the existing KEK TTPs. This would allow a going concern approach for KEK and may simplify the approval procedure by selection of approval scheme “expanding the existing coal mines by the required reserves in the South of the Sibovc field“ instead of developing a new green field project “Sibovc South-Field”. Such a decision would ensure sustainability and viability of KEK’s coal business. The Sibovc North Field is available to be licenses for one IPP operator and could be developed completely independent. Let’s come back to the World Bank question – Is it possible to enable KEK and at least two IPPs to have mining licenses for various parts of Sibovc and develop it in an orderly way? Yes, but not in same period of time. An operation of three coal mines in the Sibovc Field (owned by KEK and two IPP operators) at the same time is in principle possible. But practically it would create massive interface problems and dependencies between the three mines, increase land demand, decrease chances for a sustainable reclamation and post mining landscape and land use, so that this could not be recommended.

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3.4 Power Generating Programm for Comparing Various Mining Variants The Energy Strategy and Policy “The White Paper” provides a first road map to desired changes and developments in the energy sector of the Kosovo. Power generation from lignite will be the major user of lignite in the future. It seems clear that the envisaged target is to achieve a best possible utilisation of the useful existing power capacities trying to meet increasing domestic electricity demand. A new power plant should be build as soon as possible by attraction of private investments into the energy sector. However no binding mid-term and long term energy programme exists today with fixed and confirmed production levels and targets. For the period from 2005 till 2007 the Business Plan for KEK from February 2004 provides clear production targets. These targets have been taken into account in our coal demand assumptions. Different opinions occurred for the mid term period about how to continue to operate TTP A. One party is for a fast decommissioning of TTP A and proposes to close possible supply gaps by electricity imports. The major counter position to this is the concept of a limited life extension programme and substantial refurbishment of the units 3, 4 and 5 of TTP A for the next 12-15 years. A third opinion is to continue the operation of TPP A with two units operating with reduced steam parameters in mid load range. Only the most urgent repairs will be made avoiding expensive investments. For a new power plant the Consultants assumed that it has a four-year construction time and requires a pre-feasibility and feasibility study beforehand. The construction of this new power plant could be a green field project and may require an EU compliant public approval procedure before construction. If private investors should be invited on a competitive basis an international tender needs to be provided to evaluate the investor. Then it can be assumed that such a new TPP as IPP could be commissioned at the earliest in 2012. A capacity of 1000 MW was considered by the consultants. Due to the non-availability of an approved power generation programme the following reasonable assumptions have been developed by the project team regarding the future coal supply programme in terms of annual quantities. Tab. 3.4-1 Year

2006 - 2011 2012 2013 2014 - 2024 > 2025

Summarized coal demand assessed by the consultants Lignite Demand Existing TPP Kosovo A & B 7-8 7.0 6.5 6.5

Lignite Demand New 1000 MW TPP (IPP)

Second new TPP (follow up of TPP B or 2. IPP)

Other Lignite consumer

0.1 3 7 9 9

7

Total Coal Demand

7-8 10 13.5 15.5 16

The coal demand scenario set out in table above bases on the following principles and assumptions: • For the time 2005 up to 2007 the production level already planned by KEK is applied. Page 25 of 120


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The mid-term coal demand will be around 7.5 m t/a determined by the TPP abilities (the operating time of the existing TPP B for calculation is about 7000 h/a, TPP A will give few mid load support) • The service life time of the TPP’s units will be 40 years (25 years and 15 year life expansion) • Kosovo will enter in South East European Regional Market • Construction of a new TPP C of 1000 MW by foreign investors for electricity supply into REM (Regional Electricity Market); the start of production of the Thermal Power Plant C is as soon as it is regarded as practically possible, i.e. 2012 • TPP C will be established with two units of 500 MW power station boilers and turbines with 40 % net efficiency, operated at 7500 full load hours p.a. • The grid of the REM will be reinforced to allow power transmission • The dimensioning of the new Power Plants should be done under consideration of the economical lignite mining potential • The variation of heating values over the Sibovc coal fields will be roughly considered for the calculation of the amount to be supplied to the TPPs • After decommissioning of TPP B a new Power Plant (TPP D) will be established so that the production level can be maintained (TPP B will be replaced by a new TPP D so that the production level can be maintained. This scenario meets the requirements of the mining potential (especially in the period up to 2013 which is the opening-up phase) helping to supply lignite at a low price. The comparison of the different alternatives and mining variants (carried out in Part I) is based on this mentioned coal demand

3.5 Coal Demand Forecast for the detailed Main Mine Plan (Part II) Due to the lack of energy and considering the opportunities for export revenues outstanding efforts are planned by the Kosovo government in order to commence new TPPs very soon and with enormous capacities. According to this ambitious target four new power plant units, B3 to B6 shall be erected at the location of the current power plant Kosovo B. The commissioning is foreseen for the period between 2012 and 2020. In addition to these units (B3 to B6) there is the intention of offering to build an additional new TPP for instance for Independent Power Producers (IPP) with a capacity of about 3*350 MW. The annual requirements for coal will be approximately 8 mt/a. For the existing power plants TPP A it is envisaged to refurbish three units in a way that the power plant will be ready to operate until 2019. On the basis of the described targets set by the Ministry for Energy and Mining (from 2009 onwards), the following coal demand figures have been defined which is valid for the technical planning:

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Tab. 3.5-1

Year

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 > 2025

Defined Coal Demand for the detailed Main Mine Plan

Lignite Demand existing TPP A 2.0 2.0 3.3 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 3.14 1.57

Lignite Demand existing TPP B1+B2 5.0 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 2.65

New TPP Kosovo B3-B6

2.71 5.42 5.42 5.42 5.24 5.24 5.42 8.13 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66

Page 27 of 120

New IPP C1 + C2

2.71 5.42 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95

Other Lignite Consumers

Total Coal Demand

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

7.1 7.4 8.7 10.35 10.35 10.35 13.06 15.77 15.87 15.87 18.40 21.11 22.49 23.63 24.59 24.41 24.41 24.77 21.94 19.1 – 19.5


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

4 Geological Conditions 4.1 Introduction The geological and hydrological evaluation and interpretation was conducted over an area of some 92 km2 . It encompasses the mining concession areas of Sibovc, the D-Field and an open acreage area to the south of the existing open cast mines, here introduced as the “SouthField” (Fig. 4.1-1).

Fig. 4.1-1

Mining Concession Areas

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4.2 Regional Geological Situation The basement of the Kosovo Basin and the exposed surrounding areas are built up by Palaeozoic to Mezozoic crystillane rocks (Fig. 4.2-1, Fig. 4.2-2). The basin fill consists of Upper Cretaceous strata which are unconformably overlain by Tertiary clays in which lignite is interbedded.

Fig. 4.2-1

Stratigraphic Standard Profile of the Kosovo Basin (KEK 2003)

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Towards the West the lignite deposition is tectonically bounded by a series of predominantly NNW-SSE striking faults. The eastern limit is characterized by sedimentological pinch-out.

Palaeozoic The Palaeozoic formations are mainly build up by marble and schists. The schist is composed of grey coloured shale, phyllites, phyllites mica-shale, quartzite, quartzite-phyllites and rare amphibolite shale. The crystalline series outcrop in the western periphery of the basin and are extending from the River Brusnik to Shipitulla, whilst the outcrops in the eastern periphery reach from Grabovc southward up to Ferizaj and Nerodime. In the northern section of the eastern periphery, near the region of the River Llap strike outcrops of andesite and dacite occur, submerge in the region near Mitrivica and appear again on the surface in the eastern part of this town. Most of the Palaeozoic succession within the frame of the Kosovo Basin are build up of crystalline limestones, which are tectonically stressed, and therefore, their origin is difficult to determine. Within the western part of the basin, the crystalline limestones appears as intermediate lenses, which are sometimes silicated, and therefore, difficult to distinguish from phyllites quartzite.

Mesozoic The lower part of the Mesozoic section consist of serpentinite and peridotite. It is covered by Upper Cretaceous flysch and limestone. The outcrops of serpentinite are located in the western section of the Kosovo Basin, creating the Lubovec-Galicë and the Golesh Massives. Towards the south, there are some further areas which show Serpentinite, but in these areas within a frame of rudist limestone, flysch and shale. The quantity of serpintinite outcrops decreases eastbound. Uppermost Cretaceous Flysch and limestones crop out within a NNW-SSE oriented area along the main bounding faults of the Kosovo Basin.

Cenozoic Besides the already mentioned clay and lignite deposits, Tertiary volcanic rocks from the Miocene and Quaternary unconsolidated sediments as sands and gravel are present within the Cenozoic. The Tertiary volcanites (andesite-dacite rocks) are distributed in Northeast of the basin (Kopaonik-Trepça zone). The Pliocene sediments can generally be subdivided in coal productive/unproductive areas

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Fig. 4.2-2

Geological Map of Kosovo. Limits of the Kosovo Basin are marked in red.

· Southern area unproductive · Northern area unproductive · Central area productive The central area, the “Coal Kosovo Basin”, is spreading out at a surface of approximately 300 km². Simplified, the succession can be subdivided as follows: · · ·

Bottom Series (green Clay) Coal Series (Lignite Formation) Top Series (grey Clay)

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Fig. 4.2-3

Coal seam in the western border area of the Sibovc field..

4.2.1 Geological Work Performed During the initial phase of the project the work focused on the compilation and quality assessment of geological data. More than 1000 boreholes were acquired, digitally recorded and validated to establish the geological borehole database. Extensive field work was carried out to get familiarized with the geological situation. Moreover, all available geological reports and interpretations were studied and screened. Finally, a revised geological model which integrates all data and observations including the acquired seismic data was generated. The geological resources were calculated in accordance with international classification methods, namely the UN International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources of 1997 (UNFC). Finally, a revised geological model which integrates all data and observations including the acquired seismic data was generated. At the current stage, the structural framework is considered finalized. This includes detailed descriptions over the mining variant to be selected honouring the vertical heterogeneity of the coal quality. Proposed plans for additional exploration should concentrate on the areas which are selected to be the future mining areas and are presented in chapter 4.10 and 5 .

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4.2.2 Geological Data Available The following geological data were provided via EAR or KEK, Engineering Department: Tab. 4.2-1 Data Item

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

Existing Geological Database Author

Title/Contents

Date

Data Type Medi-um

EAR, KOSOVO Tender CD 1 OPERATIONAL CENTRE, Finance and Procurement Unit, THE PROCUREMENT TEAM Elaborat Rudarski Institut O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla – Beograd eksploatacionog polja „Sibovac“ kosovskog ugljenog basena, Knjiga I, Tekst Elaborat O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla Rudarski Institut eksploatacionog polja „Sibovac“ kosovskog ugljenog – Beograd basena, Tekstualni deo, grafica dokumentacija, broj priloga 5807.00.01,.03,.06-.18 Elaborat O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla Rudarski Institut eksploatacionog polja „Sibovac“, Kosovskog uglje– Beograd nog basena, Crtani profili bušotina

2004

Digital borehole database, EXCELSheets

CD-ROM

1997

Report

Paper

1997

Geological Maps, Profiles

Paper

1997

Elaborat Rudarski Institut O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla – Beograd eksploatacionog polja „Sibovac“ kosovskog ugljenog basena, Spisak crtanih profila bušotina Izvod iz Elaborata Rudarski Institut O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla – Beograd eksploatacionog polja Sibovac, Kosovski Basen Rezultatet e analizave laboratorike gjeomekanike për INKOS kampionet e marrur nga shpimi SH-1 në lokacionin e shpatit verior të M.S. Mirash-Bardh KEK Licence Concession Boundaries for Sibovc, Bardh, Mirash, Mirash Southeast Vojnografski Topografska karta 1:25,000 Institut Rehabilitation of Northern Slope System, KEK DMT, Civil Engineering DiviMirash West Mine, Kosovo, Phase 2, Brief Interim sion Report No. 3 KEK Topographic isohypses over Sibovc area KEK Lithological and Quality Borehole Data

1997

1997

Borehole Paper Logs, Geology and Coal Assays Borehole Paper Inventory List with coordinates Report Paper

2004

Report

Paper

2004

Paper

1970

Coordinate Listings Map

Paper

June 2004

Report

Paper

2001 1955-2004

Autocad 3D Digital Description Paper Sheets Report CD-ROM, Tender CD2

Energy Sector Technical Assistance Project (ESTAP) September 2002

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4.2.3 2D Reflection Seismic Location of the seismic lines The purpose of the seismic survey conducted from June 21, 2004 to July 03, 2004 by DMT was both to record long and continuous profiles within the area of the new Sibovc mine and to cover the pillar area between the Bardh and Mirash mines including the evaluation of the Bardh slide body. In order to avoid permitting problems the profiles were designed to be within the BardhMirash mine or to follow public roads in the Sibovc area. A total of 8 seismic lines were acquired using DMT´s Minivibrator MHV3. The profiles were between 330 and 3340 m long. Details on the acquisition parameters are found in Appendix A. Profile Name Length [m] Line01 3340.0 Line02 2110.0 Line03 330.0 Line04 1203.3 Line05 1630.0 Line06 563.3 Line07 840.0 Line08 443.3 10460.0

Lines01 and 07 are within the Sibovc area. The other lines are located on the pillar. Here, the actual mine morphology was affecting the selected line configuration. The line locations are shown in Fig. 4.2-4. Line 01 is a SW-NE orientated profile along the road Bardh-Hade. It starts where the road bends to the south at the northwestern edge of the Bardh mine and ends some 800 m NE of Hade. It was expected that it would image and locate tectonic structures known from the western slopes of Bardh and from the pillar area. Furthermore, it was used as a test to assess the ability of the seismic to clearly identify sliding areas and surfaces. Line 07 is a bended profile by running SW-NE in its southern half an then turning into S-N direction following a small road that departs from the road Bardh-Hade. It should evaluate the presence of possible faulting for an area which may be opened up during the early stages of the planned Sibovc mine. Along the line coal fire areas have been recognised by surface scouting. Lines 02 to 06 and Line 08 are described comprehensively in the MMP Final Report for the Bardh–Mirash Open Cast Mines.

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Data Quality The processing results of the seismic lines reveal varying imaging quality of the reflections regarding lateral continuity and amplitude behaviour. The physical causes affecting the changes in seismic energy recording and absorption are described in the Seismic Acquisition and Processing Report in Appendix A. The geological interpretation showed that the reflection responses are very sensitive to shallow subsurface conditions. High seismic quality and resolution down to some 300-400 m below ground level could be obtained in sections which run along areas not affected by mining operations or landslides. Within these intervals a detailed and certain interpretation at the top and the base of the lignite seam could be carried out. Geological Interpretation The geological interpretation of the seismic profiles01 and 07 is shown on depth converted sections in Annex I/4.4-1 . Fig. 4.2-4 displays the location of the seismic lines and summarizes the interpreted structural elements.

Fig. 4.2-4

Seismic Location Map And Interpreted Structural Features

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The sections are two-times exaggerated in the vertical direction. The seismic traces are displayed as variable amplitudes with normal polarity. Hereby, red amplitudes indicate negative reflection coefficients resulting from an interface with a higher impedance (the product of density times velocity) in the hangingwall than in the footwall layer. Blue amplitudes are from positive reflection coefficients. The top of the lignite seam is expressed by a red reflector mainly created due to the drop in density between the overburden clay and lignite. The definition at Base seam is generally poorer due to the mixed lignite/clay bedding at the base of the seam.

Line 01 A clear signal is recorded at Top and Base lignite seam where no mining activities or advanced slide systems are known, i.e. north of the pillar near Hade. Here, only weak internal reflection bands are developed. The underlying green clay shows a dense succession of parallel bedding, likely expressing intercalations of coarser grained layers. Directly to the south of Hade intensive faulting is visible on the seismic data. The fault geometries indicate mainly reverse faulting within a transpressional shear zone. At the intersection with line 02 a small grabenlike “collapse� structure is developed which is limited by very steep dipping faults with a vertical displacement of some 20 m. Fig. 4-5 displays the collapse structure at a larger scale and without exaggeration. A different amplitude display is chosen to accentuate layer definitions. In the overburden fill draping is present. It characterises synsedimentary faulting which might much resemble the exposed situation in Mirash as it is documented in the MMP Final-Report of Bardh-Mirash Open Cast Mines. Currently, excavator E10B is digging along a fault plane which belongs to the SW-NE directed shear zone. We understand the heavy faulting in the Mirash northern slope as the natural cause for its instability.

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Fig. 4.2-5

Tectonic „Collapse Structure“ and Reverse Faulting on Seismic Lines 01 and 02, South of Hade

Further to west the seismic response at the seam boundaries is much weaker due to a loss of seismic energy. That corresponds with advanced sliding bodies are recognised on the surface on the Bardh north slope. Reflector unconformities are interpreted to define the slide surfaces. The two bodies in the west of the profile are recognised on the surface. The easternmost has not been detected so far. However, minor morphological lineaments support the existence of a further slide.

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Line 07 Line 07 extents from virgin soil conditions in the north to a slide body that is already recognized on profile 01. The margin of the slide body coincides with a sharp drop in reflector response quality. The slide body is known to be affected by underground coal fires. Due to the relatively weak reflector definition within the lignite it could not be resolved whether resulting thickness irregularities or collapses are present. The lines over the Sibovc area indicate that seismic surveys provide a high quality method in exploration areas which are not affected by mining or advanced sliding.

4.3 Assessment of Data Base 4.3.1 Elaboration of Borehole Database A total of 1094 boreholes are available for the entire project comprising Bardh-Mirash, Mirash Southeast, Sibovc, D-Field, “South-Field” concession areas and adjacent areas out the concession boundaries. By commencement date analog borehole data containing graphical lithological descriptions and tabular assay data were made available by KEK. This data set represents copies from data item [7] as in Tab. 4.2-1. The volume of paper copies was checked against the borehole inventory list (data item [5] as in Tab. 4.2-1). The data set was nearly complete. From the listed 454 boreholes 451 copies were available. By commencement date digital data sets were provided by KEK. An EXCEL file contained a total number of 532 structural boreholes described by the following data columns: § § § § § § § §

Borehole name, Y, X, Z (= collar elevation), Overburden Thickness, Lignite Thickness, Interburden Thickness, Bottom Overburden (= Top Lignite in mMSL), Bottom Lignite (= Base Lignite in mMSL) Overburden-To-Coal ratio.

Within this digital data set prefixes as Sb, Bm, Br or ML were added to the borehole names as area identifiers. It was found that 57 boreholes represent duplicates due to using different prefixes for the same borehole. After removing the duplicates, 475 boreholes remained. Thereof 252 boreholes overlapped with the analog data set. For 223 boreholes no paper copies were available.

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After merging the digital and analog data into an EXCEL-based database the available borehole data set summed up to 674 boreholes. For 451 holes paper copies were available, for 223 not. On June-18-2004 KEK, Head of Engineering Department was requested to check the completeness of the borehole data set and to provide any further missing geological data. On June25-2004 borehole data from 64 additional boreholes were provided as well as 88 geological and assay paper sheets for the already existing data set. On July-01-2004 further 129 paper sheets for already implemented boreholes and for 2 additional boreholes were made available by KEK. By July-01-2004 the data set encompassed 740 boreholes. Only for 4 boreholes paper sheets were not available. On July-12-2004 KEK delivered further 382 paper sheets containing structural descriptions for boreholes mainly east of the railway track Belgrade-Skopje (East of 7507000, “D-Field”). It provided data for 354 additional boreholes. 28 boreholes had been already recorded. The data were digitally recorded between July-12-2004 and July-14-2004. By July-14-2004 structural borehole data collection was defined as completed. The complete borehole dataset consists of 1094 boreholes located between Northing 4721785.00 and 4729041.00 and between Easting 7499503.91 and 7513070.52, i.e. covering an area of some 98 km2. Thereof, 19 boreholes were not considered for the geological model for various reasons, leaving 1075 boreholes in the “active” borehole database. Fig. 4.3-1 shows the locations and the spacing of the active boreholes.

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Fig. 4.3-1

Spacing of the active boreholes

All available borehole data has completely been digitally recorded including assay data. In order to overcome the complex borehole naming conventions, the boreholes were additionally named with sorting IDs from 1 to 2379. IDs from 1 to 674 comprise the boreholes that were available by commencement date and are ordered by descending Northing and then by ascending Easting. So, borehole 1 is in “upper left map corner”, borehole 674 in the “lower right corner”. The available paper copies were sorted according to the sorting ID. The additional borehole data delivered on 01-July and 12-July were addressed with IDs from 1000 and 2000 onwards and are sorted according to the data recording sequence.

4.3.2 Assessment Methodology All surface locations and elevations from the originally delivered digital (Tab. 4.2-1,[1]) borehole database were checked against available paper copies since first random checks showed a relatively high portion of typing errors. Typing errors defining the seam boundaries were detected by anomalies not explainable by geological features during the mapping process and corrected. Plausibility checks on the coal quality data have been carried out for the originally received digital data (Tab. 4.2-1, [1]). Cross-plots of Ash vs. Net CV and Net CV vs. Volatile Matters Page 40 of 120


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indicate only few erroneous outliners which do not significantly influence the calculated averages by borehole as used for the geological model.

4.3.3 Stratigraphic And Lithological Borehole Data 4.3.3.1 Sibovc 443 borehole data (lithological descriptions, assay data) were available for the area within Sibovc Concession Area (Appendix B: Tab. App-B-4.5-2) After applying the auditing methodology as described in chapter 4.5.2 seven boreholes were removed from the active database. They represented extreme deviations in the surface elevation or lignite depth compared to adjacent boreholes. 436 boreholes remained as “active” data in the borehole database (Appendix B: Tab. App-B4.5-1 ). A total of 217,395.30 m were drilled by these boreholes. The total depth is ranging between 6.80 m and 200.50 m with an average at 103.26 m. On the average the boreholes were drilled to some five meters into the green clay. 41 holes were not drilled to the base of the seam. The top of the seam has been encountered between 2.30 m and 137 m md (measured depth) with an average at 43.85 m. The base was penetrated between 3.00 and 193.20 m md with an average at 93.20 m. The structural position for the top of the seam is between 494.60 and 623.10 mMSL (meter above mean sea level) with an average at 550.28 mMSL. The elevation for the base is between 530.90 and 663.30 mMSL with an average at 594.00 mMSL. The seam thickness is between 0 and 93.30 m. The average is at 51.07 m.

4.3.3.2 D-Field 226 borehole data (lithological descriptions, assay data) were available for the area within DField Concession Area . After applying the auditing methodology as described in chapter 3.6. one borehole was removed from the database. It was a duplicate. A total of 105,399.70 m were drilled by these boreholes. The total depth is ranging between 9.80 m and 142.00 m with an average at 88.69 m. On the average the boreholes were drilled to some five meters into the green clay. 41 holes were not drilled to the base of the seam. The top of the seam has been encountered between 5 m and 76 m md with an average at 31.40 m. The base was penetrated between 8.8 and 138.3 m md with an average at 90.06 m. The structural position for the top of the seam is between 472.40 and 581.10 mMSL with an average at 523.84 mMSL. The elevation for the base is between 533.8 and 596.10 mMSL with an average at 555.05 mMSL. Page 41 of 120


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The seam thickness is between 1.00 and 81.60 m. The average is at 58.17 m.

4.3.3.3 “South-Field” 65 borehole data (lithological descriptions, assay data) were available for the area within South-Field Mining Concession Area . One borehole was removed from the active database since the recorded surface elevation was estimated 120 m too high. A total of 27,731.7 m were drilled by these boreholes. The total depth is ranging between 11.8 m and 211.5 m with an average at 134.13 m. On the average the boreholes were drilled to some five meters into the green clay. Six holes were not drilled to the base of the seam.

4.3.4 Coal Qualities from Borehole Data 4.3.4.1 Assessment of Borehole Data Since the cores are not accessible no “first hand” judgement can be made about the reliability of the lithological descriptions which affect the definition of the seam´s vertical boundaries. Only indirect control was given during the modelling process by investigating anomalies in the structural setting or thickness distribution caused by a single borehole. Due to the sharp contact of lignite and grey clay it can be assumed that the hangingwall boundary of the seam has been unequivocally recorded. The modelling process confirmed this assumption. The definition of the footwall boundary is less precise due to the progressive intercalation of clay towards the base of the seam. It cannot be ruled out that either lignite or clay has been overseen in the cores which could cause interpretation errors. In this context it should be noted that core losses are only reported in the available description sheets for Sibovc. Anomaly spots in some areas indicate an uncertainty in the boundary definition of ± 5m. The data management with KEK´s responsible engineering department does not meet international standards. A complete and updated digital borehole database was not available by commencement of the study. The available data (Tab. 4.2-1, data item [1]) were apparently generated during the ESTAP study (Tab. 4.2-1, data item [12]) by the contractor. This data has not been completed or updated. In this data important qualifiers which e.g. indicate only partial seam penetration are not contained. Further borehole information is stored in KEK´s AUTOCAD Mining plans but apparently incomplete and not reviewed. Our general impression is that no authorized borehole database is in use. Page 42 of 120


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Therefore, it was necessary to generate a new database for the project tasks. It stores all available borehole data in EXCEL sheets and provides VBA functions for data filtering, calculations (as calculating length weighted borehole averages from assay data) and export function. We recommend that KEK is adapting this database and maintaining it in the future. Upon KEK´s request and specifications the database content could easily be transferred to their applications as in particular to DATAMINE.

4.4 Geological Model A detailed structural model has been generated for the Lignite Fm. It integrates all available sources as surface observations, borehole and seismic data. Due to the lack of decent borehole descriptions a differentiation in the overburden clay between the yellow and grey clay was difficult and only made for two cross-sections which are part of the Annexes in Part II. A coal property distribution model for the coal properties as relevant for the mine plan, i.e. ash content, net calorific value and total sulphur, has been developed on length weighted borehole averages. Additionally, a 3D Block Model for the spatial net calorific value distribution has been developed by applying SURPAC (see Part II – Technical Planing).

4.4.1 Modelling Procedure The borehole database are stored in an EXCEL file. The listings for the Sibovc Concession Area is contained in Appendix B (Tab. App-B-4.5-1 and –2) that provides VBA procedures for data filtering and averaging of coal quality assay data. The EXCEL database served as input of borehole data for the geological modelling. All maps, 3D displays and cross-sections were produced by using SURFER 8.00 (Golden Software) and AutoCad 2004. All grids have a 50x50 m grid node increment. For the gridding processes all available borehole data have been considered. The maps show an area of 91.8 km2 that fall in the limits of xmin=7499000, xmax=7511000, ymin=4721850 ymax= 4729500. For the generation of the depth structure grid and contour map at Top Lignite Seam a minimum curvature algorithm was used. An anisotropy factor of 0.8 was used to reflect the NorthSouth elongation of the lignite basin. This algorithm has been tested as the best available for modelling fault areas.

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The isochore thickness has been generated by applying a radial basis function with an anisotropy of 0.8 and a long axis directed to the NNW (340° azimuth). The base of the seam has been generated by isochoring downwards. The overburden, overburden-to-coal ratio and structural dip maps have generated by mathematical grid operations. The faults have been mapped as vertical faults. This simplification has been made because the chosen grid increment no significant improvement in volumetric calculation. The structural cross-sections (Annex I/ 4. 6- 8) were generated from the SURFER structural grids. The sections have manually edited to show fault dips. For the coal quality distribution grids which are not affected by faults a kriging algorithm with SURFER´s default linear variogram with the following specifications was used

. The search parameters have been selected as shown below.

The structural and property grids have been exported to the mine planning software Microstation as GS ASCII grids. The format exchange does guarantee a 1:1 imaging of the grid data among the software packages.

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4.4.2 Structural Model Depth structure maps at Top and Base Lignite, a seam isochore map, overburden thickness and overburden-to-coal ratio are shown in Annexes I/4.6-1 to –6. Three regional geological cross-sections in SW-NE, S-N and W-E directions depict the structural and depositional setting (Annex I/4.6-8). In all concession areas the structural dip at top lignite is low with overwhelming values below 5º (Annex I/ 4. 6- 7). In the ”South-Field” it dips with 5-10º to the South. Steeper dipping is indicated in Sibovc along two SW-NE alignments which are believed to represent erosional channels. The erosion is also seen on the depth structure map at Top lignite, the isochore map and even expressed on the Low CV map. The mapped area is characterised by a NNW-SSE striking basin. Along the axis the thickness reaches up to 70-80 m. The coal basin is delineated to the West by a series of stepping fault blocks which separate the Tertiary fill from the Mesozoic basement. The lignite pinch-out to the NE appears to be a unconformal without recognized boundary faults. Cross-faults which strike roughly perpendicular to the basin axis are developed in the North of Sibovc and to the South of Hade. The cross-plot lignite thickness versus depth (Fig. 4.4-1) eveals a strong correlation which indicates that subsidence and very likely faulting took already place during the lignite deposition. If the movements were commencing later the data would show high scattering. The seismic data indicate a highly faulted area along the Mirash northern slope directly to the south of Hade. It appears to be affected by reverse faults and dense normal faults creating a “collapse” structure. Due to the critical location in respect to the village of Hade a proposal for an appraisal borehole has been made to the mining director (see proposal document in Appendix A). The following table provides structural characterisation data for the evaluated areas:

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Tab. 4.4-1

Minimum: Median: Maximum: Mean: Minimum: Median: Maximum: Mean: Minimum: Median: Maximum: Mean:

Sibovc, D-Field, „South-Field“ – Structural Characterisation Univariate Statistics - Structural Characterization from Geological Model Grid Sibovc O-To-C Ratio Top Seam Base Seam [mMSL] [mMSL] Thickness [m] Overburden [m] [m3/t] 494 422 0 2 0.0 550 505 52 36 0.7 638 638 96 130 153.7 552 503 49 43 1.1 D-Field 454 378 0 2 0.0 534 476 58 27 0.6 581 564 83 84 99.9 529 480 48 32 1.6 "South-Field" 357 281 1 2 0.0 475 410 66 94 1.2 529 509 81 180 2.4 468 403 65 90 1.2

Fig. 4.4-1

Lignite Thickness vs. Depth Plot

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4.4.3 Coal Quality Distribution Model For the quality distribution length weighted averages have been calculated from the assay data within the Lignite Fm. on a single borehole basis. Averages for the Sibovc area are reported in Appendix B (Tab. App-B-4.5-2). Average coal quality distribution maps are shown in Annexes I/4. 6- 9 to –11. The concession areas are characterised by the following quality populations: Tab. 4.4-2

Univariate Statistics, Coal Qualities from Geological Model Grid

Univariate Statistics - Coal Qualities From Geological Model Grid Sibovc Ash Content Net CV Total Sulphur [%] [kJ/kg] [%] Samples 8115 8115 8115 Minimum: 25%-tile: Median: 75%-tile: Maximum:

11.29 14.28 15.33 16.87 38.19

1748 7834 8296 8657 9683

0.69 0.95 1.07 1.19 2.93

Midrange: Range: Interquartile Range: Median Abs. Deviation:

24.74 26.90 2.59 1.20

5716 7935 823 402

1.81 2.25 0.23 0.12

Mean: Trim Mean (10%): Standard Deviation: Variance:

15.86 15.64 2.31 5.35

8146 8214 762 580561

1.09 1.08 0.20 0.04

Coef. of Variation: Coef. of Skewness:

0.15 1.88

0.09 -1.72

0.18 1.66

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4.5 Other Aspects influencing the Geological Situation 4.5.1 Former Underground Mining Remains of the old underground mining are situated in the south-western part of the Sibovc field and the D-Field and are connected with the old mining structures which are currently exposed along the coal cuts in Mirash West and on the Mirash northern slope. Some of the old galleries have been already cut within the Mirash mine and the pillar area. First attempts to reach the seam were made along river erosion channels which cut the coal seam. In areas of the seam which were affected by it can be mixed completely or at least partly with humus strata resulting in a decrease of the coal quality. Therefore, the initial excavation of the stalls began about 7 meters under the roof of the seam. In the proximity of the riverbanks water handling was difficult. At a later stage vertical shafts were deepened. The documented coal mining using galleries and reaches back to 1922

Fig. 4.5-1 Arial photography showing the area of the D-Field with regularly aligned collapse structures (more or less round holes) in consequence of former underground mining. The highlighted area indicates zones with still stable galleries.

For the stabilisation of the galleries with a height of 2 m and width of 3 m was used a wooden timber set support system. The parallel galleries had a distance of 20 m one to each other, every 100 m a cross cut was excavated and they followed the given directions of the separations planes. The old roadways were driven parallel to the joint system within the mine. The galleries were widened to caverns with intervals of 7-20 m and the coal was broken from the roof. In the area Western of the overburden dump in the D-Field these caverns frequently collapsed forming more or less round craters, which show a regular alignment. Due to this method sections of the galleries show a low stability and there is a potential danger of collapse of the undermined levels under load if they are not already broken or refilled.

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The dimension of the undermined area in has been calculated considering the following factors: • Calculation of the excavated coal during 1922 to 1966 • Existing underground mining maps of the Mirash mine • Position of the old shafts

Fig. 4.5-2

• • • • • • • • •

Collapsed gallery of old underground mining.

Mapping of the outcrops of the gallery system and acquisition of data (gallery width, distance e.g.) Site visits of the for a specific delimitation of the underground mines Determination of the mining methods by means of the characteristics of exposed galleries Interpretation of aerial photographs for the acquisition of typical structures (patterned alignment of collapse structures) Interpretation of seismic investigations Acquisition of the fault pattern Acquisition of topographic elements and natural boundaries (old bed of the river Sitnitca, location of villages) Extension regarding the maximum practicable distance between shafts and galleries These points have been regarded for the purpose of compiling the geological model how it is described in the attachments.

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The underground mining was abandoned in 1922. Following table shows the overall coal production of the underground mine. There is no reliable documentation on the extension of the old underground mine or the information is at least incomplete. Coal production of old underground mining in the Kosovo Basin "Kosovo"

"Krusevac"

"Sibovac"

Years 1922 - 1966

years 1948 - 1966

Years 1952-1958

6.401.434 t

2.921.233 t

255.117 t

Tab. 4.5-1

Coal production of old underground mines within area investigated. (source: INKOS)

Partially, the exploitation fields of the old underground mining were limited by faults. Under consideration of these production rates for the field “Kosovo” can be calculated an area of app. 5 km2 and 2 km2 for the field “Sibovc”. These production rates from the field “Sibovac” show that the excavation only took place near the surface. The largest distance between a shaft and the outermost galleries did not exceed 700 meters. Annex I/4.7-1 shows the complete undermined area how it can be supposed under consideration of all aforementioned arguments and facts.

4.5.2 Uncontrolled Coal Fires 4.5.2.1 Development and locations of coal fires Within a wide area a large amount of lignite is affected by spontaneous combustion. which occurs in the mine slopes and coal yards, where the coal is exposed to air and can penetrate the underground and reach the coal Self- ignition is the consequence of the oxidation of coal, a process which is producing heat energy. If the energy production exceeds the amount of energy removed from the system, the coal will reach its ignition temperature, eventually. In a first phase coal fires take place within weakness zones like joints or slope failures or old mining structures, where enough oxygen can reach the surface of the coal and the heat is enclosed. The fire can be boosted by methane. In the following stage the complete hanging layer is influenced by the heat. About 60% of total coal fires are concentrated near or within the roof strata, where the coal shows the best quality and discharges a great amount of energy. Old galleries from the ancient underground coal mining facilitate a supplementary ventilation and therefore best conditions for oxygen inflow are given Burned out galleries result in large cavities and therefore a decreasing stability of the slopes. The experiences from the Bardh-Mirash mine showed, that also slide areas, slopes (especially the central pillar parts of the mine which remain exposed to air for a longer period), fault and joints are affected by these fires. Self combustion also occurs in dumped coal masses. Typically the coal fires begin at the base of the dumps and affect the hole dump until it is burned out.

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Areas which are affected by illegal (private) coal excavation are also potential locations of coal fires. In most cases the small quarries and shafts were not refilled and therefore potential conditions for self combustion are given (see Figures below). A secondary effect is the fritting of the clay in the seam roof. Due to the heat the material becomes dehydrated and oxidised and takes a red colour The characteristics (hardness) of the fritted clay allow a use as gravel to improve the stability of transport roads within the mine

Fig. 4.5-3

Coal fire at a base of a dump.

Fig. 4.5-4

Coal fire in old mining structures

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4.5.2.2 Counteractive measures The procedures for coal fire extinguishing and thus saving coal resources have to be adapted to the exploitation operations and to be done by the mines staff during the current mining activities. The following convenient extinguishing technologies have to be selected under consideration of the local geotechnical conditions. The extended use of water in most cases may cause landslides. • Direct fire fighting (small fires) • Excavation of local burning coal (hot spots) • Levelling of surface and drilling of injection holes • Injection of water or slurry to the fire centre • Surface sealing (excavation front) • Cooling with water spaying equipment • Inertisation • Flooding (surface near galleries) • Burnout control

4.5.2.3 Prevention of coal fires Prevention of coal fires is synonymous with the avoidance of the contact of coal and oxygen. The main focus is on the avoiding of oxygen entry into the underground corridors. The galleries in the central pillar allow the best ventilation and therefore strongest oxidation and heat development. Cut old galleries have to be protected against ventilation. If an excavator opens a gallery, a caterpillar or similiar machine should close the entry as soon as possible with clay or other impermeable material to prevent further oxygen entry. These actions have to be taken permanently during the excavation process. Collapsed old galleries near the surface or shafts have to be inspected if oxygen can penetrate somewhere and where appropriate, openings need to be filled. Self combustion and fires near the surface can be avoided minimising a permanent contact of the coal with atmospheric oxygen. Slide faults can cause deep cracks and are often the origin of coal fires, which are very difficult to extinguish. Therefore it is essential to prevent land slides Generally, the length of the excavation front has to be adapted to the yearly coal output. Thus, the time of exposition of the excavation front can be reduced. As potential appearance locations of coal fires are associated with the locations of the old underground mining, the underground mining map (Annex I/ 4.7-1) can provide information where to aspect fires in the future. In the 1st semester of 2006 a project will be started by EAR for fire fighting in the Kosovo Coal Mines. The results of this projects shall, so far as the instructions will be carried out strictly, achieve sustained success and lead to a significant reduction of coal fires.

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4.6 Geological Resources The calculation of geological resources for the Sibovc, the D-Field and the “South-Field” – within their respective concession areas – resulted in the following figure: • Sibovc 990 mt over an area of 19.7 km2 • D-Field 395 mt over an area of 7.8 km2 • “South-Field” 537 mt over an area of 8.0 km2 The calculation of resources defines solely “geological resources” or in other terms: “in-situresources”. A classification of these resources in accordance with their geological assurance was performed for the Sibovc field and is discussed in Part II of the report. As a general statement, geological resource figures are not considering any factors based on the mineability, such as mining losses or dilution. They are simply based on cut-offs assumed by a competent geologist. In this case, no cut-off for minimal thickness of the seam is required as the lignite bed is always well above the technical mineability. Also a cut-off for the thickness of partings was not applicable for the evaluated concession areas. The boundaries of the seam at the top and the floor are lithologically defined and also established by the sampled seam section. The geological assurance depends on the borehole spacing and the continuity of the deposit. It can be already noted that the borehole spacing is wide in the “South-Field” which would lead to classify the area as an coal field with “indicated” or “inferred” resources. The Sibovc field is well explored in the south and lesser explored towards the north, hence, measured resources are abundant. The thickness distribution within the deposit area is modelled by interpolation as described in chapter 4.4.1 and is established on a 50 x 50 m grid. Losses of resources due to underground mine workings in the upper part of the seam in some isolated areas are not yet estimated since no accurate maps of those areas are yet available. A specific gravity of 1.14 g/cm³ was applied in order to calculate the tonnage of lignite resources. This value is in accordance with former assumptions and allows a comparison of resource figures with various former studies. Assuming a real specific gravity in the range of 1.25 to 1.3 g/cm³, the geological resources would be increased by about 10 % which now can be considered now as a safety factor.

4.7 Hydrogeological Situation The hydrogeological situation of the area is defined by three main hydrogeological layers. The basis is given by an aquiclude formed by the “green clay” consisting of clay and silt with a general thickness of more than 100m. The overlaying lignite coal with a thickness up to 70m is generally described not to be good permeable but because of fissures and cracks within the coal groundwater can circulate whereby the coal layer has to be recognized as an aquifer. This fact can be underlined by field Page 53 of 120


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observations when wells were observed, which came into being while excavating coal in an elevation clearly above the water level of main drainage sump in Mirash mine. Above the coal follows the overburden mainly consisting clay with subordinated silt or sand. Characteristic are embedded layers with masses of snail shells. Near to the surface this “grey clay” can change its appearance to a “yellow clay” what is explained to be a result of weathering with oxidation of the iron content within the material. The clay material generally habits like an aquifuge but because of fissures and cracks reaching depths of 10 m to 15 m from the surface water can penetrate the rock. Hence groundwater appears either when the fissures are dug up by excavation or where those fissures are connected to better permeable layers within the clay such as the snail shell layers or gravel layers. Following the resulting hydraulic conductivity depends on the locally different appearance of the clay and fissures. The “yellow clay” horizon is frequently used to supply houses and smaller villages with water, e.g. in the village of Hade and in the valley west of Lajthishte. The observed water levels and the alteration in colour from grey to yellow indicate that this groundwater horizon is directly fed by precipitation and it is assessed that groundwater predominately circulates near the surface. Recent measurements on the quantity of groundwater and flow directions as well as expressive maps of the groundwater table are not available. Reviewing older documents an D-Field observations show that the quantity of groundwater descending the overburden at the mines is rather small. At the slopes groundwater can be observed after rainy periods favoured in coarse layers of the “yellow clay” and, along fissures, within the “grey clay”. Additional vadose water horizons can appear within courser layers of the grey clay especially where it contains larger amounts of snail shells. Locally the overburden is eroded to a thickness of meters or less and as abandoned underground works with broken roofs give direct access to the surface, precipitation can directly infiltrate the coal in larger areas whereby larger quantities of groundwater might be produced. Utilization of groundwater concentrates on private wells dug to depth of 10 to 15 m below the surface within the overburden clay. Production quantities are shown by Rudaski Institute (1985) with Q = 3 l/min to Q = 11 l/min with a maximum of Q = 54 l/min, which can be judged as hydraulic conductivities in a range of kf = 10-9 m/sec to kf = 10-6 m/sec. Field observations in the surroundings of Lajthishte showed artificial wells, drilled some 5 m to 7 m deep into the “yellow clay”, to serve as water supply for a village. Inhabitants described the wells rather unproductive but sufficient for private purpose. The quaternary deposits along the river Sitnica consist of coarser materials with sand and gravel contents. Resulting the hydraulic conductivity can reach values up to kf = 10-4 m/sec or even greater. Because of the hydraulic properties of the clay and the topsoil developed to a Vertisol (Smonitza) in case of rainfall an enriched surface run-off can be expected. To allow first assessments a run-off coefficient of 0.45 is chosen by Consultant. The hydrogeological situation at the surface is presented by Rudarski Institut in 1996. The map shows in brownish colour elevated and hilly plains with minor or no groundwater content as well as in blue colours the valleys of the rivers with enriched groundwater occurrence. Page 54 of 120


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From the hydrogeological point of view a first differentiation is possible for the potential mining fields. The Sibovc-Field is nearly wholly located in less water bearing overburden. Besides some minor waters the Sibovc river in the north of the field has to be diverted in an adequate way before excavation. In the valley of Sibovc river artesian groundwater outflow was observed in harvest of 2004. Hence beside a well prepared diversion of the river additional drainage will be needed for the alluvial sediments in the valley. Furthermore protective measures must be foreseen were the alluvial sediments of Sibovc river join the Alluvial sediments along river Sitnica near the village of Hamidija. It is assessed that at least an apron cutting through the permeable sediments and a dam will be needed to prevent water inflow from the river Sitnica. The fields D and South reach the river valleys where enlarged groundwater inflow is expected. Especially the South-Field will be excavated along the river Sitnica with diversion of the river needed and opening up the rim of the mine for more than 3 km parallel to the river. Hence intensified leakage from the river to the mine will be created and adequate measures have to be implemented to protect the mine in times of floods as half of the width of inundation area will be lost.

Fig. 4.7-1

Complemented Extract from Hydrogeological Map (Rudarski Institute 1996)

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4.8 Further Exploration in the future Fields The future coal fields should be examined with geological and geophysical methods under special regard of geotechnical conditions and the coal quality. The investigations should include: •

Borings executed with three drilling rigs for the examination of 2500 m of core material each year. For a reliable geological prognosis, in any case the respective borings should penetrate the whole seam till the lying green clay of the foot wall is reached. On demand (e.g. in the range of faults) the boring grid should be closer for obtaining more structural information (recognition of small size structures). • Registration of the strike and dip of the seam. This allows a better planning of the excavation. • Determination of the coal quality on the basis of the samples from the new borings • Investigation of the whole future field by line seismics. • E-W orientated 2D seismic line investigation for the verification of the orientation and throw of the faults • Hydrogeological evaluation in the boreholes • Geotechnical investigations including valuation of the parting plane texture. The future fields are expected to show structures in the northern sections how they are known from the actual mining areas. If such structures will be found, a detailed examination with borings should be made.

5 Overview of Potential Future Mining Fields 5.1 General Aspects and Bedding Conditions The deposit sections with the most favourable mining conditions are West of Pristina, where also the Mirash and Bardh mines are opened-up. The overburden to coal ratio is here approximately 1:1, i.e. to mine 1 t of lignite 1 cm of overburden has to be removed. In international scale these value are extremely favourable. The following three potential fields are considered for the further examination to choose the most effective opencast mine field: • Sibovc-Field • D-Field • South-Field

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Fig. 5.1-1

Potential Mining Fields

5.2 Sibovc-Field Location: The Sibovc Field is situated to the North of the Bardh and Mirash mines. So it is near the capital of Kosovo – Pristina and near to the existing power plant Kosovo B. The field area is approximately 16 msqm. It has a maximum mineable width (East-West extension) of 3.8 km and a length of about 6 km. Area use: The area of the Sibovc field is mostly used for agriculture. For a long time it has been known that this lignite field is envisaged for excavation. Therefore, the people living in this area are prepared for mining activities. Previous plans included the mining from South to North whereby it was intended to develop the field from the existing rim slope system of Bardh/ Mirash. Small private coal openings exist which are used for local fuel use. Degree of building: The mining field is sparsely populated. The main villages are:

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• • •

Hade Sibovc und Lajthishte

The village of Shipitula is for the most part outside the field to be mined. The resettlement of the before mentioned villages is the major obstacle for the exploitation. There are no other restrictions for the coal mining.

5.3 D-Field Location D-Field lies in directly beside the power plant TPP Kosovo A and ca. 5.5 km away (straight line) from the power plant B. In the West it borders the village of Dardhishte and in the South the village of Polje (Fushe Kosove) including infrastructure like road and railway line, whereas the seam thickness thins out to below the economic limit into East/North-East direction and in parallel the coal quality changes to the worth.. There is existing a „concession line“ which was also used for the comparison of the mining fields. A minimum distance between the villages was taken into consideration when choosing the mine boundary with regard to the before mentioned concession line. The area within the mine configuration comes to 6.7 msqm. Area use Already in the past coal was extracted on the territory of field B. The major part was mined in underground mines. For example, 2.9 mt of coal were mined (Krusevac mine) between 1948 and 1966. At present, a considerable part of the area is used by KEK as ash disposal site. Furthermore, opening-up masses from the Mirash mine were deposited on this area. The dumped material is assessed to: Ash Dump Dragodara 1.52 m sqm Overburden Dump Dragodara 0.69 m sqm The recovery of the old dumps interferes with the excavation of the deposit. Degree of building There are only few houses on coal D-Field. It is envisaged to build a motorway right on the area of the D-Field. It seems that approximately 30 – 40% of the mineable lignite content will be lost due to this measure. In this case the coal field will loose its attractiveness.

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5.4 South-Field Location: The South D-Fieldirectly borders on the existing Bardh and Mirash opencast mines in the South. In the West the mine boundary is formed by the village of Bardh and in the East the Sitnica River (Variant 1) or the village of Kosovo Polje (Variant 2). In Variant 1 the area covers more than 11 and in Variant 2 more than 14 m sqm.

Fig. 5.4-1

Two Variants in the South-Field

Geology in the excavation area: The deposit is characterised by an at least 60 to 80 m thick coal seam which is covered y an overburden layer of 100 to 150 m. The ratio overburden to coal is about 2:1. Compared with the Sibovc field the overburden volume doubles. In general there is the tendency of the overburden to coal ratio to change to the worse into Southern direction. In addition to the geological overburden, large amounts of dump material will change this ratio (O-to-C) further to the worse. Area use:

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Most of the area is already owned by KEK and covered by the already mentions dumps (see Figure below):

Fig. 5.4-2

Outside Dumps on the South-Field

These dumps comprise a total volume of 90 to 110 mm³ (slope angle ca. 6°) of an entire area of 5.5 m sqm and an average dumping height of 20 to 30 m. Soil-mechanical conditions: The dump soil is very difficult to excavate. Besides the problems in the excavation and transportation process, there are considerable problems of static stability for the slopes to be built. Gravel shall be available to stabilise in particular the working levels; this material is not available in the mines. The following parameters depend on the chosen field boundary: Tab. 5.4-1

Comparison of Coal Content and Overburden Removal South-Field Variant 1 Variant 2 Area m sqm 11 14 Slope Angel Overb. ° 10 10 Slope Angel Coal ° 22 22 Mass Overburden m m³ 1100 1400 Mass Coal Mt 370 500 Ratio Overb. to Coal bcm/t 3.0:1 2:8

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Degree of building In any case, i.e. for both variants, resettlement of the villages of Lismir and Kuzmin is required. In Variant 2, the river Sitnica had to be relocated additionally. There are no other buildings which could have a relevant influence.

5.5 Valuation of the Mining Fields The following Table shows a comparison of the different alternatives under consideration of various criteria: Tab. 5.5-1

Valuation of the Mining Fields

Criteria

Unit

Lignite content within tech[ mt ] nological border * Overburden : Coal – Ratio [ bcm/t ] incl. dumping material

Sibovc

D-Field

South-Field

900

280

500

0.85

0.90

2.8

Average Net Calorific Value

[ kJ/kg ]

8312

7340

Average Sulphur Content

[%]

1.1

1.0

Land Use Covering by dumped Masses

[m sqm ]

Agriculture 0.5 Hade, Sibovc, Lajthishte Resettlement of Hade

KEK(Dumps) 2.2

similar to Sibovc similar to Sibovc KEK(Dumps) 5.5

few houses

Lismir, Kuzmin

Motorway

Currently hardly competitive

Resettlement Constrains

* Considering the geological content within the slope system in the boundaries of the mines

One of the important cost drivers is the ratio between overburden removal and coal extraction. The figure below shows a survey. According to that the very North and the very South of Sibovc and the D-Field is most favourable. The centre of the Sibovc field is mineable but unfavourable for the opening up of the new mine.

Valuation Sibovc Field: The Sibovc field has large coal content and is characterised by favourable deposit condition. The lignite has a high quality and the excavation is not largely affected by extensive recovery of outside dump material. Another advantage of this field is the moderate transport distance to the power plant. Developing the Sibovc field from the South has the best potential of all scenarios to fill the Bardh and Mirash pits with overburden masses. The exploitation of the deposit requires resettlements.

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The mining of the lignite field of Sibovc offers the best possibility to supply coal to a new large power plant. In total it can provide coal for 2000 -2500 MW power plant capacity.

Valuation of D-Field: D-Field is characterised by the low overburden thickness and the good overburden to coal ratio. The average heating value is by 12 % lower and the filed is covered by outside dump masses and ash dumps. The previous dumping of ash did not correspond to the standards and guidelines of the EU. It has to be assumed that this dump should be either recovered or at least provided with a sufficient cover layer. If the dumps will be carried out, the remaining overburden to coal ration will come from 0.72 to 1.0 bcm/t. If the cost for relocating the ash disposal from its current location into the old workings of Mirash will be covered by a third party, the mining costs are expected to be lower in comparison to the other mining fields. This is also valid considering the lower average heating value. With regard to future land use it is possible to establish an attractive lake for recreation at reasonable costs not far away from Pristina (15 minutes). In terms of sustainable development the D-Field offers the best post mining use of the land. The environmental liability of the ash dump is eliminated and a recreational area can be established. The building of a new power plant larger than 600 MW would not be justified in particular due to the limited coal content. Either TPP B until end of lifetime or/and a smaller new TPP can be supplied. The envisaged erection of a motorway impedes the economical use of the lignite deposit. That´s why it is requested to check whether it is possible to relocate the route eastwards – at least in the Southern part of the D-Field.

Valuation of South-Field The main benefit of the Southern field is the fact that most of the areas are already property of KEK. But more overburden has to be removed as the seam dips to the South. Another disadvantage of the South-Field is the increasing transport distance to the power plants TPP A und TPP B. Mining of the South-Field is the most expensive variant due to the unfavourable geological conditions, especially the relatively high overburden to coal ratio. It should therefore be postponed.

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6 Alternatives of Mining Equipment -Various Mining Methods 6.1 Bases for a Comparison of Alternative Mining Methods Use of new Equipment /Comparison The deposit in the lignite mining area to be examined can be exploited economically by means of various different mining methods. Only those processes are considered which are able to extract the existing loose rock (mainly cohesive soils) in the overburden very economically: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Conventional bucket wheel excavator (BWE), belt conveyors and spreader Compact BWE, belt conveyors and spreader Truck and shovel (mobile equipment) Combination of BWE technology and truck and shovel

Other mining methods are not regarded efficient compared to the above mentioned. Those other methods include the excavation with draglines or „Hydromonitors”. The latter is not suitable because of the compact clay material and the thickness of the overburden layer. Often applied direct dumping methods are restricted due to depth of the overburden layer and the seam thickness. The dragline technology is possible in principle. It is the lowest cost waste removal equipment but restricted to: • Large deposits to ensure adequate strip length • Sufficient reserves to justify the capital expenditure • Gently dipping deposits, due to spoil instability • Simple geology and gentle terrain to ensure minimal changes in overburden thickness along the strip and • Shallow deposits due to dump reach and height limitations Due to the deposit parameters, draglines are not suitable as main winning equipment – capacity operation - in the Sibovc field. Deciding factors for this are the thickness of overburden and coal The important minimum values for the total benches (Sibovc deposit) are even in the first years: Overburden: 60 m Coal: 60 m The plan for cutting the general slope system includes 10° in the overburden and 22° in coal. This would mean that the excavators have to handle the excavated masses too often and would therefore not be profitable. But they could be useful at least for special works (auxiliary work) – if not applicable for the capacity operation.

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Definition of the working range for the comparison of the mining methods The detailed comparison of mining methods which seem to be reasonable is made at the example of the extraction in the Northern part of Sibovc. At this place, advantages are most likely to use alternative equipment like f. e. mobile equipment in contrary to the BEW-technology used at present. The reasons result from: • low overburden thickness • lower thickness of coal seam • larger distance of place of application of machines as against the present location

6.2 Description of the 4 Alternative Mining Methods Alternative 1 - Conventional continuous working Main Equipment Main equipments in Alternative 1 are standard machines, i.e. bucket wheel excavators with belt conveyors. This also corresponds to the present mining technology of KEK. Draglines work as auxiliary machines. The comparison can be made by a) new equipment and b) available old-equipment. Alternative 2 – Mining with compact excavators The most important difference to alternative 1 is that the excavators which are used as solcalled compact excavators have a shorter boom length. Those excavators have a lower weight and therefore have a lower price. That means the investment demand is also lower. On the other side, there are increased expenses in the production process because of the lower cut. Alternative 3 - Mobile Equipment This alternative mining method aims at determining it a sole truck/shovel operation would be more cost-effective than the extraction with continuous excavator-belt conveyor-spreader operation. Anyhow, the truck/shovel method is inherently more flexible and makes this method better suited in the following applications: • Small deposits, which do not justify the capital expenditure of BWEs • Geologically complex deposits with resultant irregular mine shapes • Comparably low labour costs for personnel, compensating the extra demand for additional labours Especially the last aspect is given and the moderate output capacity of 9 mt contributes to this as well.

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Alternative 4 - Combined Equipment Application In this alternative, overburden is removed by means of bucket wheel excavators. All excess heights in the overburden are removed by truck/shovel operation.

6.3 Calculation of Average Cost per Unit With regard to the future equipment use and output capacity, the operating costs were estimated for the four alternative mining methods. Average cost per unit was calculated by means of the Discounted-cash-Flow method (DCF) assuming a discount rate of 12 % and with the use of real values (i.e. for personnel cost and additional increase of ca. 2 % is assumed as against the international inflation rate).

6.3.1 General Data for Cost Calculation General assumptions for the study are as follows: - Currency of the study Euro - Discount rate 12 % escalated - Escalation rate 2 %/year. - Base cost 2004 - Labour costs 3,440 €/employee/year in 2004 - Shift factor 5.2 employees per workplace - Power 0.032 €/kWh - Fuel 0.70 €/l - Maintenance 0.08 – 0.10 €/(m³+t)*km - Recultivation 0.15 €/t Lignite - Taxes & Royalties 0.30 €/t Lignite - Other costs / contingencies 0.30 €/m³+t

6.3.2 Calculation of Operating Cost Positions Tab. 6.3-1 Operating Cost Position - Personnel: Main Equipment Personnel demand for main equipment was determined on basis of standard crew of heavy-duty equipment, estimated crew for belt conveyors as well as shift factor. Workshops/Maintenance:

50 % of main equipment

Auxiliary Equipment:

40 – 80 % of main equipment

Administration & Head Office:

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Other:

20 % of main equipment

- Maintenance costs:

The demand was determined on the basis of the performances of the equipment and the specific value. It was considered that the higher demand for auxiliary equipment requires higher maintenance costs in Alternatives 2, 3 and 4.

- Power:

Determination of costs on basis of output capacities. An additional demand of 5 Mio. kWh/a was estimated on the basis of data of similar opencast mines.

- Fuel:

Determination of costs on the basis of use of equipment. Depending on the use of auxiliary equipment an additional demand of 5 Mio. kWh/a was estimated.

- Recultivation: - Taxes & Royalties: - Other costs / contingencies:

0.15 €/t Lignite 0.30 cent/t Lignite. 0.30 cent/m³+t

6.3.3 Actual Costs Basic assumption is, that the personnel cost in Kosovo will rise sharply in the next years than all the other positions will rise. Basing on this, we made the following considerations: The personnel costs will increase: • until 2014 by 8 %/year • from 2015 by 1 %/year

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6.4 IRR, average Cost per Unit For different discounted rates the average cost per unit before tax over the whole project life amount to: Tab. 6.4 – 1 Comparison of average Unit Cost Discounted rate 4% 6% 8% 10 % 12 % 15 % 20 %

Average cost per unit in €/t Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 4.87 5.18 6.94 5.31 5.60 7.07 5.85 6.12 7.24 6.48 6.72 7.46 7.21 7.42 7.72 8.48 8.63 8.19 11.01 11.11 9.16

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Alternative 4 5.13 5.44 5.82 6.26 6.76 7.62 9.28


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6.5 Sensitivity Analysis The real average costs are graphically illustrated in dependence of the discounted rate. This clearly illustrates: As soon as the main equipment can be financed fully or partly via bank credits the average costs. The normal variation range is between 10 and 12 %.

Sensitivity of discount rate 11.00

10.00

RAC in €/t Lignite

9.00

8.00

7.00

6.00

5.00

4.00

4%

6%

Alternative 1

Fig. 6.5-1

8% Alternative 2

10%

12% Alternative 3

15%

20%

Alternative 4

Results of economic comparison of mining methods –equipment alternatives

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6.6 Result / Evaluation of new Equipment The following average costs per unit were determined, calculated on the basis of dcf methods for an internal rate of return of 12 %: Tab. 6.6-1

Average Cost per Unit (new Equipment) Unit Altern. 1 Altern. 2 Output m t/year 9.0 9.0 (after initial operation period) (from 2009 on) Average cost per unit Lignite thereof (incl. of indirect cost) Operating cost Investment cost and Acquisition/Resettlement Average cost per unit per tce (29 300 kJ/kg Lignite thereof: Investment Acquisition and Resettlement Operating cost Labour cost

Altern. 3 Altern. 4 9.0 9.0 (from 2010 on)

€/t (lignite)

7.21

7.42

7.72

6.76

€/t (lignite)

3.19 4.01

3.56 3.85

5.16 2.55

3.67 3.09

€/tce

29.32

30.18

31.41

27.53

€/tce

16.34

15.69

10.39

12.58

€/tce €/tce

12.99 3.08

14.50 3.90

21.02 4.91

14.94 3.64

Tab. 6.6-2

Expenses over whole project life time Unit Altern. 1 Altern. 2 Altern. 3 Altern 4 Investments, Reinvestments and Rehabilitation Total m€ 317.4 312.7 356.5 255.3 thereof: Lignite Excavator m € 51.0 31.2 10.8 25.8 Bet conveyor lignite m € 35.0 35.0 35.0 OB Excavator conv. m € 46.0 25.0 15.0 OB Excavator mobile. m € 12.0 2.8 Belt Wagon m € 4.6 13.8 7.2 Spreader m € 12.6 12.6 6.3 Belt conveyor m € 105.0 105.0 55.0 Draglines m € 12.0 18.0 Lignite Crusher m € 9.0 Heavy trucks OB m € 143.4 40.9 Heavy Trucks Lignite m € 99.2

The comparison of the alternatives shows that the operating costs in alternatives 1, 2 and 4 only differ to a small extent.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Current Mining RAC Euro/t 2012 to 2041 8.00

7.72

7.42 7.21

6.76 7.00

6.00

RAC in â‚Ź/t Lignite

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00 Alternative 1 Personnel Maintenance Recultivation & Roads Total

Fig. 6.6-1

Alternative 2

Alternative 3

Power Taxes & Royalties specific Invest costs

Alternative 4 Fuel Other financing costs

Result of economic comparison of the four mining equipment variant

The investments are of greater influence on the alternatives. Due to the lead time of overburden removal and the respective technology great differences result in the capital costs. The lower bar chart illustrates an example for a financing 80 % of the main equipment with bank credits via a term of 10 years with an interest rate of 6 %.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Current Mining RAC Euro/t 2012 to 2041 with loan for 80% main equipment with 6% interrest in 10 years 8.00

7.61

6.84 7.00

6.58

6.37

6.00

RAC in â‚Ź/t Lignite

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00 Alternative 1 Personnel Fuel Taxes & Royalties Recultivation & Roads Total costs

Fig. 6.6-2

Alternative 2

Alternative 3

Alternative 4

Power Maintenance Other Invest costs Acquisition/Resettlement

Current mining RAC with loan for 80% main equipment with 6% interest

Regarding the aspect of a long-term cost-efficient supply of the power plants in Kosovo as well as a necessary flexibility of the production, Alternative 4 shall be favoured.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

6.7 Use of existing Equipment and Refurbishment Strategy The operation of the Kosova lignite mines from the beginning of the nineteen nineties was characterized by minimum operational funding and suspension of necessary investments by former Yugoslavia. This deteriorated the conditions of future mine operations and became a major burden now in the opencast mines caused by mode of operation over the last decade. Today, the results are a huge maintenance backlog of more than 100 million € in the mines. Beside the effect for the mines operation this led to a critical status of most of the main equipment as excavators, spreaders, belt wagons and conveyor lines. As a consequence, the mining potential of the open-cast mines has been decreasing continuously. “The present state of the load-bearing steel construction would inevitably give rise to the immediate shutdown of about 85 % of the installed equipment if the safety criteria of the currently applicable German and European Standard DIN/EN 22261 and the Regulations on the “Operation of Open-Cast Mining Equipment and Belt Conveyors in Open-Cast Mines” derived from the German Mining Act were applied.” So the status of most of the equipment in the Mirash mine is catastrophic and can lead to the collapse of a machine all time. This would have influence on the coal supply capabilities and could stop the coal production from the mine for long time. Nevertheless the equipment is still in a condition which justifies rehabilitation in most cases. Therefore, the costs and the financial effects when using existing equipment have been considered for the variant comparison. It is therefore assumed that the refurbishment will lead to an increase in productivity to current international standards. The following table shows the existing bucket wheel excavators and spreaders: Tab. 6.7-1 List of BWE and Spreader Type/Capacity Quantity

SchRs 650

2 E9M E 10 M

SRs 1300

4 E8B E9B E 10 B E8M

SRs 470

5 E5M E6M E3B E4B E6B

SRs 400

1

Refurbishment Annual Program* Maintenance* m€ m€/a each 6.5 0.45 6 7 each 6.5 0.45 6.5 5.5 - 6.5 5.5-6.5 7 0.8 out of order under repair out of order heavy cracks -

Page 72 of 120

0.8

Suitable for Sibovc Mine

X X X X X X


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

E7M SRs 315

(X) 5

-

E1M E2M E4M E1B E2B SRs 250

out of order out of order Cracks out of order

1 E 11 M

Type/Capacity

Quantity

Spreader

7

0.8

0

Refurbishment Annual Program* Maintenance* m€ m€/a each 4.5

Suitable for Sibovc Mine

2

A2Rs-B 5200 P3M P4M

0.25 0.25

X X

0.25 0.25 0.25

X (X) X

3

A2Rs-B 4400 P1B P2B P3B

2

A2Rs-B 2500 P1M P2M

0.4 0.4 *estimation for comparing the variants

The excavators of the type SRs 470 / 400 are not suitable to operate as main mine equipment in Sibovc. They do not fit into the technological scheme regarding the performance required (output of coal) and the slope heights of 20 – 25 m. Nevertheless the E 7M can be used as stand-by machine for auxiliary works as far as it is required. Necessary mechanical refurbishment of excavators and spreaders: • Corrosion protection of the complete excavator • Drive units for travelling drives and belt drives, example gearboxes, drums • Collecting and discharge units and sealing • lubrication systems complete • Refurbishment of steel construction Electric refurbishment: • Complete renewal of the electrical system as follows: • Cable and cable run • Lighting • MV-switches • PLC-system • Drive controls (Converter) • Electric houses

Belt Conveyor It would take 60 to 70% of the cost for new conveyor installations to lift the availability of the conveyor lines to today’s standard. In addition a big part of the current installations is below Page 73 of 120


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1800 mm width and therefore does not match the capacity of the refurbished excavators. In summary we recommend to buy new conveyor lines including belt drive stations.

6.8 New or Used Equipment? Financial calculations have been performed for Alternatives 1 and 4 considering the use of valuable equipment existing today and considering complex refurbishment measures for such equipment. The calculations have been performed under the same assumptions and conditions as for the new equipment. In result of this calculation the real average costs for Alternative 1 (conventional BWE technology) amount to 6.5 €/t and for Alternative 4 amount to 6.6 €/t. The refurbishment of useful existing main mine equipment is the most economic solution. In summary the financial modelling favours the alternative with BWE and truck/shovel if using new equipment and the alternative with the exclusive use of BWEs using refurbished (existing) equipment. In absolute numbers the use of refurbished excavators is most economical and should be chosen in case the equipment is available. This is also valid for spreaders but only limited for conveyor systems.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

7 Alternatives of Opening-up and Mine Development Scenarios 7.1 General Mine Design and Criteria of Evaluation Up to here this paper dealt with geological issues and different mine equipment. In addition the business relations between mine and power plant as well as the resettlement of Hade are of significant importance for the development of additional mining capacities. Lignite is typically a commodity not traded for electricity generation and therefore very often lignite mines are captive to lignite power plants. The following variants are possible depending on the connections to the TPP and the resettlement of Hade.

Will all TPPs be operated from one Company?

No

Should the additional coal production capacity be captive to a new IPP?

Yes No

Yes

One Mine

Can Hade be resettled in time?

Two Mines

No

Two Mines one in Sibovc and one in D-Field

Two Mines in Sibovc

Yes Var.1.1 Sibovc from South to North

Var.1.2 Sibovc from North to South

Var.2 D-Field & Sibovc

Page 75 of 120

Var.3 one in South and the second mine in N

Var. 4 one in Sibovc West and the other in East


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

For the mine development and the opening up of the Sibovc field six variants have been investigated. (Variant 3 in two sub-variants, i.e. Var.3.1 and 3.2). For a single mine development two main variants have been compared: • Variant 1.1 Mining Sibovc from South to North • Variant 1.2 Mining Sibovc from North to South In case of a two mines scheme the following principle variants have been assessed and evaluated: • Var. 2 Parallel mine development in Sibovc and D-Field • Var. 3.1 Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle) • Var. 3.2 Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (North) • Var. 4 Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line For selecting and evaluating different mining scenarios, criteria are used which have a decisive influence on the production costs and investments. These are: 1. Geology incl. ratio overburden to coal 2. Soil-mechanics / geotechnical safety 3. Technology (opening-up, transportation, dumping and equipment use) 4. Coal supply / coal losses 5. Coal quality 6. Resettlement 7. Auxiliary trades (not mining-related measures like road construction, etc.) 8. Area demand / area use 9. Environmental protection / ecology 10. Recultivation 11. Others /interfaces and permits 12. Risks The coal shall be supplied to the new IPP, which will be located nearby the present power plant B. ----------------------------------------Those coal losses are not considered which are due to interburden, unprofessional excavation and interface losses. They come to the same percentage regardless of the chosen scenario and are therefore hardly relevant for the comparison of variants.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

7.2 Description of the Main Mine Scenarios 7.2.1 Var.1: Development of the Sibovc Field as sole Supplier of the Power Plants Variant 1 assumes that the deposit of Sibovc is mined by a coal producer and it is intended to supply the total output to the existing and new power plants. The capacity of the opencast mine therefore orients to the existing power plant units B1 and B2 as well as the new power plant. As already mentioned, there is assumed annual output of ca.16 mt.

7.2.1.1 Variant 1.1: Operation from South to North A first scenario contains that the deposit is mined from South to North.

Fig. 7.2-1

Var. 1.1 (Development from South to North) Page 77 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

A major advantage is the short transport way to the dump area Bardh/ Mirash and the saving of a separate opening trench. Therefore the coal supply from Bardh/ Mirash can be compensated without delay. The following survey includes main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Tab. 7.2-1

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 1.1

1

Geology

2

Soil mechanics

3

Technology (opening-up, transport, dumping, equipment use)

Especially in the first years, relatively known geological /hydrological situation due to vicinity to the existing mines. Low risk to evaluate the deposit Advance velocity is relatively slow. Attention has to be paid to surface water collection and drainage, to avoid additional introduction of water into the slope body. Otherwise joint water formation increases which can result in slope failures. Irrespective of this, in-house road construction, slope design and other have to correspond to the service life and the bench lengths. Opening-up: The Sibovc field is opened from the Northern boundary of the Bardh and Mirash mines. In general it possible to perform widening of the slope system as opening up operation earlier / ahead of schedule. But this can only be made when accepting a drastic shortening of the bench (if resettlement of Hade is not yet finished). At least preparatory work can be performed without complications from the present operation. Transport: The coal is transported along the existing route of the long-distance belt conveyor line. But it is considered to relocate the coal belt conveyor from the village place to the direction of the East boundary of the Sibovc field.

4

Coal supply / coal losses

5

Coal quality

6

Resettlement

7

Auxiliary trades (road construction, etc.) Area demand / area use

8

9

Environmental protection /ecology

Equipment use: Preferably BWE–technology with the available large equipment (of KEK). For overburden removal it is recommended to use the two existing SchRs 650. In addition, a new machine with along boom should be procured. In the local operation 4 excavators of the type SRs 1300 are planned. (Coal demand appr. 15 mt/a) Dumping is performed on short, direct way in the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash. For this variant, the shortest transport ways with regard to dumping exist. Connection to coal supply possible without problem if Hade will be resettled in time. There will be not coal losses. Coal quality especially in first years is very good but changes to the worse into Northern direction in general. Hade must be resettled as soon as possible. It is assumed that resettlement will be finished mainly until 2008. Other resettlements will be necessary at a later date. The resettlement of Sibovc (main part) will only be requires after 2030. Infrastructure (like road to Bardh, electric wiring etc.) has to be replaced right at the beginning of the winning operation. Areas are mostly agricultural areas. Due to the envisaged mining of the Sibovc field, the users of the areas to be claimed are already prepared for exploitation. Concentration of the extraction work to one operating point (i.e. only one opencast mine with high capacity), which is moreover in an already influenced areas, Page 78 of 120


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10

Recultivation

11

Others / interfaces Permits

12

Risks

minimised the impacts to the environment. Ecologically valuable areas are only affected at a later time. The closure of the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash offers economical advantages due to the short transport distance. The balance return of area to claim of area is comparably favourable. At the end of the coal extraction there will only be one residual pit in the North of the Sibovc deposit. As defined, interfaces to a second mining company do not exist. In principle, this variant is technically a continuation of the existing mines. Therefore, it will be possible to claim protection of vested rights within the permit process. The deposit is a continuous one and so it is also extracted without a spatial separation. It is assumed that this will simplify the permit process (operating permit). This is supported by the fact that previous concepts included such an operating management. a) The most important risk of this method is that the resettlement of Hade will not be finished in time. If this happens, the possible coal exposure will be delayed by this time and consequently the coal supply to the power plants will not be guaranteed. A possible alternative would be to advance mining only at the South-Western boundary line of the Sibovc field. In that case the bench lengths in the reduceD-Field part will follow the safety zone to Hade and the necessary slope design to guarantee opencast mine safety. The original bench length of 2.0 to 2.9 km in the mine will then reduce to 1.0 to 1.2 km (with a slope angle of 10°) This alternative means an increase in production costs. b) If the consumption of raw coal will be clearly reduced the basic design including long benches would no longer be optimal and result in a specific increase of production costs as well. On t he other hand, benches being too short would also lead to considerable production problems and capacity losses.

Tab. 7.2-2 Var.1.1

1 2 3 4 5 6a 6b Sum

Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Variant 1.1 Area Surface Overburden Volume Overburden thickness Overburden m m² + MSL M mbcm 1.92 594 45.0 86.6 3.60 615 70.5 340.7 2.45 625 71.7 516.6 2.47 602 45.1 628.0 1.94 578 21.8 670.3 2.98 595 30.3 760.6 0.33 550 8.5 763.4 15.71 602 48.6 763.4

Overburden Cumulative Mbcm 86.6 340.7 516.6 628.0 670.3 760.6 763.4 763.4

(mentioned values in the sectors are rounded figures)

Tab. 7.2-3 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 1.1 Var. Area Top Bottom Coal Volume Volume 1.1 Coal Sec- Seam Seam Thickness Coal Coal tors m m² + MSL + MSL M mbcm mt

Page 79 of 120

Coal cumul. mt


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

1 2 3 4 5 6a 6b Sum

1.13 3.05 2.35 2.50 2.03 2.69 0.40 14.16

538 542 548 555 556 562 545 551

467 473 490 500 509 512 536 494

67.0 68.6 58.0 54.9 46.7 49.5 9.0 55.8

75.8 209.5 136.3 137.4 94.7 133.1 3.6 790.3

86.4 238.8 155.4 156.6 108.0 151.7 4.1 900.9

86.4 325.2 480.6 637.1 745.1 896.8 900.9 900.9

One of the most important factors to evaluate profitability of the mining-related activities is the overburden removal to coal extraction. In Variant 1.1 it is the following: Tab. 7.2-4 Var.1.1 1 2 3 4 5 6a 6b Sum

Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 1.1 Ratio Overburden: Coal bcm/t 1.00 1.06 1.13 0.71 0.39 0.60 0.69 0.85

Overburden to Coal cumul. Bcm/t 1.00 1.05 1.07 0.99 0.90 0.85 0.85 0.85

The general tendency of the change of geological coal quality to the worse is illustrated by the average values in the coal sectors. Tab. 7.2-5 Var.1.1 1 2 3 4 5 6a 6b Sum

Coal Quality Var.1.1 Sulphur % 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1

NCV kJ / kg 8490 8647 8364 8272 8024 8249 7100 8312

Ash % 14.7 14.3 14.8 15.3 16.4 15.8 19.6 15.3

The heating value of the coal in Sector b is particularly low and characterized by a low seam thickness. However, the overburden cover is low so that the ratio overburden to coal seams to be attractive to win this area too. Otherwise there would result additional cost by leaving out this area especially when using a BWE-technology (additional belt segments and drive stations). Outside dump: Within Sector 2 an additional outside dump shall be considered (OD Shipitulla) which is not included in the above mass balance. The winning process shall be designed to maintain slopes of ca. 8°. The area of the outside dump is 0.564 m m² according to the available data.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

There are no other outside dumps worth mentioning that exist within the field boundaries of Variants 1.

7.2.1.2 Variant 1.2: Operation from North to South Approach of this mining variant is to develop the Sibovc deposit from a new independent and spatial separate area. So there is no temporal need to resettle the village centre of Hade.

Fig. 7.2-2

Var.1.2 (Mine Development from North to South)

Tab. 7.2-6

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 1.2

1

Geology

2

Soil-mechanics

3

Technology (opening-up, transport, dumping , equipment use)

With reference to the entire field, there is the same geological situation like in Variant 1.1. But there are some cost-effective differences due to the time-delayed effect. For example, for the first 100 mt of coal in Var. 1.1 an overburden to coal ratio of 1bcm:1 t is yielded, whereas in Var. 1.2 this ratio is only ca. 0.75 bcm : 1 t . Due to the inclining layers, the development of the deposit from North to South seems to me more (at least at the beginning) favourable. Altogether there are slightly better geotechnical conditions. Opening-up: The opening in the North is done on virgin land used for agriculture. Equipment has to be transported to this place. Transport: Transport distances coal to power plant are shorter in this variant.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Equipment use: With the general development over the whole period in mind, BWE–technology was preferred. At the beginning, overburden thickness is clearly lower, i.e. by 30 m (range from 10 to 70 m), whereas in Var. 1.1 on the average 45 m (range from about 40 to 120 m). Therefore only 3 excavators are needed fro overburden removal on the Northern part of the deposit (instead of 4 in the Southern part). Irrespective of the choice of BWE-equipment with belt conveyor system it would be in general simpler to start also with alternative equipment from the North as. Reason for this are the missing low dependencies on the present production area of KEK and the low cutting heights.

4

Coal supply / coal losses

5

Coal quality

6

Resettlement

7

Auxiliary trades (road construction, etc.) Area demand / area use

8

Opening up masses are dumped via long transport distance in the residual pit of m Bardh / Mirash. If inner dumping is started as soon as it will be technologically possible, dump masse for closing the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash are missing. It should then be considered how to finance the considerable excess costs. Connection of the coal supply is not linked to the resettlement of Hade. But there are coal losses in the South of the deposit because the alternative of recovering dump material would be more unfavourable from the present point of view. The coal loss amounts to approximately 38 mt of coal, provided that the adjacent area (residual area of Bardh/ Mirash) will not be dumped higher than the roof of the coal seam (directed to the South with 7° inclining). Especially in the first years, coal quality is poorer than with Var.1.1 and will get better into Southern direction (see Sectors). The lower heating value shall be mentioned here especially. Apart from one safety pillar, Hade must not be resettled for the present. Resettlement of (the entire) place of Hade will only be necessary far beyond 2030 from the point of view of excavating the Sibovc-field. Instead, resettlement of Sibovc will be earlier. Infrastructure included in Var.1.1 (like road to Bardh, electric cables etc.) can be maintained for the present time. Areas are mainly sued for agriculture. Due to changed schedule of excavation of Sibovc, users of the areas to be claimed are less prepared to exploitation. Parts of the areas are already owned by KEK.

9

Environmental protection /ecology

In the North of Sibovc, the mine boundary was drawn opposite the „concession line“. Reason for this was a valuation process between coal loss and maintenance of relatively valuable areas for ecological grounds.

10

Recultivation

Closure of the residual area of Bardh/ Mirash will be extremely expensive due to the long transport distance. The balance return of area to claim of area will depend to a large extend on the decision about shaping the residual pit area of Bardh/ Mirash.

11

Others / interfaces Permits

12

Risks

At the end of the coal extraction there will only be one residual pit in the South of the Sibovc deposit Here also, interfaces to a second mining company do not exist. Although it is the same deposit like in Variant 1.1, it will be more difficult to get permits, because works will start in an area that has been virgin till today. The permitting procedure has to be performed as a green field project. a) Like for Var.1.1 the following applies: Page 82 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

if the consumption of raw coal will be reduced considerably the basic design of long benches would not be optimal and result in an increase in specific production costs. Effects, however, would not occur already when starting exploitation but will become effective later on. b) problems may occur with the possible start of coal output, since two basic conditions must be given: 1. permits and 2. main extraction equipment must be installed in-situ right in (and/or relocated) and sufficient coal has to be exposed.

The sectors are characterised as follows: Tab. 7.2-7 Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Variant 1.2 Var.1.2 Area Surface Overburden Overburden Volume Thickness Cumulative Overburden m m² + MSL M mbcm mbcm 1 0.94 596 22.9 21.6 21.6 2 2.63 588 29.4 98.9 77.3 3 5.01 598 42.3 310.9 211.9 4 2.17 628 77.6 479.1 168.2 5 2.84 612 68.5 673.9 194.8 6 2.00 594 44.4 762.4 88.6 Sum 15.59 602 48.9 762.4 762.4 (Parameters in the sectors are rounded figures) Tab. 7.2-8 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 1.2 Var.1.2 Area Top Bottom Coal Volume Coal Sec- Seam Seam Thickness Coal tors m m² + MSL + MSL M mbcm 1 0.32 569 532 36.6 11.8 2 2.40 559 515 44.0 105.4 3 3.99 556 506 50.2 200.6 4 1.94 553 498 55.6 107.7 5 2.72 543 480 63.6 173.1 6 2.28 539 470 69.6 158.4 Sum 13.64 551 496 55.5 756.8

Volume Coal

Coal cumul.

mt 13.4 120.2 228.7 122.7 197.3 180.6 862.8

mt 13.4 133.6 362.2 485.0 682.2 862.8 862.8

In Variant 1.2, the ratio overburden removal to coal extraction is in the first decisive years (apart from the opening-up itself) better than in Variant 1.1, as is illustrated in the following: Tab. 7.2-9 Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 1.2 Var.1.2 Ratio Overburden: Coal bcm/t 1 1.61 2 0.64 3 0.93 4 1.37 5 0.99 6 0.49 Sum 0.88

Overburden to Coal cumul. bcm/t 1.61 0.74 0.86 0.99 0.99 0.88 0.88

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

The general change to the worse of O : C from 0.85:1 to 0.88:1 bcm/t results from the coal loss, which already becomes effective at the end of the mining activities in Sibovc. The general tendency of the change of geological coal quality to the worse is illustrated by the average values in the coal sectors. Tab. 7.2-10 Var.1.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sum

Coal Quality Var.1.2 Sulphur % 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1

NCV kJ / kg 8050 8130 8106 8242 8618 8558 8306

Ash % 16.5 16.2 16.1 15.1 14.4 14.3 15.4

7.2.2 Variant 2: Development in den Opencast Mine Field of Sibovc and D-Field The general approach of Variant 2 is that parallel to the exploitation of Sibovc a second opencast mine of operated. In principle this could be KEK, its legal successor or even a new investor. Position, content and the former use of the coal field area can lead to the consideration to assign exploitation of that field to KEK. Analogue to var.1.2 works can start and the deposit can be exploited, respectively here in DField, irrespective of the development of the area Bardh/ Mirash or Sibovc. The basic development is from West to East.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Fig. 7.2-3

Development D-Field - Var.2

The concept of the available mining development aims at an output capacity of 7 mt/a. This means that there is enough fuel to supply to Power plant B. Tab. 7.2-11

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 2

1 2

Geology Soil-mechanics

3

Technology (opening-up, transport, dumping, equipment use)

Apart from the material dumped on the field there are no geological problems. With regard to the natural overburden, the requirements of the extraction are simpler as against Sibovc due to the lower thickness to be removed. This also applies to the coal to be mined. More problems are occurring due the former underground mines and especially from, the dump massif which blocks the deposit. Opening-up: The Sibovc field is opened in the West of D-Field. After a first pivoted advance mining is then continued in parallel operation. Transport distance of coal to power plant is ca. 8.7 km (depending on the location of the newly built power plant) and/or 7.7 km to power plant B. Equipment use: Preferred alternative in this variant is BWE–technology with available old equipment. Average overburden thickness is 30m (range 20 to 60m). Due to the low overburden thickness only two excavators of the type SRs 1300 and/or SchRs 650 are sufficient. In the coal operation three bucket wheel excavators of this size are planned. Opening masses are dumped in the open pit room of Bardh/ Mirash. Afterwards dumping shall be continued this way for making residual area safe. Page 85 of 120


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4

Coal supply / coal losses

5

Coal quality

6 7

Resettlement Auxiliary trades (road construction, etc.) Area demand / area use Environmental protection/ ecology

8 9

10

11

Recultivation

Others / interfaces Permits

12

Risks

Coal supply is independent from expensive resettlements of villages. Planning shall take into account the on the average lower heating value with regard to the power plant. Coal quality is by 10% lower than in Var.1 and/or by 12% regarding the entire field in the first years. Resettlements do not play any role. Exploitation of D-Field does not require any measures worth mentioning which are not related to the mining business. The area was partly used as outside dump; at present it is used for storing ash. Compared with the exploitation of the Sibovc field the interference with nature is by far reduced. On the contrary: the removal of the existing disposal sites eliminated a considerable part of problem sites. Alternatively, measures have to be carried out anyway to remediate those areas, which have to be deducted from the extra expenses of their recovery. Closure of the residual area of Bardh/ Mirash is made directly from D-Field. But the overburden masses are not sufficient to achieve for example dumping to the natural surface level. Also in this variant, the balance return of area to claim of area will depend to a large extend on the decision about shaping the residual pit area of Bardh/ Mirash. It might be possible to dump the whole overburden in Bardh/ Mirash. In this case, there is a residual lake, which could be fed with water from the Sitnica and therefore shaped to a lake for swimming. Thus, a valuable recreation area could be established nearby Pristina. There are interfaces due to the dumping in Mirash/ Bardh.

There are no obstacles for granting permits, because exploitation contributes to ecological recovery. Nevertheless, special permits are to be taken into account for recovery of power plant ash. Risks occur in connection with phenols from earlier disposals and the underground mines. The construction of a motorway on the D-Field hinders the use of the D-Field (if put into reality as recently envisaged).

The main sectors are characterised as follows: Tab. 7.2-12 Development of overburden removal Variant 2 Var.2 Area Surface Overburden thickness m m² + MSL M 1 1.22 541 38.5 2 0.75 558 49.8 3 1.34 570 37.6 4 3.35 570 20.1 Sum 6.66 563 30.3

Tab. 7.2-13 Development mining according to sectors. Variant 2 Var.2 Area Top Bottom Coal Volume Coal Sec- Seam Seam Thickness Coal tors m m² + MSL + MSL M mbcm 1 0.32 504 438 66.2 21.2

Page 86 of 120

Overburden. cumulative mbcm 46.8 84.2 134.7 201.8 201.8

Volume Overburden mbcm 46.8 37.4 50.4 67.2 201.8

Volume Coal

Coal cumul.

mt 24.2

mt 24.2


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

2 3 4 Sum

0.56 1.09 3.24 5.21

504 525 548 536

434 461 512 488

70.2 64.4 35.6 47.2

39.3 70.2 115.3 246.0

44.8 80.1 131.4 280.5

69.0 149.0 280.5 280.5

The ratio overburden removal to coal extraction is better in view to the geological conditions than in the Sibovc field. Tab. 7.2-14

Overburden : Coal ratio. Variant 2

Var.2

Ratio Overburden: Coal bcm:t

Overburden to Coal cumul. bcm:t

1 2 3 4 Sum

1.94 0.83 0.63 0.51 0.72

1.94 1.22 0.90 0.72 0.72

The above mentioned volumes still not contain the masses of the outside dump as well as the masses from the ash dump. These additional overburden masses lie within the Sectors 1 to 3 including also the beginning of Sectors 4. The area is ca. 2.3 m m². Assuming an estimated volume of 50 mbcm the overburden : coal ratio changes to the worse from 0.72:1 to 0.90:1 bcm/t. The general change of the geological coal quality to the worse from West to East can be shown by the average values in the coal sectors. Tab. 7.2-15 D-Field 1 2 3 4 Sum

Coal Quality Var.2 Sulphur % 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0

NCV kJ / kg 7791 7800 7427 7189 7341

Ash % 19.2 19.0 20.2 21.4 20.8

Within the last 600 m of the Eastern field part (corresponds to 40 m t coal) the average heating value is only 6900 kJ/kg. Especially in the North-East, low heating values and high ash contents are yielded. The average coal quality for the whole field is about 7340 kJ/kg (see table). However, the excavation process for the mining of D-Field has potential for optimization. The heating value for the raw coal supplies improves if coal horizons with especially low quality will be cut off by selective mining. Even taking into account these coal losses the overburden to coal ratio of DField compares favourable to the South-West part of Sibovc. The above mentioned statements regarding D-Field will not be valid if the newly envisaged motorway blocks more than 25 or 30% of the lignite content.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

7.2.3 Variant 3: Separation of the Sibovc-Field in East-WestDirection Alternatively to exploitation of D-Field it is considered, how the development looks like if two mining operators are working in the Sibovc field at the same time. Variant 3 assumes an interface line in East-West-direction. This may be accomplished by a) extraction moves together either from North and/or South or b) parallel to the development from the South (i.e. from the existing mines), a new investor extracts the Northern part of Sibovc from the middle.

7.2.3.1 Variant 3.1: Separate Opening-up in the Middle of the Sibovc Field Three advantages lead to the assumption to develop the new mine from the middle of the field: 1. thickness of coal seam is higher than in the North of the field 2. coal quality is slightly better 3. transport distance to dump areas Bardh/ Mirash is shorter Southern Part: Since the Southern part will be developed from the existing boundary system it seems to be fair to assign this part to KEK. The maximum technical extraction area is results from the openingup figure in the middle of the field.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Fig. 7.2-4

Development South to North Var.3.1

The borderline illustrated above implies the total exploitation of the deposit without any coal losses. This will only be possible when the company operating in the North will take this already into consideration for the dump development, i.e. no high dumps in the border area. Tab. 7.2-16

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development Var.3.1 (Southern Part)

1 2

Geology Soil-mechanics

3

Technology (opening-up, transport, dumping, equipment use)

The geological conditions correspond to var.1.1. The same applies for the soil-mechanical aspects with the modification that due to the lower advance, the dumps will stay longer and therefore great importance shall be attached to securing the slopes. Opening-up: The field is opened from the Northern rim slope. Then, parallel operation is carried out until closure of power plant unit B1 and B2 or reaching the excavation boundary according to the assigned mining property. Transport distance coal to power plant B is identical with var.1.1. Equipment use: Most efficient technology is use of available old BWE. In coal operation, three BWE of the type SRs 1300 are planned; in the overburden removal the tow available SchRs 650 as well as one SRs 1300 are used. The equipment must be refurbished. “Initial masses” are dumped to the open pit areas of Bardh/ Mirash. During the

Page 89 of 120


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

further mine advance, dumping shall be continued this way to help secure the residual pit. 4

Coal supply / coal losses

5

Coal quality

6

Resettlement

7

Auxiliary trades (road construction, etc.) Area demand / area use

8

9 10

11

Environmental protection/ ecology Recultivation

Others / interfaces Permits

12

Risks

Connection to the coal supply without difficulties will be possible if Hade will be resettled in time. There will be no coal losses if the dump design will allow this in the Northern part. But this means among others, to use a long-distance belt conveyor over a long period for transporting overburden to the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash for closure. Apart from this, an unfavourable relief is shaped which would exist for many years. Probably, there will be a coal loss of at least 28 mt (coal stripe of 50m crest with 22° slope angle). Especially in the first years, coal quality is very good but in general changes to the worse into Northern direction. Like in Variant 1.1 Hade has to be resettled very early. It is assumed that the main part of the resettlement will be completed until 2008. Like in Var.1.1: Infrastructure (i.e. road to Bardh, electric cables etc.) must be changed right at the beginning of the extraction operations. Like in Var.1.1: Areas are mostly agricultural areas. Due to the envisaged mining of the Sibovc field, the users of the areas to be claimed are already prepared for exploitation. Parts of the areas are already property of KEK. Splitting of extraction into two operating points within the Sibovc field increases impacts to the environment. See Var.1.1: The closure of the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash offers economical advantages due to the short transport distance. The balance return of area to claim of area is not so favourable than in Var.1.1 due to less overburden material. This can be balanced by enough overburden masses from the second opencast mine. At the end of the coal extraction there will only be two residual pits in the middle and in the North of the Sibovc deposit. Interfaces mainly exist by dumping operation in the area Bardh/ Mirash. Should the occasion arise, there will be additional interfaces at the border of the two mines and in case of supplies from one mine to the power plant unit of the other (i.e. in case of delivery problems of a mine). Getting of permits (operating permit) is more difficult because different interest of two independent mining-power plant companies have to be tackled. a) The risk of this variant is similar to that in Variant 1.1 and refers in the first line to the resettlement of Hade right in time. If not, coal exposure will reduce resulting in delivery problems to the power plant. The alternative to develop mining only at the South-Western boundary line of the Sibovc field would be simpler due to the lower capacity that is assigned to KEK. However, this would mean specific extra costs for KEK. b) The co-existence of two competing mining companies could lead to conflicts as the economic activities of both companies may have different success. Unequal production costs in the mines and/or power plants, different salary and perspectives for the personnel may lead to discontent or even disapproval which in turn can have negative influence on the operating result.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

The main sectors are characterised as follows: Tab. 7.2-17 Development of overburden removal. Var. 3.1 (Southern Part) Var.3.1 Area Surface Overburden Volume thickness Overburden m m² + MSL M mbcm 1 1.92 594 45.0 86.6 2 3.60 615 70.5 254.1 3 3.03 622 67.7 205.2 Sum 8.56 613 545.9 545.9

Overburden cumulative mbcm 86.6 340.7 545.9 545.9

Tab. 7.2-18 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.1(Southern Part) Var.3.1 Area Top Bottom Coal Volume Volume Coal Sec- Seam Seam Thickness Coal Coal tors m m² + MSL + MSL M mbcm mt 1 1.13 538 467 67.0 75.8 86.4 2 3.05 542 473 68.63 209.5 238.8 3 2.96 548 491 57.46 170.0 193.8 Sum 7.14 544 480 63.75 455.2 518.9 Tab. 7.2-19 Var.3.1 1 2 3 Sum Tab. 7.2-20 Var.3.1 1 2 3 Sum

Coal cumul. mt 86.4 325.2 518.9 518.9

Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 3.1 (Southern Part) Ratio Overburden: Coal Overburden to Coal cumul. bcm/t bcm/t 1.00 1.00 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.05 1.05 Coal Quality Var.3.1 Sulphur % 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1

NCV kJ / kg 8490 8647 8348 8312

Ash % 14.7 14.3 14.8 15.31

Northern Part: The design of the new second opencast mine will be developed to meet the requirements of the new independent power plant. The opening up figure is designed at such a place where it does not affect the place of Sibovc already during the opening up phase.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Fig. 7.2-5

Mine Development Var.3.1 (Northern Part)

Tab. 7.2-21

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development Var.3. (Northern part)

1 2

Geology Soil-mechanics

3

Technology (opening-up, transport, dumping, equipment use)

Geological conditions correspond to Variant 1 – Northern part. Same applies to the soil-mechanical aspects, with the modification that due to the lower advance slopes will stay longer and therefore great importance shall be attached to securing the slopes. Opening-up: Opening-up South of the Sibovc field. Afterwards, parallel operation up to Northern boundary of the approved coal field. Very short transport distance to power plant. Equipment use: BWE–technology with new excavators seems to be best.

4

Coal supply / coal losses

5 6

Coal quality Resettlement

7

Auxiliary trades (road construction, etc.) Area demand / area use Environmental protection/ ecology

8 9

Dumping of „initial masses“ into the open mine space of Bardh/ Mirash. Also in case of further mine advance, dumping shall be continued to help secure residual pit. Opencast mine is developed parallel to new power plant. Problems are not expected. No coal losses in the Northern part. Coal quality is good but slightly changes into North. Most problems are occurring due to the partial resettlement of Lajthishte already during the opening-up phase. Resettlement of Sibovc must follow directly afterwards. Not mining-related measures are already necessary during the opening phase.

Specific area demand is high due to separate opening-up in the middle of the field. Environmental impacts are very high.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

10

Recultivation

At the end of coal extraction, a residual pit remains in the North of Sibovc.

11

Others / interfaces, permits Risks

See formulations for the Southern part.

12

Risks exist for the IPP operator if troubles among the miners will result in stop of production in the whole mining area.

The main sectors are characterised as follows: Tab. 7.2-22 Development of overburden removal. Var.3.1 (Northern Part) Var.3.1 Area Surface Overburden Volume thickness Overburden m m² + MSL M mbcm 1 1.29 604 48.0 62 2 2.54 581 24.6 62 3 2.98 595 30.3 90 4 0.33 550 8.5 3 Sum 7.15 590 30.4 217.5

Overburden cumulative mbcm 62.0 124.3 214.7 217.5 217.5

Development extraction of coal according to sectors: Tab. 7.2-23 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.1 (Northern Part) Var.3.1 Area Top Bottom Coal Volume Volume Coal Sec- Seam Seam Thickness Coal Coal tors m m² + MSL + MSL M mbcm mt 1 1.12 557 500 56.95 63.8 72.7 2 2.81 556 508 47.97 134.6 153.4 3 2.69 562 512 49.52 133.1 151.7 4 0.40 545 536 9.03 3.6 4.1 Sum 7.02 558 510 47.8 335.1 382.0 Tab. 7.2-24 Var.3.1 1 2 3 4 Sum Tab. 7.2-25 Var.3.1 1 2 3 4 Sum

Overburden: Coal ratio Var. 3.1 (Northern Part) Ratio Overburden: Coal bcm:t 0.85 0.41 0.60 0.69 0.57 Coal Quality Var.3.1 Sulphur % 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1

NCV kJ / kg 8326 8068 8249 7100 8123

Page 93 of 120

Overburden to Coal cumul. bcm:t 0.85 0.55 0.57 0.57 0.57

Ash % 15.1 16.2 15.8 19.6 16.1

Coal cumul. mt 72.7 226.1 377.8 382.0 382.0


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

7.2.3.2 Variant 3.2: Separate opening in the North of the Sibovc Field Variant 3.2 differ from Var.3.1 in the positions opening-up figure and development direction of mining operation in the Northern part. Development in the Southern part is not affected by that. Main advantage of such a variant: no resettlements at the beginning in the Northern part. Apart from this, pivoting lines correspond to those of Variant 1.2.

Fig. 7.2-6

Mine Development Var.3.2 (Northern Part)

Important difference is the output quantity and therefore the reduced use of excavators and personnel. This variant offers the chance to have more efficient operation by shovel/truck than with use of BWE. Tab. 7.2-26 Var.3.2

1 2 3 Sum

Development of overburden removal Var.3.2 (Northern Part) Area Surface Overburden Volume thickness Overburden m m² + MSL m mbcm 0.94 596 22.9 21.6 2.63 588 29.4 77.3 5.01 598 42.3 211.9 8.58 595 36.2 310.9

Tab. 7.2-27 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.2 Var.3.2 Area Top Bottom Coal Volume Coal Sec- Seam Seam Thickness Coal tors m m² + MSL + MSL M mbcm

Page 94 of 120

Overburden cumulative mbcm 21.6 98.9 310.9 310.9

Volume Coal

Coal cumul.

mt

mt


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

1 2 3a 3b Sum

0.32 2.40 3.99 0.31 7.02

569 559 556 556 557

532 515 506 499 510

36.6 44.0 50.2 56.7 47.8

Tab. 7.2-28 Overburden: Coal ratio Var. 3.2 Var.3.2 Ratio Overburden: Coal bcm:t 1 1.61 2 0.64 3 0.93 Sum 0.81 Tab. 7.2-29 Var.3.2 1 2 3a 3b Sum

Coal Quality Var.3.2 Sulphur % 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.1

NCV kJ / kg 8050 8130 8106 8106 8112

11.8 105.4 200.6 17.3 335.1

13.4 120.2 228.7 19.7 382.0

13.4 133.6 362.2 382.0 382.0

Overburden to Coal cumul. bcm:t 1.61 0.74 0.86 0.81

Ash % 16.5 16.2 16.1 16.1 16.2

7.2.4 Variant 4: Splitting of the Sibovc Field in North-South Direction Last part of the considerations is the question if splitting of the Sibovc field in North-South direction offers advantages. This Variant 4 includes the parallel operation of two mining company – temporally and spatially. Practically, the Western part would be handed over to KEK whereas in the East a second new company will get the mining license. First is appears, that in case of such a distribution the village centre of Hade will be saved for a long time. However, the village Lajthishte has to be resettled right at the beginning by the new company.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Fig. 7.2-7

Mine Development Var.4

a) Western Part (Company 1) Tab. 7.2-30 1 2 3

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Var.4 (West)

Geology Soil-mechanics Technology (opening-up, transport, dumping, equipment use)

Geological conditions correspond to var.1.1. and/or var.3. Same applies to soil-mechanical aspects. Opening-up: Field is opened up from the Northern rim slope – the Western part. Afterwards parallel operation till closure of power plant unit B1 and B2 and/or the excavation boundary according to mining license. Transport distance of coal to power plant B is slightly higher than in Var.1.1. Equipment use: BWE–technology with available equipment seems to be most economic. In the coal operation three BWE of the type SRs 1300are planned, in the overburden the two already available SchRs 650 and one SRs 1300 are used. Excavators have to be refurbished. Excavation of the outside dump in the South-West has considerable more negative effects than with var.1.1 or 3.

4

Coal supply / coal losses

„Initial masses“ are dumped into the open pit area of Bardh/ Mirash. Also in case of further mine advance, dumping shall be continued to help secure residual pit. Connection to the coal supply does not depend of the resettlement of the village centre of Hade. There will be no coal losses, theoretically, if the dump design will allow this at the West and/or East border of the two companies. But this requires a lot of coordination and possibly additional costs. Page 96 of 120


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5 6 7

8

9 10 11

12

Coal quality Resettlement Auxiliary trades (road construction, etc.) Area demand / area use

Environmental protection/ ecology Recultivation Others / interfaces permits Risks

Coal quality almost identical to var.1.1. It is assumed that at least safety zone (close to Hade) is cleared. Infrastructure (i.e. road to Bardh, electric cables etc.) has to be replaced only partly. Like in Var.1.1 (Western part): Areas are mostly agricultural areas. Due to the envisaged mining of the Sibovc field, the users of the areas to be claimed are already prepared for exploitation. Splitting of extraction into two operating points within the Sibovc field increases impacts to the environment. At the end of the coal extraction there will be two residual pits in the South and North of the mining area. Problematic interfaces establish at the mine boundaries of the opencast mines. To get permits (operating licenses) is also complicated, since different interests of two independent companies have to be treated who partly work in same areas. The co-existence of two competing mining companies will lead at least to problems and/or conflicts. Among others, this is due to the fact that one of the companies will extract overburden for the other company to a considerable extend. If this should be avoided, coal losses will result along the whole demarcation line between the companies (over 4.1 km) which cannot be accepted.

The main sectors are characterised as follows: Tab. 7.2-31 Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Var. 4 West Var.4 Area Surface Overburden Volume (West) thickness Overburden m m² + MSL m Mbcm 1 0.78 576 34.1 26.6 2 1.14 598 49.4 56.4 3 1.30 625 78.6 102.2 4 1.11 638 90.3 99.8 5 1.12 608 54.7 61.3 6 1.28 578 19.6 25.0 7 3.31 591 28.1 93.2 Sum 10.04 600 46.3 464.5

Overburden cumulative mbcm 26.6 83.0 185.1 284.9 346.2 371.3 464.5 464.5

Tab. 7.2-32 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 4 West Var.4 Area Top Bottom Coal Volume Volume (West) Coal Sec- Seam Seam Thickness Coal Coal tors m m² + MSL + MSL m Mbcm mt 1 0.40 543 467 67.0 26.9 30.6 2 0.75 548 473 75.0 56.0 63.9 3 0.84 547 477 69.6 58.1 66.2 4 0.86 544 475 69.6 59.7 68.1 5 1.08 547 486 61.3 66.3 75.6 6 1.16 555 501 54.6 63.4 72.3 7 3.09 559 515 44.2 136.7 155.8 Sum 8.18 552 495 57.1 467 532.4

Page 97 of 120

Coal cumul. mt 30.6 94.5 160.7 228.8 304.4 376.7 532.4 532.4


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Tab. 7.2-33 Var.4 (West) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sum Tab. 7.2-34 Var.4 (West) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sum

Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 4 West Ratio Overburden: Coal bcm:t 0.87 0.88 1.54 1.47 0.81 0.35 0.60 0.87 Coal Quality (West) Sulphur % 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.1

NCV kJ / kg 8490 8746 8830 8650 8250 8112 8100 8332

Overburden to Coal cumul. bcm:t 0.87 0.88 1.15 1.25 1.14 0.99 0.87 0.87

Ash % 14.7 14.5 14.3 14.6 15 15.7 16.3 15.4

To summarise this variant: Such mine as in var.4 (Western part) would be sufficient to feed the existing power plants with approx. 7 mt coal per annum. Due to the short bench, the O : C ratio is increased against Variant 1.1. For the mining of 100 mt (mineable) coal until decommissioning of the today existing TPP B the overburden to coal ratio will be between 1.0 - 1.1 to 1 m³/t. For the whole Western part the ratio comes to 0.87:1 (see table). b) Eastern Part (Company 2) Tab. 7.2-35 1 2 3

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Var.4 East

Geology Soil-mechanics Technology (opening-up, transport, dumping, equipment use)

Geological conditions in the first year more unsafe than in Southern part. Same applies for soil-mechanical aspects. Opening-up: The field is opened-up in the South of a fault area. In this fault area, coal thickness is on the average only 9 m. Afterwards pivoted advance follows and then parallel operation until the mine boundary in the South is reached. (= Northern mine boundary of Mirash) The transport distance coal to power plant B is the shortest for all variants. Equipment use: Preferred use of BWE–technology with new equipment.

4 5

Coal supply / coal losses Coal quality

6

Resettlement

Opening-up masses shall be dumped in the open pit of Bardh/ Mirash. Mine development is directly coupled with the new power plant. Possibly occurring coal losses are mentioned above. Coal quality of the Eastern part is almost identical to the Western field. Differences are only marginal. Resettlement of the village Lajthishte is precondition for the opening-up. Page 98 of 120


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7

8 9 10 11

Auxiliary trades (road construction, etc.) Area demand / area use Environmental protection / Ecology Recultivation Others / interfaces

The respective infrastructure must be replaced.

The specific degree of building of this mining field is the highest from all variants. Both, Lajthishte and Hade are within the field. Splitting of extraction into two operating points within the Sibovc field increases impacts to the environment. As already mentioned: At the end of the coal extraction there will be two residual pits in the South and North of the mining area. Problematic interfaces establish at the mine boundaries of the opencast mines The new mine requires a permit according to new standard.

12

Permits Risks

There is a risk that the new permit process will last too long and delays the exposure of the coal. Another problem which is much more important is caused by the resettlement measures. It is assumed that the time needed for this will determine the date of commissioning of the new IPP.

The main sectors are characterised as follows: Tab. 7.2-36 Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Var.4 East Var.4 Area Surface Overburden Volume (East) thickness Overburden m m² + MSL m Mbcm 1 1.07 582 27.2 29.0 2 2.07 611 51.7 106.8 3 1.96 612 73.6 144.5 4 0.58 612 32.1 18.6 Sum 5.68 606 52.7 299.0 Tab. 7.2-37 Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var. 4 East Var.4 Area Top Bottom Coal Volume (East) Coal Sec- Seam Seam Thickness Coal tors m m² + MSL + MSL m Mbcm 1 0.38 555 512 43.2 16.5 2 2.19 559 512 46.8 102.4 3 2.68 543 485 57.9 155.4 4 0.73 534 467 67.0 48.9 Sum 5.98 548 494 54.0 323.2 Tab. 7.2-38 Var.4 (East) 1 2 3 4 Sum

Overburden: Coal ratio. Var.4 East Ratio Overburden: Coal bcm:t 1.54 0.92 0.82 0.33 0.81

Page 99 of 120

Overburden cumulative mbcm 29.0 135.8 280.4 299.0 299.0

Volume Coal

Coal cumul.

mt 18.8 116.7 177.2 55.8 368.5

mt 18.8 135.5 312.7 368.5 368.5

Overburden to Coal cumul. bcm:t 1.54 1.00 0.90 0.81 0.81


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Tab. 7.2-39 Var.4 (East) 1 2 3 4 Sum

Coal Quality Var.4 East Sulphur % 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0

NCV kJ / kg 7290 8280 8374 8490 8285

Ash % 19.1 15.6 14.4 14.7 15.2

------------------------------------------------The above mentioned data of all variants do not contain coal losses in the contact zones to roof and floor strata as well as in the vicinity of geological structures. For this 8% coal losses further are estimated.

7.2.5 Selection of Preference Variant 7.2.5.1 Single Coal Mine Variants The evaluation of all considered mining variants from a technical and cost point of view leads to the conclusion that a single mine supply scenario has advantages for the future coal supply to the existing and new TPP. It ensures higher concentration of production and opens scale and synergy effects. Such a large single mine requires more “space” what means longer faces and mining front compared to the existing mines. For such single mine development only two main variants can be compared: • •

Variant 1.1 Variant 1.2

Mining Sibovc from South to North Mining Sibovc from North to South

Disadvantages of such a schemes would be that the technical possibilities for low cost production and high performance are principally there but problems could occur with motivation to use such opportunities (in case of state own enterprise) or with profit maximization (in case of private mining operator) since the mining operator would be a monopoly supplier. The comparison of Variant 1.1 versus Variant 1.2 illustrates the most cost-effective influences: Tab. 7.2-40

Comparison of Single Coal Mine Variants 1.1 and 1.2 Variant 1.1 Influences from the geology (a. o. overburden : coal exposure) Soil-mechanics / geotechnical safety Expenses for opening up + Equipment use Transport to dump + Transport coal to power plant Coal quantity / coal losses + Page 100 of 120

Variant 1.2 + + + + -


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations

Coal quality Resettlements Not mining-related substitute measures Area balance Environmental protection Recultivation Interfaces Permits Risks (except resettlement of Hade)

+ + + + + + +

+ + -

Variant 1.2 has its advantage from: o technically requirement for a very late resettlement of the village centre of Hade o a better overburden : coal ration in the first years after the opening-up. Variant 1.2 has disadvantages in most of the evaluation criteria as against basic variant 1.1. Great disadvantage is the fact that Variant 1.2 would be a classical green field project with additional land withdrawal and higher impact to the environment. It is doubted if the permits will be granted in time. It is supposed to be better to work in an area which has already been influenced by mining activities instead of unnecessary claiming of other additional areas. The latter facts discussed above favour Var.1.1. Moreover, mining development from the South (Var.1.1) has a shorter transport distance to the dump and dumping is intended to contribute to shaping the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash. Var.1.1 is applicable, if KEK or their legal successor will take over the supply obligation for both the existing and the new lignite-fired power plants. Basic condition for this Variant 1.1 is the resettlement of the entire Hade village by an accelerated scheme (mainly till 2008).

7.2.5.2 Independent Coal Mines Variants The following comparison becomes useful when considering the risks which are given by the monopoly of one single supplier of raw coal for the lignite-fired power plants. There are requirements for flexibility and independence in terms of time, physical interfaces and development of existing and new TPP. In case of a competitive two mines scheme for an independent coal supply to the existing and the new TPP the following principle variants have been assessed and evaluated: • Var. 2 Parallel mine development in Sibovc and D-Field • Var. 3.1 Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle) • Var. 3.2 Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (beginning at Northern border) • Var. 4 Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line Tab. 7.2-41

Comparison of the Independent Coal Mines Variants Variant 2 Variant 3.1 Influences from the geology + (a. o. overburden : coal exposure) Soil-mechanics / geotechnical safety Expenses for opening up Equipment use + -

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Variant 3.2 +

Variant 4 -

+ + +

+


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Transport to dump Transport coal to power plant Coal quantity / coal losses Coal quality Resettlements Not mining-related substitute measures Area balance Environmental protection Recultivation Interfaces Permits Risks (except resettlement of Hade) Total “ + “

+ + +

+ + + -

+ + + +

+ + + -

+ + + + + + 11

3

+ + + 11

4

The evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages leads to the clear result that Variant 3.1 and Variant 4 can be excluded from further comparisons. This is mainly owing to the considerable expenses involved in the resettlements (of Sibovc and Lajthishte). However Variant 4 demonstrates that the Sibovc field could be opened up from the South West part by a small compact mine without the resettlement of the entire Hade village. Such mine would be sufficient to feed the existing power plant TPP B with approx. 7or 8 mt coal per annum. The remaining comparison between Variant 3.2 and Variant 2 refers to the comparison between excavation in Sibovc (Northern part) and excavation of D-Field, because the second opencast mine (in the South of the Sibovc field) can be shaped identically as alternative. Variant 2, which includes the excavation of D-Field, is highlighted because there is removed a problem site and the public interest in this case will also simplify the granting of permit. Even if this is linked to the provision of financial means from the public hand this field only offers a restricted coal supply basis for a new investor. This investor might only accept the private investments if the duration of the fuel supply will be guaranteed over a period of 40 years. The envisaged motorway-route across the field would block the use of the coal field to a great deal for several decades.

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8 Environmental Aspects As this report represents a study to find the best fitting new mining field, in addition to the technical selection the potential environmental impacts are to be addressed. This is done to follow the requirements of EIA procedure enclosing the collection of knowledge about the environmental situation and expected effects as preparation for a Scoping Direction.

8.1 General Ecological Effects of Lignite Coal Exploitation Production of lignite coal stands for large scale excavation of soil using heavy duty equipment. Mining exploitation of mineral resources thus causes negative impact on the environment as well as each penetration into natural resources. Negative effects accompanying the development of this economy branch are related to violating of ecological system of a wider zone where exploitation is taking place and forms of violations are numerous. Questions concerning environment can be formulated having in mind how lignite coal is mined. The coal itself is buried deep under the surface. As the open cast pit that comes into being mostly reaches a depth of more than hundred meters and covers an area of several hundred hectares first of all land for excavation is needed. As slopes of the open cast pit have to be constructed in a soil mechanically safe way the extension of the mine openings need to be considerably larger than the area of coal production itself. This means estates used either for agricultural or for housing have to be bought. Residents have to be resettled. Surface soil has to be removed resulting in a nearly complete loss of fauna and flora. Groundwater within the overburden strata and covering the coal must be adequately lowered before starting excavation. While excavating rain water and remaining ground water have to be pumped out of the mine. In general this water has low pH values with probably larger contents of heavy metals. The excavation and exploiting of lignite coal causes noise and dust due to the excavation operations, maintenance works and coal transportation. Where the coal face comes in contact with the atmosphere oxidation processes can lead to self ignition of coal. This affects employees at the working places as well as the surroundings and neighbouring residents. The overburden strata have to be removed. In case direct back-filling into the pit can not be performed dumps for overburden outside the open pit are needed. Hence additional land is needed whereby floral cover will be disturbed, animals lose their habitats and the landscape changes as hills come into being. After excavation of coal the mined area generally is devastated. In order to re-utilize the area a complete refill of the pit should be achieved wherever possible. But because of the coal extracted leading to a deficit in volume not the whole mined area can be totally refilled. Therefore a well prepared “Mine Closure Plan” should be prepared and implemented showing the future landscape and possibilities of re-selling of land. The post-mining utilization should consider agricultural use of land, commercial and industrial use as well as restored areas as habitats for fauna and flora. Summarizing main impacts on the environment by coal mining and production of significant quantities of ash is reflected in following main aspects: •

Influences on surrounding terrain by excavation; Page 103 of 120


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• • • • • •

Total loss of naturally grown environmental contents and relations; Change of hydro-geological regime in wider area; Soil pollution and ground-/surface water pollution (wider area in the water shed) owing to soil alterations and coal processing (ash deposits, processing water release); Air pollution due to dust expositions while excavating and conveying; Influences on terrain stability within mine (working slopes) and surface deformation (subsidence of the soil); Noise due to working conveyor belts

8.2 Hydrological Conditions Values for precipitation were collected from different sources. The Hydro-Meteorological Institute of Kosovo provided a study showing in the year 1999 the monthly average for a period of 25 years (25 years average). The Institute provided also monthly values for the years 1979 to 1995. By adding values for the years 2001 to 2004 this data base was widened to cover a period of 25 years (1979 – 2004). The data base was completed by an existing evaluation for the duration 1948 to 1978. The average yearly precipitation amounts 600 mm. Minimum precipitation can be described using the year 1990 with 372 mm. Using monthly values maximum yearly precipitation is documented with 1010 mm in the year 1995. An enlarged value of 1028 mm is presented by Rudarski Institute (1985) but the year of appearance is lacking in that document. Following figure shows the distribution of average monthly precipitation. Statistically precipitation is rather evenly distributed with lower values from January to March and higher values throughout summer and harvest.

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Fig. 8.2-1

Long term Distribution of monthly Precipitation

The range of monthly precipitation can be described using the recorded values from the year 1979 to 2004. Figure above shows a wider range of monthly precipitation. For example within the month of August a minimum of 5 mm (year 1992) stands against 184 mm (year 2002). The average monthly precipitation is 56 mm. The figure shows that more than 80 mm precipitation per month can appear all over the year.

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Fig. 8.2-2

Monthly Range of Precipitation

To show the variation in daily precipitation values for the years 2001 to 2004 were made available from the Hydrometeorological Institute of Kosova. High quantities of precipitation were recorded with 44.5 mm on 11 April 2001 and 42.5 mm on 8 August 2002. The absolute recorded maximum was achieved on 5 September 1954 with 64.1 mm (INKOS; 1987).

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Fig. 8.2-3

Daily Precipitation

The Kosova basin is characterized by continental climate with dry and warm summers and indifferent winter temperatures depending on the influence of high-pressure areas from Siberia or low-pressure areas from the Atlantic Ocean. Reviewing data from the Hydro-Meteorological Institute as well as other documents describing the mining area average annual temperature results in +10°C. On a basis of the years 1979 to 1991 the range of temperatures is shown in figure below with minimum temperatures in January and maximum in July. Lowest Temperature ever measured counts –25.2°C.

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Fig. 8.2-4

Distribution of Temperatures

Supplementary information was found at www.qwikcast.com presenting in 2004 a statistic on an eighteen years basis.

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Fig. 8.2-5

Monthly Temperatures

The wind is predominantly blowing from north and northeast with average velocity near 3 m/s. Rudarski Institute in the year 1985 gave an overview about wind velocities and directions that are repeated in following figure. The greatest wind velocity was recorded with 34.3 m/s blowing from the north.

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Fig. 8.2-6

Direction and Velocity of Wind

8.3 Surface Waters Run-Offs and their Qualities The Kosova Basin forms a smoothly shaped plain that is bordered by hills and mountains. This basin includes a developed hydrological network with the main collector given by the river Sitnica. This river crosses the basin from south to north and drains off 80 % of the accumulating surface water northward. Major tributary rivers in the vicinity of the site are river Drenica in the west and river Lab in the east. The Sitnica run-off of water varies between a minimum of 0.5 – 1.5 m³/sec and a maximum of 50 – 120 m³/sec with an average of 5 – 10 m³/sec. In flooding periods, the course of the river reaches a width of up to 1000 m in the flooding areas. On 3 May 1958 a maximum run-off for river Sitnica near to the mines was measured with 90.3 m³/sec. Because not being available the usual basis to assess the quantities of water discharged by tributary rivers and creeks was prepared as catchment area map shown in following figure. Using run-off coefficients like mentioned in chapter 4.7 allows first assessments on the quantities of water to be delineated when opening up a mining field.

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Fig. 8.3-1

Catchment Areas

By now surface water quality data are available from the INKOS Institute’s monthly measurements for the main run-offs Drenica and Sitnica. As basis for assessments on the effects of the outlet from a future mine water drainage values from the years 2001 to 2003 for the river Sitnica upstream the existing mines can be presented.

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Fig. 8.3-2

Characteristic water quality values for river Sitnica (INKOS Institute)

The parameters shown in the figure above are found adequate to represent the up to date quality of river water without effects of the mines. The expected quality of drainage water without any treatment can be assessed using the quality parameters from the water pumped out of Mirash mine. It has to be taken into consideration that the sampling point does not always show the quality of pumped out water as thinning by rainwater might have falsified the sample.

Fig. 8.3-3

Characteristic Drainage Water Quality (INKOS Institute, Mirash mine) Page 112 of 120


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The following table compares the values and shows, that the receiving river might be affected mainly by sulphate and chloride as well as organic materials, if no purification will be foreseen. Concerning heavy metals or other trace elements no argumentation can be given by now because those analytical results are lacking. Tab. 8.3-1

Comparison Water Qualities

pH value El. Conductivity Chloride Sulphate Hydrogen carbonate Nitrate KMnO4 Consumption

Minimum Sitnica Mirash 6.8 6.7 230 175 3 4.5 29 75 104 232 0 0 5 3

Average Sitnica Mirash 7.9 7.8 486 1,381 28 90 78 924 284 447 3.7 10.3 15 45

Maximum Sitnica Mirash 8.4 8.7 1,100 3,700 70 290 516 1,741 381 600 14 72 26 183

Following those results it is necessary to purify the mine water. At least settling ponds should be implemented to diminish the load of soil and coal dust.

8.4 Groundwater Situation The knowledge about the general groundwater situation is described in chapter 4.7. Environmental effects are expected when groundwater will be withdrawn by excavation works. The present knowledge from the existing mines shows groundwater not to be a major problem for the mining activities, but is to be taken into consideration that the long term exploitation has affected the groundwater levels extensively. In case of creating a new and uncoupled mine the dewatering especially within the sandy layers of the overburden might be more expensive. To achieve a better knowledge of this it is essential to explore the groundwater conditions more detailed before opening up. Indications are given that the groundwater within the coal north to the existing mines might be polluted by liquid phenol bearing waste. Hence, before lowering the groundwater table, investigations are to inform about the extent of pollution by quantity and quality to adjust the mine dewatering system to necessary purification of water.

8.5 Soil Qualities Investigations on available soil qualities by now led the way to the community of Kastriot (Obiliq). Unfortunately no answer on the promised information was delivered. By this reason Consultant started to digitalize the soil map scale 1:100,000. Interim results are presented in following figure.

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Fig. 8.5-1

Soil Map

8.6 Waste Water Purification and Re-utilization Up to now mine water purification and re-utilisation seems to be unknown in connecting with mining activities. Any new mining activity has to take into consideration that water purification is needed not only for the sewage resulting from workers social services but also from the mining drainage. Here at least settling ponds are needed to purify the mining drainage from soil and coal dust. Other needs of purification will result from heavy metals and trace element analyses or the appearance of fluid phenol bearing waste. By now adequate analyses, allowing more detailed assessments, are not available. The need to take into consideration those parameters is expected to be relevant for any new mining activity in Kosovo.

8.7 Environmental Monitoring and Management Structures Reflecting the up to now experience at Kosovo’s lignite mines it has to be stressed that any new mining activity has to be combined with a well educated environmental management team. The management has to be informed not only about the activities within the mine but Page 114 of 120


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also about the situation in the nearer and remote surroundings. Analyses for water and groundwater qualities and quantities, dust and noise emissions etc. should be reflected regularly leading to dynamic improvements on the entire environmental situation. To achieve this, a close connection to official bodies is advised. Already in the phase of concrete planning for the new mining area a first monitoring system has to be implemented and surveyed to document effects on air, soil ground and surface waters, neighbouring inhabitants as well as the faunal and floral population. Hence a trained team is needed to assess the expected detailed effects, to prepare an adequate monitoring plan before opening up the mine and develop this throughout the lifetime of the mine.

8.8 Environmental Aspects of Mining Fields Alternatives Population Changes The opening of a field in all cases will mean that resettlement of inhabitants is needed. By now it is assessed that in case of Sibovc-Field the largest quantity of at least three villages and nine settlements with their population will be affected. South-Field covers two villages and one settlement whereas the D-Field effects partly one settlement as well as some detached houses. Variant 1.1 forms an extension of the existing mines, where the excavation moves forwards to the north. For neighbouring inhabitants this might be felt like an ongoing process deriving from the known mining activities. The population of the village of Hade has to be resettled prior to the start of mining activities. Major resettlements than will be needed towards the middle of the lifetime of the mine with the villages of Sibovc and Lajthishte. Variant 1.2 opens a new mine developing to the south. Hence erecting all needed infrastructure and opening the mine means an intervention to a nearly unaffected area. Resettlement of the villages of Sibovc and Lajthishte will be needed in an early stage of activities whereas the village of Hade, actually suffering from mining activities, is able to develop naturally until it is to be resettled finally toward the end of mining activities. Variant 2 requires a previous partly resettlement in the east of Dardhishte village. The connecting road Dardhishte – Nakarade/ Fuche Kosove will form the western rim of the mine. Hence the remaining inhabitants of Dardhishte will be affected mostly in the starting phase of mining. While developing the mine a few additional resettlements of detached houses will be needed towards the end of the lifetime of the mine. Variants 3.1 and 3.2 are intensifications of the effects shown in Variants 1.1 and 1.2. As two mines are working timely parallel the inhabitants will suffer in a extended volume especially from dust and noise pollution as well as sooner loss of farmland. Resettlements of the villages of Hade, Sibovc and Lajthishte will be needed nearly parallel in time prior to or at least in a very early stage of mine development. On the other hand these variants offer the opportunity to employ more local personal as two independent mines are operating with their full accessories. Variant 4 causes nearly the same effects as Variants 3 but in addition communication roads will be severed north of the village of Hade after short time of operation. Opening the South-Field will force the villages of Doberdup (Dobri Dub) and Kuzmin as well as new housing estates east of river Sitnica to be resettled. It has to be mentioned, that the village of Doberdup is already affected by creeping outside dump masses which up to now are explained not to present urgent threats. Effects on humans may result from the necessary relocation of river Sitnica to the east. As only a small corridor remains between the rim of the mine

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and the railroad track at Fushe Kosove special flood prevention measures have to be implemented leading to an enlarged surface requirement at the populated outskirts of Fushe Kosove. Local Roads and Transportation In the areas of potential mining fields the roads from Grabovc to Kastriot (Obiliq) and Sibovc to Kastriot (Obiliq) are assessed to be of major importance for regional transportation. Both roads lead through the Sibovc-Field and have to be abandoned in the course of mining. The difference for Variants 1, 3 and 4 can only be seen in the difference in time when abandoning becomes necessary. Variant 2 with D-Field as well as South-Field does not affect roads of regional importance. Water and Air Emissions to water and air mainly depend on the size of the open mine. In Variants 1 and 2 as well as South-Field only one mine is working while in Variants 3 and 4 there are two mines working parallel in time. For the latter variants this will lead to increased dust emissions from excavation and conveying activities. As self ignited lignite burnings should be prevented at any new mining field there result no specific differences between the variants even though self ignition might not be generally excluded. Effects on waters result from the necessary mine drainage and social sewage from mine barracks and offices. In case of Sibovc-Field (var. 1, 3 and 4) excavation is performed in rather watertight materials. Hence the quantities of water depend mainly on the precipitation. In Variant 2 (D-Field) as well as South-Field it is expected that leaking surface water and groundwater from river Sitnica will decisively contribute to the drained quantities. Flora, Fauna Natural Heritage The three areas of concern contain different types of ecological habitats. The Sibovc-Field is characterised by extensive but busy agricultural use. Areas unaffected by humans are rather seldom. Hence useful plant varieties dominate the floral scene. Resulting from temporarily unused or fallow land as well as minor bushes or wooded areas as well as mall creeks dividing the landscape a reasonable diversity of floral elements is expected. The South-Field is to the half of its area covered by overburden dumps. As this dumping area is unused in a large extent for years an adopted natural environment came into being with different, small scaled habitats. Some areas mainly at the rims of the dumps are agricultural used. The southern part of the South-Field is determined by the valleys of rivers Sitnica and Drenica and mainly agricultural used. Hence the South-Field gives a wide range of habitats from wetlands to dry locations on a small floor space. D-Field is characterised by the Dragodara ash dump (TPP A). As the surrounding is mainly agricultural used without extensive bush, copse or tree occurrence the biological diversity is judged rather poor compared to the other alternatives. Soil, Natural Resources and land use As described above and in chapter 4.2 the alternatives differ in their general soil appearance. Sibovc-Field is characterised by clayey materials in a hilly shaped landscape forming a typical Smonitza soil rather difficult to cultivate because of soil compression and enriched surface Page 116 of 120


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water run off in wet periods as well as deep reaching drying up in the summer time. Nevertheless the soil is described fertile but nearer information has to be inquired. South-Field (Variant 2) holds a large area of spread soil materials where a top soil development similar to the development outside the dumps is visible. As the soil is not as compact as the natural grown, better hydraulic conductivities result and the top soil is intensively biological loosened up. The slopes of the dumps are slowly creeping towards the surroundings and thereby covering the grown soil. No polluting elements are mentioned to be contained in the soil dumps. Hence it is judged that an ongoing and nearly unhindered agricultural use south to the dumps will be possible in the future. Depositing of soil and especially ash determines the surface of D-Field. The fly ash from the dumping site influences the surroundings up to some hundred meters distance. This mainly affects the usability of the farmland but no information is available by now concerning e.g. the heavy metal or trace element contents of the ash. Micro-Climate Opening a surface mining field causes a depression in the surface. All alternatives of excavation will lead to a loss of elevated elements on the surface and wind velocity will increase. As the mines will be artificially dewatered a change in evaporation rates will result which, in combination with the decrease in floral coverage, is assessed to lead to a decrease of evapotranspiration rates. The influences for the three different fields are judged to be rather similar but detailed assessments will only be possible after conducting extensive measurements and computing models for different climatic scenarios. Phenol Deposits The data inquiry on potential environmental risks gives indications of old neglected deposits of fluid wastes containing phenol. These materials probably result from an abandoned gasification plant at TPP Kosovo A, where remnants of this waste are still stored today. In August 2004 two shafts of old underground workings at Mirash workshop were opened. A specific chemically smell and some tar similar lumps at the rim of one shaft were observed. Workers at the mine explained to have observed those fluids in the past at the northern slope, where the slope cuts into underground workings. Further investigations on the spatial spreading and the quantity of dumped waste led to no reliable results up to now. Interviews this neighbouring residents and former workers helped to form a first idea. Two former underground workings might be affected with the “Kosovo” field underneath the valley between Mirash mine and Lajthishte and the “Krusevac” South-Field to TPP Kosovo A. As no maps are available showing the extension of the former mines a first demarcation was carried out using aerial views, field observations on collapse structures and interviews. Result is shown in following figure.

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Fig. 8.8-1

Areas of potential risk of toxic waste deposits

Because up to now it is unknown, •

which chemicals the original waste really comprised and if the contents is similar to the stored remnants, • which alterations happened to the waste and • what quantities of original or altered materials are buried in the underground workings this problem forms a potential risk when the coal is excavated (protection of miners and water) and burned in a TPP (conglutination of equipment, generation of hazardous gases such as dioxins).

8.9 Environmental Ranking of Alternatives Having in mind that the whole district is historically influenced by mining and wider parts of the landscape are determined by the mines and power plants all variants discussed are judged to be feasible, if appropriate actions are taken to diminish the effects. Combining the environmental aspects mentioned in this report a matrix can be presented balancing the degrees of impacts. A first judgement scale with 1 to 7 points is used describing the growing strength of impact between the variants. A balancing between the impacts themselves is not performed.

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Tab. 8.9-1 Effect

Environmental Impact

Population Changes Local Roads and Transportation Water and Air Flora, Fauna, natural Heritage Soil, Natural Resources and land use Sum

Var.1.1

1.2

3 3 1 2 3 12

4 4 2 3 4 17

2 D-Field 1 1 6 1 1 10

3.1

3.2

4

6 6 3 6 7 28

5 5 4 5 6 25

7 7 5 4 5 28

SouthField 2 2 7 7 2 20

Following this ranking usage of D-Field (Variant 2) shows the smallest impact to be expected. Opening the Sibovc-Field with one mine (Variant 1) should be given the preference rather than working with two mines from the environmental point of view. Using the South-Field seems to be minor suitable because of the developed and adjusted fauna and flora and the need of canalling river Sitnica.

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9 Final Remarks of Part I The objective of the Part I of the documentation is to provide information which should help to make solid decisions how to develop the lignite sector for the near future. The most suitable mining concepts were addressed and the opportunities and risks were mentioned. As main result (for a mine scenario with appr.15 mt/a) it is worked out that: In the case the high investments can be provided and the government prefers a single mine operator KEK should prepare a mining development as described in Variant 1.1. A two-mine concept would be favourable to attract private investors within a short time or if the financial means can not be provided. The decision also depends on the power plant concept. However the decision on which concept the detailed Main Mine Plan has to be based on is to set by the Ministry for Energy and Mines. ---------------------------------------------------Regarding the second stage (detailed “Main Mining Plan�), it was decided to elaborate a mining plan similar to Variant 1.1 (see MMP-Part II Technical Planning).

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European Agency for Reconstruction

F

PREPARATION OF A MID TERM PLAN FOR EXISTING COAL MINES AND A MAIN MINING PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SIBOVC MINE EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

FINAL REPORT Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Part II

Technical Planning

June 24, 2005 prepared by:

Vattenfall Europe Mining AG

VATTENFALL

Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH


Key Experts of Project Team

Ullrich Höhna VEM Team Leader, Senior Expert Mine Planning

VEM Hans Jürgen Matern Senior Expert Mining Operation

Thomas Suhr VEM Senior Expert Computer-Aided Mine Planning Applications

Stephan Peters Senior Expert Geology

DMT

VEM Helmar Laube Senior Expert Soil Mechanics

Joachim Gert ten Thoren DMT Senior Environmental Expert


Table of Contents 1 Summary Part II ............................................................................14 2 Introduction...................................................................................47 2.1 2.2

Allocation and Geographical Overview ................................................................... 47 Approach / Methodology.......................................................................................... 49

3 Coal Demand and License for Coal Extraction.............................50 3.1 3.2

Forecast of Future Coal Demand.............................................................................. 50 License for Coal Extraction from Sibovc Open Cast Mine...................................... 52

4

Geological Conditions .............................................................53

4.1 4.2

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 53 Sedimentology and Petrography of the Pliocene Lignite Deposit in the Sibovc Area ................................................................................................... 55 Development of the Overburden Section ................................................................. 59 Geophysical Exploration Work Performed .............................................................. 60 Available Borehole Data .......................................................................................... 60 Coal Qualities from Borehole Data.......................................................................... 61 Sampling And Analysis Methods ............................................................................ 61 Geological Model ..................................................................................................... 64 Structural Model ...................................................................................................... 65 Coal Quality Distribution Model ............................................................................. 67 3D Block Model of Net Calorific Value Distribution ............................................. 68 Model Parameter and Methodology......................................................................... 68 Other Aspects influencing the Geological Situation ................................................ 72 Former Underground Mining................................................................................... 72 Uncontrolled Coal Fires........................................................................................... 75 Development and locations of coal fires.................................................................. 75 Counteractive measures ........................................................................................... 77 Prevention of coal fires ............................................................................................ 78 Geological Resource Assessment............................................................................. 78 Classification and Calculation Method.................................................................... 78 Lignite Resources..................................................................................................... 80 Further exploration for the new Sibovc Mine .......................................................... 81

4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.1.1 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.3.1 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.2.1 4.7.2.2 4.7.2.3 4.8 4.8.1 4.8.2 4.9

5 Soil-mechanical Parameters ..........................................................82 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

General ..................................................................................................................... 82 Soilphysical Parameter ............................................................................................. 82 Soil mechanical Calculation Methods ...................................................................... 83 General Stability Factors .......................................................................................... 84 Soilmechanical Calculations for Border Slope Systems .......................................... 85 Soilmechanical Calculations for Advance Slope Systems ....................................... 86 Static Stability of Single Slopes ............................................................................... 86 Soilmechanical Calculations for Dumping Slope Systems ...................................... 88 Geotechnical Requirements to a Safe Operational Management ............................. 89

6 Technological Development of the Sibovc Mine..........................90 6.1 6.2 6.3

Preconditions ............................................................................................................ 90 General Remarks on Mine Development ................................................................. 93 Technological Equipment Parameter ....................................................................... 94


6.4 Capability / Capacity Calculation for MME ............................................................ 95 6.4.1 Capability of Excavators .................................................................................. 95 6.4.2 Capability of Belt Conveyors ......................................................................... 105 6.4.3 Capability of Spreaders .................................................................................. 109 6.5 Mine Planning ........................................................................................................ 110 6.5.1 Follow-up to mining in Bardh / Mirash.......................................................... 110 6.5.2 Excavation Boundary / Boundary Line .......................................................... 111 6.5.3 Conveyor Belts ............................................................................................... 115 6.5.4 Bench Design ................................................................................................. 116 6.5.5 Division of Cuts.............................................................................................. 117 6.5.6 Mass Calculation ............................................................................................ 120 6.5.7 Overburden Removal...................................................................................... 123 6.5.7.1 Excavation .................................................................................................. 123 6.5.7.2 Dumping ..................................................................................................... 129 6.6 Lignite Operation.................................................................................................... 130 6.7 Stockpile Operation ................................................................................................ 133 6.7.1 Stockpile TPP A ............................................................................................. 133 6.7.2 Stockpile TPP B ............................................................................................. 134 6.8 Opening-up Operation ............................................................................................ 139 6.8.1 Preparatory Works in the Year 2007/2008..................................................... 139 6.8.2 Mining Development in the Year 2009 .......................................................... 140 6.8.3 Mining Development in the Year 2010 .......................................................... 142 6.8.4 Mining Development in the Year 2011 .......................................................... 142 6.8.5 Mining Development in the Year 2012 .......................................................... 143 6.8.6 Mining Development in the Year 2013 .......................................................... 144 6.9 Regular Operation .................................................................................................. 144 6.9.1 Mining Development in the Period 2014 – 2018 ........................................... 144 6.9.2 Mining Development in the Period 2019 - 2023 ............................................ 145 6.9.3 Mining Development in the Period 2024 - 2028 ............................................ 146 6.9.4 Mining Development in the Period 2029 - 2033 ............................................ 146 6.9.5 Mining Development in the Period 2034 – 2038 ........................................... 147 6.10 Production Schedule............................................................................................... 148

7 Main Mining Equipment .............................................................149 7.1 Technical Status of existing Main Mining Equipment........................................... 149 7.1.1 Technical Status of Excavators ...................................................................... 149 SRs 1300 und SchRs 650 ........................................................................................... 149 b) Electrical Equipment.............................................................................................. 149 a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering............................................. 151 7.1.2 Technical Status of Belt Conveyor Systems .................................................. 152 7.1.3 Technical Status of Spreaders ........................................................................ 153 a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering ................................................... 153 7.1.4 Technical Status of Belt Wagons ................................................................... 154 7.1.5 Technical Status of Stacker / Reclaimer......................................................... 155 7.2 Rehabilitation Measures for MME......................................................................... 158 7.2.1 Measures for Excavators ................................................................................ 158 7.2.2 Measures for Belt Conveyor Systems ............................................................ 159 7.2.3 Measures for Spreaders .................................................................................. 160 7.2.4 Measures for Belt Wagons ............................................................................. 161 7.2.5 Measures for Stacker / Reclaimer (Stockpile Equipment) ............................. 161 7.2.6 Conclusion for the Field Sibovc ..................................................................... 162 7.3 Technical Specification of Main Mining Equipment ............................................. 164


8 Power Supply System and Electrical Equipment ........................165 8.1 8.2

Future Energy Demand .......................................................................................... 165 Investment for Electrical System............................................................................ 167

9 Auxiliary Equipment...................................................................171 9.1 Assessment of Technical Status in the Existing Mines .......................................... 171 9.2 Auxiliary Equipment and Devices for the Sibovc Mine ........................................ 171 9.2.1 Maximal Demand of auxiliary Equipment ..................................................... 171 9.2.2 Yearwise Development of Auxiliary Equipment Fleet .................................. 173 9.3 Heavy Auxiliary Equipment for Sibovc Mine........................................................ 179 9.4 Draglines ................................................................................................................ 179 9.4.1 Transport Crawler........................................................................................... 180 9.4.2 Derricks .......................................................................................................... 181 9.5 Investment and Cost Calculation for Auxiliary Equipment ................................... 181

10 Infrastructure and Surface Facilities ...........................................183 10.1 General Principles .................................................................................................. 183 10.2 Social facilities and administration ........................................................................ 184 10.2.1 Mine Offices................................................................................................... 184 10.2.2 Mine Control Centre....................................................................................... 187 10.2.3 Washrooms and Sanitary Facilities ................................................................ 187 10.3 Supply and Disposal ............................................................................................... 188 10.3.1 Transformer Station........................................................................................ 188 10.3.2 Erection Yards ................................................................................................ 188 10.3.3 Road Construction .......................................................................................... 189 10.4 Workshops and Warehouses................................................................................... 191 10.4.1 Principles ........................................................................................................ 191 10.4.2 Central- and plant workshops......................................................................... 194 10.4.3 Warehouses..................................................................................................... 199 10.4.4 Petrol Station / Fuel Depot ............................................................................. 203 10.5 Investment and Cost Calculation for Infrastructure ............................................... 204

11 Mine Dewatering.........................................................................209 11.1 11.2 11.3

General Information ............................................................................................... 209 Dewatering Measures / Dimensioning of Dewatering Elements ........................... 211 Investment and Cost Calculation for Dewatering .................................................. 214

12 Mine Closure and Recultivation Planning ..................................216 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5

Principles ................................................................................................................ 216 Present Land Use.................................................................................................... 216 Mine Closure Plan .................................................................................................. 216 Concept of Post-Mining Use for the Fields Bardh, Mirash and Sibovc................. 218 Investment and Cost Calculation............................................................................ 221

13 Resettlement................................................................................222 13.1 General Remarks / Situation................................................................................... 222 13.1.1 General Conditions......................................................................................... 222 13.1.2 Legal Resettlement Regulations ..................................................................... 222 13.2 Resettlement of Hade ............................................................................................. 223 13.2.1 Conditions / Situation in Hade ....................................................................... 223 13.2.2 Buildings in Hade ........................................................................................... 224 13.2.3 Valuation of Compensation............................................................................ 225 13.2.4 Locations for Resettlements of Hade ............................................................. 228


13.2.5 Resettlement Process ...................................................................................... 228 13.2.6 Resettlement Procedure .................................................................................. 229 13.2.7 Time Scheduling for Resettlement Measures................................................. 230 13.2.8 Status of the Hade Resettlement..................................................................... 231 13.3 Resettlement of Villages in the field Sibovc .......................................................... 232 13.3.1 Communities affected by Resettlement.......................................................... 232 13.3.2 Valuation of Compensation............................................................................ 234 13.3.3 Locations for Resettlements ........................................................................... 234 13.3.4 Time Scheduling for Resettlement Measures................................................. 235 13.4 Investment and Cost Calculation for Resettlement ................................................ 236

14 Manpower Developemente and Organisation .............................243 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4

Actual Situation ...................................................................................................... 243 Proposed Improvement / Benchmark ..................................................................... 244 Employment of Staff and Organisation Sibovc...................................................... 246 Organisational Structure......................................................................................... 249

15 Final Remark (Part II) .................................................................257


Content of Tables Tab. 3.1-1 Tab. 3.1-2 Tab. 4.2-1 Tab. 4.2-2 Tab. 4.6-1 Tab. 4.6-2 Tab. 4.6-3 Tab. 4.7-1 Tab. 5.2-1 Tab. 6.1-1 Tab. 6.1-2 Tab. 6.1-3 Tab. 6.3-1 Tab. 6.3-2 Tab. 6.3-3 Tab. 6.4-1 Tab. 6.4-2 Tab. 6.4-3 Tab. 6.4-4 Tab. 6.4-5 Tab. 6.4-6 Tab. 6.4-7 Tab. 6.4-8 Tab. 6.4-9 Tab. 6.4-10 Tab. 6.4-11 Tab. 6.4-12 Tab. 6.4-13 Tab. 6.4-14 Tab. 6.4-15 Tab. 6.4-16 Tab. 6.4-17 Tab. 6.4-18 Tab. 6.5-1 Tab. 6.5-2 Tab. 6.5-3 Tab. 6.5-4 Tab. 6.5-5 Tab. 6.6-1 Tab. 6.6-2 Tab. 6.7-1 Tab. 6.7-2 Tab. 6.8-1 Tab. 6.8-2 Tab. 6.8-3 Tab. 6.8-4 Tab. 6.8-5 Tab. 6.8-6

Defined Coal Demand......................................................................................... 50 Coal haulage required from new mines .............................................................. 51 Summary of Interburden Occurences thicker than 0.5 m in the Sibovc Concession Area ..................................................................................... 56 Petrographic Analysis ......................................................................................... 59 Structural Characterisation of the Sibovc Concession Area ............................... 66 Sibovc Concession Area, Average Coal Qualitiesfor the Lignite Seam from Geological Model Grid ....................................................................................... 67 Block Model – volume report of several categories ........................................... 71 Coal production of old underground mines within area investigated. (source: INKOS) ............................................................................................................... 74 Soil-mechanical Parameters ................................................................................ 83 Coal Output (Part 1: in the „extended“ Development Period) ............................ 90 Coal output from Sibovc in regular operation..................................................... 91 Release Time for Main Mine Equipment............................................................ 92 Basic Geometry of the Bucket Wheel Excavators .............................................. 94 Cutting Heights and block Width of Excavators................................................. 94 Maximum Inclination of working Levels and Curve Radii of Excavators ......... 95 Theoretical Digging Capacity in lcm/h ............................................................... 97 Theoretical Capacity of Excavators in bcm/h resp. t/h ....................................... 97 Effective Capacity of Excavators - Overburden ................................................. 98 Effective Capacity for Excavator - Coal ............................................................. 99 Planned Working Time Tb of single Equipment ............................................... 101 Normal Capacity and maximum Capacity - Overburden.................................. 102 Capability of Bucket Wheel Excavators in Overburden Operation .................. 103 Capability of Excavators in Coal Operation ..................................................... 103 Nominal Capacity of the Pit System ................................................................. 104 Bulk Density, Angle of Repose and Inclination of Belt Conveyor................... 105 Factor fi for Considering the Inclination........................................................... 106 Possible Conveying Capacity for the 1.8 m Belt Conveyor, loose ................... 106 Eff. Conv Capacity Ve in bcm/h of the 1.8 m Belt Conveyor (Overburden) ... 107 Possible Conveying Capacity for the 2.0 m Belt Conveyor, loose ................... 107 Eff. Conv. Capacity Ve of the 2.0 m Overburden Belt Conveyor in bcm/h ..... 108 Conveying Quantity of a 1.8 m Coal Conveyor in t/h ...................................... 108 Conveying Quantity of a 2.0 m Coal Belt Conveyor (wc = 1.75 m) in t/h ....... 109 Comparison of possible Volume Streams ......................................................... 110 Overburden and Coal Output in Mirash / Bardh............................................... 110 Sector calculation of the entire field ................................................................. 121 Division of slices / overburden – SRs 1300 ...................................................... 128 Block length and division of slices / overburden SchRs 650............................ 128 Block length and divisions of slices –new BWE .............................................. 129 Block length and division of slices / coal – SchRs 650 .................................... 132 Block length and division of slices / coal – SRs 1300 ...................................... 132 Overview of mine potential and power plant requirerment .............................. 137 Belt Length of charging conveyor to the power plant....................................... 138 Output in overburden and coal in 2007/08........................................................ 140 Output in overburden and coal in 2009............................................................. 141 Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 142 Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 143 Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 143 Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 144


Tab. 6.9-1 Tab. 6.9-2 Tab. 6.9-3 Tab. 6.9-4 Tab. 6.9-5 Tab. 6.10-1 Tab. 7.2-1 Tab. 7.2-2 Tab. 8.1-1 Tab. 8.1-2 Tab. 9.2-1 Tab. 9.2-2 Tab. 9.2-3 Tab. 9.2-4 Tab. 9.2-5 Tab. 9.4-1 Tab. 9.5-1 Tab. 9.5-2 Tab. 10.3-1 Tab. 10.4-1 Tab. 10.5-1 Tab. 10.5-2 Tab. 10.5-3 Tab. 10.5-4 Tab. 10.5-5 Tab. 10.5-6 Tab. 11.2-1 Tab. 11.3-1 Tab. 11.3-2 Tab. 11.3-3 Tab. 12.2-1 Tab. 12.5-1 Tab. 13.2-1 Tab. 13.2-2 Tab. 13.2-3 Tab. 13.3-1 Tab. 13.4-1 Tab. 13.4-2 Tab. 13.4-3 Tab. 13.4-4 Tab. 13.4-5 Tab. 13.4-6 Tab. 13.4-7 Tab. 13.4-8 Tab. 14.2-1 Tab. 14.3-1 Tab. 14.3-2 Tab. 14.3-3

Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 145 Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 145 Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 146 Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 147 Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 147 Production Schedule.......................................................................................... 148 Measures for MME ........................................................................................... 158 Measures MME for Sibovc ............................................................................... 162 Capacities .......................................................................................................... 166 Required installed capacity ............................................................................... 166 Number of auxiliary Equipment........................................................................ 172 Number of auxiliary Equipment up to 2012 ..................................................... 174 Annual Purchase of auxiliary Equipment up to 2017 ....................................... 176 Purchase of auxiliary Equipment between 2018 and 2028 ............................... 177 Purchase of auxiliary Equipment between 2029 and 2038 ............................... 178 Technical Data of Esch 10/70 ........................................................................... 179 Investments and Reinvestments for auxiliary Equipment................................. 182 Yearwise Investments for auxiliary Equipment in m€...................................... 182 Road construction.............................................................................................. 189 Further use of buildings for Sibovc................................................................... 193 Investments 2005 – 2008 surface facilities ....................................................... 205 Investment and cost calculation for infrastructure ............................................ 206 Lease prices....................................................................................................... 207 Required areas for workshops and warehouses ................................................ 207 Lease costs for workshops and warehouses ...................................................... 208 Lease costs for workshops, warehouses, offices and washrooms ..................... 208 Pump Capacity .................................................................................................. 213 Example for a Channel System ......................................................................... 214 Length of Channels ........................................................................................... 215 Price of Channels .............................................................................................. 215 Claim of building and farm Land...................................................................... 216 Area Balance in Sibovc and Costs .................................................................... 221 Households and other Facilities in the Village Hade 2003 ............................... 224 Timetable for the Resettlement of the remaining Part of Hade ........................ 230 Compensation for the Inhabitants of Hade........................................................ 231 Steps for a joint resettlement of a village.......................................................... 235 Cost Calculation for Resettlement of Properties with constructed Buildings... 237 Resettlement of Households and Land Claim................................................... 237 Resettlement of Public Facilities....................................................................... 238 Substitute Measures Infrastructure inside the Village and other Costs............. 238 Substitute measures for infrastructure outside the village ................................ 239 Claim of farmland ............................................................................................. 239 Provisional estimation of resettlement .............................................................. 240 Cost of resettlement - schedule ......................................................................... 242 Benchmark mining ............................................................................................ 245 Employees in Mirash /Bardh............................................................................. 247 Employees in Sibovc......................................................................................... 248 Number of employees ....................................................................................... 249

Contents of Figures Fig. 2-1 Fig. 4-1

Sibovc Concession Licence Area – Location Map................................................ 48 Stratigraphic Standard Profile of the Kosovo Basin (KEK 2003)......................... 54


Fig. 4-2 Fig. 4-3 Fig. 4-4 Fig. 4-5 Fig. 4-6 Fig. 4-7 Fig. 4-8 Fig. 4-9 Fig. 4-10 Fig. 4-11 Fig. 4-12 Fig. 4-13 Fig. 4-14 Fig. 5-1 Fig. 5-2 Fig. 5-3 Fig. 5-4 Fig. 5-5 Fig. 6-2 Fig. 6-3 Fig. 6-4 Fig. 6-5 Fig. 6-6 Fig. 6-7 Fig. 6-8 Fig. 8-1 Fig. 8-2 Fig. 8-3 Fig. 9-1 Fig. 10-1 Fig. 10-2 Fig. 10-3 Fig. 10-4 Fig. 10-5 Fig. 10-6 Fig. 10-7 Fig. 10-8 Fig. 10-9 Fig. 10-10 Fig. 10-11 Fig. 10-12 Fig. 10-13 Fig. 10-14 Fig. 10-15 Fig. 10-16 Fig. 10-17 Fig. 10-18 Fig. 10-19 Fig. 12-1

Typical vertical lithological sequence and Net CV distribution for the lignite deposition in the Sibovc Concession Area, Borehole G1-XXXIII3...................... 55 Histogram for the Interburden Distribution by Lignite Seam Thickness Increments of 20 m............................................................................... 57 Sibovc Concession Area, Lignite Seam –Interburden Thickness[m].................... 57 Correlation Problems of Interburden Layers ......................................................... 58 Lignite Thickness vs. Depth Plot........................................................................... 66 Block Model of the Sibovc Mining Concession area. Explanation see below...... 68 Sibovc Block Model Master Definition ................................................................ 69 Compositing by elevation...................................................................................... 70 Collapse structures from former underground mining NE of Hade (arial photograph)............................................................................................................ 73 Private coal mining near the western border of the Sibovc Field.......................... 76 Private coal mining area within the Sibovc Field.................................................. 76 Fritted, red colored clays in the hanging wall of the coal seam ............................ 77 Sibovc Concession Area, Ressource Classification .............................................. 79 Principal Scheme ................................................................................................... 84 Required general inclination of slopes with a safety factor of 1.2 ........................ 85 Sliding in the coal-uncovering cut......................................................................... 86 Geologically occurring weak zone in the overburden material............................. 87 Exposed parting plane with large polished surface ............................................... 87 Scheme of conveyor belts.................................................................................... 115 Scheme of working levels and equipment........................................................... 122 Workscheme / overburden – SRs 1300.24 .......................................................... 124 Free-cut angle horizontal view ............................................................................ 125 Free-cut angle horizontal view ............................................................................ 126 Scheme calculation of block length..................................................................... 127 Work scheme coal excavator............................................................................... 131 Energy distribution system .................................................................................. 168 35 kV power supply – coal extraction ................................................................. 169 35 kV power supply - overburden ....................................................................... 170 Scheme Esch 10/70.............................................................................................. 180 Mine office Bardh................................................................................................ 184 Mining Office (Gate 1) ........................................................................................ 185 Plan of Mine Office ............................................................................................. 186 Current Mine control centre Mirash .................................................................... 187 Survey workshops and warehouses ..................................................................... 194 New Central Auxiliary equipment workshop Bardh ........................................... 195 Mechanical workshop intervention ..................................................................... 195 Electrical workshop intervention Bardh .............................................................. 196 Electrical workshop Kosovomont ....................................................................... 197 Mechanical workshop Kosovomont 1 ................................................................. 197 Mechanical workshop Kosovomont 2 ................................................................. 198 Electrical and mechanical workshop ................................................................... 199 New warehouse Mirash ....................................................................................... 200 Warehouse idler and vulcanization...................................................................... 200 New central warehouse........................................................................................ 201 Electrical warehouse Bardh ................................................................................. 202 Mechanical warehouse Bardh.............................................................................. 202 Petrol Station Mirash........................................................................................... 203 Petrol Station Separation plant ............................................................................ 204 Plant scheme for wind erosion protection ........................................................... 220


Fig. 14-1 Fig. 14-2

Age structure ....................................................................................................... 244 Employees in Sibovc ........................................................................................... 248

List of Annexes Annexes to Geology: II/ 4.4-1

II/ 4.4-2

II/ 4.4-3

II/ 4.4-4

II/ 4.4-5

II/ 4.4-6

II/ 4.4-7

II/ 4.4-8

II/ 4.4-9 II/ 4.4-10 II/ 4.4-11 II/ 4.4-12

Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Fm. – Topography and Borehole Location (with Seam Thickness [m]), 1:10,000 Zona e konsesionit të Sibovcit – Topografia dhe lokacionet e shpimeve ( me trashësi të shtresës [m]), 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Overburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. - Trashësia e Djerrinës [m], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Overburden-To-Coal Ratio [cu m/t], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. - Raporti Qymyr - Djerrinë [cu m/t], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, shtresa Qymyrore - Trashësia e Ndërfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 0-20 m Slice – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Shtresa Qymyrore, 0-20 m Prej Tavanit të Shtresës Qymyrore - Trashësia e Ndërfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 20-40 m Slice – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Shtresa Qymyrore, 20-40 m Prej Tavanit të Shtresës Qymyrore - Trashësia e Ndërfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 40-60 m Slice – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Shtresa Qymyrore, 40-60 m Prej Tavanit të Shtresës Qymyrore - Trashësia e Ndërfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, >60 m Slice – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Shtresa Qymyrore, >60 m Prej Tavanit të Shtresës Qymyrore - Trashësia e Ndërfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Ash Content [%],1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. - Përqindja e Hirit [%], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Total Sulphur [%], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. - Sulfuri Total [%], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Low Calorific Value [kJ/ kg], 1:10,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. – Vlera Kalorike [kJ/ kg], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area – Geological Cross Sections S1 & S2 with Differentiation of Overburden Layer, 1: 5,000/ 1:1,250 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc -Profilet gjeologjike S1 & S2 mi diferencim të saktë të shtresës tavanore, 1: 5,000/ 1: 1,250


II/ 4.4-13 to 21

II/ 4.4-22 to 33

Sibovc Consession Area –Geological Cross Sections NS 1 to NS 9 (from Block –21 Model) with Low Calorific Value (for Humidity of 45 %), 1: 5,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc - Profilet tërthore të Sibofcit NS1 dhe NS9 ( nga Bllokmodeli) me shpërndarje të vlerave kalorike ( për lagështi 45%) 1: 5,000 Sibovc Consession Area –Geological Cross Sections WE 1 to WE 12 (from Block Model) with Low Calorific Value (for Humidity of 45 %) 1: 5,000 Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc - Profilet tërthore të Sibofcit NS1 dhe NS9 ( nga Bllokmodeli) me shpërndarje të vlerave kalorike ( për lagështi 45%) 1:5,000

Annexes to Mining: Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II Part II

6.5-01 6.5-02 6.5-03 6.5-04 6.5-05 6.5-06 6.5-07 6.5-08 6.5-09 6.5-10 6.5-11 6.5-12 6.5-13 6.5-14 6.5-15 6.5-16 6.5-17 6.5-18 6.7-01 6.7-02 6.7-03 6.7-04 6.7-05 6.7-06 6.8-01 6.8-02 6.8-03 6.8-04 6.8-05 12.2.-01 12.3-01

Scheme of West Bank Part 1 Scheme of West Bank Part 2 Scheme of West Bank Part 3 Scheme of East Bank Part 1 Scheme of East Bank Part 2 Scheme of Excavation Part 1 Scheme of Excavation Part 2 Ramp Excavation Scheme of Dumping Slope System Mining Development Truck and Shovel Mining Development Overburden Level 1 Mining Development Overburden Level 2 Mining Development Overburden Level 3 Mining Development Overburden/Coal Level 4 Mining Development Coal Level 1 Mining Development Coal Level 2 Mining Development Coal Level 3 Mining Development Coal Level 4 Preparatory Works in the Period 2007-2008 Mining Development in the Year 2009 Mining Development in the Year 2010 Mining Development in the Year 2011 Mining Development in the Year 2012 Mining Development in the Year 2013 Mining Development in the Year 2018 Mining Development in the Year 2023 Mining Development in the Year 2028 Mining Development in the Year 2033 Mining Development in the Year 2038 Claim of land Recultivation

1 : 2000 1 : 2000 1 : 2000 1 : 2000 1 : 2000 1 : 2000 1 : 2000 1 : 2000 1 : 2000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 5000 1 : 5000 1 : 5000 1 : 5000 1 : 5000 1 : 5000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000 1 : 10000


List of Abbreviations a bcm bcm/h EN EnO ESTAP GWh IPP kt mt lcm m m² m³ mbcm mlcm MME mMSL mt NCV OCM RAC sqm TOR TPP TPS `000 bcm `000 lcm

year bank cubic meter bank cubic meter per hour European Norm Energy Office Energy Sector Technical Assistance Project Gigawatt-hours International Power Provider thousand tonnes million tonnes loose cubic meter million square meter cubic meter million bank cubic meter million loose cubic meters Main Mine Equipment (BWE, belt conveyor and spreader) meter above Mean Sea Level million tonnes Net Calorific Value Open Cast Mine Real Average Costs square meter Terms of Reference Thermal Power Plant Thermal Power Station thousand bank cubic meter thousand loose cubic meter


Glossary of Statistic Terms Minimum 25%-tile Median 75%-tile Maximum Midrange Midrange Range Interquartile Range Median Abs. Deviation

Mean Trim Mean (10%)

Standard Deviation Variance

Coef. of Variation Coef. of Skewness

minimum value lower quartile; 25 percent of the values are smaller than this number and 75 percent of the values are larger middle data value, 50 percent of the data values are larger than this number and 50 percent of the data are smaller than this number upper quartile; 75 percent of the values are smaller than this number and 25 percent of the values are larger than this number maximum value the value halfway between the minimum and maximum values = (Minimum + Maximum) / 2 separation between the minimum and maximum value. Range = Maximum - Minimum separation distance between the 25%-tile and 75%-tile.This shows the spread of the middle 50 percent of the data, similar to standard deviation, though this statistic is unaffected by the tails of the distribution Median Absolute Deviation is the median value of the sorted absolute deviations. It is calculated by 1. computing the data's median value 2. subtracting the median value from each data value 3. taking the absolute value of the difference 4. sorting the values 5. calculating the median of the values arithmetic average of the data Trim Mean is the mean without the upper five percent and lower five percent of the data, therefore, extreme value influence is removed. If there are fewer than 20 data points, the minimum and maximum data points are removed instead of the upper and lower five percent. square root of the variance

The Coefficient of Variation is calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean. If a "-1" is reported, the coefficient of variation could not be computed. The Coefficient of Skewness is calculated by

If a "-1" is reported, the coefficient of skewness could not be computed. The coefficient of skewness is computed only for the Z values.


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

1 Summary Part II Terms of Reference According to the Terms of Reference (TOR), chapter 2.1 the main goal of the Main Mining Plan for the New Sibovc Mine is: “… to provide security, both in the technical and economic terms, of future electrical power production in Kosovo, as defined in the “White Paper”, … through the guarantee the coal supply security and economical viability over the entire life of the existing power plants and the new power plants (approximately 30 years).” The Main Mining Plan “… has to contain all necessary facts, calculations and elements needed to guarantee sufficient coal production for Kosovo´s energy demand…”. (TOR, chapter 2.3.2) Thus, general geological aspects which do not affect the future coal production processes are not contained. As a result of the agreed final comments on the draft Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine of May 2005 the project documentation consists of: • Executive Summary of all Parts • Part I Basic Investigations • Part II Technical Planning • Part III Environmental Impact Study • Part IV Economical and Financial Analysis • Appendices A, B, C and D The project was conducted in two stages: 1st stage: In the first stage (Part I) it was focused on developing different scenarios of mine development and to draw conclusions for the mining development of Sibovc on that basis. The objective was to obtain information on alternative developments in the mining sector and to make a decision on how to supply the power plants. In addition to the Sibovc Field, alternatives like „Field D“ and the „Southfield“ have been evaluated. 2nd stage: The second stage (Part II, III and IV) was focused on the detailed mine planning of coal extraction in Sibovc including determination of the required workforce and the accruing investments and costs. While the Part I addresses different scenarios of mining developments the Parts II up to IV deal with the chosen mining variant (which start from the existing mines Mirash/Bardh and advances in Northern direction of the Sibovc field). The work for the Part I of the main mine plan was mainly focused on: • survey possibilities of the future coal supply to the existing and new power plants, • compare different mining equipment alternatives,

Page 14 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Main Content and Results of Part I (the 1st Stage) Power Plant Concept and Coal Demand The current coal consumption level of the power plants amounts to 6-7mt/a. This level is not sufficient to secure the demand for electricity in Kosovo. Also in the coming years, the production could increase only insignificantly (to approx. 8.7 mt according to the Mid Term Plan). To meet the demand for electricity better, UNMIK committed to launch a project for the establishment of a new power plant. The detailed concept and the coal demand of the new power plant were not available at the time, when the work on the study had begun. Under consideration of the above, it was worked out that i.a. a new power plant could not be commissioned before 2012 at the earliest. The demand for raw coal should moderately increase to avoid a too high investment peak. Thus costs (in particular financing costs) could be kept low (see Part I). Alternatives of equipment After having analyzed various main mining equipment solutions and mining methods the following four Alternatives have been recognised as suitable: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Conventional bucket wheel excavator (BWE), belt conveyors and spreader Compact BWE, belt conveyors and spreader Truck and shovel (mobile equipment) Combination of BWE belt conveyors, spreader and truck and shovel

Comparing the real average costs the alternative 4 turned out as most suitable. The performance of truck /shovel should be limited of the work for achieving a constant extraction performance of the BWEs. That means the trucks and shovels work in areas where peaks of overburden occur. Opening –up / Mine development For the mine development and the opening up of the Sibovc field six variants have been investigated. • Var. 1 One single mine in Sibovc (as Var. 1.1 and 1.2) • Var. 2 Parallel mine development in Sibovc and Field D • Var. 3.1 Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle) • Var. 3.2 Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (North) • Var. 4 Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Var.1 is applicable, if the mine operator will take over the supply obligation for both the existing and the new lignite-fired power plants. While Variant 1.1 is a development from South to North the Variant 1.2 starts in the very North. The comparison between advantages / disadvantages favour Var.1.1 (against Var.1.2) provided the total resettlement can be done up in time. Two mine scenarios were discussed and despite of certain advantages of it regarding the attraction of private investors it was not given preference. Hence the Main Mine Plan Sibovc consists of a mining development beginning in Bardh/Mirash and heading in Northern direction.

Main Content and Results of the Second Stage (Part II) For the detailed preparation of the mining development, the following guideline has been laid down by the Ministry: a) Power generation forecast and yearly coal demand With the objective to make sufficient electricity available for the domestic market as quickly as possible and to make exports in addition to it, new power plant capacities up to 7 x 350 MW will be established. Preferentially, they can be erected at the locations of TPP A and TPP B.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Year

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 SUM

Lignite Demand existing TPP A

Lignite Demand existing TPP B1+B2

1.8 2.0 2.0 3.3 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 3.14 1.57

5.0 5.0 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 2.65

56.56

102.7

New TPP Kosovo B3-B6

2.71 5.42 5.42 5.42 5.24 5.24 5.42 8.13 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84 246.4

New IPP C1 – C3

2.71 5.42 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 176.7

Other Lignite Consumers 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 14.0

Total Coal Demand 6.9 7.1 7.4 8.7 10.35 10.35 10.35 13.06 15.77 15.87 15.87 18.40 21.11 22.49 23.63 24.59 24.41 24.41 24.77 21.94 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 19.29 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 19.29 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 596.45

b) Resettlement This issue was discussed with the responsible authorities including the beneficiary and the European Agency. Resulting from these discussions a decision was made to assume the timely resettlement of Hade for the Main Mine Plan.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

c) Number of mines Considerations regarding a possible second mine are not subject of the second part of the study. d) Mine development scenario Subject of the Main Mine Plan is the development of the Sibovc coal field from the existing opencast mines of Bardh / Mirash. This shall be carried out with a long bench in parallel operation from the south to the north. The opencast mine Sibovc will supply coal to all customers. The assessed output of coal from the existing mines (Bardh/ Mirash) and the coal haulage required from the new mine is shown as follows: Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Sum

Coal from Bardh Mt 6.9 7.1 7.4 8.7 7.9 3.2 2.5

43.7

Mirash

/ Coal from new Mine(s) Mt 0 0 0 0 2.45 7.15 7.85 13.06 15.77 15.87 62.15

Sum = Demand of Coal mt 6.9 7.1 7.4 8.7 10.35 10.35 10.35 13.06 15.77 15.87 105.85

One essential principle for granting a license for coal extraction is: The purpose of coal production is to ensure the short-term, mid-term and long-term fuel supply for the existing and future power plants with lignite. Therefore the licenses for coal mining should be compliant to the power generation licenses. The mining licenses should provide sufficient security of supply in term of coal quantities. The new investor should be able to receive a mining license over the total amount of mineable coal necessary over the total life time of the power plant to be supplied. License for Sibovc: In the case of new TPPs with 40 years life time and annual coal demand of 19 m t/a the total mineable coal reserves dedicated to the license would be 760 mt. To supply the existing TPPs Kosovo A and B with fuel till their decommissioning a license over max. 140 m t mineable reserves would be necessary in addition to the remaining reserves in the existing coal mines Bardh and Mirash. Due to the mineable amount of coal in Sibovc the following can be provided: Existing power plants and other consumer 140 mt New power plants (TPP B3 –B6) 430 mt New power plants (TPP C1 – C3 = IPP) 260 mt (remaining coal content).

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Geological Setting The fill of Kosovo Basin in the Sibovc Concession Area consists of Upper Cretaceous strata which are unconformably overlain by Tertiary clays in which lignite is interbedded. The Sibovc area was site of luxuriant vegetation growth that finally became overwhelmed by sedimentation and led to the formation of substantial stratiform lignite deposits of up to 90 m seam thickness. The average thickness is about 50 m. Towards the West the lignite deposition is tectonically bounded by the development of a series of predominantly NNW-SSE striking faults. The geological work for the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine reveals that the tectonic movements were already active during the lignite formation and controlled the deposition of organic material and anorganic clay. The eastern limit is characterized by sedimentological pinch-out. The bottom of the lignite prone Pliocene sequence is formed by massive green clay. Intercalation of lignite and clay with varying lignite content and subordinated ash layers are developed in the basal part of the overlying Lignite Formation. The middle and upper part of the Lignite Fm. is built by a frequently massive lignite seam. Intercalations of clay layers generally decrease upwards. Within the seam section generally Net CV is increasing upwards. Occasionally, the hanging wall contact of the Lignite Seam is gradually with a development of a thin transition from lignite to the grey clay. The terms “Lignite Fm.” and “Lignite Seam” were introduced for the Main Mining Plan for the New Sibovc Mine in order to define vertical upper and lower mining boundaries. Hereby, Lignite Fm. represents the litho-stratigraphic interval between the overlying massive grey clay and the bottom massive green clay. The lignite seam is defined for the section where the Interburden-to-Coal ratio is below 50% and the thickness of an individual clay interburden layer is below 5 m. The distribution of interburden layers that are larger than 0.5 m has been recorded for the boreholes in the Sibovc Concession Area Within the Lignite Seam interburden layers constitute 6.9% of the gross seam thickness whereby 53% are represented by layers under 1 m thickness. 30% are between 1 and 2 m, 17% are thicker than 2 m. The vertical distribution shows an increasing trend from top to bottom seam. Outside the Lignite Seam but still within the limits of the stratigraphic unit of the Lignite Formation the interburden volume is 65%. Maps of the interburden thickness distribution show a patchy distribution of high thickness values without any clear directional trends. Most of the high contour areas are generated by only one borehole recording. We can not distinguish whether the scattered and patchy contour pattern is caused by inconsistent qualities of borehole descriptions and/or by geological reasons, i.e. the clay intercalation has a very limited extent below the borehole spacing. Regardless of the causes it is obvious that a correlation of the interburden between the boreholes and a subsequent generation of predictive model cannot be realized. Page 19 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Petrographic analysis describe the lignite as xylit rich with small or big marshy coaly clay The medium content of the clay is 35-40%, and it appears in the form of independent grains or almost linked with organic material. Pyrite appears in the form of spherical impregnations grainsize around 25 microns. The Lignite Formation is overlain by grey clay which is partially described as marly or sandy. Layers with abundant fossil content are frequently mentioned but the borehole descriptions do not allocate the depths of these. Sporadically sand layers of up to several meters thickness occur apparently concentrated along the morphological highs. They may have been deposited as aeolian sands. However, detailed descriptions of the sedimentological texture are missing. Sand in the immediate hangingwall of the lignite has been only recorded in one borehole along the generated detailed cross-sections across the Sibovc Concession Area. In the river cuts of the Sitnitca and the Sibovc River no direct lignite-to-sand contact has been recorded in the boreholes. However, such setting cannot generally be excluded due to the limited areal extent of the sand bodies. The uppermost 10 m describe the weathering zone and consist of yellow clay (i.e. the weathering product of the grey clay) and of generally 2-3 m humus. Geological Modelling 443 borehole data (lithological descriptions, 334 with coal quality assays) were available for the area within Sibovc Concession Area Until the introduction of the regulation on classification and categorization of the hard raw minerals (Official gazette no.53 of 19/10/1979) the sampling intervals for coal analyses had not been uniform and been ranging between 0.50 and 26 m, commonly between 5-10 m. Large sample intervals (over 15m) are quite rare and include mainly the lowest parts of the coal seam, where the volume of interburden intercalations thicker than 0.50m increase. These intercalations are mainly removed from the quality analysis. The boreholes drilled after October 1979 have testing intervals between 4.0-15.0m, often 10.0m. Drilling with bentonite and water mud may have influenced substantially the natural moisture content of the coal as a consequence of the artificial increase of water. A detailed geological model has been generated for the Lignite Seam. It integrates all available sources as surface observations, borehole and seismic data. The results are documented on 1:10,000 maps and 1:5,000 cross-sections. For the Net Calorific Value Distribution, a 3D Block Model has been generated by using SURPAC. The block model provides comprehensive information to characterise the Lignite deposit within the Sibovc concession area. The following table summarizes splits by various categories and cut-offs.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Percentage of Total Seam Volume (990 mio tons)

Category

Average (kJ/kg)

1. 1000 kJ Increments 3000-4000 0.0 4000-5000 0.1 5000-6000 0.6 6000-7000 5.8 7000-8000 23.4 8000-9000 48.1 9000-10000 21.5 10000-11000 0.5 Total 100.0 2. Cut-off 5400 kJ <5400 0.2 =>5400 99.8 3. Minimum Input for TPP A (6270 kJ/kg) <6270 1.2 =>6270 98.8 4. Minimum Input for TPP B (6720 kJ/kg) <6720 3.5 =>6720 96.5 5. KEK Classification Scheme 0-5440 0.2 5440-6700 3.2 6700-7950 24.5 7950-9210 58.2 9210-11000 13.9 Total 100.0

3798 4639 5668 6675 7600 8510 9350 10113 8359 4953 8365 5802 8390 6289 8435 4974 6352 7478 8574 9525 8359

Historical underground mining uncontrolled coal fires affect the development of the new Sibovc Mine. Old underground structures have been detected in the southeastern part of the Sibovc field and are connected with the old mining structures which are currently exposed along the coal cuts in Mirash West and on the Mirash northern slope. The galleries probably reach to a zone about 2 km at North of the Village of Hade. The documented coal mining using galleries and shafts reach back to 1922. Underground mining was abandoned in 1966. The following table shows the overall coal production of the underground mine. There is no futher reliable documentation on the extension of the old underground mine or the information is at least incomplete. Coal production of old underground mining in the Kosovo Basin "Kosovo"

"Krusevac"

"Sibovac"

Years 1922 - 1966

years 1948 - 1966

Years 1952-1958

6.401.434 t

2.921.233 t

255.117 t

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Partially, the exploitation fields of the old underground mining were limited by faults. Under consideration of these production rates for the field “Kosovo” can be calculated an area of app. 5 km2 and for the field “Sibovac” of at least 2 km2. The minor production rates from the field “Sibovac” show that the excavation only took place near the surface. The evaluation of all available information proves the assumption that the extension of the galleries in a northward direction may be larger than supposed. Within a wide area a large amount of lignite in the Kosovo open pit mines is affected by spontaneous combustion which occurs in all locations where the coal is exposed to air or air can penetrate the underground and reach the coal Self-ignition is the consequence of the oxidation of coal, a process which is producing heat energy. If the energy production exceeds the amount of energy removed from the system, the coal will reach its ignition temperature, eventually. In a first phase coal fires take place within weakness zones like joints or slope failures or old mining structures, where enough oxygen can reach the surface of the coal and the heat is enclosed. The fire can be boosted by released methane. In the following stage the complete hanging layer is influenced by the heat. About 60% of total coal fires are concentrated near or within the roof strata, where the coal shows the best quality and discharges a great amount of energy. Old galleries from the ancient underground coal mining facilitate supplementary ventilation and therefore best conditions for oxygen inflow are given. Burned out galleries result in large cavities and therefore decrease stability of the slopes. The experiences from the BardhMirash mine proved that a lot of fires Bardh Mine were associated with slide faults and occurred also in other parts of the mine which remain exposed to air for a longer period as slopes (especially the central pillar in front of the face between the actual excavation areas) and dumped coal masses. Frequently the coal fires begin at the base of the dumps and affect the whole dump until it is burned out. The geological and geotechnical conditions in the future Sibovc Mine will be comparable due to also existing remains of the old underground mining. It is assumed that the potential danger for coal fires will be high as in the Bardh-Mirash mine. Further complications could result of the fact that the area of the future Sibovc mine was affected by illegal (private) coal mining. Due to the morphology and geology in the western part of the Sibovc Field the coal can be excavated without use of heavy equipment. Some valleys cut the overburden nearly completely facilitating the excavation only by manpower without excavators. Numerous small quarries and open shafts prove the extensive private coal excavation. In the most cases the quarries and shafts are not refilled and remain exposed for a long period. This fact and the unascertainable distribution of the private excavation localities retrieve an unpredictable potential of coal fire development in the future. The following counteractive measures could be advisable: • Direct fire fighting (small fires) • Excavation of local burning coal (hot spots) • Levelling of surface and drilling of injection holes • Injection of water or slurry to the fire centre • Surface sealing (excavation front, dumps) • Cooling with water spraying equipment • Inertisation

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

• •

Flooding (surface near galleries) Burnout control

Prevention of coal fires is synonymous with the avoidance of the contact of coal and oxygen. The most problematic locations of oxygen entry are the underground corridors. Cut old galleries have to be protected against ventilation. If an excavator hits a gallery, the entry should be closed as soon as possible with adapted material (clay or other impermeable material) to prevent further oxygen entry. These actions have to be taken permanently during the excavation process. Collapsed old galleries near the surface or shafts have to be inspected if oxygen can penetrate somewhere and where appropriate, openings need to be filled. In this context the underground mining map (Annex I/ 4.7- 1) e information where to aspect potential fires in the future. Self combustion and fires near the surface can be avoided minimising a permanent contact of the coal with atmospheric oxygen. Dumped coal should be sealed and the sealing should be reg ulary controlled for dehydration and crack formation. Slide faults can cause deep and complexcracks and are often the origin of coal fires within the Bardh Mine, which are very difficult to extinguish. Therefore it is essential to prevent land slides. Generally, the length of the excavation front has to be adapted to the yearly coal output. Thus, the time of exposition of the excavation front can be reduced. In the 1st halfyear of 2006 a project will be started by EAR for fire fighting in the Kosovo Coal Mines. Geological Resource Assessment The geological resources of the lignite deposit were computed in accordance with the UN International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources of 1997 (UNFC). The lignite resources were classified applying the area-of-influence method with the following distances between points-of-observation: · · ·

Measured Indicated Inferred

Borehole distance <= 250 m 250 - 500 m > 500 m

radius of area-of-influence <=177 m 177 - 354 m > 354 m

According to the classification scheme 94% of the total area is classified as measured resources, the remaining 6% as indicated resources. The resource calculation is bounded to the concession areas of Sibovc. Losses of resources due to underground mine workings in the upper part of the seam in some isolated areas are not yet estimated since no accurate volume estimates are available yet. A specific gravity of 1.14 g/cm³ was applied in order to calculate the tonnage of lignite resources. This value is in accordance with former assumptions and allows a comparison of resource figures with various former studies.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The volumetric calculation of geological resources for the Lignite Seam within the Sibovc Concession Area resulted in a total of 990 mt over an area of 19.7 km2. 931 mt (i.e. 94%) are classified as measured, 59 mt as indicated. The resource estimate includes the seam interburden since these intervals were chemically not evaluated and a correlation of the interburden between the boreholes and a subsequent generation of predictive model could not be realized. The volume of not mineable interburden is considered as the main uncertainty in the resource assessment. Further uncertainties in the resource estimate exist on the narrow fault blocks in the West of the Sibovc Concession Area. Here, uncertainties exist in the extent and size of faults which have controlled the seam development. Soil-mechanical Parameters For the determination of geotechnical parameters, all available data have been used (also from previous explorations) and also data which have been identified in the framework of the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine. To achieve a short-term improvement of the knowledge about the geological/soil-physical situation or the area of the Northern head slope of the Bardh opencast mine (towards the Sibovc field), 9 boreholes were drilled in 2003/2004 down to the floor of the coal seam. All drillings were sampled; the samples were and/or are still analysed in the laboratories of KEK, DMT and GMB to their soil-physical properties. The calculation methodology after BISHOP as yet apllied by KEK/INKOS does not reflect the actual conditions and is therefore not suited to guarantee a soil-mechanically safe operational management. The soil-mechanical recalculations were carried out by adopting the calculation method of BOROVICKA for circular cylindrical and polygonal sliding surfaces and the sliding block method. Analysis results of the core samples from the drilling made by the laboratories of GMB und KEK show the following parameter Soil-physical parameter c‘ ϕ‘ γ (kN/m²) (°) (kN/bcm) Gray and yellow clay – Overburden 14.3 16.2 17.5 2) (16) (30) (17.5) Coal seam 40 50 12.2 Green Clay (floor strata) 14 16 17.5 2) (16) (30) (17.5) Geological Layers

ϕR (kN/m²) 8 (8) 8 (8)

1)

cR (kN/m²) 5 (10) 5 (10)

1)

1) Residual shear resistance (resistance after a long sliding way)

Based on the analysis of available reports of the soil mechanical laboratory tests performed on samples from the drill holes SH 3, SH 4 und SH 5 the coefficient k (coefficient of water permeability) is: Overburden (grey und yellow clay) k = 4 * 10-10… 2.6 * 10-11 Green clay (floor strata) k ca. 4 * 10-11 Page 24 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

To ensure both a geotechnical safe and efficient opencast mine operation the following safety factors are regarded necessary from soil-mechanical aspects for the specific objects. • • • •

Single slopes Partial slope systems Total system Objects to be protected

Si > 1.05 Si > 1.20 Si > 1.20 Si > 1.30

Experiences, a. o. from the Mirash and Bardh opencast mines are used to dimension the Border Slope System. Based on the static stability investigations the following general inclinations for the slope systems were determined, among others t o ensure static stability of partial slope systems and the entire slope system. The soil-mechanical calculations base on the safety factor of Si > 1.20. • •

General inclination for the coal slope system General inclination for the slope system in the overburden

βG, coal < 22° βG, overburden < 10°

In order to prevent coal fires during the lifetime of the coal slope and the connected • endangering of the static stability of the coal head slope and • the resulting pollution the following can be done: In the overburden operation a general slope angle of β ≈ 15... 20° shall be produced by the large equipment. Directly afterwards, the general slope angle of β < 10° shall be produced by means of crawlers. It is known from practical soil-mechanical experiences in the existing opencast mines that slides may occur at the single slopes. Considering the above mentioned soil-physical parameter the following slope angles βerf are required in dependence on the slope height hBö. This ensures the static stability of the single slopes against slides on circular cylindrical and polygonal directed sliding surfaces in the long run: 0 m <hBö < 10 m 10 m < hBö < 15 m 15 m < hBö < 20 m

→ → →

βerf < 65° βerf < 40° βerf < 30°

An angle of 30° cannot be cut into the side slope by the existing excavators. The slope remains stable during the excavation process. However the slope stability reduces during the weeks especially under unfavourable climatic conditions (rainfalls and variations in temperature).This means that the presence in direct proximity to the slope has to be limited to the operationally required extent in any case. Therefore operating instructions have to be formulated in accordance with the actual conditions. Excavation and the subsequent transportation on a belt conveyor to the spreader cause changing of the soil-physical properties of the clay.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Taking into account the following changed soil-physical calculation parameter for the material to be dumped Angle of effective internal friction ϕ‘= 14° Effective cohesion c’ = 10 kN/m² Specific weight of earth-moist soil γ = 17.5 kN/m³ and carrying out static stability calculation on the basis of these values the following results are obtained: Assuming the dump slope angle of β ≈ 30° is achieved the dump will have a static stability of Si ≈ 1.0 with a height of hdump ≈ 12 m. A further increase in height of the dump will lead to slope failure. This slope failure will result in formation of shear planes (so-called polished surface planes). The material strength will decrease to residual shear strength in these shear planes. The dump „flows“ out and settles below a slope angle of β ≈ 6... 8°. The following measures for a safe operational management are proposed: 1) A detailed and continuously updated geological model which is approved by the responsible geologist must exist for the opencast mine operation (illustration in maps, sections and reports). 2) Each opencast mine requires data on the hydrological situation (f. e. location and direction of aquifers, data on the level of existing ground-water level; data have to be recorded in written form). 3) Actual soil-physical parameters are required for the important geological layers in the roof and floor of the coal seam. These parameters shall be continuously verified. Soil samples shall be investigated in a recognized soil-physical laboratory. The result shall be laid down in written form 4) The position of the mine is to be recorded in a layout plan in regular periods (results from flights of terrestrial surveying). 5) Due to the advancing mining slopes it is necessary to keep at least three representative geological profiles in which the achieved mining position have to be recorded in regular periods. Profiles shall be at right angle to the bench. 6) Position and progress of the head slopes shall be planned forward looking. The planed geometries shall be illustrated at least by one advance cut through the respective head slope. The cuts shall be in right angle to the head slope system. 7) The track lines of all cuts shall be entered into the a. m. layout plan. 8) A geotechnical expert shall prepare soil-mechanical static stability investigations for a) all single slopes of the mine, including the advancing slopes as well as the head slopes and b) the total slope system (containing also the partial systems). Resulting from the investigations on the static stability, specifications shall be formulated for the safe shaping of the single slopes and the entire slope system (including partial systems) with the specific technological conditions in mind. The results shall be set out in written form (expert’s report). 9) These expert’s reports shall be justified to representatives of the opencast mine, the justification shall be recorded in a minutes. 10) A geotechnical specialist is needed for the opencast mine, who, among others, supervises the implementation of the requirements from the a.m. geotechnical expert reports and the necessary measures for a safe geotechnical operational management.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

11) The geotechnical specialist shall perform regular inspections (at least twice or three times a week, or if required). These inspections shall be recorded (protocol). 12) A „control and supervision regime“ shall be elaborated for the mines. This document shall contain all specific operational points which shall control and supervise continuously the geotechnical conditions. The kind of control and the required reaction in case of deviations from the specifications shall be documented.

Technological Development of the New Sibovc Mine The development of the New Sibovc Mine starts from the existing opencast mines of Bardh / Mirash. Important preconditions determined for planning the development of the Sibovc mine are: a) Ensuring the defined coal supply t the power plants b) Take into consideration the release dates of the main mine equipment from Bardh/Mirash c) Preconditions for resettlement The mine development bases on the prepared geological model. It aims at mining the saleable product raw coal at most favourable costs. That means that essential changes of the targets and premises will lead also to corresponding changes in the mining concept and costs. The overburden removal operation ensures the uncovering of the necessary coal quantities for the supply to the power plant having regard to the geotechnical safety requirements (see chapter: soil mechanical parameters). It is agreed that the necessary resources will be made available, such as: • Qualified employees in the respective trades and • Sufficient financial means for the investment and maintenance Furthermore, it is assumed that all permits for the operation will be available in time. With regard to the mining technology, the present mining of the deposit will be continued whereby available equipment and a part of the KEK plants will be used to a great extent. Dumping of power plant ash in the mines lies in the responsibility of the power plants and is not included within the framework of Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine. The capacity calculation and/or assessment of excavator capacities bases on the estimation of the principle capability of the equipment under the conditions of the Sibovc deposit, whereby a tolerance range is taken into account (lower and upper limit). The mass movements (especially overburden) resulting from the determined coal supplies are then compared with this capability in order to show the feasibility. All relevant influencing parameters are considered when determining the overburden and coal capacities. These influencing parameters are split into two columns: Firstly, the influencing factors, which determine the filling and the emptying of the excavator buckets. Resulting from this the load factor (and/or excavator effect) is yielded and the hourly capacity and Secondly, the time factors [time factor ηT], which determined the annual output capacity. Page 27 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The following normal- and maximum capacities have been calculated for the planning of Sibovc:

1) Normal daily capacity Maximum daily capacity Normal weekly capacity Maximum weekly capacity Normal monthly capacity Maximum monthly capacity Normal annual capacity Maximum annual capacity

Operating VE time new BWE with 1560 bcm/h Tb VE 1,000 bcm h 19.2 29.95

with: 1950 bcm/h VE

VE SchRs 650 with: 800 bcm/h VE

with: 1,000 bcm/h VE

VE SRs 1300 with: 700 bcm/h VE

with: 850 bcm/h VE

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

37.44

15.36

19.2

13.44

16.32

21.6

33.70

42.12

17.28

21.6

15.12

18.36

110.4

172

215

88

110

77

94

128.2

200

250

102

128

89

109

385

600

750

308

385

270

327

484

755

944

387

484

338

411

4,266

6655

8318

3413

4266

2986

3626

5,474

8540

10670

4380

5474

3832

4653

The long-term planned overall capacity for the overburden operation is shown in the below table: Capability of Bucket Wheel Excavators in Overburden Operation

Reliable assumption VE SRs 1300 SRs 1300 New BWE SchRs 650 SUM

m bcm/a 3.6 3.6 8.3 4.3 19.8

Maximum assumption In 4.6 4.6 10.6 5.4 25.2

The listed equipment is therefore in principle capable of meeting the required coal supply of 19.1 to 24.8 mt per year (Ratio Overburden to Coal is 1.17 m³:1 t).

Page 28 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The results for the pit system (up to the place of delivery power station) as nominal capacity are: Capability of Bucket Wheel Excavators in the Pit System

Reliable assumption VE m t/a SchRs 650 SRs 1300 SRs 1300 New SchRs 650 /SRs 1300 SUM

5.9 5.0 5.0 5.0 20.9

Maximum assumption in 7.3 5.9 5.9 5.9 25.0

The conveying capacity is assessed on the basis of: • Belt width • Belt troughing • Belt speed • Utilization ratio of belt width • Inclination and • Bulk density of material Coal – inclined belt conveyor The inclined coal belt conveyor is planned with an inclination of 1:6, i.e. about 10°. According to the belt speed, a 2.0 m wide belt conveyor can handle between 6900 and 8600 t/h coal per single conveyor. For a 1.8 m wide belt conveyor this would amount to 5500 t/h to 6900 t/h. Relations coal production to capability of long-distance belt conveyor: If all coal excavators would operate simultaneously with a capacity of 1200 t/h this would result in a production of 4800 t/h. Considering the unequal belt charge of all pit excavators of 2530 % there follows a necessary effective total belt capacity of 6240 t/h. This requirement is met by one single 1.8m belt conveyor with a belt speed of 6.55 m/s. Two long-distance belt conveyors lead to the power plants. Head belt conveyor: Two coal excavators charge the coal to one head belt conveyor. Calculating the short-term peak load (< 1h) of one single coal excavator with a Vth von ca.4000 lcm/h and an addition of 25% there results the dimension of the discharging belt conveyor of ca. 5000 lcm/h. Two excavators shall have the following size: 8000 lcm/h x 1.1 = 8800 lcm/h or 6600 t/h for one belt conveyor line This can also be met with a 1.8 m belt conveyor with a belt speed of 6.55 m/s. In principle there shall be a conveying reserve of 25% between belt conveyor and excavator and 10% between belt conveyor and spreader.

Page 29 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Except the new A2Rs B 8000, the available spreaders will be used for saving costs. These spreaders are the bottleneck in the conveying chain. Measures to stabilise / increase the capability should therefore be included in the refurbishment. Mine Planning The following was taken into consideration when the excavation boundary (upper edge of first level) was established: a) Course of concession line b) Permissible approach to villages c) Thickness of mineable coal seam at the boundary d) Necessary general inclination from geotechnical point of view e) Necessary minimum profile from technological point of view f) Requirements to bench lengths which are meaningful from technological point of view g) Ecological aspects Bench Design Position of benches The Sibovc field shows a varying thickness and a varying inclination of the bench and of the roof and floor of the seam. The benches must follow these inclinations with the least possible mining loss. 4 levels are needed for overburden removal with the 4th level (Overburden Level 4) provided as a mixed level for both overburden and coal mining. Coal mining is also implemented in 4 levels. Admissible inclination of benches The inclination possible to be managed by the machines is 1:33 for excavator operation. For the inclination of the benches inclinations of 1:40 were chosen in order to be able to follow the big inclinations of the terrain, roof and floor. Taking inclination for water drainage into consideration The planned inclinations provide water drainage. The minimum inclination should not be less than 1:150. A drainage ditch must be provided on the benches and pump stations shall be provided in the deep positions of the benches. Slope heights For the machines SRs 1300 and SchRs 650 slope heights of ca. 20 m have been planned. The new BWE operates with an average slope height of about 25 m. Greater slope heights can be carried out using the ramp excavation und interim bench. Division of Cuts During the period under review until 2038 there will mostly be parallel operation with varying advance at the ends of the bench according to the shape of the field. Overburden Levels 2 and 3 will be operated in parallel until the end of the field is reached. For the Overburden Level 1 and for the coal levels a turning point will be established north of Lajthisht (after 2045). Then the excavation of the field can be completed by turning round clockwise.

Page 30 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Overburden and Coal Levels are described in Annexes II/6.5-11 to -18 Mass Calculation On the basis of the topographic isoline maps, the existing borehole data submitted by KEK and the results of additional exploration measures a digital deposit model was prepared for the purpose of the computer-aided mass calculation. The technological mass calculation has been realised with MicroStation-Programs as well as specialised programs developed by Vattenfall on the basis of triangulation. The following data and criteria of mineability have been considered in the mass calculation: • • • •

Density of lignite 1.14 t/m³ Extraction of lignite from a thickness of at least 0.5 m Separate excavation of intercalations from a thickness of more than 0.5 m Consideration of a mining loss of 0.4 – 0.5 m at each strata boundary

Page 31 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Sector calculation of the entire field Section

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Sum

Overburden - Levels Coal - Levels OverburCoal OverCoal den burden 10³m³ 10³t 10³m³ 10³t Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum

45,054 0 0 4 656 45,058 656 55,661 0 0 739 5,684 56,400 5,684 100,137 0 0 1,114 9,321 101,251 9,321 132,603 0 0 1 4,383 132,604 4,383 166,865 0 0 264 17,034 167,129 17,034 105,633 0 0 2,891 23,404 108,524 23,404 59,518 0 0 3,219 30,139 62,737 30,139 84,014 0 0 2,560 18,789 86,574 18,789 749,485 0 0 0 0 0 10,792 109,410 760,277 109,410

0 0 0 0 7 408 10 0 425 0 1,447 1,209 2,656 0 1,896 1,925

11,018 11,018

23,261 23,261

84,649 84,649

110,760 3,821 110,760 0 2,035 1,327 123,282 3,362 123,282 11 1,688 9,536 99,986 11,235 99,986 401 2,355 11,218 138,839 13,974 138,839 332 2,302 13,294 128,596 15,928 128,596 751 0 12,131 0 38,519 0 0 720,391 51,401 720,391

Page 32 of 257

Sum Overburden 10³m³ 45,054 0 0 4 45,058 55,668 408 10 739 56,825 100,137 1,447 1,209 1,114 103,907 132,603 1,896 1,925 1 136,425 166,865 2,035 1,327 264 170,491 105,644 1,688 9,536 2,891 119,759 59,919 2,355 11,218 3,219 76,711 84,346 2,302 13,294 2,560 102,502 750,236 12,131 38,519 10,792 811,678

Sum Coal

O :C

10³t

11,674 11,674

3.86 : 1

28,945 28,945

1.96 : 1

93,970 93,970

1.11 : 1

115,143 115.143

1.18 : 1

140.316 140.316

1.22 : 1

123.390 123.390

0.97 : 1

168,978 168,978

0.45 : 1

147,386 147,386

0.70 : 1

829,802 829,802

0.98 : 1


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Preparatory Works in the Year 2007/2008 In 2007 the establishment of the operation position for Overburden Level 1 will start. Truck and Shovel as well as bulldozers will be used to remove ca. 2 million m³ of soil. The belt conveyor system for the overburden level will be established in two segments in the valley west of Hade in a V shape. The mass removal will start in 2007 with 1.6 m m³ and will continue in 2008 with 0.4 m m³. In 2008 the overburden excavators from the existing opencast mines will be used after having been refurbished and will start the development excavation in the transfer area of the opencast mine fields Bardh/Mirash up to the new field of Sibovc. After the excavators have started their operation there will be an adjustment period for improving the capacity until the time when they will have reached their full capacity, i.e. ca. 6 months. The utilization of the machines has been planned as followed: April 2008 – Excavator E9M SchRs 650 This efficient excavator is planned for utilization in the Overburden/Coal Level 4, where coal and overburden have to be excavated alternately. As this level has not been cut free yet, the operation will start in Overburden Level 1 with the excavation of the western wing of the belt conveyor system. In the period from 4/2008 to 9/2008 an amount of 1.8 m m³ will be excavated. From 10/2008 the excavation in Overburden/Coal Level 4 will start. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mine will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. May 2008 – Excavator E9M SRs 1300 This excavator is planned to work in Coal Level 2 due to its digging forces. Until the use of the scheduled Excavator E9B SRs 1300 in Overburden Level 1 , excavator E9M can start the ex-cavation in the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. After use of Excavator E9B SRs 1300 in June 2009, the excavator will be transported to its place of operation in Coal Level 2. In 2008, about of 2.6 m m³ will be removed in Overburden Level 2. June 2008 – Excavator E9B SRs 1300 The excavator will be used in its new operation position in Overburden Level 2. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mine will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. West of Hade the bench will end on the grass. One bench will be used together with Overburden Level 1. The belt conveyor systems of both levels will be led around the Bardh/Mirash mines in southern direction and start the inside dumping in Mirash. September 2008 – new BWE The Overburden Level 3 is the level with the greatest thickness which goes over the whole length of the bench. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. There is a spreader dump in the western transition area of the Bardh mine. The heavily watersaturated clayey dump cannot be excavated any more. Therefore the excavator will have to make a new cut north of this dump. Discharge will take place in west-east direction. The excavator will operate in interim bench operation on a plane of 8 m be-low the belt conveyor systems. Before moving the belt conveyor system the slope must be levelled to an inclination of 1 : 3 and the belt conveyor system will then be moved over this inclination. This process

Page 33 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

will be repeated until the required bench height is reached. At the same time the general inclination of < 10° necessary from a geotechnical point of view must be kept. Mining Development in the Year 2009 The overburden removal of the development will continue in 2009 until the utilization of the opencast machines starts. Until use of Excavator E8B SRs 1300, Excavator E8M SRs 1300 will work in Overburden Le-vel 1. Afterwards, the excavator is shifted to Coal Level 2. The excavator in Overburden Level 1 will work exclusively at the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. The residual overheights above Level 1 at the eastern wing will be removed by Truck and Shovel. The mine equipment from the Bardh/Mirash mines will also stop working step by step. They will be refurbished basically and travel to their new operation positions. The use of the machines is planned as follows: -

April 2009 – Excavator E10M SchRs 650

In the first coal level the major part shall be removed by the efficient mine excavator. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. The mining direction will be the same as with all the other levels – west-east. A belt wagon BRs 1600 will be used in Level 1 for the removal of the mine overburden. -

June 2008 – Excavator E8B SRs 1300 in overburden level 1 Excavator E 8M SRs 1300 transportation in coal level 2 The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. The same machines as in Level 1 will be used. A belt wagon BRs 1600 will be used in Level 1 for the removal of the mine overburden. September 2008 – Excavator E10 B SRs 1300 The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. In Level 3 the excavator will carry out the coal excavation of Level 4 at first until 2016. During this time the machine capacity will be sufficient for both levels. Level 4 will not be fully developed by then. The excavator can be used to excavate the coal in interim bench excavation south of the belt conveyor system. A belt wagon BRs 1600 will be used for this and the residual overburden. Mining Development in the Year 2010 The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. The overburden levels will continue their development excavation. In Overburden Level 1 the excavator E 8B will work at the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. Overburden Level 2 and 3 will work on a straight bench. In Level 4 the planned bench will have been reached with the new cut of the excavator in the western part. From this time the regular operation in overburden can start.

Page 34 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

The coal levels will still work with a shortened bench so that the full capacity cannot be reached. Mining Development in the Year 2011 The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. In the Overburden Level 1 the excavator will start to work alternately at the western and eastern wing of the divided belt conveyor system. In the other overburden levels there will be a regular operation. In the coal extraction all levels will still work with shortened benches. Mining Development in the Year 2012 The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. In the overburden levels the overburden machines will continue to work as planned. At the end of 2012 the bench in Coal Level 1 will be extended into the direction of the western boundary line. The other levels will still work with a shortened bench. Mining Development in the Year 2013 The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. In the overburden levels the overburden machines will continue to work as planned. In 2013 the Coal Level 1 will have reached its planned bench in the area of the western boundary line. In Level 2 the cutting of the bench and the bench extension into the direction of the western boundary line will have started by which a regular operation in the main excavation levels of the coal is possible. By this the development operation for the mine can be regarded as finished. Mining Development in the Period 2014 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2018 The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. In Overburden Level 1 the pivoting of the west and eastern wings of the belt conveyor system will almost be finished. Levels 2 to 4 will develop as planned. The head conveyors of Level 1 and 2 will still be on one bench. The Coal Levels 1 to 4 will reach their planned benches. In 2016 a newly built excavator SRs 1300 or equivalent will be used for Level 4. The excavator will mostly work in the west part of the deposit. In the east the belt conveyor system will be moved to the height of Level 3. Both bench conveyors will charge to one head conveyor system. Mining Development in the Period 2019 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2023 The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. In Overburden Level 1 the bench will finally be straightened. In the west part there is a rise within the area of the hill of Shipitull in all levels. Owing to the increased cut height the ramp Page 35 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

excavation will have to start. The bench between Level 1 and 2 is divided so that the head conveyors will be separated in future. The Coal Levels 1 to 4 will continue their normal work on their planned benches. Mining Development in the Period 2024 - 2028 The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. The major part of the mass extraction will be carried out during the period under review. In the Overburden Level 1 both belt conveyor systems will be pivoted separately. There will be a greater advance at the beginning and the end of the bench compared to the middle by which the shape of the terrain will adapt to the valley of Sibovc. The other overburden levels will pivot normally. In the west the benches will rise in the area of the hill of Shipitull. The Overburden Level 2 will reach the highest area of the hill. The coal levels will develop as planned. Towards the end of the period under review a new inclined conveyor system will be used for the coal transport. From this time the Coal Levels 1 and 2 will be on the same height so that one head conveyor can be used. At that time the distribution station within the area of the inclined conveyor of the Overburden/Coal Level 4 will also be rebuilt to fit the new inclined conveyor system. Mining Development in the Period 2029 - 2033 The use of Truck and Shovel to support Overburden Level 1 will come to an end during the period under review. During the period under review the excavation in the Overburden Level 1 immediately at the valley of Sibovc will finish. The other overburden levels will leave the hilly area of the village of Shipitulle. The coal levels will develop as planned. Coal Levels 3 and 4 will finally be converted to the new inclined conveyor system, too, and continue to charge to one head conveyor system. Mining Development in the Period 2034 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2038 Overburden will only be excavated in the Overburden Levels 2, 3 and 4. The Overburden Level 2 will end on the main part of the bench in the valley of Sibovc and will continue on a shorter bench in the west part in order to resume the excavation with a new cut in the north of Sibovc at a later time. Towards the end of the period under review the third overburden level will also reach the valley of Sibovc. After 2038 the mining direction will have to change from west-east to eastwest. The coal levels will develop as planned. In the Coal Level 3 the removal of overburden from the floor will become more and more necessary owing to the course of the bench.

Page 36 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Main Mine Equipment The condition of the main mining equipment was considered especially under the aspect, if the equipment should be used in Sibovc. In view of the high output performances, it is recommended to relocate all excavators of the type BWE SchRs 650 and BWE SRs 1300 and the spreaders of the types A2RsB-5200 and A2RsB-4400 to Sibovc. In addition the excavator E 7M is envisaged as floating machine. Technical Specification The technical specification describes the measures / standards needed for the main mining equipment in Sibovc. It is mainly focussed on the new equipment to be procured. This is a new equipment system of the 40000 mÂł/d size with a 2.0 m belt conveyor and the relevant spreader (approx. 8000 lcm/h theoretical capacity) as well as another excavator to be deployed in the pit. Mine Development The lacking advance in the preparation works of the opening-up of Sibovc is problematic. Therefore, a high capacity will be required right at the beginning of works. Already in 2008 a new equipment complex consisting of BWE, conveyor belt and spreader will have to be commissioned. Nevertheless considerable overburden removal works will be required using shovel / truck. This service should be contracted with third parties. The following main equipment will be used: Overburden - E 8B SRs 1300 - E 9B SRs 1300 - New BWE - E 9M SchRs 650 and in coal operation Coal - E 10M SchRs 650 - E 8M SRs 1300 - E 10B SRs 1300 - New SchRs 650 or SRs 1300 or equivalent (2016). In addition there are two spreaders A2RsB-5200 and one A2RsB-4400. The new spreader should have a capacity of 8000 lcm/h matching the new BWE. The capacity for overburden removal with the afore-mentioned equipment is calculated as follows: Reliable asMaximum assumpsumption tion VE in SRs 1300 SRs 1300 New BWE SchRs 650 SUM

m bcm/a 3.6 3.6 8.3 4.3 19.8

4.6 4.6 10.6 5.4 25.2

Page 37 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The nominal capacity for the coal excavation in Sibovc amounts to: Reliable assumption VE m t/a SchRs 650 SRs 1300 SRs 1300 New SchRs 650 /SRs 1300 SUM

5.9 5.0 5.0 5.0 20.9

Maximum assumption in 7.3 5.9 5.9 5.9 25.0

Owing to the overburden to coal ratio of 1.2 m³ : 1 t, this equipment complex is suited for the long-term operation of Sibovc.

Development of employees The following tables and graph give a survey on the staffing: Year Sibovc per 01.01. + new staff from Mirash/Bardh - Fluctuation + newly employed/recruited Average of the year Sibovc per 31.12.

2007 01.01. 0

2009 31.12. 01.01. 1370

31.12.

500

870

630

10 10

10 10

10 10

250

1150 500

Year Sibovc per 01.01. + new staff from Mirash/Bardh - Fluctuation - redundancy to market Average of the year Sibovc per 31.12.

2008 31.12. 01.01. 500

2010 01.01. 2000

1685 1370

2011 31.12. 01.01. 2110

2000

2012 31.12. 01.01. 2800

31.12.

160

765

40

50 0 2055

75 0 2455

55 85 2750

2110

Page 38 of 257

2800

2700


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Administration Main Equipment+Belt Conveyor Auxiliary Equipment Workshops Other SUM Personnel

2012

2013

2014 270 1125

20152022 260 1090

20232032 270 1100

20332036 250 1080

20372038 250 1040

280 1220

275 1180

370 590 240 2700

370 570 235 2630

365 560 230 2550

360 530 210 2450

360 550 220 2500

360 510 200 2400

360 500 200 2350

Employees in the mines Kosovo 4000 3500

Employees in all mines

3000 2500 2000 1500

Sibovc

Employees in Mirash / Bardh per 01.01. Employees in Sibovc per 01.01. Staff per 01.01. - all Mines

Mirash / Bardh

1000 500 0 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Year

Further Energy Demand Feeding of power cables and lines shall guarantee a safe supply for the described mining concept for Sibovc. In the Sibovc mine a large part of the currently available mining equipment will be reused. It is important to consider that the equipment shall be rehabilitated and that the future annual capacity will be much higher than in the present Mirash and Bard mines.The long-term demand of installed energy is about 120 MW. Auxiliary Equipment For ensuring the production processes in the pit, a whole number of auxiliary machines and equipment are necessary. The auxiliary equipment is attached to the different operational sections and operated in one up to three shift operation according to requirement. A take-over of auxiliary equipment from the existing fleet for a further use in the Sibovc mine will not be possible or only in to limited extent. The further plans for the Sibovc mine assume a complete new auxiliary equipment fleet. Page 39 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

The optimal stock on auxiliary equipment in case of maximum production is shown in a Table below. Type Dozer Pipelayer Wheel Dozer Wheel Loader 17t Wheel Loader Excavator Loader Telescope Crane 90t Telescope Crane 60t Telescope Crane 45t Telescope Crane 30t Forklift 2t Forklift 5t Truck payload 12t, 3-axle Truck with hydraulic crane Truck with lifting Platform Dump Truck Cable reel Trailer Low Bed Trailer Fuel Truck Lubrication Truck Tractor Hydraulic Backhoe (crawler) Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel) Grader Trench Cutter Single Drum Roller Jeep Pick-up Jeep 12 seats Personnel Transporters (36 Minibus Ambulance Fire Fighting Truck Drilling Machine Workshop Container Mobile Workshop Mobile Lightings Winding Support Drum Vulcanisation Set Diesel Generator Water Truck Spraying Galleries Pumps

[ kW ] 230 - 300 180 250 180 120

Overb. 10 3 3 1

340 270 270 200

130 130 230

1

60t 180

1 1

200 180 - 200

1 1 1 2

160

1

Number of auxiliary Equipment Coal Stockp Drain. Maint. 6 6 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1

150 100 75 100 140

1 3 2 1 4 1 2 1 3

3 2 1 4 1

0.5

2 1

2 1 1

3

2 1 4 10

Page 40 of 257

7 9

1 2 3 1 2 2

total 22 5 2 8 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 7 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 5 2 2 1 1 17 15 2 9 2 2 1 3 1 2 6 1 2 4 1 4 10


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The establishment of the auxiliary equipment fleet will be adjusted to the development of capacity in the opencast mine. The first auxiliary machines have to be put in operation already before the heavy-duty equipment will start work to prepare their starting position The mobile auxiliary equipment has a smaller economic service life compared to the main equipment. Depending on the type of equipment and the conditions of use this time varies between 3 and 12 years. For special works, linked with large mass movements, the application of draglines has been foreseen. These machines can be variably used at reasonable costs and they can be shifted within the mine with low expenses. A transport crawler is required for the shifting of the belt driving station and other heavy assemblies up to a weight of 350 t. Such a transport crawler is available in the existing mines Bardh and Mirash. The transport crawler, financed by the EAR was delivered in 2003 and is in a good technical status. That’s why a general rehabilitation is not foreseen before recommissioning in the Sibovc mine. For further auxiliary equipment the total cost estimate is as follows: The investments/reinvestments for auxiliary equipment amount to 133 MEUR until 2038. About 26.5 MEUR are for initial investments, for rehabilitation measures of the heavy auxiliary equipment 2.1 MEUR and a sum of 104.1 MEUR for replacement investments. The replacement investments include a sum of 13.5 MEUR for the purchase of 3 new draglines. Yearwise Investments for auxiliary Equipment in m€: Year Investments

‘07 5.7

‘08 6.4

‘09 10.2

‘10 1.8

‘11 1.2

‘12 3.3

‘13 1.1

‘14 3.5

‘15 5.9

‘16 2.2

‘17 4.0

Year Investments

‘18 2.5

‘19 3.6

‘20 4.5

‘21 7.2

‘22 1.8

‘23 1.5

‘24 3.6

‘25 2.7

‘26 3.4

‘27 11.6

‘28 6.9

Year Investments

‘29 1.8

‘30 2.8

‘31 7.8

‘32 5.1

‘33 8.8

‘34 1.6

‘35 0.4

‘36 2.9

‘37 3.3

‘38 3.5

Infrastructure and Surface Facilities In principle it is not planned to install new surface facilities for various reasons; among others the available technical plants in Bardh/ Mirash, which are presently part of ongoing rehabilitation measures, the neighbourhood to Sibovc and the extensive investments, anyhow. It seems to be reasonable to use the available buildings and plants to a great extend also for the Sibovc opencast mine. The different buildings of the following departments of KEK were checked for a follow-up use: • Office Gate 1 • Mine „BARDH“ • Mine „MIRASH“ • SEPARATION PLANT • KOSOVAMONT Page 41 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The following construction measures are required for preparing the development of the lignite opencast mines as well as for securing the auxiliary processes: • • •

Social facilities and administration Supply and disposal Workshops and warehouses

The determination of the investment costs for infrastructure for the Sibovc mine base on the assumption that the costs for the basic rehabilitation of the buildings and facilities which can be used for this mine are already contained in the scope of investment of the Mid Term Plan. Lease costs for workshops, warehouses, offices and washrooms Infrastructure and 20072009- 201420192024Surface Facilities 2008 2013 2018 2023 2028 [T€] [T€] [T€] [T€] [T€] Mine roads (gravel) 2.806 7.015 7.015 7.015 7.015 Mine roads (as800 250 250 250 250 phalt) Subtotal roads 3.606 7.265 7.265 7.265 7.265 Erection yards 200 500 500 500 500 Workshops and 2.040 5.100 5.100 5.100 5.100 Warehouses Mine offices 1.750 4.375 4.375 4.375 4.375 Washrooms and 1.426 3.564 3.564 3.564 3.564 Sanitary facilities Total

9.022

20.804

20.804

20.804

20.804

20292033 [T€] 6.391

20342038 [T€] 3.895

20072038 [T€] 41.152

250

250

2.300

6.641 500

4.145 500

43.452 3.200

5.100

5.100

32.640

4.375

4.375

28.000

3.564

3.564

22.810

20.180

17.684 130.102

Mine Dewatering The Kosova Basin includes a developed hydrological network with the main collector given by the river Sitnica. This river crosses the basin from south to north and drains off 80 % of the accumulating surface water northward. In the past years opencast mine dewatering was not sufficient due to the bad condition of the auxiliary equipment fleet. This lead to problems in the production process, since passing of the working benches and the mine access roads could not be guaranteed. However, drainage in Sibovc shall be improved as against the present status. The following works shall be realised for a sufficient dewatering: • Planned installation of main collecting ditches from the working levels and dump surfaces to the main drainage plants with continuous adjustment to the mining position • Establishment of the drainage of rainwater on all working levels • Discharging of permanent water accumulations on the dumps • Drainage of dammed up water at the slope foot of the inside dumps Page 42 of 257


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• • •

Maintenance of all ditch systems Installation and maintenance of sedimentation basins before feeding into rivers Use of the collected water to reduce dust formation /dust control

The costs were determined on the basis of length and number of drainage ditches. Basic prices are: 70 €/ m channel (concreted) 7 €/ m channel (not concreted) Due to the opencast mine advance (100 – 120 m per annum) there have to be installed the ditches for those lengths 1.5 times per year. These are 41.25 km per year. The annual expenses come to 288.7 T€/a. Length of Channels and Costs

Up to 2013 of 115 on km

Length ditches benches Length in km/a

19

20142018 127 km

20192023 147 km

20242028 164 km

20292033 164 km

20342038 135 km

25.4

29.4

32.8

32.8

27.0

Ditches in km/a

28.5

38.1

44.1

49.2

49.2

40.5

Price in 1000 €

199.5

266.7

308.7

344.4

344.4

283.5

SUM

Average

852 km

27.5 km 27.5

1278 km 8950

41.25 288.7

Mine Closure and Recultivation Planning The proposed main principles are: • The areas occupied by mining shall be recovered in such a way that the later use will be rather better than the original one. This efforts aim at enhancing the value of the areas compared with the actual state – at least however a similar scenery. • Areas which are no longer needed for mining activities shall be recultivated as soon as possible. If a final renaturing will not be possible, suitable temporary measures shall be taken like for example an interim greening. • Financial means will be reserved already during the active mining operations to ensure the proper closure of the mining field. This money will also be available in case of in-solvency for revitalisation. • Authorities and the concerned people (later users) are integrated in the process of planning and detailed shaping of the post-mining areas. This process shall start before dumping because it already defines the shape of the surface.

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Investment and Cost Calculation The following area balance is included in the financing model: Area Balance in Sibovc and Costs

Measures Production of Coal in t Claim of land in ha Return of areas in Sibovc

2007- 20092008 2013

20142018

20192023

20242028

2029- 20342033 2038

Sum

0.15 271 0

46.28 137 0

93.74 102 0

121.81 140 0

98.74 183 38

96.09 89 42

96.09 236 132

552.9 1158 212

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.5

2.4

0.5

1

2

0.1 16.6 33

0.2 17.9 32

Preparation of areas incl. 0 interim greening Planting (handing over of areas) Other Provisions * 0.02 2 Total in m â&#x201A;Ź

0.1 5.9 15

0.1 13.0 14

0.1 18.6 25

3.5

0.4 1.0 19.6 91.6 36 112 * escalated The main part is reserved for the provisions needed for the final shaping. This amount to be provided for the shaping of the post-mining landscape (until handing over and release from the mining authority) will come to about 0.15 â&#x201A;Ź/t coal.

Resettlement The resettlements and especially the resettlement of Hade village with its 2500 heads population have great influence to the future mining development. On the entire Sibovc field live approximately 5700 people in four villages and separate settlements. Hade is the largest village. There are two resettlement cases of Hade village: (a) the emergency evacuation of people living in the dangerous zone close to the unstable Northern slope of the existing Bardh and Mirash mines; (b) the resettlement of the remaining larger part of Hade outside the endangered zone. The (a) emergency resettlement has been started in 2002. This partial resettlement of village Hade was unavoidable since public safety must be ensured and the safety zone must be used for the final rehabilitation of the unstable Northern slope of the existing mines. Now, (June 2005) it is almost finished. The (b) resettlement of the larger remaining part of Hade has not been started yet. There are doubts that such resettlement could be undertaken by using emergency procedure. In the worst case such action might disturb the public acceptance for new lignite mining activities in Kosovo. A democratic socially acceptable resettlement procedure of the Hade village compliant to EU standards would take at least 8 years. Bad practise by the mining enterprise in the past caused a loss of trust by the villagers. There are still ongoing court challenges against KEK from prePage 44 of 257


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vious unsatisfactory resettlements of removed Southern parts of Hade village. Furthermore, the financing of the “remaining resettlement” is still not ensures yet [of the (b) resettlement]. So it is a very ambitious target to resettle Hade in time. Taking into account the above mentioned production level Hade should be resettled up to 2009 for overburden removal at the latest. In this period the removal of all basements and the transference of the land to KEK are included. Apart from the emergency resettlement the cost amounts to approximately 59 m€, which has to be paid mainly in the period from 2007 to 2009. It proportionally includes all measures for the deconstruction of the village and the establishment of a new social- and infrastructure. Allocated to 597 households, the sum is totally 100000 € per household. Furthermore, considerable resettlement costs are yielded with regard to the villages of Leskovic, Janina Voda and Sibovc. Time and costs resulting from the resettlement are shown in the following tables. a) Households Year of Reset- Households Payment per Investment tlement household Year No. 1000 € / no. m€ Hade 2007 -2009 597 90 53.7 Leskovcic 2027 - 2037 85 100 8.5 Janina Voda ca. 2027 7 100 0.7 Sibovc 2009 - 2032 54 100 5.4 Sum 743 68.3 b) Public facilities, infrastructure and land claim (farmland) Public Facilities Infrastructure Infrastructure Hade Leskovcic Janina Voda Sibovc Sum

m€ 1.02 0.21 0.02 2.1 3.35

(inside villages)

(outside villages)

m€ 4.19 0.98 0.09 0.75 6.01

m€ 0.82 0.94 0.31 1.50 3.57

Sum m€ 6.03 2.13 0.42 4.35 12.93

c) Land claim (farmland) The total land use is 1,158 ha of which 1,081 ha are farmlands. This land will be claimed according to the mine advance until 2038. The price assumed for compensation is 47,500 €/ha (4.75 €/m²). This comparably high price includes the full compensation for the harvests. Therefore costs of 51.4 m€ are yielded. The following costs will arise over a period of 30 years: 68.3 m€ for households 12.9 m€ for facilities and infrastructure Page 45 of 257


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51.4 m€ for claim of land 132.6 m€ Referring to the households the sum is ca. 178000 € and referring to the ca. 5200 inhabitants (until 2038) the sum is ca. 25000 Euro per person.

Environmental aspects The investigations did not indicate any obstacles to use the Sibovc coal field as fuel supplier for the existing or new planned power plants. The environmental impact is described in Part III of the Main Mining Plan.

Economic and financial analysis The calculations have been made in accordance with the usual European standards of IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards). The economical and financial analysis is described in Part IV demonstrating that the mine development will be generally profitable. In this context it must be pointed out that high investments will be required during the opening-up phase.

License for coal extraction from Sibovc open cast mine Principle: The licenses for coal mining in the Sibovc field should be compliant to the power generation licenses and provide sufficient security of supply in term of coal quantities. With regard to the coal reserves, they should be sufficient to supply coal to the power plant over the entire service life of 40 years. It seems to be reasonable to limit mining licenses to the total amount of coal necessary for the entire service live period of a power plant. This ensures the best resources utilisation and minimises losses of coal. Further such approach allows keeping of the remaining geological reserves for future TPP projects. Sibovc license: Pursuant to the principle and considering the coal demand of the existing and new power plants the entire Sibovc field is required for the license. The mineable coal reserves amounts to about 830 mt. The following quantities can be supplied to: Existing power plants + external market 140 mt • New power plants (TPP B3 –B6) 430 mt • New power plants (IPP) 260 mt (remaining coal content).

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2 Introduction 2.1 Allocation and Geographical Overview The geological evaluation and interpretation for Part II “Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning” was conducted for the Sibovc Licence Area which covers some 19.7 km2 (Fig. 2.1-1). According to the Terms of References (TOR), chapter 2.1 the main goal of the Main Mining Plan for the New Sibovc Mine is: “… to provide security, both in the technical and economic terms, of future electrical power production in Kosovo, as defined in the “White Paper”, … through the guarantee the coal supply security and economical viability over the entire life of the existing power plants and the new power plants (approximately 30 years).” The Main Mining Plan “… has to contain all necessary facts, calculations and elements needed to guarantee sufficient coal production for Kosovo´s energy demand…”. (TOR, chapter 2.3.2) Thus, general geological aspects which do not affect the future coal production processes are not contained. These can be found in Part I “Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Basic Investigations” and in the “Elaborat O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proračunu reservi ugla eksploatacionog polja „Sibovac“ kosovskog ugljenog basena, Knjiga I, Tekst” (Rudarski Institute 1997)

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Fig. 2.1-1

Sibovc Concession Licence Area – Location Map

Morphologically the Kosova Coal Basin forms a extended valley where the differences in elevation do not exceed 80 m. Around the river Sitnica stretches a central plane part followed by a more hilly terrain nearing the mountains Çicavica Golesh and Sharr. The basin is surrounded by an elevated relief with Kopaonik massive, Kozic, Zhegovc Lisic in the East, Montenegro massive in the South and Çicavica, Golesh, Carnaleva as well as Sharr mountains in the West and Northwest. The mountains around reach elevations from 900 to more than 1600 m. The Sibovc Concession Area follows to the West roughly the limit of the lignite deposition; towards the North it extents to 4729000 Northing; in the Northeast it is defined by a Northwest-Southeast aligned diagonal in the main flow direction of the Sitnitca and is bend in the Southeast to a southernly direction along the border of the decoaled Brand mine; the southern boundary is long the Bardh-Mirash concession boundaries.

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2.2 Approach / Methodology In the first months of the project implementation major activities were undertaken to provide additional geophysical exploration works, process new and existing geological and exploration data, making field observations about the geological structures of the deposit and incorporate it into the model. In order to meet the tight time schedule for the preparation of the Draft Report we had to use a version of the geological model available in January 2005. Thus, some absolute figures and data regarding overburden and coal might slightly differ compared to the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine. Compared to the beginning of the work, the knowledge of the mining development, the part resettlement and financial analysis have been evaluated in more detail. These issues were particularly affected by the new defined coal demand on which the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine is based on. However, the description of the different alternatives and mining variants developed in both work stages will be helpful for an overall evaluation of the development possibilities and consequences in the coal mining and generation sector of Kosovo.

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3 Coal Demand and License for Coal Extraction 3.1 Forecast of Future Coal Demand On the basis of the targets set by the Ministry for Energy and Mining (from 2009 onwards), the following coal demand figures have been defined: Tab. 3.1-1

Year

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 SUM

Defined Coal Demand

Lignite Demand existing TPP A

Lignite Demand existing TPP B1+B2

1.8 2.0 2.0 3.3 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 3.14 1.57

5.0 5.0 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 2.65

56.56

102.70

New TPP Kosovo B3-B6

2.71 5.42 5.42 5.42 5.24 5.24 5.42 8.13 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84 246.40 Page 50 of 257

New IPP C1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; C3

2.71 5.42 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 176.70

Other Lignite Consumers

Total Coal Demand

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 14.00

6.9 7.1 7.4 8.7 10.35 10.35 10.35 13.06 15.77 15.87 15.87 18.40 21.11 22.49 23.63 24.59 24.41 24.41 24.77 21.94 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 19.29 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 19.29 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 596.45


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The coal demand scenario set out in table above bases on the following principles and assumptions: • For the time 2005 up to 2007 the production level already planned is applied, that means 6.9 up to 7.4 mt/a will be provided. • The geological reserves of the existing mines come to about 43.7 mt (mineable). This is calculated from 2005 on (see Mid Term Plan). • Kosovo will export energy based on lignite (so it will enter in South East European Regional Market) • Construction of new TPPs (7*350 MW-units) mainly for electricity supply into REM (Regional Electricity Market). The start of production of new Thermal Power Plants is 2012 • The grid of the REM will be reinforced to allow power transmission The assessed output of coal from the existing mines (Bardh/Mirash) and the coal haulage required from the new mine(s) is shown as follows:

Tab. 3.1-2

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Sum

Coal haulage required from new mines

Coal from Bardh Mt 6.9 7.1 7.4 8.7 7.9 3.2 2.5

43.7

Mirash

/ Coal from new Mine(s) Mt 0 0 0 0 2.45 7.15 7.85 13.06 15.77 15.87 62.15

Page 51 of 257

Sum = Demand of Coal mt 6.9 7.1 7.4 8.7 10.35 10.35 10.35 13.06 15.77 15.87 105.85


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

3.2 License for Coal Extraction from Sibovc Open Cast Mine One essential principle for granting a license for coal extraction is: The purpose of coal production is to ensure the short-term, mid-term and long-term fuel supply for the existing and future power plants with lignite. Therefore the licenses for coal mining should be compliant to the power generation licenses. The mining licenses should provide sufficient security of supply in term of coal quantities. The new investor should be able to receive a mining license over the total amount of mineable coal necessary over the total life time of the power plant to be supplied. License for Sibovc: In the case of new TPPs with 40 years life time and annual coal demand of 19 m t/a the total mineable coal reserves dedicated to the license would be 760 mt. To supply the existing TPPs Kosovo A and B with fuel till their decommissioning a license over max. 140 m t mineable reserves would be necessary in addition to the remaining reserves in the existing coal mines Bardh and Mirash. Due to the mineable amount of coal in Sibovc the following can be provided: • Existing power plants and other consumer 140 mt • New power plants (TPP B3 –B6) 430 mt • New power plants (TPP C1 – C3 = IPP) 260 mt (remaining coal content).

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4 Geological Conditions 4.1 Introduction The basement of the Kosovo Basin in the Sibovc Concession Area and the exposed surrounding areas to the West are built up by Palaeozoic to Mezozoic crystillane rocks (Fig. 4.1-1). The basin fill consists of Upper Cretaceous strata which are unconformably overlain by Tertiary clays in which lignite is interbedded. The Sibovc area was site of luxuriant vegetation growth that finally became overwhelmed by sedimentation and led to the formation of substantial stratiform lignite deposits of up to 90 m seam thickness. Towards the West the lignite deposition is tectonically bounded by the development of a series of predominantly NNW-SSE striking faults. The geological work for the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine reveals that the tectonic movements were already active during the lignite formation and controlled the deposition of organic material and anorganic clay (Annex II/4.4-12). These findings differ to the previous geological model (Rudarski Institute 1997) which assumes purely post depositional tectonic movements. Thus, in that model depth differences at top or base of the Lignite Formation and thickness variations were attempted to explain by extensive faulting. The eastern limit is characterized by sedimentological pinch-out. The characteristic development of the overburden section is shown on the two cross-sections in Annex II/4.4-12.

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Fig. 4.1-1

Stratigraphic Standard Profile of the Kosovo Basin (KEK 2003)

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4.2 Sedimentology and Petrography of the Pliocene Lignite Deposit in the Sibovc Area A characteristic vertical development for the Pliocene lignite deposition is shown in Fig. 4.2-1 for borehole G1-XXXIII3.

Fig. 4.2-1

Typical vertical lithological sequence and Net CV distribution for the lignite deposition in the Sibovc Concession Area, Borehole G1-XXXIII3.

Overlying the massive footwall green clay interbedded lignite and clay with varying lignite content and subordinated ash layers are developed and form the basal part of the Lignite Formation. The middle and upper part of the Lignite Fm. is built by a frequently massive lignite seam with generally upwards decreasing intercalation of clay layers. Within the seam section generally Net CV is increasing upwards. Occasionally (as in the shown borehole) the hangingwall contact of the Lignite Seam is gradually with a development of a thin transition from lignite to the grey clay. The terms “Lignite Fm.” and “Lignite Seam” were introduced for the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine in order to define vertical upper and lower mining boundaries. Hereby, the Lignite Fm. represents the litho-stratigraphic interval between the overlying massive grey clay and the bottom massive green clay. The lignite seam is defined for the section where the Interburden-to-Coal ratio is below 50% and the thickness of an individual clay interburden layer is below 5 m. Page 55 of 257


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It should already be mentioned here, that “… clay intercalations more than 0.50 m have been mainly removed from the [coal quality] samples…” (Rudarski Institute 1997). Consequently, main properties as Net CV are not known. The distribution of interburden layers that are larger than 0.5 m has been recorded for the boreholes in the Sibovc Concession Area (Appendix B, Table 4.2-1), which is summarized Tab. 4.2-1 and Fig. 4.2-2. Tab. 4.2-1

Summary of Interburden Occurences thicker than 0.5 m in the Sibovc Concession Area

Seam Increments

Interburden Layers 0.5 to <1.0m

Interburden Layers 1.0 to <2.0m

Interburden Layers =>2.0m

Cumulative Thickness [m]

Interburden to Coal Ratio [%]

Slice 0 to <20m

127

66

43

327.6

4.1

Slice 20 to <40m

169

81

47

361.1

5.3

Slice 40 to <60m

195

124

68

536.6

11.3

76

54

26

207.3

12.9

Total Lignite Seam

567

325

184

1432.6

6.9

Lignite Fm. Outside Seam

252

277

296

1611.6

65.4

Slice >60 m

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Fig. 4.2-2

Histogram for the Interburden Distribution by Lignite Seam Thickness Increments of 20 m

Within the Lignite Seam interburden layers constitute 6.9% of the gross seam thickness whereby 53% are represented by layers under 1 m thickness. 30% are between 1 and 2 m, 17% are thicker than 2 m. The vertical distribution shows an increasing trend from top to bottom seam. The 0-20 m slice has only 4% interburden increasing to 13% for the deepest interval. Outside the Lignite Seam but still within the limits of the stratigraphic unit of the Lignite Formation the interburden volume is 65%. This figure stresses the undertaken necessary mining boundary definitions for the mineable Lignite Seam against the stratigraphic unit. The interburden thickness has been mapped for the Lignite Seam Fig. 4.2-3 and Annex II/4.44 and for the 20 m increments (Annexes II/4.4-5 to –8).

Fig. 4.2-3

Sibovc Concession Area, Lignite Seam –Interburden Thickness[m] Page 57 of 257


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Already on Fig. 4.2-3 which displays lumped interburden layers regardless their stratigraphic position a patchy distribution of high thickness values without any clear directional trends can be observed. Most of the high contour areas are generated by only one borehole recording. As expected that is even more pronounced on the maps for the 20 m slices. We can not distinguish whether the scattered and patchy contour pattern is caused by inconsistent qualities of borehole descriptions and/or by geological reasons, i.e. the clay intercalations have a very limited extent below the borehole spacing. Regardless of the causes it is obvious that a correlation of the interburden between the boreholes and a subsequent generation of predictive model cannot be realized. The following figure illustrates the correlation problems between boreholes which are actually closer spaced than on the average.

Fig. 4.2-4

Correlation Problems of Interburden Layers

A B C

Layers do not extent between two boreholes Different details in description (interburden not recorded) No unique solution for correlation (alternatives shown as red lines)

We understand the produced interburden distribution map as guidelines to indicate the possibility of the development of interburden layers. A predictive model could only be generated

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during accurate recording of the geological situation during the movement of the excavation front and by gathering closer spaced additional boreholes. Petrography analyses of the coal (compiled from Rudarski Institute 1997) Reliable petrographic analysis is available from three boreholes. They qualify the lignite as xylit rich with small or big marshy coal “proslojcima”. The medium content of the clay is 3540%, and it appears in the form of independent grains or almost linked with organic material. The pyrite appears in the form of spherical impregnations grain-size around 25 microns. The following table shows the results of quality and quantity of the analysis.

Tab. 4.2-2 Petrographic Analysis Sample No. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Borehole DJ4-XXXXIV DJ4-XXXXIV DJ4-XXXXIV DJ4-XXXIII4 DJ4-XXXIII4 DJ4-XXXV DJ4-XXXV

From (md) 7.6 19.8 24.2 44.5 48.0 6.7 24.1

To (md) 7.8 20.0 24.5 44.7 48.2 6.8 24.4

Material and Sample No. Volume % ______________________(1)____(2)_____(3)_____(4)_____(5)____(6)_____(7)____________ Tekstinit 9.5 31.5 35.5 20.5 18.5 16.0 32.5 Ulminit 6.0 18.0 17.5 17.0 21.0 5.5 18.0 Atrinit 11.0 11.5 12.5 11.5 12.5 12.0 11.0 Densinit 2.5 2.0 5.0 3.5 4.5 0.5 3.0 Gelinit 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 0.5 Liptinit 2.0 3.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 4.5 3.5 Inertinit 3.5 3.5 2.0 1.0 2.5 1.5 Clay 63.5 28.5 21.5 49.5 34.5 59.0 26.5 Pyrite 1.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 3.5

4.3 Development of the Overburden Section The characteristic development of the overburden section is shown on the two cross-sections in Annex II/4.4-12. Page 59 of 257


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The Lignite Formation is overlain by grey clay which is partially described as marly or sandy. Layers with abundant fossil content are frequently mentioned but the borehole descriptions do not allocate the depths of these. Sporadically sand layers of up to several meters thickness occur apparently concentrated along the morphological highs. They may have been deposited as aeolian sands. However, detailed descriptions of the sedimentological texture are missing. Sand in the immediate hangingwall of the lignite has been only recorded in one borehole along the cross-sections (SbDJ6XXXIII0). In the river cuts of the Sitnitca and the Sibovc river no direct lignite-to-sand contact has been recorded in the boreholes. However, such setting cannot generally be excluded due to the limited areal extent of the sand bodies. The uppermost 10 m describe the weathering zone and consist of yellow clay (i.e. the weathering product of the grey clay) and of generally 2-3 m humus.

4.4 Geophysical Exploration Work Performed From the eight seismic 2D profiles acquired during the seismic survey from June 21, 2004 to July 03, 2004 by DMT Lines01 and 07 are located in the Southwest of the Sibovc Concession Area. The geological interpretation of these lines is included in the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Part I. The results of the survey reveal that seismic provide a high quality method for the investigation of the structural setting of the lignite seam and tectonics in areas which are not affected by mining or advanced sliding.

4.5 Available Borehole Data 443 borehole data (lithological descriptions, assay data) were available for the area within Sibovc Concession Area (Appendix B: Tab. App-B-4.5-2) After applying the auditing methodology as described in the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Part I, seven boreholes were removed from the active database. They represented extreme deviations in the surface elevation or lignite depth compared to adjacent boreholes. 436 boreholes remained as “active” data in the borehole database. Page 60 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

A total of 217,395.30 m were drilled by these boreholes. The total depth is ranging between 6.80 m and 200.50 m with an average at 103.26 m. On the average the boreholes were drilled to some five meters into the green clay. 41 holes were not drilled to the base of the seam. The top of the seam has been encountered between 2.30 m and 137 m md (measured depth) with an average at 43.85 m. The base was penetrated between 3.00 and 193.20 m md with an average at 93.20 m. The structural position for the top of the seam is between 494.60 and 623.10 mMSL (meter above mean sea level) with an average at 550.28 mMSL. The elevation for the base is between 530.90 and 663.30 mMSL with an average at 594.00 mMSL. The seam thickness is between 0 and 93.30 m. The average is at 51.07 m. Drillhole locations, depths and thickness for the Lignite Fm. and Lignite Seam are given in Appendix B:Tab. App-B-4.5-1 of the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.

4.5.1 Coal Qualities from Borehole Data For 334 boreholes in the Sibovc Concession Area coal quality data were available as paper copies. All were digitally recorded. The coal quality sample data and thickness weighted averages per borehole for Ash, Net CV and Total Sulphur (counted on 45% moisture) are listed in Appendix B: Tab. App-B-4.5-2 of the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.

4.5.1.1 Sampling and Analysis Methods (compiled from Rudarski Institute 1997) Until the introduction of the regulation on classification and categorization of the hard raw minerals (Official gazette no.53 of 19/10/1979) the sampling intervals for coal analyses had not been uniform and been ranging between 0.50 and 26 m, commonly between 5-10 m. Large sample intervals (over 15m) are quite rare and include mainly the lowest parts of the coal seam, where the volume of interburden intercalations thicker than 0.50m increase. These intercalations are mainly removed from the quality analysis. The boreholes drilled after October 1979 have testing intervals between 4.0-15.0m, often 10.0m. The samples for chemical analyses were taken from the drillcores. They were taken from the entire sample interval and the samples were packed into plastic bags. The size of the samples was depending on the coal seam quality and drill diameter. Afterwards, the coal samples have been transferred to the unit for sample preparation where the samples were treated as follows: drying, grinding, and finally quartering of the grinded sample until obtaining sample amounts sufficient for at least two identical samples. The first sub-sample was used for chemical analyses and the second one for eventual arbitral control.

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Drilling with bentonite and water mud may have influenced substantially the natural moisture content of the coal as a consequence of the artificial increase of water. However, part of the moisture from the sample was removed by evaporation process depending upon prevailing weather conditions since the recovery of the sample from the drillcore up to the start of sample preparation in the lab was consuming indefinite time intervals. Coal samples acquired from the geological exploration drills include several examination processes: not fully technical analyses, fully technical analyses, chemical analyses of the coal and ash, as well as ash solubility. The not-fully technical analyses imply the determination of the moisture content (V), ash content (P), combustion material (S.m.) and lower heating value. Moisture, ash, and combustion material are stated as percentage, while the heating value is shown in KJ/kg. The fully technical analyses include moisture content, ash content, fixed Carbon volatile matter, combustion material, total sulphure, sulphure in the ash, and lower heating value. All mentioned parameters are shown in percents except the heating value which is shown in Kcal/kg, respectively in KJ/kg. Chemical analyses of the coal and ash include the determination of the SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, TiO2, Ns2O, and K2O. All mentioned analyses are determined on the basis of the following standards: FULL TECHNICAL ANALYSIS Moisture Ash Remaining coke Volatile material Combustion material Bottom heating value Total sulphide Sulphide in the ash Combustion sulphide

gravimetric method gravimetric method gravimetric method gravimetric method calculation method calorimeter bomb gravimetric method gravimetric method calculation method

JUS.B.H8.311 JUS.B.H8.312 JUS.B.H8.317 JUS.B.H8.317 JUS.B.H8.318 JUS.B.H8.315 JUS.B.H8.313

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ASH COAL Determination SiO2 Determination Fe2O3 Determination Al2O3 Determination CaO Determination MgO Determination SO3 Determination TiO2 Determination Na2O Determination K2O

gravimetric method gravimetric method gravimetric method gravimetric method gravimetric method gravimetric method photometric method hot-photometric method hot-photometric method Page 62 of 257

JUS.B.H8.360 JUS.B.H8.362 JUS.B.H8.364 JUS.B.H8.365 JUS.B.H8.366 JUS.B.H8.369 JUS.B.H8.363 JUS.B.H8.368 JUS.B.H8.368


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Besides the described methods for the above mentioned parameters spectrophotometric atomic absorption and hot atomic absorption methods were also applied.

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4.6 Geological Model A detailed geological model has been generated for the Lignite Seam. It integrates all available sources as surface observations, borehole and seismic data. The results are documented in the following maps and cross-sections: Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine –Part II, Annexes to Geology •

II/4.4-1

II/ 4.4-2

II/ 4.4-3

II/ 4.4-4

II/ 4.4-5

II/ 4.4-6

II/ 4.4-7

II/ 4.4-8

• • •

II/ 4.4-9 II/ 4.4-10 II/ 4.4-11

II/ 4.4-12

Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Fm. – Topography and Borehole Location (with Seam Thickness [m]), 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Overburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Overburden-To-Coal Ratio [cu m/t], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 0-20 m Slice – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 20-40 m Slice – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 40-60 m Slice – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, >60 m Slice – Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Ash Content [%],1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Total Sulphur [%], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Low Calorific Value [kJ/ kg], 1:10,000 Sibovc Consession Area – Geological Cross Sections S1 & S2 with Differentiation of Overburden Layer, 1: 5,000/ 1:1250

Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine –Part I, Annex • •

I/ 4.6-1 I/ 4.6-2

Depth Structure Map: Top Lignite Seam [m] Depth Structure Map: Base Lignite Seam [m]

For the Net Calorific Value Distribution a 3D Block Model has been generated (see chapter 4.6.3). The applied Methodology during the Modelling is described in Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Part I

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4.6.1 Structural Model In the Sibovc Concession Area the structural dip at top lignite is low with overwhelming values below 5º. Steeper dipping is indicated along two SW-NE alignments which are believed to represent erosional channels. The erosion is also seen on the depth structure map at Top lignite, the isochore map and even expressed on the low CV map (Annex II/4. 4- 11). The mapped area is characterised by a NNW-SSE striking basin. Along the axis the seam thickness reaches up to 70-80 m. The coal basin is delineated to the West by a series of stepping fault blocks which separate the Tertiary fill from the Mesozoic basement. The lignite pinch-out to the NE appears to be a unconformal without recognized boundary faults. Cross-faults which strike roughly perpendicular to the basin axis are developed in the North of the Sibovc Concession Area. The cross-plot lignite thickness versus depth (Fig. 4.6-1) reveals a strong correlation which indicates that subsidence and very likely faulting took already place during the lignite deposition. If the movements were commencing later the data would show high scattering. The seismic data indicate a highly faulted area along the Mirash northern slope directly to the south of Hade. It appears to be affected by reverse faults and a dense succession of normal faults creating a “collapse” structure.

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Fig. 4.6-1

Lignite Thickness vs. Depth Plot

The following table provides structural characterisation data for the evaluated areas: Tab. 4.6-1

Structural Characterisation of the Sibovc Concession Area

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4.6.2 Coal Quality Distribution Model For the model of the coal quality distribution length weighted averages have been calculated from the assay data within the Lignite Seam on a single borehole basis. Vertical profiles of the net calorific value assay data are included in the geological crosssections from the 3D Block Model (Annexes II/4. 4- 13 to II/4. 4- 33). The Sibovc Concession Area is characterised by the following quality populations: Tab. 4.6-2

Sibovc Concession Area, Average Coal Qualitiesfor the Lignite Seam from Geological Model Grid

Univariate Statistics - Coal Qualities From Geological Model Grid Sibovc Ash Content Net CV Total Sulphur [%] [kJ/kg] [%] Samples 8115 8115 8115 Minimum: 25%-tile: Median: 75%-tile: Maximum:

11.29 14.28 15.33 16.87 38.19

1748 7834 8296 8657 9683

0.69 0.95 1.07 1.19 2.93

Midrange: Range: Interquartile Range: Median Abs. Deviation:

24.74 26.90 2.59 1.20

5716 7935 823 402

1.81 2.25 0.23 0.12

Mean: Trim Mean (10%): Standard Deviation: Variance:

15.86 15.64 2.31 5.35

8146 8214 762 580561

1.09 1.08 0.20 0.04

Coef. of Variation: Coef. of Skewness:

0.15 1.88

0.09 -1.72

0.18 1.66

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4.6.3 3D Block Model of Net Calorific Value Distribution 4.6.3.1 Model Parameter and Methodology

Fig. 4.6-2

Block Model of the Sibovc Mining Concession area. Explanations see below.

The Sibovc Block Model is a spatially-referenced database that provides a multitude of querying and reporting possibilities. Information contained in the Block Model may be retrieved as text reports or may be accessed interactively supplying colour coded representations. Records in the Block Model are related to discrete volume elements or blocks. Each block of the Sibovc Block Model assumes values for each of the coal quality parameters, (net calorific value, ash content and total sulphur content). These values were applied to the entire volume represented by each block. Fig. 4.6-3 gives a summary of the Sibovc Block Model Master definition, and its details of the attribute types (coal quality parameters).

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Fig. 4.6-3

Sibovc Block Model Master Definition

A block size of 50m x 50m x 10m has been selected to consider borehole spacing and previous grid modelling concepts. Sub-blocking has been performed to enable creation of smaller blocks of 25m x 25m x 5m, if necessary. The chosen parameters allow the model to more effectively represent the various constraints which are applied during the course of modelling. Constraints are spatial delimitations which determine the shape of the Block Model and the ranges which have to be filled by interpolating values. The Sibovc Block Model Master has been constrained by the Structural Model which contains information of Sibovc concession area (polygonal line – string file) Seam base (surface – digital terrain model, DTM file) Seam top (surface – digital terrain model, DTM file) “Interburden” boreholes, i.e. assigned gaps in sampling (23 solids – 3DM file) Topography with mining situation of 2012 (surface – digital terrain model, DTM file) Fault west1 (vertical surface – digital terrain model, DTM file) In preparation for populating the Sibovc Block Model with data, elevation composites of sample data taken from the coal table of the Geological Database have to be produced. For this reason an elevation range of 430,620,10 was specified with an extent of 5 and a type of “+/-“ (Fig. 4.6-4). This means between 430m and 620m (above mean sea level) a composite was formed for every 10m. The usage of “+/-“method ensures that a range of 5m is applied both below and above the nominal elevation. The resulting grades are weighted by length and stored in 20 string files (one string file for each nominal elevation).

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Fig. 4.6-4

Compositing by elevation (with a range of elevation between 430 and 620,stepwidth 10 m, an extent of 5 and a type of “+/-“; see text for further explanation).

The 20 string files which store the elevation sample data were used to estimate values of each appropriate block of the Block Model based on the weighted values of data points closest to the central point of the blocks. In this case the weighting is the result of kriging the data points to provide the best linear unbiased estimator. The required variogram parameters have been developed from a Geostatistical study. Variogram model / kriging run parameters and additional search parameters have been used to estimate values for each coal quality parameter (net calorific value, ash content, total sulphur content):

Additional search parameters: Ellipsoid parameters: - Bearing of the major axis: 172 - Isotropic search ellipsoid Other interpolation parameters: - Max search distance: - Max vertical search distance:

900 005

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An interpolation was made considering the fault west 1 (Fig. 4.6-2) separating the Sibovc concession area into two subranges, the Sibovc west and the Sibovc east one. The suggested vertical dislocation of the coal seam along fault west1 substantially affects the interpolation. Therefore the interpolation has been processed separately in the two subranges. The block model provides comprehensive information to characterise the Lignite deposit within the Sibovc concession area. The following table Tab. 4.6-3 summarizes splits by various categories and cut-offs. The horizontal sections are included in Appendix B of the Main Mining Plan (Geological Database). Tab. 4.6-3

Block Model â&#x20AC;&#x201C; volume report of several categories

Category

Percentage of Total Seam Volume (990 mio tons)

1. 1000 kJ Increments 3000-4000 0.0 4000-5000 0.1 5000-6000 0.6 6000-7000 5.8 7000-8000 23.4 8000-9000 48.1 9000-10000 21.5 10000-11000 0.5 Total 100.0 2. Cut-off 5400 kJ <5400 0.2 =>5400 99.8 3. Minimum Input for TPP A (6270 kJ/kg) <6270 1.2 =>6270 98.8 4. Minimum Input for TPP B (6720 kJ/kg) <6720 3.5 =>6720 96.5 5. KEK Classification Scheme 0-5440 0.2 5440-6700 3.2 6700-7950 24.5 7950-9210 58.2 9210-11000 13.9 Total 100.0

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Average (kJ/kg) 3798 4639 5668 6675 7600 8510 9350 10113 8359 4953 8365 5802 8390 6289 8435 4974 6352 7478 8574 9525 8359


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

4.7 Other Aspects Influencing the Development of the New Sibovc Mine 4.7.1 Former Underground Mining Compared with the situation in the Bard-Mirash mine and the resulting problems, remains of the old underground mining will also have an impact on geotechnical conditions and mine planning in the future Sibovc Mine. Old underground structures have been detected in the southeastern part of the Sibovc field and are connected with the old mining structures which are currently exposed along the coal cuts in Mirash West and on the Mirash northern slope. The galleries probably reach to a zone about 2 km at North of the Village of Hade. First attempts to reach the seam were made along river erosion channels which cut the coal seam. In areas of the seam which were affected by erosion it can be mixed completely or at least partly with humus strata resulting in a decrease of the coal quality. Therefore, the initial excavation of the stalls began about 7 meters under the roof of the seam. In the proximity of the riverbanks water handling was difficult. At a later stage vertical shafts were deepened. The documented coal mining using galleries and shafts reach back to 1922

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Fig. 4.7-1

Collapse structures from former underground mining NE of Hade (arial photograph)

For the stabilisation of the galleries with a height of 2 m and width of 3 m was used a wooden timber set support system. The parallel galleries had a distance of 20 m one to each other, every 100 m a cross cut was excavated and they followed the given directions of the separations planes. The old roadways were driven parallel to the joint system within the mine. The galleries were widened to caverns with intervals of 7-20 m and the coal was broken from the roof. Due to this method sections of the galleries show a low stability and there is a potential danger of collapse of the undermined levels under load if they are not already broken or refilled. In the area North-Western of Hade these caverns frequently collapsed forming more or less round craters, which show a regular alignment (Fig. 4.7-1). The dimension of the undermined area in the Sibovc Field has been calculated considering the following factors: • Calculation of the excavated coal during 1922 to 1966 • Existing underground mining maps of the Mirash mine • Position of the old shafts • Site visits of the Sibovc Field for a specific delimitation of the underground mines

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• • • • • •

Determination of the mining methods by means of the characteristics of exposed galleries Interpretation of aerial photographs for the acquisition of typical structures (patterned alignment of collapse structures) Interpretation of seismic investigations Acquisition of the fault pattern Acquisition of topographic elements and natural boundaries (old bed of the river Sitnitca, location of villages) Extension regarding the maximum practicable distance between shafts and galleries

The underground mining was abandoned in 1966. The following table shows the overall coal production of the underground mine. There is no futher reliable documentation on the extension of the old underground mine or the information is at least incomplete. Coal production of old underground mining in the Kosovo Basin "Kosovo"

"Krusevac"

"Sibovac"

Years 1922 - 1966

years 1948 - 1966

Years 1952-1958

6.401.434 t

2.921.233 t

255.117 t

Tab. 4.7-1

Coal production of old underground mines within area investigated. (source: INKOS)

Partially, the exploitation fields of the old underground mining were limited by faults. Under consideration of these production rates for the field “Kosovo” can be calculated an area of app. 5 km2 and for the field “Sibovac” of at least 2 km2. The minor production rates from the field “Sibovac” show that the excavation only took place near the surface. The evaluation of all available information proves the assumtion that the extension of the galleries in a northward direction may be larger than supposed. In the past inhabitants noticed noises from the underground (hammering, picking) about 2 km in the North of the Village of Hade. Nearby there was probably a shaft, which could have functioned as entrance to the underground mine system. This shaft strengthens the presumption of such a large extension. The largest distance between a shaft and the outermost galleries did not exceed 700 meters for technical reasons. Annex I/4.7-1 shows the complete undermined area how it can be supposed under consideration of all aforementioned arguments and facts.

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4.7.2 Uncontrolled Coal Fires 4.7.2.1 Development and locations of coal fires Within a wide area a large amount of lignite in the Kosovo open pit mines is affected by spontaneous combustion which occurs in all locations where the coal is exposed to air or air can penetrate the underground and reach the coal Self-ignition is the consequence of the oxidation of coal, a process which is producing heat energy. If the energy production exceeds the amount of energy removed from the system, the coal will reach its ignition temperature, eventually. In a first phase coal fires take place within weakness zones like joints or slope failures or old mining structures, where enough oxygen can reach the surface of the coal and the heat is enclosed. The fire can be boosted by released methane. In the following stage the complete hanging layer is influenced by the heat. About 60% of total coal fires are concentrated near or within the roof strata, where the coal shows the best quality and discharges a great amount of energy. Old galleries from the ancient underground coal mining facilitate supplementary ventilation and therefore best conditions for oxygen inflow are given. Burned out galleries result in large cavities and therefore decrease stability of the slopes. The experiences from the BardhMirash mine proved that a lot of fires Bardh Mine were associated with slide faults and occurred also in other parts of the mine which remain exposed to air for a longer period as slopes (especially the central pillar in front of the face between the actual excavation areas) and dumped coal masses. Frequently the coal fires begin at the base of the dumps and affect the whole dump until it is burned out. The geological and geotechnical conditions in the future Sibovc Mine will be comparable due to also existing remains of the old underground mining. It is assumed that the potential danger for coal fires will be high as in the Bardh-Mirash mine. Further complications could result of the fact that the area of the future Sibovc mine was affected by illegal (private) coal mining (Fig. 4.7-2 and 4.7-3 ). Due to the morphology and geology in the western part of the Sibovc Field the coal can be excavated without use of heavy equipment. Some valleys cut the overburden nearly completely facilitating the excavation only by manpower without excavators. Numerous small quarries and open shafts prove the extensive private coal excavation. In the most cases the quarries and shafts are not refilled and remain exposed for a long period. This fact and the unascertainable distribution of the private excavation localities retrieve an unpredictable potential of coal fire development in the future. A secondary effect is the fritting of the clay in the seam roof. Due to the heat the material becomes dehydrated and oxidised and takes a red colour (Fig. 4.7-4). The hardness of the fritted clay allows a use as gravel to improve the stability of transport roads within the mine.

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Fig. 4.7-2

Private coal mining near the western border of the Sibovc Field

Fig. 4.7-3

Private coal mining area within the Sibovc Field

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Fig. 4.7-4

Fritted, red colored clays in the hanging wall of the coal seam

4.7.2.2 Counteractive Measures The responsible personnel should attend to the prevention of coal fires, but if they occur nevertheless the procedures for coal fire extinguishing and thus saving coal resources have to be adapted to the exploitation operations and to be done by the mines staff during the current mining activities. Convenient extinguishing technologies have to be selected depending on the coal fire type and under consideration of the local geotechnical conditions. The extended use of water in most cases may cause landslides. The following methods could be advisable: • Direct fire fighting (small fires) • Excavation of local burning coal (hot spots) • Levelling of surface and drilling of injection holes • Injection of water or slurry to the fire centre • Surface sealing (excavation front, dumps) • Cooling with water spraying equipment • Inertisation • Flooding (surface near galleries) • Burnout control

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4.7.2.3 Prevention of coal fires Prevention of coal fires is synonymous with the avoidance of the contact of coal and oxygen. The most problematic locations of oxygen entry are the underground corridors. Cut old galleries have to be protected against ventilation. If an excavator hits a gallery, the entry should be closed as soon as possible with adapted material (clay or other impermeable material) to prevent further oxygen entry. These actions have to be taken permanently during the excavation process. Collapsed old galleries near the surface or shafts have to be inspected if oxygen can penetrate somewhere and where appropriate, openings need to be filled. In this context the underground mining map (Annex I/ 4.7- 1) e information where to aspect potential fires in the future. Self combustion and fires near the surface can be avoided minimising a permanent contact of the coal with atmospheric oxygen. Dumped coal should be sealed and the sealing should be reg ulary controlled for dehydration and crack formation. Slide faults can cause deep and complexcracks and are often the origin of coal fires within the Bardh Mine, which are very difficult to extinguish. Therefore it is essential to prevent land slides. Generally, the length of the excavation front has to be adapted to the yearly coal output. Thus, the time of exposition of the excavation front can be reduced. In the 1st semester of 2006 a project will be started by EAR for fire fighting in the Kosovo Coal Mines. The results of this project shall, so far as the instructions will be carried out strictly, achieve sustained success and lead to a significant reduction of coal fires.

4.8 Geological Resource Assessment 4.8.1 Classification and Calculation Method The geological resources of the lignite deposit were computed in accordance with the UN International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources of 1997 (UNFC). The technical cut-offs were adjusted to the geological situation of the deposit. Meaning that in compliance with the UNFC – particularly referring to the function of the Competent Person – the geological assurance was evaluated in order to define acceptable limits for inter- and extrapolation of geological data. The lignite resources were classified applying the area-of-influence method with the following distances between points-of-observation: · · ·

Measured Indicated Inferred

Borehole distance <= 250 m 250 - 500 m > 500 m

radius of area-of-influence <=177 m 177 - 354 m > 354 m

A limitation of the inferred resource area is established by the concession boundary or the structural boundaries of the coal basin. The resulting classification for the Sibovc Concession Area is shown in Fig. 4.8-1.

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4729000 Lignite Pinch-out

4728000

TPP B

Lajthisht

4727000

Sibovc Janjina Voda

4726000 Palaj

4725000

Indicated Spacing 250-500

Hade Outside Dump

4724000

177

Mesozoic Outcrop

Measured Spacing <=250

4723000 Outside Dump Dump

7500000 0

Fig. 4.8-1

7501000

7502000

7503000

7504000

0

7505000

500 1000 1500 2000

Sibovc Concession Area, Ressource Classification

The Sibovc Concession Area is relatively dense sampled by boreholes. Main parts are covered by a regular North-South, West-East orientated 250x250 m borehole spacing. Infill drilling took place mainly South of the village Sibovc and between Hade and Palaj. Along the northeastern concession boundary ehere the seam thickness decreases to less than 30 m the spacing is larger than 250 m but still below 500 m. According to the classification scheme 94% of the total area are classified as measured resources, the remaining 6% as indicated resources. No cut-off for minimal thickness of the seam is required as the lignite seam is always well above the technical mineability. Also a cut-off for the thickness of partings was not applicable for the evaluated concession areas. The boundaries of the seam at the top and the floor are lithologically defined and also established by the sampled seam section. The calculation of resources defines solely “geological resources” or “in-situ-resources”. The resource figures are not considering any factors based on the mineability, such as mining losses or dilution. Page 79 of 257


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The resource calculation is bounded to the concession areas of Sibovc. Losses of resources due to underground mine workings in the upper part of the seam in some isolated areas are not yet estimated since no accurate volume estimates are available yet. A specific gravity of 1.14 g/cm³ was applied in order to calculate the tonnage of lignite resources. This value is in accordance with former assumptions and allows a comparison of resource figures with various former studies.

4.8.2 Lignite Resources The volumetric calculation of geological resources for the Lignite Seam within the Sibovc Concession Area resulted in a total of 990 mt over an area of 19.7 km2. 931 mt (i.e. 94%) are classified as measured, 59 mt as indicated. The resource estimate includes the seam interburden. As explained in chapters 4.2 and 4.5.1.1 these intervals were chemically not evaluated and thus, no coal quality data are available which would allow to assess whether the have do be excavated seperatly or could be included as dilution material. It was explained in chapter 4.2 that “…a correlation of the interburden between the boreholes and a subsequent generation of predictive model cannot be realized”. Consequently, no reliable estimate of the interburden volume can be provided. From the borehole data it may be guestimated that the maximum portion of interburden layers thicker than 0.5 m is in a range of 7% of the total lignite resource. The volume of not mineable interburden is considered as the main uncertainty in the resource assessment. Further uncertainties in the resource estimate exist on the narrow fault blocks in the West of the Sibovc Concession Area. Here, uncertainties exist in the extent and size of faults which have controlled the seam development.

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4.9 Further exploration for the new Sibovc Mine The seismic lines over the South of the Sibovc Concession Area proved that reflection seismic surveys provide clear definitions for both hanging- and footwall vertical boundaries of the lignite seam in exploration areas which are not affected by mining or advanced sliding. The lateral continuations of these interfaces will allow to detected and describe tectonic structures which would remain ambiguous from the interpretation of borehole data alone. The future mining areas should be examined with geological and geophysical methods under special regard of geotechnical conditions and the coal quality. The investigations should include: • •

• • • • • •

Detailed lithological and structural recording of outcrop setting during progressing excavation process including detailed description of interburden layers, Borings executed with three drilling rigs for the examination of 2500 m of core material each year. For a reliable geological prognosis, in any case the respective borings should penetrate the whole seam till the lying green clay of the foot wall is reached. On demand (e.g. in the range of faults) the boring grid should be closer for obtaining more structural information (recognition of small size structures), Registration of the strike and dip of the seam. This allows a better planning of the excavation, Determination of the coal quality on the basis of the samples from the new borings, Investigation of the whole future field by line seismics, E-W orientated 2D seismic line investigation for the verification of the extent and throw of the faults, Hydrogeological evaluation in the boreholes, Geotechnical investigations including valuation of the parting plane texture.

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5 Soil-mechanical Parameters 5.1 General For the determination of geotechnical parameters, all available data have been used (also from previous explorations) and also data which have been identified in the framework of the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine. To achieve a short-term improvement of the knowledge about the geological/soil-physical situation or the area of the Northern head slope of the Bardh opencast mine (towards the Sibovc field), 9 boreholes were drilled in 2003/2004 down to the floor of the coal seam. All drillings were sampled; the samples were and/or are still analysed in the laboratories of KEK, DMT and GMB to their soil-physical properties. The soil-physical investigation results of the a.m. 9 boreholes can also be used for the establishment of a soil-mechanical model and the specific static stability calculations for Sibovc due to the analogue geology of the coal fields. Update of soil-mechanical slope calculations and geotechnical safety concept The original soil-mechanical calculations by KEK / INKOS base on the calculation method according to BISHOP. The soil-mechanical parameters for the top overburden and coal used in the former calculation originate from the exploration report dating back to nineteen seventies. Newer findings and investigations were not available. No information was available about the strength parameters of the underclay. The calculation methodology after BISHOP does not reflect the actual conditions and is therefore not suited to guarantee a soil-mechanically safe operational management. The soilmechanical recalculations were carried out by adopting the calculation method of BOROVICKA for circular cylindrical and polygonal sliding surfaces and the sliding block method. To compensate the missing soil-physical properties it was necessary to make assumptions and derive the relevant parameters on the basis of experience with similar material.

5.2 Soilphysical Parameter The soil-mechanical examinations base on the soil-physical data which are already available in-situ and actual investigation results recorded in the following expert papers: • • •

Soil-mechanical expert opinion about the static stability of the advancing slope system in the Bardh mine in Kosovo dated 06.12.2002 1. Supplement dated 09.01.2003 to the „Soil-mechanical expert opinion about the static stability of the advancing slope system in the Bardh mine in Kosovo dated 06.12.2002“ 2. Supplement dated 23.01.2003 to the „Soil-mechanical expert opinion about the static stability of the advancing slope system in the Bardh mine in Kosovo dated 06.12.2002“ Page 82 of 257


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First intermediate analysis results of the core samples from the drilling made by the laboratories of GMB und KEK show a partly conformity with the previously used soil-physical calculation parameter. The following table contains the soil-physical parameters which were bases for the soilmechanical calculations of the slopes and slope systems. The figures in brackets represent the analyses of the laboratory samples of the three drillings SH 3, SH 4 and SH 5 for comparison. Tab. 5.2-1

Soil-mechanical Parameters Soil-physical parameter Geological Layers c‘ ϕ‘ γ (kN/m²) (°) (kN/bcm) Gray and yellow clay – Overburden 14.3 16.2 17.5 2) (16) (30) (17.5) Coal seam 40 50 12.2 Green Clay (floor strata) 14 16 17.5 2) (16) (30) (17.5)

ϕR (kN/m²) 8 (8) 8 (8)

1)

cR (kN/m²) 5 (10) 5 (10)

1)

1) Residual shear resistance (resistance after a long sliding way)

1) The residual shear strength (i.e. the residual strength against shearing after extended shearing, ε > 15%) 2) The figures in brackets represent the soil physical investigations of the soil samples from drillings SH3, SH4 and SH5. They represent a partial result originating from statistical evaluations. These values show a good conformity with the previously used soil-physical parameters. The tendency noticed is that the parameters of the three drillings show more favourable values. Therefore the soil-mechanical investigation results are more on the safe side.

Based on the analysis of available reports of the soil mechanical laboratory tests performed on samples from the drill holes SH 3, SH 4 und SH 5 the coefficient k (coefficient of water permeability) is: Overburden (grey und yellow clay) k = 4 * 10-10… 2.6 * 10-11 Green clay (floor strata) k ca. 4 * 10-11

5.3 Soil mechanical Calculation Methods The necessary soil-mechanical static stability calculations for the geological deposition conditions in the slopes and slope systems of the opencast mines are carried out using the soilstatically tested calculation methods according to BOROWICKA (circular cylindrical and polygonal sliding surfaces) and the BLOCK METHOD (internal Software of Vattenfall Europe Mining AG). For reasons of comparison, the methods according to BISHOP and KREY/BRETH (for circular cylindrical) are used for the calculations of static stability. These are methods, which deliver plausible and realistic results within the framework of the soilmechanical examinations for the opencast mines of Vattenfall Europe Mining AG are which are cut out for such deposits.

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Fig. 5.3-1

Principal Scheme

The static stability calculation consider both circular cylindrical sliding surfaces (KZP) and geologically occurring plain, possibly polygonal directed weak zones (VG) in the cohesive layers of the overburden and the floor. If location and direction of fissures in the coal and geological faults in the overburden are known they are not taken into account for the static stability calculations.

5.4 General Stability Factors To ensure both a geotechnical safe and efficient opencast mine operation the following safety factors are regarded necessary from soil-mechanical aspects for the specific objects. It should be taken into account, that the chosen safety factor is decisively determined by the state of knowledge about geological and hydrological situation and by statistically valid and/or not valid soil-physical calculation parameters. The better the knowledge about the respective objest the lower the necessary safety factor to be chosen. A different selection of the safety factor may also be possible between the advancing mining and dump slopes and the rim slopes. In many cases lower safety factors are possible if the advancing extraction and dumping slopes have only a short lifetime. • • • •

Single slopes Partial slope systems Total system Objects to be protected 1)

Si > 1.05 Si > 1.20 Si > 1.20 Si > 1.30

1) Theses are objects to be considered within the framework of static stability calculations as for example roads, rivers, buildings nearby the upper surface edge and the used large opencast mine equipment

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5.5 Soilmechanical Calculations for Border Slope Systems Experiences, a. o. from the Mirash and Bardh opencast mines are used to dimension the Border Slope System. Based on the static stability investigations the following general inclinations for the slope systems were determined, among others t o ensure static stability of partial slope systems and the entire slope system. The soil-mechanical calculations base on the safety factor of Si > 1.20. • •

General inclination for the coal slope system General inclination for the slope system in the overburden

Fig. 5.5-1

βG,coal < 22° βG,overburden < 10°

Required general inclination of slopes with a safety factor of 1.2

The above defined angels are valid for an overburden and coal thickness of 70 m. In order to prevent coal fires during the lifetime of the coal slope and the connected • endangering of the static stability of the coal head slope and • the resulting pollution the following can be done: In the overburden operation a general slope angle of β ≈ 15... 20° shall be produced by the large equipment. Directly afterwards, the general slope angle of β < 10° shall be produced by means of crawlers.

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5.6 Soilmechanical Calculations for Advance Slope Systems The specifications made in the above item shall also be used for the design of the advancing slopes of the opencast mine.

5.7 Static Stability of Single Slopes It is known from practical soil-mechanical experiences in the existing opencast mines that slides may occur at the single slopes. The following picture shows such a slide.

Fig. 5.7-1

Sliding in the coal-uncovering cut

These slides are caused by single slopes that are too high and cut too steep. Polygonally directed weak zones with low strengths (polished surfaces) are occurring in certain areas which are predestined for the formation of slides (see picture below).

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Fig. 5.7-2

Geologically occurring weak zone in the overburden material

Fig. 5.7-3

Exposed parting plane with large polished surface

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Another important factor for reducing the static stability is the jointing of the top clay. Partly, these joints act as available sliding surfaces on which the slopes fail suddenly, unexpectedly and rapidly. Considering the above mentioned soil-physical parameter the following slope angles βerf are required in dependence on the slope height hBö. This ensures the static stability of the single slopes against slides on circular cylindrical and polygonal directed sliding surfaces in the long run: 0 m <hBö < 10 m 10 m < hBö < 15 m 15 m < hBö < 20 m

→ → →

βerf < 65° βerf < 40° βerf < 30°

An angle of 30° cannot be cut into the side slope by the existing excavators. The slope remains stable during the excavation process. However the slope stability reduces during the weeks especially under unfavourable climatic conditions (rainfalls and variations in temperature).This means that the presence in direct proximity to the slope has to be limited to the operationally required extent in any case. Therefore operating instructions have to be formulated in accordance with the actual conditions.

5.8 Soilmechanical Calculations for Dumping Slope Systems Excavation and the subsequent transportation on a belt conveyor to the spreader cause changing of the soil-physical properties of the clay. Taking into account the following changed soil-physical calculation parameter for the material to be dumped Angle of effective internal friction ϕ‘= 14° Effective cohesion c’ = 10 kN/m² Specific weight of earth-moist soil γ = 17.5 kN/m³ and carrying out static stability calculation on the basis of these values the following results are obtained: Assuming the dump slope angle of β ≈ 30° is achieved the dump will have a static stability of Si ≈ 1.0 with a height of hdump ≈ 12 m. A further increase in height of the dump will lead to slope failure. This slope failure will result in formation of shear planes (so-called polished surface planes). The material strength will decrease to residual shear strength in these shear planes. The dump „flows“ out and settles below a slope angle of β ≈ 6... 8°. The a.m. results have to be taken into account in the practical operation when producing the dump.

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5.9 Geotechnical Requirements to a Safe Operational Management 1) A detailed and continuously updated geological model which is approved by the responsible geologist must exist for the opencast mine operation (illustration in maps, sections and reports). 2) Each opencast mine requires data on the hydrological situation (f. e. location and direction of aquifers, data on the level of existing ground-water level; data have to be recorded in written form). 3) Actual soil-physical parameters are required for the important geological layers in the roof and floor of the coal seam. These parameters shall be continuously verified. Soil samples shall be investigated in a recognized soil-physical laboratory. The result shall be laid down in written form 4) The position of the mine is to be recorded in a layout plan in regular periods (results from flights of terrestrial surveying). 5) Due to the advancing mining slopes it is necessary to keep at least three representative geological profiles in which the achieved mining position have to be recorded in regular periods. Profiles shall be at right angle to the bench. 6) Position and progress of the head slopes shall be planned forward looking. The planed geometries shall be illustrated at least by one advance cut through the respective head slope. The cuts shall be in right angle to the head slope system. 7) The track lines of all cuts shall be entered into the a. m. layout plan. 8) A geotechnical expert shall prepare soil-mechanical static stability investigations for a) all single slopes of the mine, including the advancing slopes as well as the head slopes and b) the total slope system (containing also the partial systems). Resulting from the investigations on the static stability, specifications shall be formulated for the safe shaping of the single slopes and the entire slope system (including partial systems) with the specific technological conditions in mind. The results shall be set out in written form (expert’s report). 9) These expert’s reports shall be justified to representatives of the opencast mine, the justification shall be recorded in a minutes. 10) A geotechnical specialist is needed for the opencast mine, who, among others, supervises the implementation of the requirements from the a.m. geotechnical expert reports and the necessary measures for a safe geotechnical operational management. 11) The geotechnical specialist shall perform regular inspections (at least twice or three times a week, or if required). These inspections shall be recorded (protocol). 12) A „control and supervision regime“ shall be elaborated for the mines. This document shall contain all specific operational points which shall control and supervise continuously the geotechnical conditions. The kind of control and the required reaction in case of deviations from the specifications shall be documented.

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6 Technological Development of the Sibovc Mine 6.1 Preconditions Subject of the hereinafter described Main Mine Plan is the development starting from the existing opencast mines of Bardh / Mirash. This opencast mine will supply coal to all customers in Kosovo. Important preconditions determined for planning the development of the Sibovc mine are: a) Ensuring the defined coal supply t the power plants b) Take into consideration the release dates of the main mine equipment from Bardh/Mirash c) Preconditions for resettlement a) Targets for coal output The most important item for developing the mining concept is the extraction of the planned coal output. The annual outputs for Sibovc base on the planned power plant concept (see chapter 3) and the residual coal output from the Mirash/Bardh mines. For the period of parallel operation of Bardh/ Mirash and Sibovc the following results: Tab. 6.1-1

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 SUM

Coal Output (Part 1: in the „extended“ Development Period)

Coal to TPP A incl. run-of-mine coal 1.6 1.8 2.1 3.4 5.05 5.05 5.05 56

Coal to TPP B

Coal from Mirash/Bardh

SUM Coal from Sibovc

5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 56

6.9 7.1 7.4 8.7 7.9 3.2 2.5 77

0 0 0 0 2.45 7.15 7.85 161

Further more, the following coal output from the new opencast mine is scheduled on the basis of the power plant planning defined by the Ministry for Energy and Mining:

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Tab. 6.1-2

Coal output from Sibovc in regular operation

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 SUM (2012-2038)

Coal to TPP A and other Consumer 5.05 5.05 5.15 5.15 5.15 5.15 3.64 2.07 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 271

SUM (2005-2038)

69.96

Coal to TPP B (B1 – B6) 8.01 10.72 10.72 10.72 10.54 10.54 10.72 13.43 16.14 15.96 15.96 16.14 13.31

Coal to additional TPP

10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.66 10.84

2.71 5.42 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13 8.13 7.95 7.95 7.95 8.13

1965

1533

349.79

176.7

SUM Coal from Sibovc

13.06 15.77 15.87 15.87 18.40 21.11 22.49 23.63 24.59 24.41 24.41 24.77 21.94 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 19.29 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 19.29 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.47 1555 552.75 Sibovc + 43.7 = 596.45 from all Mines

b) Release of the Main Mine Equipment The main equipment use in the existing mines was planed considering of the following aspects: • technological aspects (overburden removal, uncovering and extraction of coal) • soil-mechanical aspects (flattening of border slope systems, safeguarding of advance conditions between the single working fronts) • technical aspects (capability of main equipment regarding the mechanical and electrical status)

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organisational aspects (capability of support operations, like dewatering, auxiliary equipment, road construction, availability of spare parts)

Special attention was paid to an earliest possible release of equipment that was intended for a further use in the follow-up field. These machines can only be released for rehabilitation from mid of 2007 which is mainly due to their low present capacity. The table below illustrates the utilization time of the single machines according to Quarters. The belt wagons are released parallel with the coal excavators. The coal excavators are decommissioned stepwise within the period from 2009 to 2011 according to the declining capacity in the Mirash/Bardh mines (see Mid Term Plan). Tab. 6.1-3

Release Time for Main Mine Equipment 2005

E1M E2M E3M E4M E5M E6M E7M E8M E9M E10M E1B E2B E4B E6B E7B E8B E9B E10B P1M P3M P4M P1B P2B P3B

2006

2007

2008

2009

2011

2010

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

4

1

2

3

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

The equipment used in the mining field shall be refurbished after releasing. This measure aims at achieving a considerable increase in the hourly capacity and reliability. Such a refurbishment will last at least for 6 months (incl. acceptance of extra costs). It would be advisable to calculate 8 to 9 months, since then only „normal costs“ are incurred. The following utilization times were taken as basis:

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4


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

1. SchRs 650 2. SRs 1300.26 3. SRs 1300.24 4. SchRs 650 5. SRs 1300.24 6. SRs 1300.24

E 9M E 8M E 9B E 10M E 8B E 10B

April 2008 with spreader P 4M A2RsB-5200.55 May 2008 with spreader P 1B A2RsB-4400.60 June 2008 April 2009 June 2009 Sept. 2009 resp. April 2011 (with P 3M A2RsB-5200)

c) Preconditions for the resettlement Precondition for the planned opencast mine development is the resettlement of the village of Hade because the mine will be developed starting from the existing northern rim slope of Bardh / Mirash (with long bench). After having started the detailed project work the Consultant expressed their concerns that the complete resettlement of Hade will be accomplished in time and made clear that considerable financial means have to be made available for a timely resettlement. This issue was discussed with the responsible authorities including the Ministry for Energy and Mining. Resulting from this discussion a decision was made to require the timely resettlement of Hade for the Main Mine Plan work. Following this, the resettlement including the deconstruction and removal of the building foundations has to be finished until 2010. This also includes the acquisition of land by KEK.

6.2 General Remarks on Mine Development The mine development bases on the prepared geological model. It aims at mining the saleable product raw coal at most favourable costs. That means that essential changes of the targets and premises will lead also to corresponding changes in the mining concept and costs. The overburden removal operation ensures the uncovering of the necessary coal quantities for the supply to the power plant having regard to the geotechnical safety requirements (see chapter: soil mechanical parameters). It is agreed that the necessary resources will be made available, such as: • Qualified employees in the respective trades and • Sufficient financial means for the investment and maintenance Furthermore, it is assumed that all permits for the operation will be available in time. With regard to the mining technology, the present mining of the deposit will be continued whereby available equipment and a part of the KEK plants will be used to a great extent. The following items regarding mining operation as for example: • Employment of labour / organisation • Auxiliary equipment • Drainage • Resettlement and • Recultivation are described in separate chapters.

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Dumping of power plant ash in the mines lies in the responsibility of the power plants and is not included within the framework of this Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.

6.3 Technological Equipment Parameter The basic technology is among others determined by the constructive parameters of the available large opencast mine equipment. Furthermore, the construction data of the new bucket wheel excavator for overburden removal have to be taken into account. Based on the preliminary investigations, an excavator of the size 40,000 bcm/d with 30 -35 m cutting height seems to be technically and economically reasonable. For planning purposes the following parameters are used: Tab. 6.3-1 Type

Basic Geometry of the Bucket Wheel Excavators Length of Width of Height of Bucket machine machine machine wheel diameter

SchRs 650 (E 9M, E10M) SRs 1300.24 (E8B, E9B and E10B) SRs 1300.26 (E 8M) New BWE Tab. 6.3-2 Type

m 141

m 24

M 36

m 10.56

Mid of bucket wheel to mid of excavator m 36

125

22

32

9

36.5

82.5

135

22

32

9

36.96

92

ca. 150

ca. 25

ca. 40

ca. 12

ca. 44

ca. 100

Cutting Heights and block Width of Excavators Max. Max. cutting height cutting depth m

m

Mid of excavator to mid of discharge chute m 90

Block width m

45 1) SchRs 650 28 5 (E 9M, E10M) SRs 1300.24 26 (24) 5 37 (E8B, E9B and E10B) 37 / 45 SRs 1300.26 26 5 New BWE ca. 32 ca. 3 (5) ca. 43 1) 1) in case of shifting operation /reconstruction of belt conveyor every 2 blocks

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Tab. 6.3-3 Type

Maximum Inclination of working Levels and Curve Radii of Excavators Smallest curve Max. Max. cross incliAdmissible incliradius longitudinal incli- nation nation for transnation port m -

SchRs 650 (E 9M, E10M) SRs 1300.24 (E8B, E9B and E10B) SRs 1300.26

60

1 : 25

1 : 25 1)

1 : 20

80

1 : 33 1: 20

1 : 20 or 1 : 33

1 : 20

80 ca. 80

1: 20 or 1 : 33 1: 20 or 1 : 33

1 : 20

New BWE

1 : 33 1 : 20 1 : 33 1 : 20

or equivalent

1 : 20 1)

as resulting inclination

6.4 Capability / Capacity Calculation for MME 6.4.1 Capability of Excavators The capacity calculation and/or assessment of excavator capacities bases on the estimation of the principle capability of the equipment under the conditions of the Sibovc deposit, whereby a tolerance range is taken into account (lower and upper limit). The mass movements (especially overburden) resulting from the determined coal supplies are then compared with this capability in order to show the feasibility. All relevant influencing parameters are considered when determining the overburden and coal capacities. These influencing parameters are split into two columns: Firstly, the influencing factors, which determine the filling and the emptying of the excavator buckets. Resulting from this the load factor (and/or excavator effect) is yielded and the hourly capacity and Secondly, the time factors [time factor ΡT], which determined the annual output capacity. The following scheme gives an overview over the calculation method.

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Princple Calculation Scheme of effective Capacity of Tb = TbA - Ts

VE = Ve * Tb

Tb = TbA * EtaTA Ve = Vth * EtaB

EtaB = fbu * fload

Subdivision of T

b

Tb = Tk - Tp -Ts

or

Tb = Tk * EtaT

or

Ve = Vtheo * fload

Vtheo = Vth * fbu

Vth = Vbu * nbu* 60

Ts = Tb * s Ts = TbA * sA

TbA = Tk -Tp Tb =Tb1+Tb2+Tb3+Tb4

T b1

planned

not plan ned

High Cut

Tp = Tp1 +Tp2 +Tp3

T b2

Ts = Ts1 +Ts2 +Ts3+Ts4+Ts5

Deep Cut

T p1 Working time r egime (shift use)

T b3 special oper ation (reduced perfor mance)

T p2

T b4 double r emoved masses

Tran sport

T p3 Planned Maint e nance

Fig. 6.4-1

Principle Capacity Calculation Method

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T s1 technical breakdowns on BWE T s2 standstill, operational reasons on BWE T s3 standstill caused by conveyor sy stem T s4 standstill by mining system / Environm. T s5 other stan dstills


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

First column: The load factor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Expression of the hourly capacity Basis of the calculation is the theoretical capacity level of the single machines which is determined by the construction/mechanical engineering.. This theoretical digging capacity (Vth in lcm/h) is determined from the bucket size (Vbu) and the bucket discharges (nd). In most cases, the manufacturer specifies it as round value and it includes a volume portion of the cell space of the bucket wheel. The theoretical digging capacity (Vth in lcm/h and Vtheo in bcm/h or t/h)

Vth = Vbu x nd x 60 Tab. 6.4-1 Typ

Theoretical Digging Capacity in lcm/h Volume Number Rotation of of Bucket buckets buckets wheel

Vbu lcm

nbu -

Ubu 1 / min

Number of bucket discharges nd 1 / min

Calculated theoretical digging Capacity Vth(calc) lcm/h

Theoretical Capacity according documentation Vth lcm/h

SchRs 650 (E 9M, E10M) SRs 1300.24 (E8B, E9B and E10B) original currently SRs 1300.26 original currently New BWE

0.65

21

5.15

108

4212

4212

0.52

18

128.6

4011

4000

0.52 0.52 0.52 1.3

21 23 23 18 - 21

7.14 /5.857 7.5 5.857 7.5 ca. 4.28

157.5 134.7 172.5 ca. 77

4914 4203 5382 6000

Comparison: SRs 1300.24 Germany

0.63

14

6.5

91

3440

4200 6000

3500

The mineable solid and compact masses are of special practical interest. In order to take this into account the loosening of the excavated material (overburden or coal) inside the digging tool has to be considered. This value mainly depends from the excavated material itself and to a certain extent from the form of the cut (kind of excavation) and the bucket form. For the conditions in Sibovc the following can be applied: Tab. 6.4-2 Type

SchRs 650 (E9M,E10M)

SRs 1300.24

Theoretical Capacity of Excavators in bcm/h resp. t/h Material Theoretical loosening loosening (transport digging in bucket /dumping) Capacity Vth fd fbu lcm/h lcm/bcm lcm/bcm (1.4) Overburden 4212 1.55 (Clay) (1.52-1.55) Coal 1.7 (1.4) Overburden 4000 1.55 Page 97 of 257

Theoretical Capacity Vtheo bcm/h 2700

t/h 2800

2580


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

(E8B,E9B,E10B)

SRs 1300.26 (E 8M) New BWE

Comparison: SRs1300 Germany

(Clay) Coal Overburden (Clay) Coal Overburden Coal

4200 ca.6000

Overburden

3500

Coal

3500

(1.52-1.55) (1.4) (1.52-1.55) (1.4) (1.52-1.55) (1.4)

1.7 1.55

2680 2700

1.7 1.55

2800 ca. 3900

1.7

1.55

ca. 4000

2260

(1.52-1.55) 1.7 2350 Please note: the loosening factors vary and cannot be calculated safely. Therefore the theoretical capacity (in bcm/h or t/h) is a round value.

The effective capacity Ve

Ve = Vth x fbu x fload Ve = Vtheo x fload Considerations of the effective capacity focus on the present capacity level for reasons of comparison. It has to be born in mind when considering these figures that the previously realised capacities were negatively influenced by the insufficient technical status and the inadequate organisation and lack of motivation. This capacity level which is considered too low shall be raised step-by-step by means of implementing several measures. This should already be performed within the period of the mid term plan (see study). One example for the reduced capacity was the fact that excavation was not continuously carried out in full block operation (partly due to instable and failing slopes). Moreover, the discharging system (belt conveyor and spreader) cut down the possible excavator capacity. Further reductions were caused by the excavation of slide masses. Before their use in Sibovc, all machines will be refurbished. This measure aims at improving the realisable load factor directly. The human factor has a decisive influence on the actual result (effective capacity). In order to allow for this fact and the specific conditions, a minimum and a maximum bucket filling (loading factor) is indicated. Tab. 6.4-3 Type

Effective Capacity of Excavators - Overburden Theoretical Validity Capacity

Vtheo SchRs 650

bcm/h 2700 bcm/h

SRs 1300.24

2580 bcm/h

Currently Plan Mid term Min MMP Max MMP Currently (2004) Page 98 of 257

Load factor

Effective Capacity *

fload

Ve

% 23% 27% 30% 37% 18%

bcm/h 615 bcm/h 740 bcm/h 800 bcm/h 1000 bcm/h 470 bcm/h


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

(E8B,E9B,E10B)

2700 bcm/h

SRs 1300.26

Plan Mid term Min MMP Max MMP Currently

22% 27% 33% 15%

575 bcm/h 700 bcm/h 850 bcm/h 400 bcm/h

Plan Mid term Min MMP Max MMP Min MMP Max MMP

21% 26% 31% 40% 50%

575 bcm/h 700 bcm/h 850 bcm/h 1560 bcm/h 1950 bcm/h

Average* Max

53% 66%

1200 bcm/h 1500 bcm/h * round values

(E 8M)

New BWE

3900 bcm/h

Comparison SRs 1300 Germany

2260 bcm/h

The comparison with bucket wheel excavators in Germany reveals that further capacity increases would be possible in case of good working conditions. This cannot be assumed for the conditions in Kosovo within the period under review. Additionally, a relatively high portion of ramp excavation is to be accomplished in Sibovc which lowers the excavator effects. It was considered that selective mining / quality management will slightly reduce the excavator effect in the coal operation. Tab. 6.4-4 Type

Effective Capacity for Excavator - Coal Theoretical Capacity Validity

Vtheo

-

Load factor

Effective Capacity

fload

Ve

% 43% 54% 37%

t/h 1200 t/h 1500 t/h 1000 t/h

SchRs 650

t/h 2800 t/h

SRs 1300.24

2680 t/h

Min MMP Max MMP Min MMP

2800 t/h

Max MMP Min MMP

45% 36%

1200 t/h 1000 t/h

Max MMP

43%

1200 t/h

Average Max

76% 89 %

1800 t/h 2100 t/h

(E8B,E9B,E10B)

SRs 1300.26 (E 8M)

Comparison SRs 1300 Germany

2350 t/h

The human factor plays an important role for the loading factor. For the long-term planning it is assumed that • qualified / experiences personnel is employed • the personnel is better motivated than presently and • losses due to missing spare parts or bad work organisation will be reduced

Page 99 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Second column: Time factor The annual capacity (VE) achievable is determined by the actual operating hours (Tb) depending primarily on the chosen operation regime (planned working and maintenance time) and the unscheduled stops (down-times).

VE = Ve x Tb VE = Ve x Tk x ηT Tk = Tb + Ts + Tp VE = Ve x (Tk-Tp) x ηTA The table below which contains the range of planned operating time assumes the following premises: The calendar time of 8,760 h per year is assumed as potential working time • a 3-weeks general repair is scheduled • per working week, two shifts are reserved for short maintenance / inspection / function tests and shifting operation • Unscheduled stops/accidents are taken into account with 5% - 7% of the possible working time (Tk – Tp) • Handing over of shifts is performed on the equipment It is furthermore differentiated between a so-called normal and maximum capacity. This enables consideration of influencing factors like: • Meteorological conditions (stop due to fog, continuous rain, extreme freeze and wind) • Utilization of shift working time (usual rate is 80% -90%) • Time needed for auxiliary works / smaller shifting operations and transports • Human factor (efforts of personnel / work organisation) and • Reserve time. All these influences are also taken into account for the so-called maximum capacities. In case of a lot of unfavourable factors occurring exceptionally in one year, the achievable operating time reduces towards the normal value.

Page 100 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

The following table includes the absolute efficient working time: Tab. 6.4-5

Validity

Planned Working Time Tb of single Equipment

Calendar time Tk h 24

Normal-daily capacity Maximum daily capacity Normal weekly 168 capacity Maximum weekly capacity 730 Normal monthly capacity Maximum monthly capacity Normal annual 8760 capacity Maximum annual capacity

Avail able work ing time TbA h 24

Downtimes (additional)

Operating time

Temporal rate of utilization

Tadd h 4.8

Tb h 19.2

ΡT % 80

24

2.4

21.6

90

110.4

65.7

128.2

76.3

385

52.7

134.4 24 151.2 23

480

95

557

73

4620

354

5808

334

Function tests, shift change Smaller down-times Reserve Like daily, otherwise additional: 2 * 8 h/week for repair / maintenance or reserve and 7% / 5% unscheduled down-time as week but in addition: shifting/

reconstruction belt con- 484 veyors, shifting, meteorology (6d / 4d) In addition: 4266 3x7 d general repair and 1x7 d reserve in normal 5474 case

Page 101 of 257

66.3

48.7 62.5


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Basing on the above mentioned down-times /operating times the following normal- and maximum capacities result for the planning of Sibovc: Tab. 6.4-6

Normal Capacity and maximum Capacity - Overburden

1) Normal daily capacity Maximum daily capacity Normal weekly capacity Maximum weekly capacity Normal monthly capacity Maximum monthly capacity Normal annual capacity Maximum annual capacity

Operating VE time new BWE with 1560 bcm/h Tb VE 1,000 bcm h 19.2 29.95

with: 1950 bcm/h VE

VE SchRs 650 with: 800 bcm/h VE

with: 1,000 bcm/h VE

VE SRs 1300 with: 700 bcm/h VE

with: 850 bcm/h VE

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

37.44

15.36

19.2

13.44

16.32

21.6

33.70

42.12

17.28

21.6

15.12

18.36

110.4

172

215

88

110

77

94

128.2

200

250

102

128

89

109

385

600

750

308

385

270

327

484

755

944

387

484

338

411

4,266

6655

8318

3413

4266

2986

3626

5,474

8540

10670

4380

5474

3832

4653

1) after Refurbishment

There is only a low interdependence between the systems due to the relatively low number of machines and the mine development planned in detail resulting in a very low reduction the overall of capacity (low system interdependence).

Page 102 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

The long-term planned overall capacity for the overburden operation is show in the below table: Tab. 6.4-7

Capability of Bucket Wheel Excavators in Overburden Operation

Reliable assumption VE m bcm/a 3.6 3.6 8.3 4.3 19.8

SRs 1300 SRs 1300 New BWE SchRs 650 SUM

Maximum assumption In 4.6 4.6 10.6 5.4 25.2

The listed equipment is therefore in principle capable of meeting the required coal supply of 19.1 to 24.8 mt per year (Ratio Overburden to Coal is 1.17 mÂł:1 t).

Capability of coal operation Tab. 6.4-8

Capability of Excavators in Coal Operation

Operating time

1) Normal daily capacity Maximum daily capacity Normal weekly capacity Maximum weekly capacity Normal monthly capacity Maximum monthly capacity Normal annual capacity Maximum annual capacity

1200 t/h VE 1000 t 23.0

SchRs 650 with 1200 t/h VE 1000 t 23.0

1500 t/h VE 1000 t 28.8

3* SRs 1300 SchRs 650 min VE 1000 t 80

21.6

25.9

25.9

32.4

90

110

110.4

110

132

132

165

462

561

128.2

128

153

153

192

537

651

385

385

462

462

577

1617

1963

484

484

580

580

726

2032

2466

4266

4260

5120

5120

6399

17900

21759

5474

5470

6560

6560

8211

22970

27891

Tb h 19.2

SRs 1300 with: 1000 t/h VE 1000 t 19.2

21.6

Page 103 of 257

and 1* max VE 1000 t 97.8


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

When using three excavators in the coal operation with capacities of excavators of the type S SRs 1300 and one excavator of the type SchRs 650 it would be theoretically possible to extract up to 27.9 m t coal and 25 mt, respectively, when taking into account inter-dependencies. This means that one excavator has to be purchased because only three bucket wheel excavators from the Mirash / Bardh mine are available for the coal operation in Sibovc. This can be other SRs 1300 or an excavator like the SchRs 650. Only three coal excavators would not meet the demanded capacity and in case of an accident in the coal operation reduced output would result for a limited period. The alternative deployment of an available excavator of the type SRs 400 as a fourth machine would not fill this gap. [Reason: The annual output capacity of such an excavator of the SRs 400 type is under the given conditions between 2.6 to 3.3 m t/a. Calculation: Vth = 2600 lcm/h Vtheo = 1530 t/h fload = 0.4 Ve = 612 t/h Tb = 4266 – 5474 h/a VE = 2.6 – 3.3 mt/a The before mentioned data are annual specifications which are only valid if the supply in every single week would be guaranteed. Reduced supplies of coal even in such small units of time like weeks will inevitably result in losses of the annual output capacity. The variations in the output during the year shall be taken into account for the entire system. The more uneven the possible coal supply to the consumers, the more unscheduled additional stops will occur. Comparisons with other brown coal districts show that further approximately 10-15% which will be lost. That applies to normal basic load operation without unusual requirements to the quality management. This is accepted for Sibovc. The following results for the pit system (up to the place of delivery power station) as nominal capacity: Tab. 6.4-9

Nominal Capacity of the Pit System

Reliable assumption VE m t/a SchRs 650 SRs 1300 SRs 1300 New SchRs 650 /SRs 1300 SUM

5.9 5.0 5.0 5.0 20.9

Maximum assumption in 7.3 5.9 5.9 5.9 25.0

Page 104 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

6.4.2 Capability of Belt Conveyors The conveying capacity is assessed on the basis of: • Belt width • Belt troughing • Belt speed • Utilization ratio of belt width • Inclination and • Bulk density of material The capability of the belt conveyor with a belt troughing of 36° is determined according to the following relation:

me = V e x ρ l Ve = A x vc x fi x 3600 Ve = we* x we x (390 + 725* tan φ) x vc x fi we = 0.9 x wc - 0.05 ρl … density of the conveyed material, loose Ve …effective conveying capacity on the belt A … bulk surface of the conveyed material vc …speed of the belt conveyor fi … factor considering belt inclination we …effective belt width wc …belt width φ …. angle of repose

in t/lcm in lcm/h in m² in m/s in m in m in °

Density and maximum belt inclination for the conveyed material: Tab. 6.4-10

Bulk Density, Angle of Repose and Inclination of Belt Conveyor

Material Overburden, dry Overburden, wet Coal

Bulk density t/lcm 1.6 – 1.7 1.7 – 1.8 0.75

Angle of repose ° 15 4 15

Page 105 of 257

Maximum inclination ° 17 10 - 15 18 - 20


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-11

Factor fi for Considering the Inclination

Inclination βc fi

0° 1

12° 0.97

15° 0.93

18° 0.89

20° 0.85

22° 0.84

25° 0.78

Example for determining capacity of the 1,800 mm belt conveyor: Effective belt width we = 0.9 x 1.8m + 0.5 = 1.57 m Vc … 5.24 m/s φ … 15° conveying capacity (φ = 15°) Ve = 1.572 x (390+725 tan 15°) x 5.24 fi = 7546 x fi lm³/h conveying capacity (φ = 4°) Ve = 1.572 x (390+725 tan 4°) x 5.24 fi = 5692 x fi lm³/h conveying capacity (φ = 0°) Ve = 1.572 x (390+725 tan 0°) x 5.24 fi = 5037 x fi lm³/h Summarizing, the following results for a 1.8 m belt conveyor at 36° belt troughing angle considering the bench inclination: Tab. 6.4-12

Possible Conveying Capacity for the 1.8 m Belt Conveyor, loose

Angle of repose φ ° 0°

Bulk surface

Belt inclination

A m² 0.2670

0.3017

10°

0.3545

15°

0.4000

βc ° 0° 10° 15° 0° 10° 15° 0° 10° 15° 0° 10° 15°

Factor Conveying capacity, loose fi 1.00 0.98 0.93 1.00 0.98 0.93 1.00 0.98 0.93 1.00 0.98 0.93

Belt speed 1.00 m/s 961.311 1086.274 1276.417 1440.150

in vc 5.24 m/s 5,037 4,936 4,684 5,692 5,578 5,293 6,688 6,554 6,220 7,546 7,395 7,018

lcm/h 5.85 m/s 5,624 5,511 5,230 6,355 6,228 5,910 7,467 7,318 6,944 8,424 8,255 7,834

6.55 m/s 6,296 6,170 5,855 7,115 6,973 6,617 8,360 8,193 7,775 9,433 9,244 8,772

To illustrate the conveying capacity in bank condition, the loosening factor 1.4 lcm/bcm is considered for the overburden in Sibovc:

Page 106 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-13

Eff. Conv Capacity Ve in bcm/h of the 1.8 m Belt Conveyor (Overburden)

Angle of repose φ ° 0°

Bulk surface

Belt inclination

A m² 0.2670

0.3017

10°

0.3545

15°

0.4000

βc ° 0° 10° 15° 0° 10° 15° 0° 10° 15° 0° 10° 15°

Tab. 6.4-14

Factor Conveying capacity, loose fi 1.00 0.98 0.93 1.00 0.98 0.93 1.00 0.98 0.93 1.00 0.98 0.93

Belt speed 1.00 m/s 961.311 1086.274 1276.417 1440.150

in vc 5.24 m/s 3,598 3,526 3,346 4,066 3,984 3,781 4,777 4,681 4,443 5,390 5,282 5,013

bcm/h 5.85 m/s 4,017 3,936 3,736 4,539 4,448 4,221 5,333 5,227 4,960 6,017 5,896 5,596

6.55 m/s 4,497 4,407 4,182 5,082 4,981 4,726 5,971 5,852 5,554 6,739 6,603 6,266

Possible Conveying Capacity for the 2.0 m Belt Conveyor, loose

Angle of repose φ °

Bulk surface

Belt inclination

Factor Conveying capacity, loose

A m²

βc °

fi -

Belt speed 1.00 m/s

vc 5.24 m/s

5.85 m/s

6.55 m/s

0.3318 0.4970

1.00 0.98 0.93 1.00 0.98 0.93

1194.375

15°

0° 10° 15° 0° 10° 15°

6,258 6,133 5,820 9,376 9,188 8,720

6,987 6,847 6,498 10,467 10,258 9,734

7,823 7,666 7,275 11,720 11,485 10,900

1789.306

Page 107 of 257

in

lcm/h


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-15

Eff. Conv. Capacity Ve of the 2.0 m Overburden Belt Conveyor in bcm/h

Angle of repose φ °

Bulk surface

Belt inclination

Factor Conveying capacity, loose

A m²

βc °

fi -

Belt speed 1.00 m/s

vc 5.24 m/s

5.85 m/s

6.55 m/s

0.3318 0.4970

1.00 0.98 0.93 1.00 0.98 0.93

853.125

15°

0° 10° 15° 0° 10° 15°

4,470 4,381 4,157 6,697 6,563 6,228

4,991 4,891 4,641 7,476 7,327 6,953

5,588 5,476 5,196 8,371 8,203 7,786

1278.076

in

bcm/h

Coal – belt conveyors: Belt width: 1.8 m Angle of repose φ = 15° Ve = 1.572 x (390+725 tan 15°) x 5.24 fi Ve = 1440.15 x 5.24 x fi = 7,546 x fi in lcm/h me = ρl x Ve ρf = 1.14 t/bcm ρl = 0.75 t/lcm loosening factor log-distance belt conveyor: fl = ρf / ρl = 1.52 lcm/bcm me = 7,546 x fi x 0.75 [t/h] me = 5,660 x fi [t/h] A horizontally positioned 1.8 m belt conveyor is capable of conveying approximately 5,660 t/h with a belt speed of 5.24 m/s. This means that two coal excavators can charge on head belt conveyor. In case of a speed of 5.85 m/s the conveying capacity will increase to 6,318 t/h and in case of a speed of 6.55 m/s to 7,075 t/h. Considering the inclination the following results: Tab. 6.4-16

Conveying Quantity of a 1.8 m Coal Conveyor in t/h

Angle of repose φ °

Bulk surface

Belt inclination

Factor Conveying quantity me

A m²

βc °

fi -

Belt speed 1.00 m/s

vc 5.24 m/s

5.85 m/s

6.55 m/s

15°

0.4000

0° 10° 12° 20°

1.00 0.98 0.97 0.85

1080.112

5,660 5,547 5,490 4,811

6,318 6,191 6,128 5,370

7,075 6,933 6,862 6,014

Page 108 of 257

in

t/h


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-17

Conveying Quantity of a 2.0 m Coal Belt Conveyor (wc = 1.75 m) in t/h

Angle of repose φ °

Bulk surface

Belt inclination

Factor Conveying quantity me

A m²

βc °

fi -

Belt speed 1.00 m/s

vc 5.24 m/s

5.85 m/s

6.55 m/s

15°

0.4970

0° 10° 12° 20°

1.00 0.98 0.97 0.85

1341.980

7,032 6,891 6,821 5,977

7,850 7,693 7,614 6,672

8,790 8,614 8,526 7,471

in

t/h

Coal – inclined belt conveyor The inclined coal belt conveyor is planned with an inclination of 1:6, i.e. about 10°. According to the belt speed, a 2.0 m wide belt conveyor can handle between 6,900 and 8,600 t/h coal per single conveyor. For a 1.8 m wide belt conveyor this would amount to 5,500 t/h to 6,900 t/h. Relations coal production to capability of long-distance belt conveyor: If all coal excavators would operate simultaneously with a capacity of 1,200 t/h this would result in a production of 4,800 t/h. Considering the unequal belt charge of all pit excavators of 25-30 % there follows a necessary effective total belt capacity of 6,240 t/h. This requirement is met by one single 1.8m belt conveyor with a belt speed of 6.55 m/s. Two long-distance belt conveyors lead to the power plants. Head belt conveyor: Two coal excavators charge the coal to one head belt conveyor. Calculating the short-term peak load (< 1h) of one single coal excavator with a Vth von ca.4,000 lcm/h and an addition of 25% there results the dimension of the discharging belt conveyor of ca. 5,000 lcm/h. Two excavators shall have the following size: 8000 lcm/h x 1.1 = 8,800 lcm/h or 6600 t/h for one belt conveyor line. This can also be met with a 1.8 m belt conveyor with a belt speed of 6.55 m/s.

6.4.3 Capability of Spreaders In principle there shall be a conveying reserve of 25% between belt conveyor and excavator and 10% between belt conveyor and spreader. Except the new A2Rs B 8000, the available spreaders will be used for saving costs. These spreaders are the bottleneck in the conveying chain. Measures to stabilise / increase the capability should therefore be included in the refurbishment.

Page 109 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-18

Comparison of possible Volume Streams

Vth 1)

planned Ve (> 1 d)

E 8M SRs 1300

lcm/h 4,200

bcm/h 850

lcm/h 1,300

Ve peak, estimated (15 min) lcm/h 4,000

E 9B SRs 1300

4,000

850

1,300

4,000

new BWE

6,000

1,950

2,960

6,000

E 9M SchRs 650

4,212

1,000

1,530

4,200

Volume Stream of Excavator

Belt System 1800 mm 1800 mm 2000 mm 1800 mm

Volume Stream of Belts 2)

Spreader

lcm/h 4,684 – 7,546 4,684 – 7,546 5,820 – 8,720 4,684 – 7,546

Nominal Capacity Spreader 1) lcm/h

P 4M

5,200

P 1B

5,000

new A2RsB

8,000

P 3M

5,200

1) Nominal capacity 2) With 5.24 m/s. Depends on inclination of belt and bulk material. Misalignment of belt reduces capacity additionally.

6.5 Mine Planning 6.5.1 Follow-up to mining in Bardh/ Mirash The planning was made to directly follow up mining operations of Bardh/ Mirash. The Mid Term Plan includes: Tab. 6.5-1

Overburden and Coal Output in Mirash / Bardh Overburden [ mbcm ]

thereof

Coal [ mt ]

thereof

thereof

Advance Widening Widening total Slope North South

Bardh

Mirash

Southeast (Reserve)

6.9

2.0

4.9

0.5

2.6

7.1

0.35

6.78

2.4

1.4

7.4

1.36

6.04

3.2

3.2

0.8

8.7

3.45

5.25

0.5

2.1

-

-

7.9

3.08

4.85

-

0.8

0.8

-

-

3.2

0.28

2.91

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.5

-

2.51

56.8

31.1

25.7

41.4

8.7

6.7

43.7

10.5

33.2

total

Bardh

Mirash

2005

14.4

6.9

7.5

12.0

0.5

1.9

2006

18.2

9.0

9.2

13.0

2.6

2007

14.1

7.9

6.2

10.3

2008

7.2

5.7

1.5

2009

2.1

1.6

2010

0.8

2011

total

Page 110 of 257

0.5


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

6.5.2 Excavation Boundary/ Boundary Line The following was taken into consideration when the excavation boundary (upper edge of first level) was established: a) Course of concession line b) Permissible approach to villages c) Thickness of mineable coal seam at the boundary d) Necessary general inclination from geotechnical point of view e) Necessary minimum profile from technological point of view f) Requirements to bench lengths which are meaningful from technological point of view g) Ecological aspects Altogether the excavation boundary or the technological depletion boundary represents a compromise between the criteria mentioned above. The following applies to the single criteria: For a) Concession line The partial field of Sibovc has already been foreseen for excavation. This area is defined by a limitation line. The limitation of the excavation area planned in the Main Mine Plan is within this area. For b) Approach to villages The relocation of villages within this field has already been taken into consideration As for villages at the edge of the future opencast mine minimum distances of 100 m to the residential buildings have been kept. This applies to buildings for which a building permit is available and which have been entered in the available maps. Near the village of Shipitulle little coal losses have been accepted to keep the infrastructure. The same applies to the southern part of the eastern boundary line. The viability of the village of Palaj has been kept. For c) Thickness of mineable coal seam at the boundary The coal seam takes a V form towards the edge so that the horizontal distance, e.g. at the western boundary line between 20 and 50 m seam thickness, is merely 100 to 200 m. Insofar the margin for selecting the boundary line is relatively small. Nevertheless, when it comes to a decision between a possibly complete use of the geological deposit and the economic aspects we recommend using the isoline of 20 m coal thickness. This value was used for planning in Sibovc. In addition to that it has been taken into consideration that belt lengthening or shortening is not always necessary and the head conveyors with a straight position can be constructed with a justifiable number of single conveyors.

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For d) Geotechnical safety All slope systems comply with the requirements regarding the stability required from a geotechnical point of view. i.e.: • general inclination / overburden system < 10° • overburden (single slope) < 45° (few exceptions) • general inclination / coal < 22° • coal (single slope) < 75° to 20m or < 70° to 25m To e) Requirements regarding the bench length There are requirements regarding the spontaneous ignition of coal slopes that are there for too long a time as well as the manageable belt length of the belt conveyor systems. The chosen form of excavation complies with the requirements necessary regarding the bench lengths. This statement applies to the planned excavation output of the opencast mine. Spontaneous ignition of coal slopes: In the coal slope there is the danger of spontaneous ignition in case the lifetime of a coal slope is too long (much longer than 3 months). This danger is not to be expected for the planned parameters for the active coal levels. This can be explained by the example of the first coal level: The bench length of the first, i.e. the longest, coal level is between 2.7 and 3.2 km (mostly about 2.9 km). In the most unfavourable case the following applies when a 20 m slope is used: • Cut height: 20 m • Block width: 37 m • Volume for 1 block: 2.368 m m³ = 20m x 37m x 3200m • Coal content: 2.70 mt/block = 2.368 m m³ x 1.14 t/m³ • Annual output: 19.11 mt/a • Number of blocks per year: 7.078 blocks per year = 19.11 mt / 2.7 mt • Time of excavation: 1.7 months = 12 months / 7.078 Therefore in the most unfavourable case a block circle takes 1.7 months or 7.35 weeks. In such a time period no spontaneous ignition will develop in the coal seam (with stable slopes). Moreover the block width can be reduced up to 20 m without any considerable output losses. Then the time necessary for one block circle is merely 1 month (by calculation 0.92). In the normal case the excavation time is much shorter because: • the coal levels 2 to 4 have a shorter bench length than the upper first coal level • the coal levels are somewhat shorter on average • the thickness is not always 20 m • the annual output is partly higher than 19.11 m t/a Annual mine advance: In relation to the whole deposit the annual mine advance is 100 to 150 m. (Rough calculation for better understanding: 800 mt / 19 mt/a = 42 a Total mine advance over the deposit for ca. 800 mt: 5,000 m 5,000 m / 42 a = 120 m/a) Page 112 of 257


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In the first three decades of mining the advance is ca. 110 m/a. When the geotechnical specifications of the slope design are followed, there is then no noteworthy danger of a spontaneous ignition for the normal side slope in the selected parallel operation. As far as the geotechnical specifications for slope design are kept, there is no relevant danger of spontaneous ignition for the normal side slope in the chosen parallel operation. For f) Ecological aspects It is recommended to consider the boundary line in the north of the deposit compared to the original boundary (see chapter 9). For g) Necessary minimum profile from technological point of view In addition to that minimum distances have been taken into consideration owing to the constructive dimensions of the excavation machines. The slope design is specified in the annexes: Schemes of Westbank Scheme of Westbank Part 1 (Annex 6.5-1): Part 1 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of < 40 m. The head convey-ors for Overburden 1 and 2 are positioned on one level. The coal is up to the height of Overburden Level 3 so that there is a general inclination of 22o for the coal slope. Along the upper edges of the berms a drainage ditch and embankment are provided. Within the area of the belt conveyor system there is a sand-washed gravel road (4 m wide with passing places). Scheme of Westbank Part 2 (Annex 6.5-2): Part 2 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of < 80 m. The head convey-ors for Overburden 1 and 2 are positioned on one level. The cut height of the single levels is increased by ramp excavation. Here, too, a drainage ditch and embankment are provided along the upper edges of the berms. The same applies to the sand-washed gravel road (4 m with passing places). Scheme of Westbank Part 3 (Annex 6.5-3): Part 3 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of > 80 m. The cut height of the single levels is increased by ramp excavation. Overburden 1 and 2 are divided into two berms. Drainage ditch, embankment and sand-washed gravel road are also provided. Schemes of Eastbank Scheme of Eastbank Part 1 (Annex 6.5-4): Eastbank Part 1 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of < 20 m and a coal thickness of 40 und 60 m. The head conveyor for Overburden 3 ends on the grass. The head conveyor for Overburden/Coal Level 4 positioned one level below is equipped with a distribution station above the inclined coal conveyor to distribute coal and overburden.. The head conveyors for Coal Level 1 and 2 run on separate benches. The Coal Levels 3 and 4 charge to one head conveyor. Page 113 of 257


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Along the upper edges of the berms a drainage ditch and embankment are provided. Within the area of the belt conveyor systems asphalt/concrete roads are provided (4 m wide with passing places). Scheme of Eastbank Part 2 (Annex 6.5-5): Eastbank Part 2 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of 20…40 m and a coal thickness of 20…40 m. The head conveyors for Overburden 3 and 4 are placed on separate levels. The head conveyor for Overburden/Coal Level 4 is equipped with a distribution station above the inclined coal conveyor to distribute coal and overburden. The Coal Levels 1 and 2 come together on one bench. Therefore the coal is charged to one head conveyor. The Coal Levels 3 and 4 also charge to one head conveyor. Along the upper edges of the berms a drainage ditch and embankment are provided. Within the area of the belt conveyor systems asphalt/concrete roads are provided (4 m wide with passing places).

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6.5.3 Conveyor Belts

Fig. 6.5-1

Scheme of conveyor belts

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Type of conveyor belts For the planning of the Sibovc Main Mine Plan we chose belt conveyor systems with steel rope belts. They have the following advantages over textile belts: • long lifetime (> years) • less risk of misalignment • less wear and thus a better utilization time of conveying system Thus the disadvantage of the higher investment costs is compensated very well. The idler stations should be constructed of three parts. The troughing angle is 36°. Length of conveyor belts The belt lengths in the overburden area are from < 2 to max 3.5 km. Being in horizontal position, these belt lengths can be managed by one drive station. Nevertheless it is planned to divide the long benches using additional drive stations. Thus the system can be operated in a cost-efficient way from an energetic point of view because only one of the two parts of the belt conveyor system will be in operation almost half of the time. There will also be a higher flexibility.

6.5.4 Bench Design Position of benches The Sibovc field shows a varying thickness and a varying inclination of the bench and of the roof and floor of the seam. The benches must follow these inclinations with the least possible mining loss. Taking both the cut height and the capacity of the machines into consideration, 4 levels were provided for overburden removal with the 4th level (Overburden Level 4) provided as a mixed level for both overburden and coal mining. Coal mining is also implemented in 4 levels. Admissible inclination of benches The inclination possible to be managed by the machines is 1:33 for excavator operation. For the inclination of the benches inclinations of 1:40 were chosen in order to be able to follow the big inclinations of the terrain, roof and floor. This maximum inclination puts very high demands to keeping the heights of the benches which can only be achieved by continuous checks. In the direction of mining it is possible to achieve a greater decrease or increase of the bench using the step excavation which is used for moving the belt conveyor system. In the direction of the bench the inclination must always be kept. Taking inclination for water drainage into consideration The planned inclinations provide water drainage. The minimum inclination should not be less than 1:150. A drainage ditch must be provided on the benches and pump stations shall be provided in the deep positions of the benches. Slope heights

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For the machines SRs 1300 and SchRs 650 slope heights of ca. 20 m have been planned. The new BWE operates with an average slope height of about 25 m. Greater slope heights can be carried out using the ramp excavation und interim bench excavation (annex 6.5-8). During ramp excavation the main machine cuts a ramp of 8…10 m thickness above the level of the belt conveyor system. The loading unit continues to travel on the level of the belt conveyor system. The slope height above the ramp is 20 m. The ramp is excavated in a second block. During interim bench excavation the excavator is moved to the other side of the belt conveyor system (remove segments, remove belt and safeguard with soil for travelling of machine, travelling of machine, close belt conveyor system again). The excavator travels over a ramp to an auxiliary bench which can be positioned ca. 8 m below the bench. The loading unit remains on the level of the belt conveyor system.

6.5.5 Division of Cuts Terrain morphology There is a hilly area starting at the village of Hade immediately north of the Mirash mine stretching in northern direction up to Lajthisht in the east and Shipitulle in the west which is followed by a steep transition into a valley in the north with the main village of Sibovc. Another hill continues north of Sibovc. The eastern boundary line has an almost continuous small overburden thickness (20…40 m) which is favourable for the coal transport in the east. The western boundary line starts with a small overburden thickness (20 m) and reaches its maximum (90 m) near the village of Shipitulle. In this area the coal seam increases to ca. 20 m so that the coal reaches into the overburden levels. Mining development During the period under review until 2038 there will mostly be parallel operation with varying advance at the ends of the bench according to the shape of the field. Overburden Levels 2 and 3 will be operated in parallel until the end of the field is reached. For the Overburden Level 1 and for the coal levels a turning point will be established north of Lajthisht (after 2045). Then the excavation of the field can be completed by turning round clockwise. Truck and Shovel Operation position of Overburden Level 1 – Annex 6.5.-10 For establishing the two bench belt conveyor systems in the valley west of Hade a total of 2 m m³ of overburden must be removed of which 1.6 m m³ will be removed in 2007 and 0.4 m m³ in 2008. Operation position of Overburden 2, 3, 4, Coal 1, 2, 3, 4: For preparing the operation positions for the Sibovc field from the final positions of Bardh and Mirash a Truck and Shovel operation of 0.1 m m³ each is planned. This will make room for the first construction of the belt conveyor systems and the bench levelling necessary for this. Overburden above Overburden Level 1: From 2008 to 2030 there will be a total of ca.12.0 m m³ overburden above Level 1. If it will be removed in parallel to Level 1, a maximum of 0.76 m m³/year have to be excavated. If the excavation is designed constantly, ca. 0.5 m m³/year has Page 117 of 257


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to be excavated. Excavation and dumping will be carried out by Truck and Shovel. Dumping will be carried out within the area of the active dumping benches. In the beginning dumping will also be possible in the eastern part of the Mirash mine. Mine overburden: After the mine excavators and belt wagons have dumped the residual overburden of the mine (overburden and interburden) behind the belt conveyor system it will be excavated and transported by Truck and Shovel. This applies in particular for Levels 1 and 2. From Level 3 it might be possible to dump the overburden on the floor by removing it and dumping it twice. In Level 4 the residual overburden (interburden and underburden) will be dumped onto the floor in general. Overburden levels Overburden Level 1 (E8B SRs 1300) – Annex II/ 6.5-11 The first level starts at the village of Hade. The bench cannot follow the inclination of the valley west of Hade. Therefore the first level starts with two conveyors that will be constructed in a V shape at the valley side. The excavation is implemented in east-west direction. Overburden Level 1 will end in front of the valley with the village of Sibovc in 2032. Areas above Overburden Level 1 will be excavated using Truck and Shovel. Excavator E8B SRs 1300 will only be available from June 2009. Till then, excavators E9M SchRs 650 and E8M SRs 1300 will be used. E9M SchRs 650 will work in the overburden Level 1 within the period from April – July 2008 and transported afterwards to the Overburden/Coal Level 4. E8M SRs 1300 will work in the Overburden Level 1 from May 2008 to May 2009 and shifted to Coal Level 2 afterwards. Because of the higher digging forces as compared to E8B this excavator is better suited for working in the coal operation. Overburden Level 2 (E9B SRs 1300) – Annex II/ 6.5-12 West of Hade the bench ends on the grass and rises from here to the hill of Hade. Just as Level 1, Overburden Level 2 does also not reach the east boundary line. Excavation is implemented in east-west direction. Within the area of the west boundary line the bench will be brought together with Level 1 over a larger area so that both head conveyors can be positioned on one bench. The conveyors will only be separated at the rise of the hill of Shipitull. Overburden Level 2 also ends in front of the valley of Sibovc. Behind the valley there will be a new cut and the hilly area will be excavated. Areas above the possible cut height of Level 2 will be excavated using Truck and Shovel. Overburden Level 3 (new BWE) – Annex II/ 6.5-13 The entire bench is being excavated in the main overburden level. Discharge is carried out up to the village of Lajthisht in west-east direction. Parts of Overburden Level 3 end in the valley of Sibovc. From this time (after 2038) the direction of mining will be changed into east-west direction up to the end of the Sibovc field. Overburden/Coal Level 4 (E9M SchRs 650) – Annex II/6.5-14 The bench cannot follow the big changes of inclination of the seam roof. Therefore Level 4 is a mixed level for both overburden and coal. Thus the bench is as far below the coal roof as possible. The discharge is carried out in west-east direction during the entire operation time of the opencast mine. For the respective inclined coal conveyor a distribution drive station is set up above the inclined conveyor from which the coal can be charged to the inclined conveyor and Page 118 of 257


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the overburden to the overburden belt conveyor system and then to the spreader. The average share of coal is one third of the masses excavated on Level 4. Coal Levels Coal Level 1 (E10M SchRs 650) – Annex II/ 6.5-15 Level 1 is the main coal extraction level. Partly occurring roof overburden and interburden are dumped by the excavator behind the belt conveyor system and then discharged by Truck and Shovel. A band wagon BRs 1600 is necessary for dumping. The transport is carried out in west-east direction as is the case for all coal levels, and then via the head belt conveyor system to the inclined belt conveyors. From here the coal goes to the power plants. An old underground mine exists in the south-western part of the Sibovc field. This mine may affect the excavation process. The influences were considering the equipment parameters. Coal Level 2 (E8M SRs 1300) – Annex II/ 6.5-16 Level 2 starts the excavation on an independent bench. After an advance of 1100 m the bench is brought together with the one of Level 1 in the eastern area so that both belt conveyor systems on the head bench charge to one head conveyor. The overburden of the mine which was dumped by the excavator on a belt wagon BRs 1600 before will be discharged by Truck and Shovel as far as possible on Level 2, too. Coal Level 3 (E10M SRs 1300) – Annex II/ 6.5-17 In the eastern part of the deposit the bench goes near the floor. From about 2030 it will be necessary to remove and dump also the overburden of the floor in order to allow the course of the bench which also requires a belt wagon BRs 1600. The machines on Level 3 use the same belt conveyor system as Level 4. Coal Level 4 (new SRs 1300 or similar machine) – Annex II/ 6.5-18 Level 4 will mainly be positioned in the western part of the deposit. Because it does not spread so widely in the first years the excavation can also be carried out by the excavator of Level 3 which works in interim bench excavation. From 2016 the use of a new machine such as SRs 1300 or a similar machine will be necessary. The coal below the bench can be excavated in interim bench excavation. It is supposed that 70% of the coal can be excavated from below Level 4. After 2038 Coal Level 4 will be closed. Capacity compensation On the levels where the benches are brought together at the boundary line the machines can help each other if capacity is needed. This applies in particular to Overburden Levels 1 and 2, Coal Levels 1 and 2 as well as 3 and 4. Overburden Level 2 can be used to compensate the capacity distribution of the excavators regarding the varying thickness of the coal. Appropriate adaptations are possible for short- and medium-term planning.

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6.5.6 Mass Calculation On the basis of the topographic isoline maps, the existing borehole data submitted by KEK and the results of additional exploration measures a digital deposit model was prepared for the purpose of the computer-aided mass calculation. The technological mass calculation has been realised with MicroStation-Programs as well as specialised programs developed by Vattenfall on the basis of triangulation. The following data and criteria of mineability have been considered in the mass calculation: • • • •

Density of lignite 1.14 t/m³ Extraction of lignite from a thickness of at least 0.5 m Separate excavation of intercalations from a thickness of more than 0.5 m Consideration of a mining loss of 0.4 – 0.5 m at each strata boundary

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Tab. 6.5-2

Sector calculation of the entire field

Section

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Sum

Overburden - Levels Coal - Levels OverburCoal OverCoal den burden 10³m³ 10³t 10³m³ 10³t Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum Overburden Interburden Underburden Coal Sum

45,054 0 0 4 656 45,058 656 55,661 0 0 739 5,684 56,400 5,684 100,137 0 0 1,114 9,321 101,251 9,321 132,603 0 0 1 4,383 132,604 4,383 166,865 0 0 264 17,034 167,129 17,034 105,633 0 0 2,891 23,404 108,524 23,404 59,518 0 0 3,219 30,139 62,737 30,139 84,014 0 0 2,560 18,789 86,574 18,789 749,485 0 0 0 0 0 10,792 109,410 760,277 109,410

0 0 0 0 7 408 10 0 425 0 1,447 1,209 2,656 0 1,896 1,925

11,018 11,018

23,261 23,261

84,649 84,649

110,760 3,821 110,760 0 2,035 1,327 123,282 3,362 123,282 11 1,688 9,536 99,986 11,235 99,986 401 2,355 11,218 138,839 13,974 138,839 332 2,302 13,294 128,596 15,928 128,596 751 0 12,131 0 38,519 0 0 720,391 51,401 720,391

Page 121 of 257

Sum Overburden 10³m³ 45,054 0 0 4 45,058 55,668 408 10 739 56,825 100,137 1,447 1,209 1,114 103,907 132,603 1,896 1,925 1 136,425 166,865 2,035 1,327 264 170,491 105,644 1,688 9,536 2,891 119,759 59,919 2,355 11,218 3,219 76,711 84,346 2,302 13,294 2,560 102,502 750,236 12,131 38,519 10,792 811,678

Sum Coal

O :C

10³t

11,674 11,674

3.86 : 1

28,945 28,945

1.96 : 1

93,970 93,970

1.11 : 1

115,143 115.143

1.18 : 1

140.316 140.316

1.22 : 1

123.390 123.390

0.97 : 1

168,978 168,978

0.45 : 1

147,386 147,386

0.70 : 1

829,802 829,802

0.98 : 1


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Fig. 6.5-2

Scheme of working levels and equipment

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6.5.7 Overburden Removal 6.5.7.1 Excavation Head block advance The overburden excavators operate in head block advance. Excavator SRs 1300 is used as an example for explaining the excavation process. The excavator works with a block width of 37 m. A slope height of 20 m is possible when the necessary slope angle in the overburden of 45° is kept. After one block has been completely excavated, the excavator travels to another place and another block with a width of 37 m can be excavated. Afterwards the belt conveyor system will be moved by 74 m and the excavator starts a new cut (see figure).

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Fig. 6.5-3

Workscheme / overburden â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SRs 1300.24

Division of slices and slope design The division of slices is used to establish the slope angles of the working slope and side slope. Page 124 of 257


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The machine starts with the excavation of the top slice. The slice height of the top slice is 0.7 times the bucket wheel diameter. By moving the machine by the cutting depth each the slice is excavated cut by cut until the crawler has reached the foot of the working slope. The block length to be reached by this results from the dimensions of the machines, the slope angle and the cutting height. The excavator then travels back to the beginning of the slice positioned below and excavates with the same block length. The normal slices have a height of 0.5 times the bucket wheel diameter. The bottom slice is at the same time the level on which the excavator operates. For a more exact excavation of this level the slice height must be limited to 0.25 times the bucket wheel diameter and is to be excavated with the help of an instructor. Furthermore, the slice height of 0.25 dA improves the free-cut angle in the lowest slice, because in the lower part the width of the boom construction decreases and therefore the free-cut angle reduces, too.

Fig. 6.5-4

Free-cut angle horizontal view

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0.5d A

0.25d A

Fig. 6.5-5

Free-cut angle horizontal view

The side slope shall be carried out by various slewing operations of the bucket wheel boom during the excavation of the single slices. The top slice will be excavated to the maximum using an angle of 90°. The slewing angles will be calculated on the basis of the slope height, the single slice heights and the side slope angle and must be provided for a safe slope design. Excavator SRs 1300 is used as an example for the calculations. The parameters for the other excavators will then be specified accordingly. Slope calculations for bucket wheel excavator SRs 1300.24: Fixed values: Bucket wheel diameter Boom length Pivot point from axis Height of pivot point Half crawler length

9.0 37.56 2.04 12.09 12.5

m m m m m

= da = lR = lRA = hRA = 0.5 lRaup

Calculation of block length (slice advance) Slope angle 45 o =β Slope height 20 m = hBö Height of top slice 5.5 m = hS Foreland / crawler – BUK 2 m = vRaup

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lVS

vRa up Fig. 6.5-6

lVS

Scheme calculation of block length

lVS = lR ² − (hBö − hs + 0.5dA − hRA)² + lRA = 39m bBö = (hBö − hS + 0.5dA − w) / tan β − u + v = 18.7m u = 0.5dA(1 − sin β ) sin β = 1.74m w = 0.5dA(1 − cos β ) = 1.23m v = 0.5dA sin β

(horizontal boom length from excavator axle)

lVS = lRH + 0.5 dA - 0.5 lRaup - bBö - vRaup = 10 m

(Block length = slice advance)

(slope height)

Calculation of division of slices / side slope Free-cut angle / conveyor Free-cut angle / gear

48o 40o

= hS = hS

The Slewing angle must be greater than the Free-cut angle. If φ < α, the Slice height must be reduced to 0.25 da.

bS = hS / tan β

(slice width)

lRH = lR ² − (hrad − hRA)² + lRA ϕ = arcsin((lRH 1 − ∑(bS )) / lRHn)

(wheel boom / horizontal)

(slewing angle)

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Tab. 6.5-3

Division of slices / overburden – SRs 1300

Slice height hS

Height of wheel axle hRad

Slice width bS

6.3 m 4.5 m 4.5 m 2.4 m 2.3 m 20.0 m

18.2 13.7 9.2 6.8 4.5

4.5 4.5 2.4 2.3

Tab. 6.5-4

Slewing angle φ

39.1 39.57 39.49 39.23 38.8

90 61 50 45 41

Block length and division of slices / overburden SchRs 650

Machine parameters

Slope geometry Calculation

Wheel boom horizontal lRh

Bucket wheel diameter Boom length Pivot point from axis Height of pivot point Half crawler length Free-cut angle / conveyor Free-cut angle / gear

10.56 35.5 1.4 13.9 12.5 40 40

M M M M M o o o

Slope angle

45

max. slope height

23 M

Block length Slice height

= da = lR = lRA = hRA = 0.5 lRaup

11.0 M

=β = hBö max

= lVS

Slewing angle φ

7.4

90

o

5.0

59

o

5.0

47

o

2.6

42

o

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(= 0.25 da)

(= 0.25 dA) (= 0.25 dA)


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 6.5-5

Block length and divisions of slices –new BWE

Machine parameters Bucket wheel diameter Boom length Pivot point from axis Height of pivot point Half crawler length Free-cut angle / conveyor Free-cut angle / gear

Slope geometry Calculation

12.0 41.0 3.0 13.14 15.91 40 40

m m m m m

= da = lR = lRA = hRA = 0.5 lRaup

o o o

Slope angle

45

max. slope height

27 m

=β = hBö max

Block length

8 m

Slice height

Slewing angle φ

8.4

90

o

6.5

56

o

6.5

43

o

3.6

37

o

= lVS

( = 0.25 da)

6.5.7.2 Dumping To provide the stability of the dump slopes as a whole a minimum general inclination value must be kept (item 5.7). From a general inclination of 6° the slope starts to flow out. To provide sufficient safety a general inclination of < 5° is specified for planning purposes. In order to achieve a safety towards flowing-out of the cohesive soil for the single slopes, the heights of the single slopes have to be limited. The soil types of the Sibovc mine stand safely up to a slope height of 12 m with a stability of 1.0 with the assumed geophysical parameters taken into consideration. When the slopes are higher, “flowing-out” of the slope up to half the slope height with an inclination of 6…8o is possible. Therefore the slope geometry is designed as provided in Annex 6.5-9. The spreaders are positioned on the deep dumping side where they can provide a sufficient foreland for the deep dumping. In the high cut slope a “flowing-out” of the slope must not be allowed because otherwise the belt conveyor system is in danger. Therefore the height of the high cut slope is limited to 8 m. Owing to the boom length of the spreaders A2RsB 4400.60 (58 m) and A2RsB 5200.55 (54 m) a block width of ca. 20 m is possible. The block width of the high dumping also determines the block width of the deep dumping and thus the move width of the belt conveyor sys-tem. The spreader travels very close to the belt conveyor system (21 m from the sleeper edge of the belt conveyor system to the outside edge of the crawler track). For the deep dumping the spreader travels on a wide track (35 m). The deep dumping slope can be established with the maximum permissible height of 12 m. Therefore a “flowing out” of the slope must be taken into consideration for which a natural flowing-out up to an inclination of Page 129 of 257


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6° up to half the slope is assumed. The space required for this is 50 m. Another 10 m are assumed as a safety distance up to the next deeper spreader slope. This slope system is considered the minimum slope system in order to comply with the general inclination of the dumping system with an angle of 5°. The single heights of the slopes must be kept. If the slopes begin to move, slided faces are created which are more unstable afterwards.

6.6 Lignite Operation Coal mining on the mixed level Overburden/Coal Level 4 The coal roof in the Sibovc field is very much inclined. The bench cannot follow these inclinations. Therefore the decision was made to establish one level for the excavation of overburden and coal. The course of the bench is mostly below the coal roof. About 2/3 of overburden and 1/3 of coal is excavated. A decision had to be made for the transport, i.e. whether to construct two belt conveyor systems – one for overburden and one for coal – or only one belt conveyor system. The advantages are in favour of one belt conveyor system. Overburden and coal are excavated alternately slice by slice. If two belt conveyor systems were set up, the discharge would have to change from one to the other systems. Moreover the short boom of the charging conveyor requires a belt wagon to charge to the conveyor which is far away from the excavator. Therefore twice the number of belt conveyor systems would be necessary for the bench and the head conveyor. Using only one belt conveyor system provides a sufficient gap for a change-over between overburden and coal at the belt distribution point. The belt distribution point is a drive station with distribution device above the respective inclined coal conveyor. Using the distributor either coal is supplied to the inclined conveyor or overburden to the head conveyor which goes up to the spreader. An excavator SchRs 650 is used for the mixed level owing to its higher capacity compared to a SRs 1300. To changeover between coal extraction and overburden removal, the belt conveying is stopped during the changeover operation for a short-term (brake of 3 min; ca. 1,000 m empty belt speed of 5.24 m/s). A block has a content of ca. 7,400 bcm (block width: 37 m; block height: 20 m; block advance: 10 m). For each block coal and overburden conveyance has to be changed twice (layer boundary in the block, change to a new block). With an average capacity of an excavator of ca. 1,000 bcm/h, the time for the changeover between overburden and coal is < 1 min/h (0.08 %). Nevertheless, if performance problems will occur due to selective winning, the excavator E7M SRs 470 is kept as reserve. This excavator was not taken into consideration in the capacity planning. So the E 7M provides an additional digging capacity. Normal coal mining As in the overburden operation the machines work in head block advance with a block width of 37 m. After two blocks have been excavated the belt conveyor system is moved. The work scheme for coal mining is shown in the following figure.

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Fig. 6.6-1

Work scheme coal excavator

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The basic principles established for the slice excavation apply to the coal, too. In coal mining slope angles of 65° have been assumed so that the following block lengths and divisions of cuts are possible: Tab. 6.6-1

Block length and division of slices / coal – SchRs 650

Machine parameters

Slope geometry Calculation

Bucket wheel diameter Boom length Pivot point from axis Height of pivot point Half crawler length Free-cut angle / conveyor Free-cut angle / gear

= da = lR = lRA = hRA = 0.5 lRaup

o o o

65

max. slope height

25 m

= hBö max

Block length

17 m

= lVS

Slice height

Slewing angle φ

7.4 m

90

o

5.0 m

69

o

5.0 m

62

o

2.6 m

59

o

(= 0.25 dA)

20.0 m

Block length and division of slices / coal – SRs 1300

Machine parameters

Slope geometry Calculation

m m m m m

Slope angle

Sum:

Tab. 6.6-2

10.56 35.5 1.4 13.9 12,5 40 40

Bucket wheel diameter Boom length Pivot point from axis Height of pivot point Half crawler length Free-cut angle / conveyor Free-cut angle / gear

8.4 37.56 2.04 12.09 12.5 54 46

m m m m m

= da = lR = lRA = hRA = 0.5 lRaup

o o o

Slope angle

65

max. slope height

22 m

= hBö max

Block length

18 m

= lVS

Slice height

Slewing angle φ

Sum:

5.5 m

90

o

4.0 m

70

o

4.0 m

63

o

4.0 m

58

o

2.5 m 20.0 m

56

o

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6.7 Stockpile Operation To stock coal and blend a homogenous coal quality according to the power plant parameters stockpiles are installed upstream the power plants. These stockpiles are installed directly at the power plant sites and belong to the responsibility of the opencast mine department.

Blocks 3, 4 and 5

6.7.1 Stockpile TPP A

Separation A

TPP A

T Blocks 1, 2 and 3

SHT-2b

Mirash-West Mirash-Southeast SHT-15

SHT-5.13

MK 2

MK 1 T ..... Truck Loading Point ... Active Belt Conveyors ... Passive Belt Conveyors

Fig.: 6.7-1

Scheme Stockpile A

The stockpile provides the respective coal quantities and qualities for the power plant TPP A and other consumers (heating purposes). It consists of four parallel arranged stockpile sections (at surface) with a maximum total volume of 560000 t. The total filling for a continuous handling amounts to 400000 t. The stockpiles are equipped with 2 combined stacker-reclaimers of the company TUSLA (MK 1 and MK 2), whereby each of the machines operates 2 stockpile sections. The capacity of one machine is 1,800 t/h both for stacking and reclaiming. Due to the combined stacker-reclaimer operation the following functions can be fulfilled: • stacking • reclaiming • by-pass operation Page 133 of 257


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• mass stream separation (by-pass operation and stacking) • by-pass operation and reclaiming The belt conveyor distribution system of Separation Plants A was very complex. In the past, a lot of connected consumers were supplied with different coal qualities via this distribution system. Parallel to the decommissioning of some of the consumers, belt conveyors and belt conveyor systems have also been put out of operation. In a first process, the coal is crushed in several steps down to a grain size of 30 mm. After the crushing, the coal can directly be transported to the power plant and the stockpile for stacking, respectively. It is recommended to blend a homogenous coal quality in three phases. • Control of equipment use in the opencast mine by precise extraction and pre-blending of different coal qualities • Blending of mass streams from the various mining fields • Blending within the stockpile cross section by slice-wise stacking In separation plant TPP A it is furthermore possible to produce and load pre-dried lump coal for sale (road transportation by trucks). The demand for TPP A and other consumer is planned with about 5.0 mt per year. The daily demand comes to 10 up to 15 kt. So in this case the normal filling level of 400 kt corresponds to a coal reserve of 26 up to 40 days (at most). This is regarded as sufficient.

6.7.2 Stockpile TPP B

t es W sh ri a h M ard B

Fig.: 6.7-2

TPP B

The coal is transported via two stationery belt conveyors to the stockpile.

MK B

MK A

Scheme of Stockpile TPP B

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After crushing to a grain size of 30 mm the coal can be directly transported to the power plant and the Stockpile for stacking, respectively. The Stockpile consists of four parallel arranged stockpile sections (at surface) with a maximum total volume of 500000 t. The optimal total filling for a continuous handling amounts to 350000 t. For a daily coal demand of ca. 10,000 t per block the coal reserves will last for 18 days in case of optimal filling level and a relatively high demand. According to the planned performance the yearly average coal demand for TPP B1+B2 in future is 5.3 mt or 15 kt per day. Hence on average the coal will be sufficient for 23 days. The stockpiles are equipped with 2 combined stacker-reclaimers of the company MAN (MK A and MK B), whereby each of the machines operates 2 stockpile sections. The capacity of one machine is 1,800 t/h both for stacking and reclaiming. The two machines can supply coal to both of the blocks. Furthermore it is also possible to directly supply coal to the power plant blocks from the mine without intermediate stacking. In this process, too, the combined stacker-reclaimer equipment is integrated in the mass flow. So it will be possible to blend a homogenous coal quality in a sufficient manner. Extension of capacity The construction of new power plant units requires an extension of the capacity of the stacker-reclaimers. The construction and, most of all, the concrete technical specification of these machines depend on the local conditions, the boiler design and mostly on the operation (utilization time) of the single power plant units. Financing and tendering shall therefore be done in parallel with the power plant. The following applies to the dimensioning: TPP B3 to B6 Period: 2013 to 2018 from 2020 Annual demand: 5.24 mt 10.66 mt Relevant daily demand (Dimensioning) 18 kt/d 36 kt/d Total operating time 19.2 h/d 19.2 h/d Time needed to empty stockyard (40%) 7.68 h/d 7.68 h/d Necessary hourly capacity 2,350 t/h 4,700 t/h A total of 2,350 t/h or from 2020 about 4,700 t/h are necessary for the system. For dimensioning the single machines the number (position, alternatives) and utilization shall also be taken into consideration. In the case of a failure of one machine it should be possible to cover the normal consumption of the power plant with increased efforts (organisation of operational process), i.e. the following applies to the two new units: Annual demand: 5.24 mt Daily average 14.36 kt/d Time needed to empty stockyard 10 h/d Necessary hourly capacity 1,436 t/h Widening factor 1.25 Theoretical capacity 1,800 t/h (single machine)

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Therefore in the second step of the TPP B four machines with 1,800 t/h each should be available (in addition to the already existing stacker of TPP B1+2). They can be used for normal repairs but also for special requirements regarding the coal quality management at times. When three reclaimers are in operation the newly built power plant can be supplied with 3x1,436 t/h =4300 t/h or 33 kt/d. The average demand of all four new power plant units amounts to 10.84 mt/a / 365 d/a = 30 kt/d. Remote belt conveyor system to TPP Kosovo B The planned consumption amounts to a total of 15.5 to 16.64 mt/a. The 16.64 mt occur only in 2 years. Because the power plant works with 4 units in base load operation (moderate fluctuations), the following can be assumed for dimensioning: relevant annual demand TPP B ca. 16 mt/a. relevant monthly demand ca. 1.48 mt/month relevant weekly demand ca. 350 kt/week relevant daily demand of TPP B ca. 56 kt/d technical/organisational availability 21.6 h/d supply time from the mine at 80% 17.28 h/d necessary charge to belt conveyor systems 3,240 t/h number of belt conveyor systems 2

The dimensioning of the single belt conveyor systems must include planned downtimes and technical breakdowns for which the coal consumption per week is a decisive criterion. We propose to make a supply by one belt conveyor system possible for one week. Because this will be a rather rare occasion, the following is provided for calculation: relevant annual demand TPP B ca. 16 mt/a. relevant weekly demand 350 kt/week 72% utilization of time etaT ( T) supply time 121 h/week (17.28 h/d) necessary supply of belt conveyor system ca. 2,890 t/h widening factor 1.25 theoretical capacity per belt conveyor TPP B ca. 3,600 t/h The theoretical capacity of the two belt conveyor to TPP B1 to 6 should also amount to 3,600 t/h (each) or 7,200 t/h in total. Using both systems results in 5,780 t/h. The daily demand of the power plant of 56 kt can then be supplied, if necessary, in 10 operating hours. Remote belt conveyor system to IPP The commission of an additional TPP (IPP) is planned for the year 2016. From 2018 the demand per year will be 8.1 mt. relevant weekly demand IPP 180 kt/week 72% utilization of time etaT ( T) supply time 121 h/week (17.28 h/d) Page 136 of 257


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necessary supply of belt conveyor system ca. 1,500 t/h widening factor 1.25 theoretical capacity per belt conveyor system IPP ca. 1,875 t/h Two belt conveyor systems with the respective theoretical capacity of > 1,875 t/h should be provided for the raw coal stockyard of the new power plant (IPP). In addition to that the appropriate stacker-reclaimers shall be provided. Comparison of the possible capacities of the Sibovc mine: Tab. 6.7-1

Overview of mine potential and power plant requirerment

Potential of mine

Requirement of TPP B1 to B6 16 mt/a 1) ca. 56 kt/d 17.28 h/d 1) 3,240t/h 2,600 t/h

Requirement of IPP

Relevant yearly output 23.6 (24.1) Relevant daily output ca. 103 kt/d Relevant operating time 21.6 h/d Max hourly output 4,800 t/h (4x1200) Output implementation in 4,800 t/h 21.6 h/d Theor. capacity 9,400 = 4 x 2,350 7,200 t/h t/h (2 Conv. Belts (4 BWE) each 3600 t/h)

8.1 mt/a 1) ca. 28 kt/d 17.28 h/d 1) 1,620 t/h 1,300 t/h

Average daily output at 66 kt/d 24.1 mt/a Average output 18.76 mt/a for TPPs from 2025 51.4 kt/d

22 kt/d

ca. 44 kt/d

3,750 t/h additional conv. belt capacity

10.66 mt/a 8.1 mt/a 29.2 kt/d 22.2 kt/d 1) not necessarily at the same time

Interpretation: As the table shows, the whole system adds up (the isochronous annual requirement of 24 mt merely occurs in 4 years). The important thing is that the potential of the mine of max. 103 kt/d faces a demand of 84 kt/d (+ run-of-mine coal). This is acceptable. It must also be taken into consideration that there is a more uniform demand from the power plant compared to the excavation in the opencast mine or, in other words, the utilization time of the opencast machines is shorter than the operating time of the boilers. With respect to the maximum hourly demand the mine capacity seems to be a bit tight. Since a peak demand can be compensated from the stockyards and the high demand does not occur over the entire operating time of the mine, the opencast mine should not be dimensioned any bigger. In single cases the excavator E8M can be used for coal mining in addition to the other machines. Inclined conveyor system, distribution and charging belts to the power plant The distribution of the coal starts on the inclined conveyors. The inclined conveyors and the other charging conveyors are provided twice which helps to ensure the supply of the power plants also in case of repair or breakdown of a belt conveyor system. Page 137 of 257


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In order to be able to charge to both conveyors, the charging stations (last head conveyor, inclined coal conveyor and transfer conveyor to the connection conveyors to the power plant) shall be equipped with a distribution device which can be used to charge on one discharging conveyor each. So there are three belt conveyor systems which supply the power plant. They change with the reconstruction of the inclined conveyor system: The first inclined conveyor system is installed in the transfer area from Bardh to Mirash. The existing conveyor routes will be used further on and replaced by new belt equipment. After charging to the inclined conveyors these charge to a double intermediate conveyor up to the distribution point for the power plants TPP A and TPP B. When the inclined conveyor system will be reconstructed in 2026, the new inclined conveyors will charge to about the middle of the present connection conveyors to the power plant TPP B. The conveyors will be separated at the transfer point. The southern part of the former charging conveyors to the power plant TPP B will be changed in the conveying direction and will become the intermediate conveyor to the location of the power plant TPP A. The connection conveyor to the location of the power plant TPP A remains as it is. The third inclined conveyor system will be constructed shortly after the end of the period under review in 2039 at the inflection point of the eastern boundary line of the Sibovc mine. The basic arrangement of the belt conveyor system will remain unchanged. The connection conveyors to the power plant TPP B will be shortened and the inter-mediate conveyors to the location of TPP A will be extended. There will be the following belt lengths: Tab. 6.7-2

Belt Length of charging conveyor to the power plant

Belt position / inclined conv. 1

Name Inclined conveyors Intermediate conveyors Connection conv. TPP A Connection conv. TPP B Sum

Length 2 2 2 2

Belt position / inclined conv. 2

Name Inclined conveyors Intermediate conv. TPP A Connection conv. TPP A Connection conv. TPP B Sum

2009 to

x x x x

700 280 3,300 2,600 6,880

2026 to

Length 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x

2026

m m m m m 2039

850 m 1,260 3,300 2,040 7,450

Number of drive stations 2 pcs. 2 pcs. 4 pcs. 2 pcs. 10 pcs.

m m m m

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Number of drive stations 2 pcs. 2 4 2 10

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Belt position / inclined conv. 3

Name Inclined conveyors Intermediate conv.TPP A Connection conv. TPP A Connection conv. TPP B Sum

2039 till

Length 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x

end

780 m 2,140 3,300 1,160 7,380

m m m m

Number of drive stations 2 pcs. 2 4 2 10

pcs. pcs. pcs. pcs.

6.8 Opening-up Operation 6.8.1 Preparatory Works in the Year 2007/2008 Technological main emphasis In 2007 the establishment of the operation position for Overburden Level 1 will start. Truck and Shovel as well as bulldozers will be used to remove ca. 2 million m³ of soil. The belt conveyor system for the overburden level will be established in two segments in the valley west of Hade in a V shape. The mass removal will start in 2007 with 1.6 m m³ and will continue in 2008 with 0.4 m m³. In 2008 the overburden excavators from the existing opencast mines will be used after having been refurbished and will start the development excavation in the transfer area of the opencast mine fields Bardh/Mirash up to the new field of Sibovc. After the excavators have started their operation there will be an adjustment period for improving the capacity until the time when they will have reached their full capacity, i.e. ca. 6 months.

The utilization of the machines has been planned as followed: April 2008 – Excavator E9M SchRs 650 This efficient excavator is planned for utilization in the Overburden/Coal Level 4, where coal and overburden have to be excavated alternately. As this level has not been cut free yet, the operation will start in Overburden Level 1 with the excavation of the western wing of the belt conveyor system. In the period from 4/2008 to 9/2008 an amount of 1.8 m m³ will be excavated. From 10/2008 the excavation in Overburden/Coal Level 4 will start. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mine will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. May 2008 – Excavator E9M SRs 1300 This excavator is planned to work in Coal Level 2 due to its digging forces. Until the use of the scheduled Excavator E9B SRs 1300 in Overburden Level 1, excavator E9M can start the excavation in the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. After use of Excavator E9B SRs 1300 in June 2009, the excavator will be transported to its place of operation in Coal Level 2. In 2008, about of 2.6 m m³ will be removed in Overburden Level 2. Page 139 of 257


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June 2008 – Excavator E9B SRs 1300 The excavator will be used in its new operation position in Overburden Level 2. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mine will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. West of Hade the bench will end on the grass. One bench will be used together with Overburden Level 1. The belt conveyor systems of both levels will be led around the Bardh/Mirash mines in southern direction and start the inside dumping in Mirash. September 2008 – new BWE The Overburden Level 3 is the level with the greatest thickness which goes over the whole length of the bench. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. There is a spreader dump in the western transition area of the Bardh mine. The heavily watersaturated clayey dump cannot be excavated any more. Therefore the excavator will have to make a new cut north of this dump. Discharge will take place in west-east direction. The excavator will operate in interim bench operation on a plane of 8 m be-low the belt conveyor systems. Before moving the belt conveyor system the slope must be levelled to an inclination of 1 : 3 and the belt conveyor system will then be moved over this inclination. This process will be repeated until the required bench height is reached. At the same time the general inclination of < 10° necessary from a geotechnical point of view must be kept. Parameters for the period under review: Tab. 6.8-1

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2007/08 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 2,425 0 2,602 2,230 2,273 2,767 12,295 146 146 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sum Overb. 12,295 Sum Coal 146 O:C -

6.8.2 Mining Development in the Year 2009 Technological main emphasis The overburden removal of the development will continue in 2009 until the utilization of the opencast machines starts. Until use of Excavator E8B SRs 1300, Excavator E8M SRs 1300 will work in Overburden Level 1. Afterwards, the excavator is shifted to Coal Level 2. The excavator in Overburden Level 1 will work exclusively at the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. The residual overheights above Level 1 at the eastern wing will be removed by Truck and Shovel. Page 140 of 257


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The mine equipment from the Bardh/Mirash mines will also stop working step by step. They will be refurbished basically and travel to their new operation positions. The use of the machines is planned as follows: -

April 2009 – Excavator E10M SchRs 650

In the first coal level the major part shall be removed by the efficient mine excavator. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. The mining direction will be the same as with all the other levels – west-east. A belt wagon BRs 1600 will be used in Level 1 for the removal of the mine overburden. -

June 2008 – Excavator E8B SRs 1300 in overburden level 1 Excavator E 8M SRs 1300 transportation in coal level 2 The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. The same machines as in Level 1 will be used. A belt wagon BRs 1600 will be used in Level 1 for the removal of the mine overburden. September 2008 – Excavator E10 B SRs 1300 The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. In Level 3 the excavator will carry out the coal excavation of Level 4 at first until 2016. During this time the machine capacity will be sufficient for both levels. Level 4 will not be fully developed till then. The excavator can be used to excavate the coal in interim bench excavation south of the belt conveyor system. A belt wagon BRs 1600 will be used for this and the residual overburden. Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.8-2

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2009 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 976 0 4,460 4,460 9,090 4,150 23,136 337 337 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 0 0 0 0 0 708 912 433 60 2.113 Sum Overb. 23,136 Sum Coal 2,450 O:C 9.4 :1

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6.8.3 Mining Development in the Year 2010 Technological main emphasis The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.

The overburden levels will continue their development excavation. In Overburden Level 1 the excavator E 8B will work at the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. Overburden Level 2 and 3 will work on a straight bench. In Level 4 the planned bench will have been reached with the new cut of the excavator in the western part. From this time the regular operation in overburden can start. The coal levels will still work with a shortened bench so that the full capacity cannot be reached. Parameters for the period under review

Tab. 6.8-3

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2010 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 567 0 4,460 4,460 9,090 4,150 22,727 1,268 1,268 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 0 0 0 0 0 1970 2538 1206 167 5.882 Sum Overb. 22,727 Sum Coal 7,150 O:C 3.2 :1

6.8.4 Mining Development in the Year 2011 Technological main emphasis The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. In the Overburden Level 1 the excavator will start to work alternately at the western and eastern wing of the divided belt conveyor system. In the other overburden levels there will be a regular operation. In the coal extraction all levels will still work with shortened benches.

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Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.8-4

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2011 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 136 72 4,460 4,460 9,090 4,150 22,368 2,247 2,247 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 38 21 12 0 72 2629 1896 938 140 5,603 Sum Overb. 22,440 Sum Coal 7,850 O:C 2.9 :1

6.8.5 Mining Development in the Year 2012 Technological main emphasis The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. In the overburden levels the overburden machines will continue to work as planned. At the end of 2012 the bench in Coal Level 1 will be extended into the direction of the western boundary line. The other levels will still work with a shortened bench. Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.8-5

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2012 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 136 197 4,460 4,460 9,090 4,150 22,493 2,247 2,247 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 105 58 34 1 197 5685 3234 1639 255 10,813 Sum Overb. 22,690 Sum Coal 13,060 O:C 1.7 :1

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6.8.6 Mining Development in the Year 2013 Technological main emphasis The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. In the overburden levels the overburden machines will continue to work as planned. In 2013 the Coal Level 1 will have reached its planned bench in the area of the western boundary line. In Level 2 the cutting of the bench and the bench extension into the direction of the western boundary line will have started by which a regular operation in the main excavation levels of the coal is possible. By this the development operation for the mine can be regarded as finished. Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.8-6

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2013 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 580 243 4,460 4,460 9,090 4,150 22,984 2,102 2,102 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 119 74 51 75 319 6,306 4,124 2,645 594 13,668 Sum Overb. 23,303 Sum Coal 15,770 O:C 1.5 :1

6.9 Regular Operation 6.9.1 Mining Development in the Period 2014 – 2018 Technological main emphasis The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.

In Overburden Level 1 the pivoting of the west and eastern wings of the belt conveyor system will almost be finished. Levels 2 to 4 will develop as planned. The head conveyors of Level 1 and 2 will still be on one bench. The Coal Levels 1 to 4 will reach their planned benches. In 2016 a newly built excavator SRs 1300 or equivalent will be used for Level 4. The excavator will mostly work in the west part of the deposit. In the east the belt conveyor system will be moved to the height of Level 3. Both bench conveyors will charge to one head conveyor system. Page 144 of 257


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Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.9-1

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2014-2018 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 2,939 1,485 22,300 22,300 45,450 20,750 115,223 8,447 8,447 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 592 464 428 1.209 2,693 30,411 25,876 22,347 6,658 85,293 Sum Overb. 117,917 Sum Coal 93,740 O:C 1.3 :1

6.9.2 Mining Development in the Period 2019 - 2023 Technological main emphasis The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.

In Overburden Level 1 the bench will finally be straightened. In the west part there is a rise within the area of the hill of Shipitull in all levels. Owing to the increased cut height the ramp excavation will have to start. The bench between Level 1 and 2 is divided so that the head conveyors will be separated in future. The Coal Levels 1 to 4 will continue their normal work on their planned benches. Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.9-2

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2019-2023 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 2,934 2,421 22,300 22,300 45,450 20,750 116,156 4,821 4,821 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 686 564 1,170 1,537 3,959 38,336 30,722 33,629 14,301 116,989 Sum Overb. 120,114 Sum Coal 121,810 O:C 1.0 :1

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

6.9.3 Mining Development in the Period 2024 - 2028 Technological main emphasis The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. The major part of the mass extraction will be carried out during the period under review.

In the Overburden Level 1 both belt conveyor systems will be pivoted separately. There will be a greater advance at the beginning and the end of the bench compared to the middle by which the shape of the terrain will adapt to the valley of Sibovc. The other overburden levels will pivot normally. In the west the benches will rise in the area of the hill of Shipitull. The Overburden Level 2 will reach the highest area of the hill. The coal levels will develop as planned. Towards the end of the period under review a new inclined conveyor system will be used for the coal transport. From this time the Coal Levels 1 and 2 will be on the same height so that one head conveyor can be used. At that time the distribution station within the area of the inclined conveyor of the Overburden/Coal Level 4 will also be rebuilt to fit the new inclined conveyor system. Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.9-3

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2024-2028 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 3,813 1,582 22,300 22,300 45,450 20,750 116,195 11,681 11,681 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 570 360 652 792 2.374 31,776 18,447 26,238 10,598 87,059 Sum Overb. 118,569 Sum Coal 98,740 O:C 1.2 :1

6.9.4 Mining Development in the Period 2029 - 2033 Technological main emphasis The use of Truck and Shovel to support Overburden Level 1 will come to an end during the period under review.

During the period under review the excavation in the Overburden Level 1 immediately at the valley of Sibovc will finish. The other overburden levels will leave the hilly area of the village of Shipitulle.

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The coal levels will develop as planned. Coal Levels 3 and 4 will finally be converted to the new inclined conveyor system, too, and continue to charge to one head conveyor system. Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.9-4

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2029-2033 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 1,234 6,419 15,986 22,120 41,445 21,606 108,810 16,208 16,208 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 646 1,421 4,352 353 6,772 33,932 18,012 21,050 6,889 79,882 Sum Overb. 115,582 Sum Coal 96,090 O:C 1.2 :1

6.9.5 Mining Development in the Period 2034 – 2038 Technological main emphasis Overburden will only be excavated in the Overburden Levels 2, 3 and 4. The Overburden Level 2 will end on the main part of the bench in the valley of Sibovc and will continue on a shorter bench in the west part in order to resume the excavation with a new cut in the north of Sibovc at a later time. Towards the end of the period under review the third overburden level will also reach the valley of Sibovc. After 2038 the mining direction will have to change from west-east to east-west. The coal levels will develop as planned. In the Coal Level 3 the removal of overburden from the floor will become more and more necessary owing to the course of the bench. Parameters for the period under review Tab. 6.9-5

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Overb. [10³m³] Coal [10³t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2034-2038 Truck+Shov. Overburden Levels Sum over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 Coal 0 8,321 0 13,414 31,752 19,366 72,854 17,781 17,781 Coal Levels Sum Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 800 1,632 5,890 100 8,421 35,221 17,808 20,405 4,875 78,309 Sum Overb. 81,275 Sum Coal 96,090 O:C 0.8 :1 Page 147 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

6.10 Production Schedule Tab. 6.10-1 Level Year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038

Production Schedule

Truck Overb. 10³m³ 1,600 825 976 567 136 136 580 600 600 600 579 560 560 560 560 560 696 763 763 763 763 763 763 472 0 0 0

15,740

Level 1 Overb. 10³m³ 2,602 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 2,606 0 0 0 0 0 0 22,300

Overburden Levels Level 2 Level 3 Overb. Overb. 10³m³ 10³m³ 2,230 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,460 4,720 4,286 4,286 4,367 4,327 3,777 3,128 516 429 125,727

2,273 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 9,090 7,542 8,220 8,220 8,374 8,297 7,242 6,084 5,573 4,635 257,348

Coal Levels Level 4 Overb. 10³m³ 2,767 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,150 4,470 4,302 4,302 4,383 4,342 3,790 3,223 5,006 4,164 127,897

Coal 10³t 146 337 1,268 2,247 2,247 2,102 2,095 2,095 2,095 1,411 751 751 751 751 751 1,817 2,336 2,336 2,336 2,336 2,336 2,336 2,929 3,625 3,625 3,693 3,659 3,625 3,616 3,409 3,473 67,286

Level 1 Overb. 10³m³ 0 0 38 105 119 97 97 115 138 146 133 138 137 137 141 128 110 110 110 112 111 122 137 137 139 138 137 139 191 195 3,557

Coal 10³t

Level 2 Overb. 10³m³

708 1,970 2,629 5,685 6,306 4,942 4,942 5,850 7,068 7,608 7,411 7,722 7,664 7,664 7,874 7,155 6,122 6,122 6,122 6,254 6,188 6,546 7,022 7,022 7,154 7,088 7,022 7,020 6,979 7,111 186,972

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0 0 21 58 74 75 75 89 108 116 112 117 116 116 104 81 69 69 69 71 70 213 377 377 384 380 377 372 249 254 4,593

Coal 10³t 912 2,538 1,896 3,234 4,124 4,213 4,213 4,987 6,025 6,439 6,125 6,382 6,334 6,334 5,548 4,154 3,554 3,554 3,554 3,630 3,592 3,574 3,593 3,593 3,660 3,626 3,593 3,588 3,468 3,533 123,569

Level 3 Overb. 10³m³ 0 0 12 34 51 64 64 76 92 132 235 245 243 243 206 147 126 126 126 128 127 624 1,193 1,193 1,215 1,204 1,193 1,191 1,140 1,162 12,590 *

Coal 10³t

Level 4 Overb. 10³m³

Coal 10³t

Sum Overb. 10³m³

1,600 10,695 433 0 60 23,136 1,206 0 167 22,727 938 0 140 22,368 1,639 1 255 22,493 2,645 75 594 23,059 3,586 196 1,033 23,192 3,586 196 1,033 23,192 4,245 232 1,223 23,272 5,129 280 1,478 23,358 5,801 305 1,891 23,419 6,545 310 2,798 23,509 6,819 323 2,915 23,542 6,768 321 2,893 23,536 6,768 321 2,893 23,536 6,730 263 2,801 23,571 5,908 178 2,386 23,457 5,055 153 2,042 23,380 5,055 153 2,042 23,380 5,055 153 2,042 23,380 5,164 156 2,086 23,390 5,109 154 2,064 23,385 4,472 97 1,590 22,719 3,799 34 1,072 23,008 3,799 34 1,072 21,154 3,871 34 1,092 18,897 3,835 34 1,082 18,722 3,799 34 1,072 16,548 3,824 32 1,062 14,169 4,432 0 822 12,675 4,515 0 838 10,839 130,532 4,067 44,538 659,308 until start new SRs 1300, excavation with E10B

Sum Coal 10³t 0 146 2,450 7,150 7,850 13,060 15,770 15,870 15,870 18,400 21,110 22,490 23,630 24,590 24,410 24,410 24,770 21,940 19,110 19,110 19,110 19,470 19,290 19,110 19,110 19,110 19,470 19,290 19,110 19,110 19,110 19,470 552,897


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

7 Main Mining Equipment 7.1 Technical Status of existing Main Mining Equipment 7.1.1 Technical Status of Excavators SRs 1300 und SchRs 650 a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering Main bearing structure The main bearing structure is in a sufficient condition. Larger damage was not noticed. All machines have extensive starting corrosion which gives no cause for concern at the moment. It shall be considered that under the climatic conditions prevailing in Kosovo there will be an annual reduction in thickness of up to 0.1 mm caused by corrosion. For a medium- and/or long-term deployment, a complete corrosion protection is therefore urgently necessary for each of the equipment. Auxiliary structure Auxiliary structures such as catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial damages. These damages have no direct influence on the efficiency of the equipment, but they involve dangers for the service personnel. Mechanical engineering Very critical is the condition of wear parts and their insufficient stock reserve, like for example crawler base pads, ripper teeth and chains at the shovels, scrapers and side sealings. The lubrication plants of the SRs 1300 were partly overhauled in the last years but are however in an unsatisfactory maintenance condition. This is particularly problematic in the undercarriage part of the two SchRs 650. The brake assemblies at different drives are out of function. Limit switch systems are essentially in function, but have defects due to a bad maintenance condition. Hereby, defects mainly occur at the system rope tearing and tensioning at the E9B, which cannot be activated due to unsatisfactory adjustment of the ropes "wheel boom hoist". A drive at the wheel belt of E8M is missing (broken shaft of the belt conveyor drum). Up to the realization of a comprehensive mechanical reconstruction for medium- and/or longterm further deployment, a substantial restriction of the equipment availability shall be taken into account as wall as substantially increased running costs for maintenance.

b) Electrical Equipment The technical condition of the electrical equipment on the bucket wheel excavators of the type SRs 1300 and SchRs 650 is characterized by Year of construction, Operation years in the mines/pits including maintenance and Rehabilitation measures of selected electrical equipment in the years 2001 to 2005 The electrical equipment and electronic devices of the excavators as: 6kV-bench cable und cable drums, Medium voltage systems „6kV AC“ with battery plant 110V DC,

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Logic control (relay- or PLC-Systems) and low voltage systems „230V/400V AC “including lighting technology; Drive systems (400V AC-motors, travel- und slewing gear with rectifier DC), Limit switches, buttons, local-control-boxes, Cable and cable run and Cabins und electric houses are corresponding with the state of the art of the 80 years. The electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond any longer to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given, e.g.: The roofs and windows of the electrical houses are leaky during precipitation (rain and snow). The electrical plants like for example switch cabinet cubicles and electrical operation rooms and terminal boxes of 6 kV-incoming supply and motors are not locked and/or not equipped with safe locking system. The low voltage switch systems do not have shock protection. The medium voltage switch systems are not sufficiently equipped with arc shield. The 6 kV-high-voltage terminal boxes have no sufficient arc voltage protection and they are in a very bad technical repair. Most of the high -voltage protective relays are defective. The medium- and low-voltage systems at the bucket wheel excavators no longer correspond no to the valid European Norms and therefore the latest state of the art. In addition, electrical as well as electronic safety equipment, buttons, synchros and local control boxes are worn out and partly no more in function for different reasons (missing spare parts, deficient maintenance). According to rough estimations, more than 40 to 55 % of the sensors are ready for operation. The sensors in the field area are an important prerequisite for indicating safe operating and status condition (monitoring in the excavator operator cabin. The cables and cable routes have been strongly due to environmental impacts (e.g. ozone) and technological conditions (e.g. contamination, mechanical cramping and distortion of cables). The electrical drive units (starter, motor and thrustor), for example for conveyor belts, hoisting winches, tensioning devices, auxiliary motors and oil pumps, have a very limited availability and reliability. Motors can only be repaired with large expenses. Thrustors with the mechanical part of the brake are mainly not functioning and/or partly not reliable in their function. In line with this the electrical drives are not applicable for a safe operation. In the years 2000 to 2003, mainly material for the most urgent repairs in the opencast mines was purchased by the Consultants of the EAR, so for example high- and low-voltage cables, 6kV-protection relays and circuit-breakers, switchgears in container design for power supply and belt conveyors and spare motors. The bucket wheel excavators of the type SRs 1300 are distinguished according to the carried out retrofitting measures as follow: Main cabin new in ergonomic shape (to be accomplished in 2005) travel gear drive and slewing gear drive with 3-phase current motors and frequency converter, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), Limit switch (end position, lever arm, pull cord), Lubrication plant;

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The bucket wheel excavators of the type SchRs 650 (manufactured in 1986 and 1987) are equipped with a PLC System and rectifier (DC technology) and are mostly worn out. Original spare parts and building elements are not available for those obsolete machines.

Bucket Wheel Excavator SRs 470 und SRs 315 a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering Main bearing structure The main bearing structures of the devices are in an insufficient condition. There are particularly serious damages at the steel structure at the main undercarriage of the E2B. The equipment is to be rehabilitated in a short-term and/or taken out of operation. Furthermore, tears are continuously occurring at all machines, particularly in the connecting sheets, in the undercarriage and slewing device of the loading boom, in diagonals of the superstructure as well as the bucket wheel head in nearly all devices. Pivot bearings at the tie bars are worn out. Corrosion caused material attenuation in the intersections. Auxiliary structures Auxiliary structures such as catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial damages. These damages have no direct influence on the efficiency of the equipment, but they involve dangers for the service personnel.

Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering can be evaluated similar to the condition of the main bearing- and auxiliary structure. Main assemblies such as pulleys and gearboxes are not grease- and/or oilproof. To a large extent the brake systems at the drives are missing and/or inefficient. Clutches are not covered. Wear parts like crawler base pads and buckets exceeded the wear limit. The central lubrication plants are not functioning. Side sealings and scrapers are ineffective and/or missing. Due to the critical state of the e-plants a numerous limit switches are not in function. Until decommissioning of these devices (devices will not be used in the new opencast mine field) continuous restrictions in the equipment availability have to be taken into account which are only hardly calculable and which incur high running maintenance costs. b) Electrical Engineering The condition of each of these excavators can be assessed as „equally bad“ because they are the oldest opencast mining machines (1965- 1978). Repairs and rehabilitation measures for the electrical equipment have not been carried out so far. These machines will not be used in the new opencast mine field. According to the present planning these opencast mine machines will be in operation until 2011 or will be replaced by released overburden excavators. The electrical equipment in the E-houses like the high- and low-voltage systems is in a bad condition. They do not comply with international standards and are a considerable danger for the personnel. The plants should be stabilized in short-term within the framework of running maintenance to such an extent that it will be possible to operate the devices with justifiable risk until decommissioning. The main components of the electrical equipment shall then be replaced within the scope of complex maintenance measures.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Conclusion: Under consideration of the equipment condition, but mainly due to the too low capacity potential (regarding output quantity and stripping performance), it is not foreseen to use the excavators of the type SRs 470 / 315 in the Sibovc Field. Furthermore this has advantages regarding warehouse management and interchangeability.

7.1.2 Technical Status of Belt Conveyor Systems a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering Except the newly reconstructed drive stations D1 and TP1, all other belt conveyor parts are in a deficient condition. The drives at the drive stations (ATS) are very sensitive due to their lifetime. Brake systems and protective covers are missing, lubrication systems are not functioning. Drums are highly worn out and mostly have no rubber coating. Catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial damages and/or are missing. In the transfer and charging sections sealings are defective and/or missing. Scrapers are partly ineffective which causes considerable contamination. At the bearing steel structure large areas with corrosion are visible. The steel construction of about 20 % of the bearing frame sections is bended. In particular, ties show larger damages due to corrosion. The return rolls are worn to a great extent. Conveyor belts show considerable defects at the edges. Resulting from misalignment, the belt edges are partly worn by more than 150 mm. The average length of belt parts is by far below half of the length for new belts. That means, a number of additional joints (distances partly only 12 - 30 m) have to be provided with all known disadvantages regarding reliability, higher running costs and uncertain plant availability. b) Electrical Engineering The electrical equipment has been in operation since the 70ies and 80ies. It must be assessed that the condition of electrical equipment (except D1, TP1 and T1) is unsatisfactory on all belt conveyors. The electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond any longer to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given e.g.: The roofs and windows of the electrical houses are leaky during precipitation (rain and snow). The electrical plants like for example switch cabinet cubicles and electrical operation rooms and terminal boxes of 6 kV-incoming supply and motors are not locked and/or not equipped with safe locking system. The low voltage switch systems do not have shock protection. The medium voltage switch systems are not sufficiently equipped with arc shield. The 6 kV-high-voltage terminal boxes have no sufficient arc voltage protection and they are in a very bad technical repair. Most of the high -voltage protective relays are defective. The medium- and low-voltage systems at the bucket wheel excavators no longer correspond no to the valid European Norms and therefore the latest state of the art.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

In addition, electrical as well as electronic safety equipment, buttons, synchros and local control boxes are worn out and partly no more in function for different reasons (missing spare parts, deficient maintenance). According to rough estimations, more than 40 to 55 % of the sensors are ready for operation. The sensors in the field area are an important prerequisite for indicating safe operating and status condition (monitoring in the excavator operator cabin. The cables and cable routes have been strongly due to environmental impacts (e.g. ozone) and technological conditions (e.g. contamination, mechanical cramping and distortion of cables). The electrical drive units (starter, motor and thrustor), for example for conveyor belts, hoisting winches, tensioning devices, auxiliary motors and oil pumps, have a very limited availability and reliability. Motors can only be repaired with large expenses. Thrustors with the mechanical part of the brake are mainly not functioning and/or partly not reliable in their function. In line with this the electrical drives are not applicable for a safe operation. The electrical equipment at the belt tripper car are totally worn out and do not correspond to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given. The electrical equipment on the belt conveyor and the mobile transfer conveyor should be stabilized in short-term within the framework of running maintenance to such an extent that it will be possible to operate the devices with justifiable risk until reconstruction and/or decommissioning.

7.1.3 Technical Status of Spreaders a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering Main bearing structure The main bearing structure of the A2Rs 4400 and the 5200 are in a satisfying condition. Except some bent diagonals in the discharge booms no signs of larger damage were found. In different places large areas with corrosion are visible, especially at the discharge booms, junctions, tie bars and the carrying rope of the discharge boom suspension of the A2 RsB 4400. Numerous bent diagonals, tears and large-area corrosion damages can be found at the A2 RsB 2500. It shall be considered that under the climatic conditions prevailing in Kosovo there will be an annual reduction in thickness of up to 0.1 mm caused by corrosion. If disregarded, this leads to nicks and/or attenuations of the cross-sections as well as the reduction of the fatigue strength. For a medium- and/or long-term deployment, a complete corrosion protection is therefore urgently necessary for each of the equipment. Auxiliary structures: Auxiliary structures such as catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial damages. These damages have no direct influence on the efficiency of the equipment, but they involve dangers for the service personnel. Mechanical engineering The central lubrication plants of the machines are partly not functioning. This is especially dangerous for the area of the travelling gear and the slewing ball bearings. Almost all drives work without any functioning brake system. Crawler base pads are in a bad condition and reached the wear limit. Scrapers are ineffective and/or missing.

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Until a general mechanical reconstruction for a medium- and/or long-term deployment of these devices continuous restrictions in the equipment availability have to be taken into account which are only hardly calculable and which incur high running maintenance costs. b) Electrical Engineering

The electrical equipment has been in operation since the nineteen 80ies. It can be characterized as follows: The electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond any longer to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given, e.g.: The roofs and windows of the electrical houses are leaky during precipitation (rain and snow). The electrical plants like for example switch cabinet cubicles and electrical operation rooms and terminal boxes of 6 kV-incoming supply and motors are not locked and/or not equipped with safe locking system. The low voltage switch systems do not have shock protection. The medium voltage switch systems are not sufficiently equipped with arc shield. The 6 kV-high-voltage terminal boxes have no sufficient arc voltage protection and they are in a very bad technical repair. Most of the high -voltage protective relays are defective. The medium- and low-voltage systems at the bucket wheel excavators no longer correspond no to the valid European Norms and therefore the latest state of the art. In addition, electrical as well as electronic safety equipment, buttons, synchros and local control boxes are worn out and partly no more in function for different reasons (missing spare parts, deficient maintenance). According to rough estimations, more than 40 to 55 % of the sensors are ready for operation. The sensors in the field area are an important prerequisite for indicating safe operating and status condition (monitoring in the excavator operator cabin. The cables and cable routes have been strongly due to environmental impacts (e.g. ozone) and technological conditions (e.g. contamination, mechanical cramping and distortion of cables). The electrical drive units (starter, motor and thrustor), for example for conveyor belts, hoisting winches, tensioning devices, auxiliary motors and oil pumps, have a very limited availability and reliability. Motors can only be repaired with large expenses. Thrustors with the mechanical part of the brake are mainly not functioning and/or partly not reliable in their function. In line with this the electrical drives are not applicable for a safe operation.

7.1.4 Technical Status of Belt Wagons Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering Main bearing construction The main bearing structure of the belt wagons is in a bad condition. A number of damages were found at the bearing structure, e. g.: Pivot bearings of booms are worn out Twisted pin locks Rusty guy ropes Page 154 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Twisted and/or missing diagonal bars Cracks of 2- and 4-wheel bogies Booms are partly completely out of shape Defective repair of steel construction Large areas with corrosion are visible. Auxiliary structure: Auxiliary structures such as catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial damages. These damages have no direct influence on the efficiency of the equipment, but they involve dangers for the service personnel. Mechanical engineering Lubrication systems at the equipment are partly not functioning. Drums and idlers are in a bad mechanical condition. The same applies for crawler base pads and tensioning devices at the belts and travelling gears. Contamination is due to missing scrapers and side sealings. Limit switches are partly ineffective or not in function. Until decommissioning of these devices continuous restrictions in the equipment availability have to be taken into account which are only hardly calculable and which incur high running maintenance costs. Electrical Engineering The belt wagons „BRs 1600“ have been in operation since 1979 and/or 1982 and the belt wagons „BRs 1200“ since 1964 and/or 1974. Lifetime of the belt wagons and the imperfect maintenance and repair of the equipment resulted in the unsatisfactory technical condition of the electrical equipment. The building structures of the E-houses are completely worn (roofs, walls, doors), i.e. in case of precipitation like rain or snow they are leaky. The switch systems (MV, LV) and electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond to the valid European standards and involve a considerable danger for the operating and service personnel. The electrical equipment on the belt wagons shall be stabilized for safety reasons so that it will be possible to operate these machines with a minimum justifiable risk until decommissioning.

7.1.5 Technical Status of Stacker / Reclaimer Stockpile Plant B Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering The Stacker/Reclaimer A received a basic mechanical repair including a complete corrosion protection in 2004 and is in a mechanically good condition. The Stacker/Reclaimer B will receive a comparable basic mechanical repair including a complete corrosion protection in the year 2005 like the equipment A. For both devices reserve building groups of mechanical engineering are missing, so that in case of breakdown of assemblies’ downtimes have to be taken into account until completion of the repair. At the drive stations of the belt conveyor plants the drives are strongly trouble-prone due to their lifetime. The drives at the drive stations of the belt conveyor plants are very sensitive due to their lifetime. Brake systems and protective covers are missing, lubrication systems are partly not functioning. Drums are highly worn out and mostly have no rubber coating. A lot of Page 155 of 257


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idlers are worn. Continuous replacement is necessary. For a long-term operation it is necessary to systematically replace the belt drives by a new generation. This replacement should be carried out parallel with an electrical reconstruction. Due to their lifetime and continuous repair, crushers are in a condition ready for operation. Reserve assemblies are urgently required to reduce repair times and unexpected downtimes. Owing to their lifetime, a number of material guidance systems is to a great extend worn out; the most frequent occurring damage is leakage at the seam joints and transfer points. Almost all sealings at chutes, transfer points and material guidance systems are insufficiently effective. To continue ling-term operation continuous replacement of sealing elements is necessary which have to be standardized according to installation places. A dust reduction system for all transfer points is at present planned, financed by EAR funds. Electrical Engineering: The electrical equipment of Stacker/Reclaimer A was completely rehabilitated in 2004 and has been in a good condition since then. A similar measure for rehabilitating the electrical equipment will be implemented for Stacker/Reclaimer B in May 2005. Reserve assemblies are available (stored) for both of the equipment so that in case of electrical failures a direct replacement of defective assemblies can be carried out. The electrical equipment on the belt conveyors are very frequently subject to breakdowns owing to their service life. The electrical equipment on the belt drive station should be stabilized in short-term within the framework of running maintenance to such an extent that it will be possible to operate the devices with justifiable risk until a necessary reconstruction. Stockpile Separation Plant A a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering Reserve assemblies of mechanical engineering are missing for both of the devices Stacker/Reclaimer 1 and 2. In case of assembly breakdown downtimes have to be taken into account until completion of the repair. For continuing a medium-term operation restrictions in equipment availability and high running costs for the maintenance are to be considered. At the drive stations of the belt conveyors the drives are highly susceptible to failure due to their lifetime. Brake systems and protective covers are missing; lubrication plants are partially not functioning. Drums are highly worn out and mostly have no rubber coating. A lot of idlers are worn. Continuous replacement is necessary. For continuing a medium-term operation restrictions in equipment availability and high running costs for the maintenance are to be considered. Due to their lifetime and continuous repair, crushers and vibration screens are in a condition ready for operation. Reserve assemblies are urgently required to reduce repair times and unexpected downtimes. Owing to their lifetime, a number of material guidance systems is to a great extend worn out; the most frequent occurring damage is leakage at the seam joints and transfer points. Almost all sealings at chutes, transfer points and material guidance systems are insufficiently effective. To continue ling-term operation continuous replacement of sealing elements is necessary which have to be standardized according to installation places. A dust reduction system for all transfer points is at present planned, financed by EAR funds.

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b) Electrical Engineering According to the present planning, the two machines will be in operation until decommissioning of Power Plant „Kosova A“. The condition of the entire E-equipment of both Stacker/Reclaimer is to be assessed unsatisfactory. For a medium-term operation, restrictions in the equipment availability and high running costs for maintenance have to be taken into account. The electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond any longer to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given e.g.: The low voltage switch systems do not have shock protection. The medium voltage switch systems are not sufficiently equipped with arc shield. The 6 kV-high-voltage terminal boxes have no sufficient arc voltage protection and they are in a very bad technical repair. Most of the high -voltage protective relays are defective. The medium- and low-voltage systems at the bucket wheel excavators no longer correspond no to the valid European Norms and therefore the latest state of the art. In addition, electrical as well as electronic safety equipment, buttons, synchros and local control boxes are worn out and partly no more in function for different reasons (missing spare parts, deficient maintenance). According to rough estimations, more than 40 to 55 % of the sensors are ready for operation. The sensors in the field area are an important prerequisite for indicating safe operating and status condition (monitoring in the excavator operator cabin. The cables and cable routes have been strongly due to environmental impacts (e.g. ozone) and technological conditions (e.g. contamination, mechanical cramping and distortion of cables). The electrical drive units (starter, motor and thrustor), for example for conveyor belts, hoisting winches, tensioning devices, auxiliary motors and oil pumps, have a very limited availability and reliability. Motors can only be repaired with large expenses. Thrustors with the mechanical part of the brake are mainly not functioning and/or partly not reliable in their function. In line with this the electrical drives are not applicable for a safe operation. According to information of personnel there are only rare spare parts available for the converters of slewing- and travelling gear. The E house is partly without isolation and air conditioning system which causes temperature problems in the summer season. The electrical locking system „Excavator-Belt conveyor“ is also in a bad repair (cable drums defective) or partly not functioning. The 6 kV-incoming feeder is needed to be completely overhauled (strongly twisted feeder, cable drums are defective). The electrical equipment on the belt drive station should be stabilized in short-term within the framework of running maintenance to such an extent that it will be possible to operate the devices with justifiable risk until decommissioning. The expenses of Stacker/Reclaimer and belt conveyor system shall be within the following scope: Spare parts for MV- and LV-plants (e.g. protection relays, relays, circuit breakers, motors, electronic assemblies) Control devices (e.g. limit switches, buttons, switches, terminal boxes, local control boxes) Thrustors and parts of the mechanical brake Cables and lighting equipment Rehabilitation of the 6 kV-bench terminal boxes Rehabilitation of E-houses at selected areas (e.g. roofs, doors) Page 157 of 257


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7.2 Rehabilitation Measures for MME 7.2.1 Measures for Excavators At the E8M the missing drive at the wheel belt shall be completed. Bucket wheel drives shall be replaced due to increasing breakdowns. The following measures are planned: Tab. 7.2-1

Measures for MME

Type E9M

SchRs 650

E10M

SchRs 650

E8M

SRs 1300

E9B

SRs 1300

E10B

SRs 1300

E8B

SRs 1300

Measures Replacement of hoisting ropes wheel boom Refurbishment of lubrication plants FW Replacement of worn out assemblies Replacement of hoisting ropes wheel boom Refurbishment of lubrication plants FW Replacement of worn out assemblies Installation twin drive wheel belt Horizontal alignment of driverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cabin Overhaul of wheel boom hoist Replacement of worn out assemblies Replacement of bucket wheel drive Replacement of worn out assemblies Replacement/Renewal of the Main Control Cabin and electrically drive for travel gear drive and slewing drive (with converter) Replacement of bucket wheel drive Replacement of worn out assemblies Replacement/Renewal of the Main Control Cabin and electrically drive for slewing drive (with converter) Replacement of bucket wheel drive Replacement of worn out assemblies Replacement/Renewal of the Main Control Cabin and electrically drive for travel gear drive

Year Not fixed Not fixed

Not fixed

2005

2005

2006

The expenses for running maintenance per excavator up to a complete reconstruction amount to average 0.380 MEUR per year. Necessary Expenditure of the Rehabilitation Needs for Electrical Equipment A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the mentioned bucket wheel excavators shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account safety- and cost-relevant aspects. The planning document is to be provided until June 2005. The budget should be available before December 2005. The selected electrical rehabilitation measures for the excavators represent minimum requirements which are needed till the end of the operation. Page 158 of 257


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Spare parts according to priorities for excavators of the type SRs 1300 comprise: Spare parts for MV- and LV-plants (e.g. protection relays, relays, circuit breakers, motors, electronic assemblies) Control devices (e.g. limit switches, buttons, switches, terminal boxes, local control boxes) Thrustors and parts of the mechanical brake Cables and lighting equipment Rehabilitation of the cable drums and 6 kV-bench terminal boxes Rehabilitation of E-houses at selected areas (e.g. roofs, doors) Necessary expenses [related to 3 years]: max. 0.60 MEUR Spare parts according to priorities for excavators of the type SchRs 650 comprise: Exchange of the PLC Systems from type S 5 on S 7 Selected spare parts for MV- and LV-plants Selected spare parts for control units Cables and lighting equipment Motors and thrustors Necessary expenses: min. 0.40 MEUR

7.2.2 Measures for Belt Conveyor Systems Mechanic: In 2004, the drive stations D1 and TP1 were mechanically repaired within the framework of a complete electrical reconstruction. Station T1 will be repaired in April 2005. These mechanical repairs are only limited to repair of catwalks and the replacement of worn out mechanical assemblies. The rehabilitation of the mechanical engineering by drives of the new generation is not planned. Repairs at all the other stations and belt conveyor systems are limited to the running repairs. The running maintenance expenditures per 2,000 m conveying distance are on the average 0.28 MEUR per year. Electric: For the rest of the deployment of the belt conveyors including the mobile transfer conveyor until the closure of the opencast mines it is only reasonable to carry out the necessary running maintenance measures in order to ensure equipment safety and availability to a great extend. The following priorities shall be made when planning the running maintenance: Motors and thrustors (complete), see above listed The outdoor plants like lighting, limit switches, buttons and transmitter technology Refurbishment of the electrical houses (as makeshift). A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the belt conveyors including the mobile transfer conveyor shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account safety- and cost-relevant aspects. The planning document is to be provided until June 2005. The budget should be available before December 2005. Necessary expenses [related to 5 years]: 0.60 MEUR. The budget for the necessary expenditures of the mentioned equipment including the mobile transfer conveyor shall be applied for as follows: Outside facilities 0.08 MEUR Page 159 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

-

Low-voltage plant High-voltage plant Slewing and travelling gear

0.12 MEUR 0.22 MEUR 0.20 MEUR

7.2.3 Measures for Spreaders Mechanic The spreaders can be operated until the planned shifting on the premise that the safety installations and the lubrication plants are maintained step-by-step and the running maintenance is carried out continuously. Based on the results from a safety inspection in 2001, the steel construction of the spreaders P1B, P2B and P3B was repaired and all limit switches were replaced. Except the running maintenance repairs, further necessary measures are not planned at present. The running maintenance expenditures per spreader until a complete reconstruction come to average 0.18 MEUR per year. Electric: The deployment of the spreaders in a new mining field requires a complete reconstruction of the electro-technical equipment. For the rest of the deployment of the spreaders until the closure of the opencast mines it is only reasonable to carry out the necessary running maintenance measures in order to ensure equipment safety and availability to a great extend. The following priorities shall be made when planning the running maintenance: Selected spare parts for MV- and LV-switch gears as switchers, contactors, relays, ... Motors and thrustors (complete), The outdoor plants like lighting, limit switches, buttons and transmitter technology Cables Refurbishment of the electrical houses (as a makeshift). A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the spreaders shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account safety- and cost-relevant aspects. The planning document is to be provided until June 2005. The budget should be available before December 2005. Owing to the very bad technical condition of the steel construction, mechanical engineering and electrical equipment of this equipment class it is only reasonable to carry out the necessary running maintenance measures in order to ensure equipment safety and availability to a great extend. The budget for the spreaders shall be applied for as follows: Outside facilities 0.05 MEUR Low-voltage plant 0.09 MEUR High-voltage plant 0.10 MEUR Slewing and travelling gear 0.08 MEUR Necessary Expenses [related to 5 years]:

Page 160 of 257

max. 0.32 MEUR.


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

7.2.4 Measures for Belt Wagons Mechanic Continuous maintenance is required to operate belt wagons until their decommissioning. Missing assemblies shall be dismounted from decommissioned devices and rehabilitated. Maintenance concentrates on removing damages at the steel construction, repair of lubrication plants and scraper system as well as replacement of crawler base pads. Two of the belt wagons in the Bardh mine were repaired as a result from a safety inspection in 2001. The running maintenance expenditures per belt wagon come to average 0.07 MEUR per year. Electric A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the belt wagons shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account safety- and cost-relevant aspects. The planning document is to be provided until June 2005. The budget should be available before December 2005. The budget for the belt wagons shall amount to the following: Necessary expenses [related to 5 years]: 0.13 MEUR.

7.2.5 Measures for Stacker / Reclaimer (Stockpile Equipment) Separation Plant B In 2005 Stacker/Reclaimer B in Separation Plant B will be rehabilitated. This measure will only include a basic mechanical maintenance including a complete corrosion protection. By means of these measures the equipment will be put into a good mechanical condition. For both of the Stacker/Reclaimer A and Stacker/Reclaimer B as well as the belt conveyor system reserve assemblies for the mechanical engineering are missing. Downtimes have to be taken into account in case of failure of assemblies which will last until completion of repair. The running maintenance expenditures will amount to ca. 0.48 MEUR per year for Separation Plant A and 0.35 MEUR per year for Separation Plant B. The rehabilitation of the electrical equipment on the Stacker/Reclaimers in the Separation Plant A belongs to maintenance measures which are important in order to ensure equipment safety and availability to a great extend. A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the Stacker/Reclaimer shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account safetyand cost-relevant aspects. The planning document is to be provided until June 2005. The budget should be available before December 2005. The scope of expenditures for the Stacker/Reclaimer shall comprise the following: Spare parts for MV- and LV-plants (e.g. protection relays, relays, circuit breakers, motors, electronic assemblies) Control devices (e.g. limit switches, buttons, switches, terminal boxes, local control boxes) Thrustors and parts of the mechanical brake Cables and lighting equipment Rehabilitation of the 6 kV-bench terminal boxes Motors Page 161 of 257


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Necessary Expenses [related to 5 years]:

0.40 MEUR.

The scope of expenditures for the belt conveyor plants shall comprise the following: Spare parts for MV- and LV-plants (e.g. protection relays, relays, circuit breakers, motors, electronic assemblies) Control devices (e.g. limit switches, buttons, switches, terminal boxes, local control boxes) Thrustors and parts of the mechanical brake Cables and lighting equipment Rehabilitation of the 6 kV-bench terminal boxes Motors Necessary Expenses [related to 5 years]: 0.80 MEUR. A dust reduction system for all transfer points to be financed by EAR is planned at present and it is expected that installation for Plant B will be in 2005 and for Plant A in 2006. After decommissioning of Power Plant A the dust reduction system can be dismounted and installed then at other necessary transfer points.

7.2.6 Conclusion for the Field Sibovc All bucket wheel excavators of the size classes SRs 1300 and SchRs 650 can be taken into consideration for a further operation in a follow-up field due to their condition and capacity parameters. Within the framework of a complex repair the following measures have to be implemented (please see table below). Tab. 7.2-2

Measures MME for Sibovc

E9M

SchRs 650 [1519-21]

E10M

SchRs 650 [1516-18]

E8M

Type

SRs 1300 [19020]

Measures Complete corrosion protection; Reconstruction bucket wheel head; complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel); Replacement of travel gear units; Rehabilitation of steel construction; Complete corrosion protection; Reconstruction bucket wheel head; complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel); Replacement of travel gear units; Replacement of scraper- and sealing systems; Complete corrosion protection; Reconstruction bucket wheel head; complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel); Replacement ball track and ring gear excavator superstructure; Rehabilitation of steel construction;

Page 162 of 257

Year III/2007 up to at the end of I/2008

III/2008 up to at the end of I/2009

II/2007 up to II/2008


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS

E8B

E10B

E9B

Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Complete corrosion protection; SRs 1300 complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel); [19009] Rehabilitation of steel construction; Complete corrosion protection; SRs 1300 complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel); [19010] Replacement ball track and ring gear excavator superstructure; Rehabilitation of steel construction; Complete corrosion protection SRs 1300 complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel); [19008] Rehabilitation of steel construction; Replacement of scraper- and sealing systems

IV/2007 up to II/2008

I/2009 up to III/2009

IV/2008 up to II/2009

SRs 470 / 400 and SRs 315 The bucket wheel excavators SRs 470, SRs 400 and SRs 315 are not applicable for a long-term operation. Owing to existing damages at the steel construction and the condition of the mechanical and electrical assemblies, respectively, these excavators shall be decommissioned step-by-step until 2010/11. Belt Conveyor Because of the output capacities of the heavy opencast mine machines, only the lines with 1,800 mm belt width are used in the new mine. At present there are operated two of it in the active mines with 5 drive stations each having 2 x 800 kW drives, and 853 frame sections with a total length of 5,988 m. In the already decommissioned belt conveyors to Power Plant TPP A (5.12 und 5.13) with a belt width of 1,800 mm, there are used belt drives with 2 x 800 kW gears and 1 x 800 kW gears. The complete mechanical construction of 6 of the decommissioned drive stations was disassembled to get spare parts. After a reconstruction the released belt conveyors of the Mirash mine can be shifted to the follow-up mine. To ensure the necessary availability of the plants, the following are the minimum measures to be carried out: Complete reconstruction of the drive stations (electrical equipment, corrosion protection, steel construction, gears and drums) Replacement and/or repair of defective frame sections using available reserves Replacement of ca. 50 % of the idlers superstructure Replacement of ca. 70 % of the idlers substructure Replacement of 100 % of the belts Reconstruction (or purchase) of the unshiftable 1,800 mm frame sections of the overburden conveyor lines in the Mirash mine (E9M, E10M) to shiftable frames of use of them in stationery systems. Complete electrical and mechanical reconstruction of the Feeding hopper car [FHC]; Complete electrical and mechanical reconstruction of the Belt Tripper car [BTC];

For the establishment or the procurement of a conveying line with an operating life greater than 10 years a new investment is recommended comprising all modern elements of the conveying engineering adjusted to the technical standard of the reconstructed opencast mining equipments Page 163 of 257


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(excavators, spreaders and information and instrumentation and control). The advantages lie in a high reliability and low maintenance costs compared to reconstructed equipment. Because after the development of the first opening up figure the distances to bridge are lager than conveyor belts are available, new investments shall be developed in advance and planned technically compatible. Spreader It is intended to only use the large spreaders with a capacity of 5000 lcm/h in the new mine. or the use in the new mine. Spreaders of smaller capacity have to be scrapped. Before the spreaders are re-used again, they have to be rehabilitated with the following key issues: Complete electrical reconstruction Complete corrosion protection Steel construction refurbishment Refurbishment of travelling gears Overhaul of conveyor systems Replacement of belt cleaner and sealing systems Complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable reel car Belt Wagon Only the belt wagons of the type BRs 1600 are foreseen to operate in the Sibovc field.

7.3 Technical Specification of Main Mining Equipment The technical specifications are attached in Appendix C.

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8 Power Supply System and Electrical Equipment 8.1 Future Energy Demand Feeding of power cables and lines shall guarantee a safe supply for the described mining concept for Sibovc. In the Sibovc mine a large part of the currently available mining equipment will be reused. It is important to consider that the equipment shall be rehabilitated and that the future annual capacity will be much higher than in the present Mirash and Bard mines. The following will be supplied in the Sibovc opencast mine: a) Overburden operation in four overburden levels with the following equipment: • 2 excavators SRs 1300 • 1 new bucket wheel excavator • 1 excavator SchRs 650 • 2 spreader A2Rs B 5200 • 1 spreader A2Rs B 4400 • 1 new spreader (for new BWE) • 3 Esch b) Coal operation in four levels with the following equipment: • 3 excavators SRs 1300 • 1 new excavator SchRs 650 or SRs 1300 or equivalent • 3 BRs 1600 c) Stockpile operation (located TPP A and B) with: • 2 Stacker / Reclaimer TPP A / IPP • 2 Stacker / Reclaimer TPP B1+B2 • 4 Stacker / Reclaimer TPP B3+B6 d) Overburden conveyor belt system e) Coal conveyor belt system (benches and long-distance conveyors) f) Mine Office • Office buildings at Gate 1, Mirash and in Bardh g) Workshop h) Warehouse The following table gives a survey on the capacities. Page 165 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 8.1-1

Capacities

Designation

2012

2013 - 2015

2020 - 2023

> 2025

Prod. Energy

610 MW 678 MW 350 MW 0 0 MW 1.71 t/MWh 7.5 mMWh

610 MW 678 MW 700 MW 0 0 MW 1.67 t/MWh 9.2 mMWh

0 678 MW 1,400 MW 1,050 MW 680,45 MW 1.57 t/MWh 15.3 mMWh

0 0 1,400 MW 1,050 MW 2,45 MW 1.55 t/MWh 12-12.2 mMWh

Demand Coal Coal Demand TPPs

13.1 mt 12.8 mt

15.8 mt 15.4 mt

24.4 – 24.8 mt 23.9 – 24.3 mt

19.1 – 19.5 mt 18.6 – 19 mt

Production OCM (all Mines) thereof Bardh/Mirash Necessary Energy demand –installed (high efficiency) Installed for OCM required continuously

35.6 mt

38.9 – 39.1 mt

48.1 – 49.2 mt

42.6 – 38 mt

85 MW

100 MW

150 MW

120 MW

100 MW 40-50 MW

115 MW 55-60 MW

160 MW * 75 MW *

120 MW 60 MW

TPP A TPP B1+B2 TPP B3-B6 TPP C (IPP) SUM TPP Factor TPPs

*only temporary The required installed capacity for the devices is estimated as following: Tab. 8.1-2 Description

Required installed capacity

Operating time

E 8M E 9B New E 9M

SRs 1300 SRs 1300 BWE SchRs 650

Year 2008 - 2038 2008 - 2038 2008 - 2038 2008 - 2038

Installed capacity per machine kW 1,650 1,650 2,100 1,700

P 4M P 1B new P 3M

A2Rs B-5200 A2Rs B-4400 A2Rs B-8000 A2Rs B- 5200

2008 - 2038 2008 - 2038 2008 - 2038 2011 - 2038

800 800 1,200 800

1 1 1 1

5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000

E 10M SchRs 650 E 8B SRs 1300 E 10B SRs 1300 New SRs 1300 or equivalent

2009 - 2038 2009 - 2038 2009 - 2038 2016 - 2038

1,700 1,650 1,650 1,650

1 1 1 1

5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000

Overburden Belt Conveyor

2008 - 2038

1,600

26 km

6,000

Page 166 of 257

Number of Equipment

Operating hours

1 1 1 1

5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Coal Belt Conveyor

2009 - 2038

1,600

27 km

6,000

TPP A with 2 Stacker / Reclaimer TPP B1 + B2 with 2 Stacker / Reclaimer TPP B (B3 – B6) with 4 Stacker / Reclaimer New TPP (IPP) with 2 Stacker / Reclaimer

2008 - 2019

800

2

6,000

2008 - 2024

800

2

6,000

2012 - 2038

1,600

4

2016 - 2038

(800)

(2)

6,000

Mine Office Workshop Warehouse other

2008 - 2038 2008 - 2038 2008 - 2038 2010 - 2038

300 800 250 250

1 1 1 1

3,500 6,000 4,000 4,000

The long-term demand of installed energy is about 120 MW.

8.2 Investment for Electrical System Summarizing, the following basic investments are assumed: Phase 1: Installation of a secondary power supply from the existing transformer station of „Palaj“ by means of a 35 kV overhead transmission line to be new installed and a new 35 kV Power Supply with 6 kV distribution and 6 kV bench cable including cable boxes. Estimated Costs: 0.75 m€

This capacity will be sufficient to supply power to two opencast mine machines with the attached conveyor systems and an assembly yard and/or corresponding auxiliary facilities. Phase 2: Extension of the 110/35 kV Power Supply New construction of a 110 kV / 35 kV transformer station for Sibovc with a capacity of 3 x 31.5 MVA including a 110 kV overhead line Estimated Costs: 7.0 m€ Phase 3: 35 kV Power Supply with 6 kV distribution: - Completion of 4 x 35/ 6 kV each of 2 x 8 MVA Power Stations - Installation of a uniform SFT-Technology (transportable units) - 6 kV bench cables with clamp cable boxes and cable trestles Estimated Cost: 4.0 m€

An overview of the energy distribution system for the new mine Sibovc is shown in the figure below: Page 167 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Fig. 8.2-1

Energy distribution system

For an overview of the 35 kV power supply (coal) see the following schema:

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Fig. 8.2-2

35 kV power supply – coal extraction

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

A scheme of power supply for overburden removal is shown below:

Fig. 8.2-3

35 kV power supply - overburden

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

9 Auxiliary Equipment 9.1 Assessment of Technical Status in the Existing Mines A complete auxiliary equipment fleet is available in the Bardh and Mirash mines. In 2000/2001 and 2004 an extensive rehabilitation of the auxiliary equipment fleet was realized with the help of KfW and EAR funds. Some of the old equipment have been commissioned in the 80â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and is more than 20 years old. Nevertheless, the predominant part of the auxiliary equipment is in a strong technical status. From 2007 overburden production in the Bardh and Mirash mines will considerably decline. First overburden lines will be put out of operation; the number of operation points will be reduced. In the existing mine, coal production will go on with full capacity until 2008 and in 2009 and 2011 with reduced capacity. Parallel with the decline in capacity, a part of the auxiliary equipment can be put out of operation. At the time of decommissioning a part of the auxiliary equipment will have exceeded its normative service life. Prolongation of the normative service life is not recommended due to the difficult conditions and the rather poor maintenance. Moreover, the further use of selected auxiliary equipment is intended for recultivation-, securing and wrapping measures over the year 2011. Substitute investments for worn out auxiliary devices are not planned within the medium-term planning. The result is, that a take-over of auxiliary equipment from the existing fleet for a further use in the Sibovc mine will not be possible or only in to limited extent. The further plans for the Sibovc mine assume a complete new auxiliary equipment fleet.

9.2 Auxiliary Equipment and Devices for the Sibovc Mine 9.2.1 Maximal Demand of auxiliary Equipment For ensuring the production processes in the pit, a whole number of auxiliary machines and equipment are necessary. The auxiliary equipment is attached to the different operational sections and operated in one up to three shift operation according to requirement. The following table illustrates the optimal stock on auxiliary equipment in case of maximum production. The given engine performance and number of equipment is based on the special application condition in the existing mines and the experiences from other mines with comparable deposit properties.

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Tab. 9.2-1

Number of auxiliary Equipment Type

Dozer Pipelayer Wheel Dozer Wheel Loader 17t Wheel Loader Excavator Loader Telescope Crane 90t Telescope Crane 60t Telescope Crane 45t Telescope Crane 30t Forklift 2t Forklift 5t Truck payload 12t, 3-axle Truck with hydraulic crane Truck with lifting Platform Dump Truck Cable reel Trailer Low Bed Trailer Fuel Truck Lubrication Truck Tractor Hydraulic Backhoe (crawler) Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel) Grader Trench Cutter Single Drum Roller Jeep Pick-up Jeep 12 seats Personnel Transporters (36 Minibus Ambulance Fire Fighting Truck Drilling Machine Workshop Container Mobile Workshop Mobile Lightings Winding Support Drum Vulcanisation Set Diesel Generator Water Truck Spraying Galleries Pumps

[ kW ] 230 - 300 180 250 180 120

Overb. 10 3 3 1

340 270 270 200

130 130 230

1

60t 180

1 1

200 180 - 200

1 1 1 2

160

1

Number of auxiliary Equipment Coal Stockp Drain. Maint. 6 6 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1

150 100 75 100 140

1 3 2 1 4 1 2 1 3

3 2 1 4 1

0.5

2 1

2 1 1

3

2 1 4 10

Page 172 of 257

7 9

1 2 3 1 2 2

total 22 5 2 8 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 7 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 5 2 2 1 1 17 15 2 9 2 2 1 3 1 2 6 1 2 4 1 4 10


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

The calculation of the auxiliary equipment fleet bases on the following: Dozers 1 per working level in overburden, coal and dumping operation 6 for the stockpiles 2 for special works 2 as reserve in case of repair measures (corresponds 10% of fleet) For levelling work which will not be carried out continuously it is not intended to use dozers. Such peak capacities shall be put out to tender and awarded to contractors for cost reasons (single lots and/or framework contracts). Personnel Transporters

2 for excavation site overburden 2 for excavation site coal 2 for dumping site and recultivation 1 for dewatering 2 as reserve in case of repair measures or breakdowns In addition to these big personnel transporters (36 seats) smaller jeeps and microbuses are foreseen for the shift change and for the different departments for transportation. 4-Wheel-Drive is urgent necessary for all cars and busses under consideration of the heavy material properties particular in overburden operation.

9.2.2 Yearwise Development of Auxiliary Equipment Fleet The establishment of the auxiliary equipment fleet will be adjusted to the development of capacity in the opencast mine. The first auxiliary machines have to be put in operation already before the heavy-duty equipment will start work to prepare their starting position. In 2012, the full equipment capacity will be installed both in the overburden- and coal operation. This means that until this date the auxiliary equipment fleet shall be completed. From this period, a constant auxiliary equipment fleet will be in operation. The following table shows the development of the auxiliary equipment fleet up to a maximum size.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Tab. 9.2-2

Number of auxiliary Equipment up to 2012

Type Coal Output [mt] Overburden [mbcm Dozer Pipelayer Wheel Dozer Wheel Loader 17t Wheel Loader Excavator Loader Telescope Crane 90t Telescope Crane 60t Telescope Crane 45t Telescope Crane 30t Forklift 2t Forklift 5t Truck payload 12t, 3Truck with hydraulic Truck with lifting PlatDump Truck Cable reel Trailer Low Bed Trailer Fuel Truck Lubrication Truck Tractor Hydraulic Backhoe Hydraulic Backhoe Grader Trench Cutter Single Drum Roller Jeep Pick-up Jeep (12 seats)

2007 0 1.6 1

Personnel Transporters (36

1

Minibus Ambulance Fire Fighting Truck Drilling Machine Workshop Container Mobile Workshop Mobile Lightings Winding Support Drum Vulcanisation Set Diesel Generator Water Truck Spraying Galleries Pumps

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2008 0.1 10.7 7 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 5 5 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 3

2009 2.4 23.2 15 4 2 6 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 2 2 1 1 12 10 2 6 2 2 1 3 1 2 4 1 2 3 1 3 7

2010 7.1 22.7 17 4 2 7 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 6 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 2 2 1 1 14 12 2 7 2 2 1 3 1 2 5 1 2 4 1 4 8

Page 174 of 257

2011 7.8 22.4 18 4 2 7 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 6 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 2 2 1 1 14 12 2 7 2 2 1 3 1 2 5 1 2 4 1 4 8

2012 13.1 22.5 22 5 2 8 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 7 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 5 2 2 1 1 17 15 2 9 2 2 1 3 1 2 6 1 2 4 1 4 10


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The mobile auxiliary equipment has a smaller economic service life compared to the main equipment. Depending on the type of equipment and the conditions of use this time varies between 3 and 12 years. Partly, longer service life may also be possible. Thereafter, the auxiliary equipment is technically worn out and shall be replaced. When using the equipment it shall be assumed that a new and technically improved generation may be available on the market. A technical specification of these equipments for the planning of Sibovc seems to be not useful. The following service life was assumed for the single auxiliary equipment classes: • • • • • • •

Pumps Cars and Busses Ancillary Equipment Dozer, Wheel Loader, Trucks Special Trucks, Drilling Machine Backhoes, Grader Temporarily used Equipment

3 Years 6 Years 6 Years 6 Years 8 Years 8 Years 10 – 20 Years

The following tables illustrate the number of the auxiliary equipment to be purchased annually. The bold number show the initial purchased machine up to completion of the auxiliary equipment fleet; the other numbers (from 2013) are replaces equipments.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 9.2-3

Annual Purchase of auxiliary Equipment up to 2017

Type Dozer Pipelayer Wheel Dozer Wheel Loader 17t Wheel Loader Excavator Loader Telescope Crane 90t Telescope Crane 60t Telescope Crane 45t Telescope Crane 30t Forklift 2t Forklift 5t Truck payload 12t, 3-axle Truck with hydraulic Truck with lifting PlatDump Truck Cable reel Trailer Low Bed Trailer Fuel Truck Lubrication Truck Tractor Hydraulic Backhoe Hydraulic Backhoe Grader Trench Cutter Single Drum Roller Jeep Pick-up Jeep (12 seats) Personnel Transporters Minibus Ambulance Fire Fighting Truck Drilling Machine Workshop Container Mobile Workshop Mobile Lightings Winding Support Drum Vulcanisation Set Diesel Generator Water Truck Spraying Galleries Pumps

200 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

‘08 6 1 2 1 1

1

‘09 8 3 1 3 1 1

1 1 1 1 3 1 1

‘10 2

‘11 1

1

‘12 4 1 1

‘13 1 1 1

‘14 6

‘15 8

2 1

1 3 1 1

‘16 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1

1 1 1 1 1

1

1 1

1

1 1

1

1

‘17 1

1 1

3 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

1 2 1 1 1

4 4 1 2 1

7 5 1 3 1 1

1 1

1

1 1 1 1 1 1 3

1 2

1

1

1 1

1

2 2

3 3

1

2

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1 1

1 1

1

1 3

1 6

1 1

1

1 4

1 1

1 1

Page 176 of 257

1

2 2

1

1

6

7 5 1

1

1 1

3

4 4 1

1 2 1 1

1

3


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 9.2-4

Purchase of auxiliary Equipment between 2018 and 2028

Type Dozer Pipelayer Wheel Dozer Wheel Loader 17t Wheel Loader Excavator Loader Telescope Crane 90t Telescope Crane 60t Telescope Crane 45t Telescope Crane 30t Forklift 2t Forklift 5t Truck payload 12t, 3-axle Truck with hydraulic crane Truck with lifting Platform Dump Truck Cable reel Trailer Low Bed Trailer Fuel Truck Lubrication Truck Tractor Hydraulic Backhoe (crawler) Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel) Grader Trench Cutter Single Drum Roller Jeep Pick-up Jeep (12 seats) Personnel Transporters Minibus Ambulance Fire Fighting Truck Drilling Machine Workshop Container Mobile Workshop Mobile Lightings Winding Support Drum Vulcanisation Set Diesel Generator Water Truck Spraying Galleries Pumps

‘18 4

‘19 1

1

1 1

‘20 6 1 2 1

‘21 8 3 1 3 1

‘22 2

‘23 1

1

1 1

‘24 4 1

‘25 1 1 1

‘26 6

‘27 8

‘28 2

2 1

1 3 1

1

1

1

1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1

1 1

1

1

1 1

1

1 1 1 3 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1

1 1

1 1

1

1 1

2 1 1

3 3

1 1

1

1

1 3 3

1 1 1

2

3

4 4 1 1 1

7 5 1

2 2

4 4 1

2 1

1

1

1

7 5 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2

1 1

1

6

1 1

1

1 2

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 3

1 6

1

1

1

2

1

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 3

1 6

1

Page 177 of 257

3

6

1 1 1 1 1 1


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 9.2-5

Purchase of auxiliary Equipment between 2029 and 2038

Type Dozer Pipelayer Wheel Dozer Wheel Loader 17t Wheel Loader Excavator Loader Telescope Crane 90t Telescope Crane 60t Telescope Crane 45t Telescope Crane 30t Forklift 2t Forklift 5t Truck payload 12t, 3-axle Truck with hydraulic crane Truck with lifting Platform Dump Truck Cable reel Trailer Low Bed Trailer Fuel Truck Lubrication Truck Tractor Hydraulic Backhoe (crawler) Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel) Grader Trench Cutter Single Drum Roller Jeep Pick-up Jeep (12 seats) Personnel Transporters Minibus Ambulance Fire Fighting Truck Drilling Machine Workshop Container Mobile Workshop Mobile Lightings Winding Support Drum Vulcanisation Set Diesel Generator Water Truck Spraying Galleries Pumps

‘29 1

1

‘30 4

‘31 1

1

1 1

‘32 6 1 2 1

‘33 8 3 1 3 1

‘34 2

‘35 1

1

1

‘36 4 1

‘37 1

1

1 1

1

1

‘38 6

2 1

1

1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1

1

1 1 1 3 1

1 1

1

1 1

1 1 1

1 1

1

1

1

1 1

1 1

2 1 1 1

4 4 1 2 1

7 5 1 1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1 2

1

1 1

1 1

1 6

1 1

1 3

1

3 3 3

1 1 1

1

1

3 3

2 1

1 1 1

4 4 1 2 1

1

1

3

Page 178 of 257

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1 6

1 6

1 1

1

1

3


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

9.3 Heavy Auxiliary Equipment for Sibovc Mine 9.4 Draglines For special works, linked with large mass movements, the application of draglines has been foreseen. These machines can be variably used at reasonable costs and they can be shifted within the mine with low expenses. The following works can be done by draglines: • Cutting of overheights • Movement of sliding masses • Design of ramps • Cleaning of surface in the area of villages • Design of water collecting basins It is proposed to use 3 draglines in the Sibovc mine as heavy auxiliary machines. After an appropriate rehabilitation these machines can be moved from the existing mines of Mirash and/or Bardh. There it will not be necessary to purchase new ones. At present 6 draglines are in operation in the existing mines. Except the ESch 10/70 in the Mirash mine which was technically overhauled, all draglines are in a bad repair. In addition to ESch 10/70 two smaller draglines (A12 ESch 6/45 and A7 ESch 6/45) has been selected from technical reasons for a further use in the Sibovc Mine. The two ESch 6/45 shall be rehabilitated before use in Sibovc; for each of the machines an investment of 0.8 MEUR was calculated. After 20 years of operation of the draglines in the Sibovc opencast mine it is planed to replace these machines. It is proposed to completely change to the equipment class with bucket content of 10 m³. Investments of 4.5 MEUR per device (price basis 2005) shall be planned. Tab. 9.4-1

Technical Data of Esch 10/70

Bucket Volume Boom Length Max. Cutting Height Max. Cutting Depth

Ground Pressure Service Weight Installed Power Time per Pass

10 m³ 70 m 34° 30° 26° 22° 17° 12° Operation Transport 135°

35 m 30 m 25 m 20 m 15 m 10 m 0.94 kp/cm² 1.49 kp/cm² 767 t 1,460 kW 54 s

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Fig. 9.4-1

Scheme Esch 10/70

9.4.1 Transport Crawler A transport crawler is required for the shifting of the belt driving station and other heavy assemblies up to a weight of 350 t. Such a transport crawler is available in the existing mines Bardh and Mirash. The transport crawler, financed by the EAR was delivered in 2003 and is in a good technical status. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why a general rehabilitation is not foreseen before recommissioning in the Sibovc mine. Replacement within the period under review is not taken into consideration due to the discontinuous use of the transport crawler. After 25 years, a rehabilitation of the transport crawler shall be carried out with an investment volume of ca. 20% of the new value.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

9.4.2 Derricks Large cranes will be needed for the assembly of the heavy equipment of the new opencast mine. Two Derrick cranes from the 70ies are still available on the assembly yard/stockyard nearby Bardh. It is not sure if the equipment is ready for operation. Parallel to mobile cranes for the assembly of the equipment to be purchased it will be required to use also Derricks or equivalent machines. The rehabilitation of the available Derricks shall be checked. Investments of at least 0.1 MEUR are necessary for each of the Derricks.

9.5 Investment and Cost Calculation for Auxiliary Equipment Based on the average prices of the single auxiliary equipment types (price basis 2004) and the annual number of machines, the investments were determined according to equipment type and year. The investments/reinvestments for auxiliary equipment amount to 133 MEUR until 2038. About 26.5 MEUR are for initial investments, for rehabilitation measures of the heavy auxiliary equipment 2.1 MEUR and a sum of 104.1 MEUR for replacement investments. The replacement investments include a sum of 13.5 MEUR for the purchase of 3 new draglines. A slight reduction of the investments within the developing phase can be achieved by a further use of selected auxiliary machines from the existing mines of Mirash and Bardh. At present it is assumed that the auxiliary equipment in Bardh und Mirash will be worn out at the time of the decommissioning and cannot be further used. A revision shall be made at a later date.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

Tab. 9.5-1

Investments and Reinvestments for auxiliary Equipment

Type Dozer Pipelayer Wheel Dozer Wheel Loader 17t Wheel Loader Excavator Loader Telescope Crane 90t Telescope Crane 60t Telescope Crane 45t Telescope Crane 30t Forklift 2t Forklift 5t Truck payload 12t, 3-axle Truck with hydraulic crane Truck with lifting Platform Dump Truck Cable reel Trailer Low Bed Trailer Fuel Truck Lubrication Truck Tractor Hydraulic Backhoe Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel) Grader Tab. 9.5-2

Investment 41.0 8.9 3.4 9.0 2.3 1.0 2.0 1.9 1.7 3.2 0.2 0.3 2.0 3.5 1.3 3.0 0.4 0.9 1.1 0.6 1.4 3.0 1.2 1.1

Type Trench Cutter Single Drum Roller Jeep Pick-up Jeep 12 seats Personnel Transporters Minibus Ambulance Fire Fighting Truck Drilling Machine Workshop Container Mobile Workshop Mobile Lightings Winding Support Drum Vulcanisation Set Diesel Generator Water Truck Spraying Galleries Pumps

Investment 0.8 0.3 3.1 2.6 0.4 3.9 0.4 0.2 0.4 4.8 0.2 1.3 1.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.1 1.5

Dragline ESch 10/70 Reha Transport Crawler Reha Derricks

15.1 0.4 0.1

Yearwise Investments for auxiliary Equipment in m€

Year Investments

‘07 5.7

‘08 6.4

‘09 10.2

‘10 1.8

‘11 1.2

‘12 3.3

‘13 1.1

‘14 3.5

‘15 5.9

‘16 2.2

‘17 4.0

Year Investments

‘18 2.5

‘19 3.6

‘20 4.5

‘21 7.2

‘22 1.8

‘23 1.5

‘24 3.6

‘25 2.7

‘26 3.4

‘27 11.6

‘28 6.9

Year Investments

‘29 1.8

‘30 2.8

‘31 7.8

‘32 5.1

‘33 8.8

‘34 1.6

‘35 0.4

‘36 2.9

‘37 3.3

‘38 3.5

For auxiliary equipment, the running cost for service fluids and maintenance shall be taken into calculation. These were determined on the basis of specific parameter. • • •

Energy for draglines Fuel and lubrication Maintenance of auxiliary equipment

- 0.9 kWh / bcm overburden - 30 % of costs for energy in the mines - 4 ct / bcm (overburden and coal)

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

10 Infrastructure and Surface Facilities 10.1 General Principles In principle it is not planned to install new surface facilities for various reasons; among others the available technical plants in Bardh/ Mirash, which are presently part of ongoing rehabilitation measures, the neighbourhood to Sibovc and the extensive investments, anyhow. It seems to be reasonable to use the available buildings and plants to a great extend also for the Sibovc opencast mine. The different buildings of the following departments of KEK were checked for a follow-up use: • Office Gate 1 • Mine „BARDH“ • Mine „MIRASH“ • SEPARATION PLANT • KOSOVAMONT -------------------------------------------------------The following construction measures are required for preparing the development of the lignite opencast mines as well as for securing the auxiliary processes: Social facilities and administration change- and washrooms with sanitary facilities (wash places and toilets) administration building canteen facilities for medical care parking places Supply and disposal transfer stations and switch plants for power supply of the opencast mine equipment and surface facilities supply of drinking water, disposal of wastewater data transmission fire extinguishing ponds, building for fire brigade roads (public roads, plant roads, roads on working levels of excavators spreaders) assembly yards Workshops and warehouses main mechanical workshop main electrical workshop central auxiliary equipment workshop vulcanizing workshop mechanical and electrical workshop (for immediate repairs) petrol stations wash places or vehicles central warehouse and various small warehouses of the departments Page 183 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

10.2 Social facilities and administration 10.2.1 Mine Offices For the future main administration ca. 250 office workplaces are necessary which can be located in the area of the daily facilities of the Bardh mine and the present main administration. The office building of Mirash having a total area of 714 m² can also be used for a short-term period (only barrack). About 60 employees can work on an office area of ca. 600 m². The workshops, the future Central workshop and the warehouses have integrated office complexes for the production planning- and management staff. Presently available office spaces: Office building in Mirash Office building in Bardh Head office KEK Mechanical + E-workshop Kosovomont Total

Fig. 10.2-1

60 employees 55 employees 85 employees 50 employees 250 employees

Mine office Bardh

The administration department is located in the office building of the daily facilities of Bardh. This office building includes among others a canteen, a large-size meeting room as well as toilets and a washroom. The building was reconstructed in the past years. On an office area of ca. 550 m² 55 employees can work.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

The single-floor building of the main administration complex of the mines have a total area of ca. 915 m² including the canteen. About 85 employees can work on the ca. 730 m² office area. This building consists of a light-weight timber construction (barracks) and is rather inappropriate for an expected residual life of 20 years.

Fig. 10.2-2

Mining Office (Gate 1)

To centralize the administration a new office building for ca. 150 employees is assumed useful for the opencast mine of Sibovc. This building shall be erected new or leased. The price for a new building would come to 4.70 m €. The investment appraisal bases on leasing of the building.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

14,18 m

reception

restrooms

secretary pool

25,00 m

washroom

10,82 m

Mine Office

canteen coffee shop

meeting room

10,82 m

27,72 m

10,82 m

49,36 m

Fig. 10.2-3

Plan of Mine Office

The above layout plan is an example for an office building in modular design. According to the number of personnel to be accommodated those buildings can be constructed up to a height of 3 floors and/or extended by modules. This design can be used for a lifetime of up to 30 years, smaller units consisting of only few modules can be moved flexibly.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

10.2.2 Mine Control Centre

Fig. 10.2-4

Current mine control centre of Mirash

For the Sibovc mine, a new control centre including the corresponding technical equipment shall be constructed. A sum of ca. 150,000 € (incl. control centre Hard- and Software) shall be planned.

10.2.3 Washrooms and Sanitary Facilities The wash- and locker rooms are attached decentralized to the respective operation unit in an appropriate size. Central washing facilities exist in the mechanical workshop at Kosovomont, Separation plant as well as at the daily facilities of the Bardh mine. The washing facilities are mostly integrated in the changing rooms and have only cold water connection (Bardh village). Kosovomont and Separation plant have separate wash- and change rooms. In addition to the available 1,400 wash- and changing room places (see Mid Term Plan) another 500 new places shall be provided for and/or leased. The investment costs for such a facility will come to 1.8 m €. The investment appraisal for Sibovc includes leasing prices for washrooms with a corresponding standard (showers with warm water, washing places, lockers and toilets).

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

10.3 Supply and Disposal 10.3.1 Transformer Station Power supply for the Sibovc opencast mine is carried out via the available 110/35 kV transformer station at PALAJ. For the final development of the opencast mine field a new 110/35 kV transformer station is required in the direct neighbourhood of the opencast mine. The power supply for the opencast mine equipment is performed by means of mobile „35 kV Power Supply with 6kV distribution“ units. Input supply between Power supply units and opencast mine equipment is made by 6kV bench cable and/or 6kV bench cable windable on drums. The concept of power supply is described under item “Power Supply System and Electrical Equipment”.

10.3.2 Erection Yards It is not planned to provide a new large assembly yard for the Sibovc mine because an erection site is available in Bardh village. For large repairs, operative assembly yards shall be provided with the following requirements: - horizontal level - effective size of area: 100 m x 80 m 25.00 cm base gravel 0/56 mm - basement: 25.00 cm antifreeze layer 0/32 mm 0.5 m foot width - installation of a ditch: 0.5 m deep, - drainage ditch around repair ground with connection to River and/or collection basin with pump - connection to access road - connection of media to the repair ground with power and water - use of mobile cranes Containers are provided for construction site management (responsible for installation: contractors). About 100,000 € per big repair shall be planned.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

10.3.3 Road Construction Survey The following network of roads can be installed for a new opencast mine: 1. 2. 2.1 2.2

Relocation of public roads (see item 17 Resettlement) Mining roads (opencast mine) Roads on the single working levels of the opencast mine equipment (Plant roads) Access roads)

Categorization of road construction Tab. 10.3-1

Road construction

Designation

Mine operating roads, each on 4 working levels Access roads Municipal roads

Length of the road [m]

Wide of the road [m]

Type of road

4

Planned utilisation (years) <3

Excavator bench

3,000

Dump bench

1,500

4

<3

gravel

Head conveyor

2,000

4

>3

6

>3

asphalt with passing places asphalt

6

>3

asphalt

Main accesses each 5,000m in intended for a 2008, 2011, 2014, long-term use 2017 Connecting roads Corresponding to between the loca- the dislocation of tions locations

gravel

Plant roads Parallel to the belt conveyor systems, construction of plant roads 4 m wide are planned as gravel roads on the single working levels. In case of a lifetime greater than 3 years, these roads will be covered by an asphalt cover.

The roads constructed in Macadam-design (First layer 16 cm chippings with grain size 60-90 mm; Second layer 9 cm chippings with grain size 30-60 mm) in the Bardh and Mirash mines in 2004 have not proved successful on the existing subsoil (clay) and the difficult dewatering conditions. Therefore, the gravel roads on cohesive soils shall be constructed as follows: 10.00 cm 20.00 cm 30.00 cm 1 layer 60.00 cm

gravel base gravel base anti-freeze layer Geovlies-mats Sum

0/32 mm, sand washed 0/56 mm 0/32 mm

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A unit price of 12.00-16.00 €/m² shall be calculated for the cost determination of the gravel roads. Because an amount of ca. 50 % of the gravel material can be recovered the specific price will come to 9.45 €/ m². The following system of operating roads will be required in the opencast mine (depending on the bench lengths): Excavator bench on 4 working levels, ca. 3 km long and 4 m wide (gravel) Dump bench on 4 working levels, 1.5 km long and 4 m wide (gravel) Head conveyor on 4 working levels, ca.2 km long and 4 m wide with passing places (asphalt) Owing to the opencast mine advance and the connected shifting operations, about 27 km of gravel roads have to be built (until 2032). From 2033 to 2038, only 20 km of gravel roads will have to be built per year. The main accesses along the head conveyors are made of asphalt. At the beginning of the opening of the mines about 8 km have to be constructed. During regular operating, these roads will be extended on each working level by 100 - 120 m (totally about 0.5 km per year). Access roads Roads and main accesses intended for long-term use (lifetime >3 years) shall be furnished as asphalt roads with the following layers:

4.00 cm 4.00 cm 8.00 cm 20.00 cm 44.00 cm 80.00 cm

bitumen surface bitumen binder layer bituminous base gravel base antifreeze layer Total

0/11 mm 0/16 mm 0/32 mm 0/56 mm (compaction EV2 > 180 MN/m²) 0/32 mm

Due to opposing traffic the roads shall be 6 m wide. Costs will arise at an amount of 25.00 €/m² (construction mainly with local contractors). Due to the opencast mine advance, the access roads are integrated in the cost model as follows: 2008 5 km Asphalt road 2011 5 km Asphalt road 2014 5 km Asphalt road 2017 5 km Asphalt road From 2018, expenditures for asphalt road construction are calculated including a distance of 5 km every 5 years. For road construction the existing building materials (limited availability of broken brick, ash concrete) can be used. In any case a geotextile and a drainage layer shall be used in the upper layers because it can be water-absorbing depending on the firing temperature. Page 190 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

10.4 Workshops and Warehouses 10.4.1 Principles The mining company KEK owns a number of decentralized located main-and operating workshops and stockyards which can be used owing to the low distance to the new opencast mine field of Sibovc. The rehabilitation of buildings intended for use at Sibovc is part of the Mid Term Plans. During normal operation of Sibovc the existing buildings have to be maintained. An administration building, a 500-person washing room and a mine control centre are planned to be built new. Currently the following infrastructure elements support the maintenance process. Auxiliary equipment workshops (total 5 locations): − − − − −

Workshop (small) and yard Bardh (south-western slope Bardh), also the vulcanizing facility of the Bardh operation is located here Workshop and yard Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West, surface site of old underground mine) Workshop and yard Kosovomont (Mirash Brand Field) Rubber tired vehicles yard (Mirash gate) Workshop separation plant

Main equipment workshops (total 7 locations): −

Mechanical workshop Bardh (South of Bardh village, large construction cranes for main mine equipment on site), also the idler repair facility of the Bardh operation is located here − Electrical workshop Bardh, also a second building for electrical rehabilitation is at the same location (Western slope Bardh) − Mechanical workshop Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West) − Electrical workshop Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West) − Mechanical workshop Kosovomont − Electrical workshop Kosovomont − Electrical and mechanical workshop separation plant, idler repair Warehouses (total 11 locations with one more under construction): − − − − − − −

Warehouse electrical Bardh (Western slope Bardh) Warehouse mechanical Bardh (Western slope Bardh) Warehouse protective equipment Bardh (Western slope Bardh) Warehouse aux equipment Bardh (Western slope Bardh) Fuel station Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West) Warehouse electrical Kosovomont Warehouse mechanical Kosovomont Page 191 of 257


EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine – Technical Planning

− − − − −

Fuel station separation plant Warehouse idler and vulcanization separation plant Warehouse mechanical and electrical temporary Mirash at the gasification plant Warehouse office supply at gate 01 There is a new warehouse under construction at the Mirash office building

Basing on the prepared maintenance concept for the Bardh and Mirash opencast mines the following available capacities will be rehabilitated and made available for Sibovc: From these 24 locations with support functions in a first business reengineering effort 11 locations will remain. These are: Auxiliary equipment workshops: (1) New Central Auxiliary equipment workshop including warehouse (Bardh Southwestern slope) - completion in 2005 Main equipment workshops: (1) Mechanical workshop Intervention (South of Bardh village) (2) Electrical workshop Intervention (Western slope Bardh) (3) Electrical workshop Kosovomont (4) Mechanical workshop Kosovomont (5) Workshop separation plant Warehouses: (1) Warehouse Bardh (Western slope Bardh) (2) Fuel station Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West) (3) New warehouse Mirash (currently under construction at the Mirash office building) – completion in 2005 (4) New central warehouse at Kosovomont (5) Idler repair workshop separation plant

For implementing an effective maintenance, a central inventory management including a EDPsystem for acquiring, keeping and managing the inventory is planned. For registering the material it will be necessary to introduce a code system. The following table summarizes all existing buildings of the single departments of KEK which will be used in future.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

Tab. 10.4-1

Further use of buildings for Sibovc

Building

Designation

Departments of CPD KEK

Auxiliary equipment New central aux. Workshop Workshop Mechanical workshop Intervention Electrical workshop intervention Main equipment workshops

Electrical workshop Mechanical workshop

Warehouses

SEPARATION DEPARTMENT

New warehouse

M.S. "MIRASHI"

Warehouse idler and vulcanization

SEPARATION DEPARTMENT

Warehouse electrical Bardh

M.S. "BARDHI"

Warehouse mechanical Bardh

Mine control centre

M.S. "BARDHI" MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT" MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT" M.S. "BARDHI"

Mine control centre

M.S. "MIRASHI"

Office Building

M.S. "MIRASHI"

Office Building

M.S. "BARDHI"

Mining Office

Petrol Station

KEK Gate 01 MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT" M.S. "MIRASHI"

Petrol Station

SEPARATION DEPARTMENT

Mechanical workshop Intervention

M.S. "BARDHI"

Electrical workshop intervention

M.S. "BARDHI" MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT" SEPARATION DEPARTMENT

Warehouse for workshops

Mine Offices

Mechanical + Electrical Workshop Petrol Station / Fuel Depot

Washrooms and Sanitary Facilities

M.S. "BARDHI" M.S. "BARDHI" MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT" MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT"

Electrical + Mechanical Workshop

New central warehouse

Mine Control Centre

M.S. "BARDHI"

Mechanical workshop Electrical and mechanical workshop

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Planning

The planned site of the workshop- and stockyard complex is illustrated in the following picture: Workshop

Leshkoshiq

TPP A

Workshop (Aux. Equipm.) Warehouse

Hade

Nakarade

Lismir

Bardh Fig. 10.4-1

Fushe Kosove

Survey workshops and warehouses

10.4.2 Central- and Plant Workshops New central auxiliary equipment workshop The future new auxiliary equipment workshop is at the territory of the