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DELEGATE HANDBOOK 2011-2012 Table of Contents: Section 1: Introduction to the United Nations Structure and Model United Nations Section 2: Conference Preparation Section 3: LPCMUN Flow of Debate, Rules and Procedures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.


Appendix A: Sample of a Position Paper Appendix B: Sample of a Resolution Appendix C: Lists of phrases for preambulatory and operative clauses Appendix D: Diagram with Flow of Debate


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Section 1: Introduction Introduction to the United Nations The United Nations is an international organisation founded in 1945 after World War Two to replace the failed League of Nations, with the UN Charter as its foundational treaty. Under the UN Charter, the UN works in a wide range of areas to “maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations and promote social progress, better living standards and human rights.” Currently, the United Nations has 193 member states, and the official languages used are: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

International Court of Justice

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

United Nations

Trusteeship Council

Security Council

General Assembly

Specialized Agencies: 1. International Labour Organization (ILO) 2. World Health Organization (WHO) 3. United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 4. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 5. International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Programmes and Funds: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1. Disarmament and International Security (DISEC) 2. Economic and Financial (ECOFIN) 3. Social, Humanitarian and Cultural (SOCHUM) 4. Special Political and Decolonization (SPECPOL) 5. Administrative and Budgetary 6. Legal

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

Introduction to Model United Nations Model United Nations (MUN) aims at simulating the United Nations through debates with UN related content and procedures. This is to educate students about current affairs, international communication and multilateral diplomacy, and other affairs that take place on an international scale through the simulating biggest intergovernmental organisation in the world. Participants take on the role of diplomats of a member country, as representatives in a committee assigned to them. They LPCUWC MUN

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research on a specific topic with reference to their country's stance. In caucuses and the conference, they then work with other delegates to resolve issues on a multilateral and international scale. Section 2: Conference Preparation Research Guidelines: In order to have a comprehensive view of the problem, it is important that delegates research for relevant information through a variety of sources. It is recommended that delegates refer to: I.

UN Document Index: This index for all UN documents comes in three different versions: UNDI (1950-1973), UNDEX (1970-1978), and UNDOC (1979-present). Depending on which of the three you are using, you will find a subject index, a country index, and an alphanumeric list of all documents published (this is useful because each committee has its own unique alphanumeric prefix and thus you can find all the documents put out by a committee during a certain year regardless of the specific topic). You can refer to and http://


UN Resolutions: This series is both valuable and very easy to use. The index is cumulative from 1946, which means that you need only check the most current index to find all the resolutions on your topic that the UN has ever passed. The resolution voting records are useful to see where your nation and other nations stood on the issues.


Other UN Sources: The websites of the member states missions in the UN.

IV. People: An often neglected source, people can aid you greatly in your research. Some people to keep in mind are: fellow delegates, faculty advisors, and your committee’s Chairs. Not only can these people help delegates find what they are looking for, but they may also recommend new sources that they had not considered. V.

Any other relevant sources: Academic journals, websites, etc. that provide information that are not necessarily written from an UN perspective, but nevertheless provide important information for delegate's understanding of the topic.

Position Papers: Once having completed the preliminary research, delegates are ready to write their position paper. Each position paper has three basic parts: I.

The first part should be statement of the problem. In this section, you will outline with the perspective of your country what the main elements of the problem are and what you perceive to be the roots of those elements.


The second part of the position paper should include previous actions taken by your country with respect to your topic area. Has there been a particular strategy to tackle this challenge? Have they been successful? What stance has your nation taken in relation to this topic?


The final part of the position paper should be a statement of your current position on the topic. What possible solution to your see for the problem at hand? What are some outcomes that your country would not agree with in any situation? What are some outcomes that you would push for vehemently?

The position paper should be sufficiently clear for the reader to understand what stand you will take on the issue at the conference. Position Papers should roughly adhere to the following form, with the


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Country, the Committee, and the Topic included at the top. Please limit each topic area to one singlespaced typed page. A sample position paper can be found in Appendix A.

Section 3: LPCMUN Flow of Debate, Rules and Procedures Overview: When the research is done and the position paper written the delegates are ready for the conference. The debates held by LPCMUN will be governed by the rules provided in this handbook. The debate follows the general speaker's list or the motions proposed for moderated or unmoderated caucuses. In the GSL, delegates raise their placards to motion to speak. Once they are granted the power, they speak to share their views with the entire committee. During the GSL the parliamentary rules of procedure are in order. At some point someone will usually call for a caucus in order to hash out ideas in an informal manner. A caucus is a break in formal debate where delegates may speak to each other directly for a certain amount of time (not to exceed 20 minutes) free from the constraints of parliamentary procedure. Caucuses facilitate the discussion; delegates may choose to meet with other delegates in an unmoderated caucus in order to discuss solutions or such matters after having heard them express their particular points of view during formal debate. Or they may use a moderated caucus to focus the debate in certain topic. After a few hours, delegates are expected to begin writing working papers. Working papers are the first step towards a resolution. They are the result of caucusing and coordinated writing efforts by the delegates. A working paper provides the delegates with exactly what the name suggests, i.e. something to work on. After further debate, draft resolutions are written by delegates, followed by the amendments, and when the debate is closed, the committee proceeds to the voting of the draft resolutions proposed. Rules of Procedure: The Rules of Parliamentary Procedures below explain how the procedures formally occur in the conference.

1. SCOPE: These rules apply to all the committees in this conference. 2. LANGUAGE: English will be the official and working language of the conference. 3. GENERAL POWERS OF THE COMMITTEE STAFF: The Committee Chair will declare the

opening and closing of each meeting and may propose the adoption of any procedural motion to which there is no significant objection. Subject to these rules, the Chair will have complete control of the proceedings at any meeting. The Chair will direct discussions, accord the right to speak, put questions, announce decisions, rule on points of order, and ensure and enforce the observance of these rules. The Chair may temporarily transfer his duties to another member of the Committee staff or other designates of the Chair. The rapporteur will work closely with the Chair to record proceedings throughout the entire debate. Committee staff members may also advise delegations on the course of debate. In the exercise of these functions, the Committee staff will be at all times subject to these rules and responsible to the Secretary-General.

4. QUORUM: The Chair may declare a committee open and permit debate to proceed when at least one fourth of the members of the committee are present. Moreover, the presence of a majority of the committee is required for the vote on any substantive motion.


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5. DEBATE: Delegates should raise a motion to open the General Speakers List. 6. UNMODERATED CAUCUS: An unmoderated caucus temporarily suspends formal debate and

allows members to discuss ideas informally in the committee room. A motion for an unmoderated caucus is in order at any time when the floor is open, prior to closure of debate. The delegate making the motion must briefly explain the purpose for the motion and specify a time limit for the caucus, not to exceed twenty minutes. The motion will be put to a vote immediately, and a simple majority is required for passage. The Chair may rule the motion dilatory, in which case the motion is considered out of order.

7. MODERATED CAUCUS: The purpose of the moderated caucus is to facilitate substantive

debate at critical junctures in the discussion. The Chair will temporarily depart from the speakers list and call on delegates to speak at his or her discretion for the stipulated time. A motion for a moderated caucus is in order at any time when the floor is open, prior to closure of debate. The delegate making the motion must briefly specify a topic, a speaking time, and an overall time limit, not to exceed twenty minutes, for the caucus. Once raised, the motion will be voted on immediately, with a simple majority required for passage. The Chair may rule the motion dilatory, in which case the motion is considered out of order.

8. CLOSURE OF DEBATE: When the floor is open, a delegate may move to close debate on the

substantive or procedural matter under discussion. The Chair may rule such a motion dilatory. When closure of debate is moved, the Chair may recognize up to two speakers against the motion. No speaker in favor of the motion will be recognized. Closure of debate requires a 2/3 majority to pass. If the Committee is in favor of closure, the Chair will declare the closure of debate, and the resolution or amendment will be brought to an immediate vote. If the speakers list is exhausted and no delegations wish to add their name to the list, debate is immediately closed.

9. SUSPENSION OF THE MEETING: Whenever the floor is open, a delegate may move for the

suspension of the meeting, to suspend all Committee functions until the next meeting. The Chair may rule such motions dilatory, in which case the motion is not in order. When in order, such a motion will not be debated but will be immediately put to a vote and will require a majority to pass.

10. RECONSIDERATION: A motion to reconsider is in order when a resolution or amendment has been adopted or rejected, and must be made by a member who voted with the majority on the substantive proposal. The Chair will recognize two speakers opposing the motion after which the motion will be immediately put to a vote. A 2/3 majority of the members present and voting is required for reconsideration.

The art of communication:


11. SPEAKERS LIST: The Committee will have a General

Speakers List for the Topic Area being discussed. Separate speakers lists will be established as needed for motions to set the agenda and debate on amendments. A nation may add its name to the speakers list by submitting a request in writing to the Chair, provided that nation is not already on the speakers list. The Chair may solicit nations to be added to the speakers list by raising their placard. The names of the next several nations to speak will always be posted for the convenience of the Committee. The


Often the most serious obstacle to a committee’s progress is not some irreconcilable ideological difference, but simple a failure on part of the delegates to listen and understand one another. The skills you learn from MUN may help you become a better speaker and debater. HMUN Guide to Delegate Preparation 2010.

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speakers list for the second topic area will not be open until the Committee has proceeded to that topic.

12. SPEECHES: No delegate may address a session without having previously obtained the

permission of the Chair. The Chair may call a speaker to order if his or her remarks are not relevant to the subject under discussion, or offensive to committee members or staff.

13. SPEAKING TIME: When any speakers list is opened, the speaking time is automatically set to

one minute. Delegates may also motion to set a new speaking time at any time when points or motions are in order during formal debate. This motion requires a simple majority to pass.

14. YIELDS: A delegate granted the right to speak from a speakers list may, after speaking, yield in one of three ways: to another delegate, to questions, or to the Chair.

• Yield to another delegate: Any remaining time will be given to that delegate, who may not, however, then yield any remaining time. To turn the floor over to a co-delegate is not considered a yield. • Yield to questions: Questioners will be selected by the Chair and limited to one question each. Follow-up questions will be allowed only at the discretion of the Chair. Only the speaker’s answers to questions will be deducted from the speaker’s remaining time. • Yield to the chair: Such a yield should be made if the delegate does not wish his or her speech to be subject to comments. The Chair will then move to the next speaker. A yield to the chair is in order, but not automatic, when a speaker’s time has elapsed. • Yields are in order only on substantive speeches and not during moderated caucus.

15. COMMENTS: If a substantive speech involves no yields, the Chair may recognize two delegations, other than the initial speaker, to comment for thirty seconds each on the specific content of the speech just completed. Commenters may not yield. No comments will be in order during debate on procedural motions.

16. RIGHT OF REPLY: A delegate whose personal or national integrity has been impugned by

another delegate may request in writing a Right of Reply. The Chair’s decision whether to grant the Right of Reply cannot be appealed, and a delegate granted a Right of Reply will not address the committee until requested to do so by the Chair.


17. POINT OF PERSONAL PRIVILEGE: Whenever a delegate experiences personal discomfort

which impairs his or her ability to participate in the proceedings, he or she may rise to a Point of Personal Privilege to request that the discomfort be corrected. While a Point of Personal Privilege may interrupt a speaker, delegates should use this power with the utmost discretion.

18. POINT OF ORDER: During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may rise to a Point of Order to indicate an instance of improper use of parliamentary procedure. The Point of Order will be immediately decided by the Chair in accordance with these rules of procedure. The Chair may rule out of order those points that are dilatory or improper; such a decision cannot be appealed. A representative rising to a Point of Order may not speak on the substance of the matter under discussion. A Point of Order may only interrupt a speaker when the speech itself is not following proper parliamentary procedure.


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19. POINT OF PARLIAMENTARY INQUIRY: When the floor is open, a delegate may rise to a Point of Parliamentary Inquiry to ask the Chair a question regarding the Rules of Procedure. A Point of Parliamentary Inquiry may never interrupt a speaker. Delegates with substantive questions should not rise to this Point, but should rather approach the committee staff at an appropriate time.


20. WORKING PAPERS: Delegates may propose working papers for Committee consideration. Working papers are intended to aid the Committee in its discussion and formulation of resolutions and need not be written in resolution format. Working papers are not official documents, but do require the signature of the Chair to be copied and distributed. Working papers do not have signatories.

21. RESOLUTION: Before being introduced, a draft resolution needs to have at least 5 signatures

from different delegations and the approval of the Chair. Signing a resolution need not indicate support of the resolution, and the signatory has no further rights or obligations. The Chair’s decision not to accept a resolution or amendment may not be appealed. Draft resolutions usually a simple majority to pass unless otherwise stated in specific Committee rules.

22. INTRODUCING RESOLUTIONS: Once a resolution has been approved as stipulated above

and has been copied and distributed, a delegate may make a motion to introduce the resolution. This motion requires only authorization by the Chair. The dais staff, time permitting, may choose to read the operative clauses of the resolution. More than one resolution may be on the floor at any one time, but at most one resolution may be passed per Topic Area. A resolution will remain on the floor until debate is postponed or closed or a resolution on that Topic Area has been passed.

23. AMENDMENTS: Delegates may amend any resolution that has been introduced. An amendment must have the approval of the Chair and the signatures of 1/5 of the Committee. Amendments to amendments are out of order; however, an amended part of a resolution may be further amended. There are no official sponsors of amendments and all amendments, once a resolution is on the floor, must be debated and voted upon. • An approved amendment may be introduced when the floor is open. General debate will be suspended and two speakers lists will be established, one for a n d o n e against the amendment. Debate will alternate between each list. • A motion to close debate will be in order after the Committee has heard two speakers for the motion and two against, or when one of the speakers lists is exhausted. The Chair will recognize two speakers against the motion to close debate, and a 2/3 majority is required for closure of debate on the agenda. • When debate is closed on the amendment, the Committee will move to an immediate vote. After the vote, debate will return to the general speakers list. RULES GOVERNING VOTING

24. DIVISION OF THE QUESTION: After debate on a Topic Area or amendment has been closed, a delegate may move to divide the question on any item which is about to be voted on. Division of the question means that a specified set of operative clauses may be voted on separately from the rest. Preambulatory clauses may not be removed by division of the question. This motion requires a simple majority to pass.


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• If the motion passes, the Chair will accept proposals on how to divide the question. Such proposals may divide the question Drafting a resolution into two or more parts. After all proposals have been accepted, the Every good resolution should fulfill “The three Chair will arrange them from most severe C’s”: comprehensive, collaborative and to least, and each will be voted on, in conceivable. Virtually all the problems the UN that order. tackles are quite complex; for a resolution to be a good solution to the problem of global importance • If any proposal passes, all other it must be comprehensive. If the resolution is to proposals are discarded and the resolution gain enough support to be passed by the or amendment is divided accordingly. A committee, then it must also be collaborative. substantive vote must then be taken on Finally, if the resolution is to gain the approval of each divided part to determine the Chair, then it must be conceivable. The realistic whether or not it is included in the final resolution takes into account the UN’s limitations draft. A simple majority is required for and the current international balance of power so inclusion of each part. After all parts as to make the most effective use of diplomacy. have been voted on, those that were voted to be included are recombined into HMUN Guide to Delegate Preparation 2010. the final draft resolution. If all of the operative parts of the substantive proposal are rejected, the proposal will be considered to have been rejected as a whole.

25. REORDERING RESOLUTIONS: The default order in which resolutions are voted on is the order in which they were introduced. After debate on a topic has been closed, a delegate may motion to change the order in which resolutions on the Committee floor will be voted on. Such a motion must specify a desired order. Once such a motion has been made, the Chair will accept alternative proposals for ordering. Proposals will be voted on in the order in which they were received and require a simple majority to pass; once a proposal has been passed, all others are discarded and resolutions will be voted on in that order.

26. VOTING: Once Committee is in voting procedure and all relevant motions have been

entertained, the committee will vote on the resolutions on the floor. Voting occurs on each resolution in succession; once a resolution has been passed, no further resolutions will be voted on. Each country will have one vote. Each vote may be a “Yes,” “No,” or “Abstain.” All matters will be voted upon by placards, except in the case of a roll call vote. After the Chair has announced the beginning of voting, no delegate will interrupt the voting except on a Point of Personal Privilege or on a Point of Order in connection with the actual conduct of the voting. A simple majority requires more “Yes” votes than “No” votes; abstentions are not counted toward either total. A 2/3 majority vote requires at least twice as many “Yes” votes as “No” votes.

27. ROLL CALL VOTING: After closure of debate on any Topic Area, any delegate may request a roll call vote. Voting will be automatically adopted under the discretion of the Chair. • In a roll call vote, the Chair will call all countries noted by the dais to be attendance in alphabetical order starting with a randomly selected member.



• In the first sequence, delegates may vote “Yes,” “No,” “Abstain,” “Pass,” “Yes with rights,” or “No with rights.”


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• A delegate who passes during the first sequence of the roll call must vote “Yes” or “No” during the second sequence. The same delegate may not request the right of explanation. • A delegate may only vote with rights if his or her vote appears to constitute a divergence from his or her country’s policy. After all delegates have voted, delegates who had requested the right of explanation will be granted 30 seconds each to explain their votes. • The Chair will then announce the outcome of the vote. Appendix A: Sample of a Position Paper UNDP/Position Paper/ Russian Federation Committee: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Topic: Effective Advocacy, Monitoring and Partnerships for Sustainable Urbanization Country: Russian Federation Urbanization stands at the forefront of all development concerns nationally and globally. At present, half of the world’s population lives in urban cities with the other half becoming increasingly dependent upon cities for economic, social and political progress. In Russia, the urban population accounts for 75% of the total population. The economic downturn and the ever increasing threat of climate change highlights the urgency for all nations and respective governments to take up full responsibility to strive for better, smarter and more sustainable towns and cities, to fulfill their roles in guiding urban development. The challenge is to integrate economic, social, and environmental policies to make cities economically more competitive, socially more inclusive and gender responsive, and ecologically more sustainable, to create and develop holistic, inclusive and sustainable communities. With the Biennial Programme of Cooperation with UN- HABITAT, The Russian Federation, has in the past participated, and is still continuing her participation in numerous projects with regional and international cooperation, with local projects in different cities being recognized as best practices, cities namely Yaroslav, Bugulma, Grozny and Stavropol. Under the umbrella of effective advocacy, monitoring and partnerships, with respect to UN Habitat as a facilitator and the Medium Term Strategic and Institution Plan 2009-13 as a road map, the Russian Federation points to concrete strategic measures for urban poverty reduction and sustainable urbanization. Urban planning and infrastructures are the core foundations of every city. Urban planning and reinforces infrastructure – good urban planning that reflects the true priorities of community groups facilitates efficient infrastructure provisions. The Russian Federation asks member states to take initiative to develop up-to-date urban plans and infrastructure, to steer growth into sustainable directions, by consultation of professional partner planners whose expertise is often disregarded and undermined even in developed cities currently due to interests of urban developers. When tackling a problem that concerns every nation, ever city, developed or developing, partnerships evermore crucial. The Russian Federation strongly supports and encourages the holding of forums for knowledge sharing, such as the World Urban Forum, which provides a platform for the sharing of expertise, knowledge, understanding and best practices or show-case solutions. Systematic exchange and transfer of knowledge is also integral; the Russian Federation encourages member states to contribute to knowledge management systems such as the UN Habitat’s Best Practices Database, which will supply the demand for best practice expertise for the whole international community. Locally, community based and public-private partnerships should also be in place to scale up interventions and leverage resources. LPCUWC MUN

What to do if your resolution fails?

Remember that the value of a MUN conference resides not in getting your resolution passed, but in learning both about the UN as an international forum and about how to negotiate and communicate. The true victors at a MUN conference are those delegates who learn from their experiences in the committee process and take that knowledge from the conference and apply it to their endeavors beyond. HMUN Guide to

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Cities consume up to 75% of all energy and contribute to an equally substantial amount of greenhouse gas emissions. The Russian Federation encourages UN Habitat, to cooperate with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in issues related to cities and climate change, in particular directing efforts to address the vulnerability of cities to climate change by providing technical assistance to cities on local action for the mitigation of urban based greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change, such as building affordable energy efficient homes and generating new green jobs which will in the process benefit the community socially as well. Gender equality and women’s rights and empowerment are pivotal components of sustainable urbanization. The country urges member states to recognize women’s rights at household and community levels, their rights to actively participate in the political, economic, social and cultural life of a city. The Russian Federation suggests to increase gender equality programmes in the area of housing and urban development and to establish land access trusts as intermediary organizations between low income women’s housing cooperatives and financial institutions for raising access to housing finance and acquisition of land and housing. Information Communication Technologies (ICT) should also be further adopted as a platform for socioeconomic development, for bridging the gap between rich and poor, for increasing employment opportunities as well as a means to bridge the digital divide. Such outcomes can be achieved with the provision of physical infrastructure – computer and other devices, and human infrastructure – skills, education and training. Last but not least, by prioritizing national urban planning strategies with the participation of all stakeholders, by promoting equal access for people living in slums to public services, including health, education, transport, energy, water and sanitation, and adequate shelter, slum populations can be reduced, lives of slum-dwellers can be improved, cities can be made more sustainable. By this, we are one more step closer to fulfilling the goal contained in United Nations Millennium Declaration of achieving a significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers by 2020.

Appendix B: Sample of a Resolution UNDP/DR/1.3 Topic: Effective Advocacy, Monitoring and Partnerships for Sustainable Urbanization Author: Russian Federation, UK, USA, Saudi Arabia, DR Congo, India Signatories: Bangladesh, Venezuela, Finland, Ghana, Pakistan, Germany, Australia The General Assembly, Recalling all previous efforts towards effective advocacy, monitoring and partnerships for sustainable urbanization under the Medium-term Strategic and Institutional Plan of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Recalling also the Habitat Agenda and the Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements, Aware of the ever-growing challenges to deliver sustainable urbanization and development in face of accelerating demographic shifts towards cities, Expresses its appreciation to aid given by member states towards the United Nations Capital Development Fund for the funding of projects and encourages countries to continue their support, Seeking support from the international community to support national efforts of developing countries in promoting legal empowerment of the poor through provision of adequate financial resources and technical assistance, Reaffirming the important role of partnerships as recognized in the Medium-term Strategic and Institutional Plan of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Fully supporting the cooperation with SOCHUM and ECOSOC regarding the regulation of the relationship between urbanization and industrialization,


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Recognizing importance of the upholding of children’s rights in the process of urbanization, encouraging cooperation with UNICEF and other relevant UN agencies in legislation and prevention in regard to child labour and trafficking, and empowerment of urban youth, Further recognizing all kinds of discrimination are existent in developing urban areas and urge member states to uphold the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other conventions which are directed towards elimination of discrimination, Fully believing in the integration of economic, social and environmental policies to make cities economically more competitive, socially more inclusive and gender responsive, ecologically more sustainable, to create and develop holistic, inclusive and sustainable communities, 1.

Recognizes effective urban planning and reinforcement of infrastructure in both developed and developing countries as long term solutions to problems of human settlement and other social problems, with attention to: 1.1 Implementation of good urban planning that reflects the true priorities of community groups, and efficient infrastructure provisions such as water supply, housing, sanitation, health care, transport and security forces to promote wellbeing and security; 1.2 Upgrading and establishment of up-to-date urban plans and infrastructure to steer growth into sustainable directions, by consultation of professional partner planners;


Calls for the active participation and cooperation between organizations within and outside United Nations, including the World Bank and regional development banks with regard to the funding, provision of seed capital and the financing of urbanization projects and programmes


Further calls member states to recognize the problem of discrimination between migrants from rural regions and city people and to address such a problem by enforcement of relevant policies and business regulations, recommending member states to 3.1 To continue efforts in the area of legal empowerment of the poor including access to justice and the realization of rights related to property, labor and business through national policies and strategies 3.1.1 By implementing and improving employment equality and administrative hate-crime law; 3.1.2 By regulating business practices, asking businesses to adhere to or implement antidiscrimination code of conduct; Encourages the creation of strategic partnerships between governments, non-government organizations, the private sector and other institutions internally and internationally to promote sustainable urbanization through evidence-based research, and exchange of best practices that are specific to regions, countries and different cases; 4.1 Community based and public-private partnerships to scale up interventions and leverage with consideration to the different natures and roles of NGOs; 4.1.1 With proper screening for NGOs in defining a specific and instrumental roles to different purposes; 4.1.2 With consensus between UN-HABITAT, governments and NGOs to achieve clear and transparent partnerships so to avoid duplication of duties; 4.2 Partnerships with the private sector to establish and promote socially responsible business practices that foster economical, environmental and social wellbeing in urban cities, which are sustainable because it mutually benefits poor communities and business concerns; 4.3 Partnerships with countries within regions, under the guidance and monitoring of UN-HABITAT to address cross-border issues



Strongly encourages on aid given in the form of knowledge-resources, with emphasis on 5.1 Forums of knowledge sharing, such as the World Urban Forum, which provides a platform for the sharing of expertise, knowledge, understanding and best practices or show-case solutions, drawing attention to; 5.2 Strengthened transparency and effectiveness in sustainable knowledge management systems such as UN HABITAT’s Best Practices Database monitored and regulated by international experts, which will supply the demand for best practice expertise for the whole international community; 5.2.1 To encourage member states to submit periodical reports on practices in projects, urbanization trends including urban poverty and slums to the database; LPCUWC MUN

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5.2.2 To improve data collection with complementary facilities, such as Information Communication Technologies (ICT); 6.

Promotes education in the form of basic education, expertise education, and moral education or awareness programs as a fundamental long term solution to sustainable urbanization: 6.1 Basic education that promotes fundamental subjects with emphasis on accessibility and universality; 6.2 Expertise knowledge that is promoted in developing nations with support from NGOs and other entities that will bring in training programs with the purpose of creating professionals and specialists within a country to foster economic sustainability and effective urban planning; 6.3 Moral education and awareness programs to allow citizens of urban cities to consider moral and principle values, for example gender equality and increase public awareness for social problems as consequences of urbanization;


Confirms the importance of solving health problems in developing urban cities by: 7.1 Promoting basic medical education in developing urban cities such that the importance of sanitation will be instilled among citizens 7.2 Encouraging developed nations to support developing urban cities by giving medical aid in the form of medical equipment, vaccines, drugs, sanitation products to improve the well being of the urban population 7.3 Reducing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and AIDS in developing urban cities by means of distribution of medication (i.e. antiretroviral drugs) and sexual education (i.e. use of contraceptives) 7.4 Inviting NGOs, such as the American Red Cross to play a facilitating role in distribution and regulation of the use of medical aid


Recommends environmental sustainable solutions 8.1 Cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in issues related to cities and climate change, urging for the setting up of a stricter and more effective framework and policies to monitor pollution and carbon emissions rate for all nations, such as carbon taxation, with regard to different situations in individual member states; 8.2 Efforts directed towards addressing the vulnerability of cities to climate change by providing technical assistance to cities on local action for the mitigation of urban based greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change, such as building affordable energy efficient homes and generating new green jobs which will in the process benefit the community socially as well; 8.3 Urban planning with increased attention to environmental conservation, such as setting up more preservation areas (Preservation parks, Marine Protected Areas etc) and waste management to minimize health hazards and reduce emissions; 8.4 Development and incorporation of technologies which can increase energy efficiency to meet larger energy demands in developing cities;


Reminds the international community that women constitute the majority of urban poverty and suggests to promote gender equality and women’s rights and empowerment through legal reforms with government consensus to empower women 9.1 Promotion of women’s rights at household and community levels, their rights to actively participate in the political, economic, social and cultural life of a city; 9.2 Gender equality programmes in the area of housing and urban development and to establish land access trusts as intermediary organizations between low income women’s housing cooperatives and financial institutions for raising access to housing finance and acquisition of land and housing;


Encourages governments to give priority and support to youth-led development initiatives, and invites multilateral agencies, governments, the private sector and civil society to listen to youth and develop policies on their development based on participatory processes;


Recommends Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to be further adopted as a platform for socio-economic development, for bridging divisions between rich and poor, for increasing employment opportunities and bridging the digital divide by 11.1 Provision of physical infrastructure, i.e. computer and other devices; 11.2 Human input, i.e. skills, education and training; LPCUWC MUN

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11.3 Creating of binding arrangements that require developed nations to commit to the sharing of material technological aid; 11.4 Encouraging the sharing of technologies based on mutual consensus; 11.5 Encouraging partnerships with NGOs to formulate sustainable programmes for less privileged people; 12.

Recognizes the potentials of microfinance in empowering less privileged groups to meet subsistence levels and sustain their living economically, asking member states to: 12.1 Explore the implementation of microfinance in less developed areas to empower less privileged groups in reaching greater long term economical sustainability and social security; 12.2 Strengthen microfinance with education, such as workshops and training so that clients are more empowered to develop their own businesses and more likely to repay loans;

Appendix C: Phrases that are suitable for beginning preambulatory and operative clauses: Preambulatory Phrases Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Believing Bearing in mind

Cognizant of Confident Contemplating Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned

Deeply conscious Deeply convinced Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Deploring Desiring

Having heard Having received Having studied Keeping in mind Noting further Noting with approval Noting with deep concern Noting with regret Noting with satisfaction Noting with zest Observing Realizing Reaffirming Recalling Recognizing Referring Seeking Taking into account Taking note Viewing with appreciation Welcoming Declares accordingly Demands* Deplores Draws attention Designates

Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Expresses its appreciation Expresses its hope Further invites Further proclaims Further remind Further recommends Further requests Further resolves Has resolved Notes Proclaims Reaffirms Recommends Reminds Regrets Requests Resolves Solemnly affirms Strongly condemns* Supports Takes note of Trusts Urges *reserved for the Security Council

Operative Phrases Accepts Affirms Approves Authorizes Calls for Calls upon Condemns* Congratulates Confirms Considers Decides Emphasizing Expecting Expressing its appreciation Expressing its satisfaction Fulfilling Fully aware Fully believing Further deploring Further recalling Guided by Having adopted Having considered Having considered further Having devoted attention Having examined


PAGE 13 OF 14

Appendix D: Diagram of Flow of Debate

Motion to open the GSL

GSL Point of Personal Privilege Speeches

Floor opened

Point of Order Point of Parliamentary Inquiry Point of Order Motion for Moderated Caucus (simple)

Point of Personal Privilege

Motion for Unmoderated Caucus (simple) Motion to Suspend Debate (simple) Motion to change the speaking time (simple)


Motion to Introduce a Working Paper (simple) Motion to Introduce a Draft Resolution (simple) Motion to Introduce an Amendment (simple)

For and Against Debate Motion to Close the Debate Two Speakers Against Vote to close debate (2/3)

Motion to Close the GSL (2/3)

Vote on the Amendment (2/3)

Motion to Reorder the Resolution (simple) Closed Debate

Motion to Divide the Question (simple) Motion for Roll Call Vote

Motion for Reconsideration (2/3)

After Voting


Motion to Adjourn the Meeting (simple)

PAGE 14 OF 14


Model United Nations (MUN) aims at simulating the United Nations through debates with UN related content and procedures.

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