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BE E THOVE N CLEVE C L E V E L AND AND M May ay 1O-19 1O O -19 VIE V IE EN NNA NA M May ay 2 24-28 4 -2 28 8 TOK T O K YO J June un u ne 2 2-7 -7 7

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FRANZ WELSER-MÖST

Weeks 23 and 24 The Prometheus Project

BEETHOVEN Symphonies Nos. 1 and 3 May 10

Symphonies Nos. 4 and 7 May 11

Symphonies Nos. 8 and 5 May 12

Symphonies Nos. 6 and 2 May 13

Symphony No. 9 May 17, 18, 19

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F E S T I VA L

THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT Preface: The Argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Thanks to Our Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Welcome by Franz Welser-Möst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

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Beethoven & Prometheus Who Was Prometheus? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Introduction by Franz Welser-Möst . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Music & Meaning by Evan Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 What Makes a Symphony? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Symphonic Keys by Franz Welser-Möst . . . . . . . . 28 Playful Choices by Eric Sellen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Enlightenment Thinking by David Wright . . . . 37

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The Concerts

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Introduction: Listening to the Music . . . . . . . . 42 Concert: May 10 Thursday. y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Concert: May 11 Fridayy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Concert: May 12 Saturday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Concert: May 13 Sunday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Concert: May 17, 18, 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

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About the Music Symphonies No. 1- 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Four Overtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Grosse Fuge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Symphony No. 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Guest Artists and Chorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

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THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

BEETHOVEN

Prometheus Today Playing with Fire Books to Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Afterword by Franz Welser-Möst . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

About the Orchestra From the Executive Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Music Director: Franz Welser-Möst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 The Cleveland Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Orchestra News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Supporting the Orchestra Second Century Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Annual Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

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Eric Sellen, Program Book Editor (E-MAIL: esellen@clevelandorchestra.com) Copyrightt © 2018 by The Cleveland Orchestra and the Musical Arts Association Program books are produced by The Cleveland Orchestra and distributed free to attending audience members. Program book advertising is sold through Live Publishing Company; call 216-721-1800 for information and rates. The Cleveland Orchestra is grateful for ongoing generous support from:

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Table of Contents

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Thou art a symbol and a sign To Mortals of their fate and force. —Prometheus, by Lord Byron


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Preface THE ARGUMENT Prometheus was, for the ancient Greeks, for scholars of the Renaissance, for the philosophers and dreamers of Beethoven’s time, what we today call a superhero. He was a mythical role model, a metaphor for action and for advancing what Beethoven thought of as the “fight for Good.” Prometheus was portrayed in paintings and poetry, in plays and ballets. His story was told by citizens and teachers. His actions and meaning were discussed by thinkers. And, as Franz WelserMöst explains — in words and in performance — Beethoven wrote the idea and ideals of Prometheus into his music, thus sharing with us his personal worldview by turning philosophy into sound.

Opposite: “Prometheus Carrying Fire” by Flemish artist Jan Cossiers, oil on canvas, circa 1637. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid.

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The Prometheus Project

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T H A N K YO U

THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT

The Cleveland Orchestra is grateful to the many generous funders who are making possible performances of The Prometheus Project on three continents in May and June.

CLEVELAND: May 10-19 The Cleveland Orchestra thanks these corporations for sponsoring the following Cleveland performances: Hyster-Yale Materials Handling, Inc. — May 10 Medical Mutual — May 12 Thompson Hine LLP — May 17, 18, 19 Hahn Loeser & Parks LLP — May 18

VIENNA: May 24-28 The Cleveland Orchestra thanks these corporations and individuals for generously supporting the Orchestra’s 2017-18 European Tours: Raiffeisenlandesbank Oberösterreich AG, voestalpine AG, Tele München Group, Miba AG, Herbert Kloiber, r Wolfgang Berndt, Robert Ehrlich, and Alfred Umdasch. Cleveland Orchestra European Advisory Board: Herbert Kloiber (Chair), Wolfgang Berndt (Vice Chair), Richard K. Smucker (Cleveland Orchestra Board President), Gabriele Eder, Robert Ehrlich, Peter Mitterbauer, Elisabeth Umdasch.

TOKYO: June 2-7 The Cleveland Orchestra thanks Quality Electrodynamics (QED), and Mrs. Mikiko and Dr. Hiroyuki Fujita, Founder & CEO of QED, for their generous support as presenting sponsors of the performances of The Prometheus Project in Tokyo.

INTERNATIONAL With special thanks to Clasart Classic, the Orchestra’s Global Media Sponsor, and to Jones Day for international touring sponsorship.

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SECOND CENTURY SPONSORS With special thanks also to our Second Century sponsors, listed on page 104.

SOUND ARCHIVE clevelandorchestra.com/prometheus In support of this project, The Cleveland Orchestra Archives is offering an online series of essays designed to augment the concert experience, providing written historical context and excerpted archival audio recordings of Beethoven’s symphonies and overtures — tying the Orchestra’s rich audio legacy to the Prometheus cycle. The Cleveland Orchestra gratefully acknowledges generous funding from the National Endowment for the Arts in support of this project.

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Sponsor Recognition

The Cleveland Orchestra


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W E L C O M E to The Prometheus Project. This series of

P H OTO B Y J U L I A W E S E LY

concerts is intended to remind us not just of Beethoven’s genius as a musician, but of the meaning that he wrote into his music, especially in his symphonies and overtures. To do so, I have drawn on a story and metaphor that Beethoven knew very well — of the mythical Greek hero Prometheus, who defied the gods to give the people on earth knowledge and courage and power. Beethoven thought deeply about human ideas and ideals, creating within himself a set of deeply-held beliefs. Looking at his scores, I see that he built those truths — his worldview — in unmistakable ways into his music. Through his art, he let the world know, in no uncertain terms, what he believed in, politically and philosophically. Beethoven wanted to be a “fighter for Good.” His lifetime was a turbulent period across Europe, politically, socially, and philosophically. The American and French Revolutions were resounding across the globe, propelled by new ideas about government, justice, freedom, and individual worth. Within these contexts, a variety of details in the music that Beethoven created — his symphonies, overtures, quartets, and sonatas, his opera and other works — suggest a strong undercurrent, in many instances quite blatant outlines, of political and philosophical content. Throughout this music, there is an inner drama that moves each overture, each movement, each symphony forward. Central to this drama is human goodness, and humanity’s role in changing the world for the better. I believe that this is the timeless strength of Beethoven’s music, not just as music, but as meaningful dialogue, between musicians and audience. I would hope that, as we engage with this music anew, the musicians of The Cleveland Orchestra and all of you as members of the audience will hear the power of Beethoven’s beliefs. And that, together, we can take this as an opportunity for each of us to reflect on our own lives, and the role that each of us carries in the world today. We live in a time where art impacts our daily landscape — and reminds us of our values. Each day is not just a time to stand for something, but a time to actually stand up in support of the good in humanity. Like Beethoven, I am a great believer in human value and potential. The inherent strength and goodness in all of us is the message written within Beethoven’s music. That possibility is the message of The Prometheus Project.

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Welcome from Franz Welser-Möst

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BEETHOVEN & PROMETHEUS, A HERO'S JOURNEY — this groundbreaking Education

Concert was premiered under Franz Welser-Möst’s baton on September 22, 2017, launching The Cleveland Orchestra’s Centennial Season. Nearly 2,000 students from the Cleveland Metropolitan School District attended this unique collaboration between the Orchestra and Cleveland School of the Arts (whose 500+ students all attended). The concert was built around Beethoven, a titan of classical music, and Prometheus, a Titan of Greek mythology — to inspire students to use their individual gifts to help change the world.


Perspectives from the Executive Director Spring 2018 Welcome to the closing weeks of The Cleveland Orchestra’s landmark 100th season of concerts. From the first notes of the inspiring Education Concert “Beethoven & Prometheus: A Hero’s Journey,” which saw students from the Cleveland School of the Arts sharing the stage at Severance Hall, to performances of Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde and Franz Welser-Möst’s The Prometheus Project, the Centennial Season has been big and beautiful, energizing and inquisitive, quiet and contemplative. As the New York Times noted in January, while praising the Orchestra as “one of the finest ensembles in the nation and the world,” we have focused our celebration this year in creating performances of extraordinary music to give voice to our profound gratitude to you — our audience and our community. The Times stated, “At 100, the Cleveland Orchestra may (quietly) be America’s best,” emphasizing the unique culture of this Orchestra and the absolute dedication of our artists in always putting the music first, before any individual egos. In fact, the season’s true celebration has taken place weekend after weekend onstage and off, in the connection created between the Orchestra and the audience sharing moments together in an ongoing exploration through music, of our common humanity. You are at the heart of our 100th season — this remarkable milestone is really a celebration of our city and our community, whose passion and generosity have made it possible to create and sustain one of the world’s greatest orchestras for a century. You are one of the driving forces behind The Cleveland Orchestra’s greatness, and we are honored to share our passion for music with you, each and every concert. As the centennial year continues, Franz Welser-Möst and the Orchestra offer two ambitious and large-scale festivals: The Ecstasy of Tristan & Isolde here in Cleveland (April 21-29) and The Prometheus Project, presented on three continents, in Cleveland (May 10-19), Vienna (May 24-28), and Tokyo (June 2-7). Each brings together musical performances centered on larger ideas and ideals from the world around us. In addition to the ongoing season of great musical performances, these festivals represent the kind of topical and indepth musical exploration that the Orchestra’s musicians — and this community — have aspired to across the decades. Cleveland takes a backseat to no one in the musical world. And there’s more to come this summer with a public 100th birthday party in downtown Cleveland for the annual free Star-Spangled Spectacular, this year on Friday, July 6. We also celebrate the 50th Anniversary of our summer home, at Blossom Music Center, with a season of special musical offerings. Yet, it cannot be said often enough that all of this — everything we do, every note The Cleveland Orchestra plays — is only possible through the attention, care, interest, enthusiasm, and generosity of thousands. As you can see on many different pages of this book, from the Second Century Sponsors to our annual donor Honor Rolls, many passionate people and organizations help ensure The Cleveland’s Orchestra’s music-making each and every year. If you have already given to the Annual Fund, let me extend a big thank you. And if you have not, please take this as an invitation to join the large family of Cleveland Orchestra donors. Every dollar counts, every gift makes a difference. Thank you.

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André Gremillet

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MUSICAL ARTS ASSOCIATION

as of January 2018

operating The Cleveland Orchestra, Severance Hall, and Blossom Music Festival O F F I C E R S A ND E XEC UT I VE C O MMIT T E E Richard K. Smucker, President Dennis W. LaBarre, Chairman Richard J. Bogomolny, Chairman Emeritus Alexander M. Cutler Hiroyuki Fujita David J. Hooker Michael J. Horvitz Douglas A. Kern

Norma Lerner, Honorary Chair Hewitt B. Shaw, Secretary Beth E. Mooney, Treasurer

Virginia M. Lindseth Nancy W. McCann Larry Pollock Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. Audrey Gilbert Ratner

Barbara S. Robinson Jeffery J. Weaver Meredith Smith Weil Paul E. Westlake Jr.

R E S I D E NT TR U S TE ES Richard J. Bogomolny Yuval Brisker Jeanette Grasselli Brown Helen Rankin Butler Irad Carmi Paul G. Clark Robert D. Conrad Matthew V. Crawford Alexander M. Cutler Hiroyuki Fujita Robert K. Gudbranson Iris Harvie Jeffrey A. Healy Stephen H. Hoffman David J. Hooker Michael J. Horvitz Marguerite B. Humphrey Betsy Juliano Jean C. Kalberer Nancy F. Keithley

Christopher M. Kelly Douglas A. Kern John D. Koch Dennis W. LaBarre Norma Lerner Virginia M. Lindseth Milton S. Maltz Nancy W. McCann Stephen McHale Thomas F. McKee Loretta J. Mester Beth E. Mooney John C. Morley Meg Fulton Mueller Katherine T. O’Neill Rich Paul Larry Pollock Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. Clara T. Rankin Audrey Gilbert Ratner

Charles A. Ratner Zoya Reyzis Barbara S. Robinson Steven M. Ross Luci Schey Spring Hewitt B. Shaw Richard K. Smucker James C. Spira R. Thomas Stanton Russell Trusso Daniel P. Walsh Thomas A. Waltermire Geraldine B. Warner Jeffery J. Weaver Meredith Smith Weil Jeffrey M. Weiss Norman E. Wells Paul E. Westlake Jr. David A. Wolfort

N O N- R E S I D E NT TR U S T E E S Virginia Nord Barbato (New York) Wolfgang C. Berndt (Austria)

Laurel Blossom (California) Richard C. Gridley (South Carolina)

Herbert Kloiber (Germany) Paul Rose (Mexico)

T RU S TE E S E X- O F F I C I O Faye A. Heston, President, Volunteer Council of The Cleveland Orchestra Patricia Sommer, President, Friends of The Cleveland Orchestra Elizabeth McCormick, President, Blossom Friends of The Cleveland Orchestra T RU S TE E S E M E R I TI George N. Aronoff Dr. Ronald H. Bell David P. Hunt S. Lee Kohrman Charlotte R. Kramer Donald W. Morrison Gary A. Oatey Raymond T. Sawyer PA S T PR E S I D E NT S D. Z. Norton 1915-21 John L. Severance 1921-36 Dudley S. Blossom 1936-38 Thomas L. Sidlo 1939-53

Carolyn Dessin, Chair, Cleveland Orchestra Chorus Operating Committee Beverly J. Warren, President, Kent State University Barbara R. Snyder, President, Case Western Reserve University

H O N O RARY T RUS T E E S FOR LIFE Robert P. Madison Gay Cull Addicott Robert F. Meyerson Charles P. Bolton The Honorable John D. Ong Allen H. Ford James S. Reid, Jr. Robert W. Gillespie Dorothy Humel Hovorka* Alex Machaskee * deceased

Percy W. Brown 1953-55 Frank E. Taplin, Jr. 1955-57 Frank E. Joseph 1957-68 Alfred M. Rankin 1968-83

Ward Smith 1983-95 Richard J. Bogomolny 1995-2002, 2008-09 James D. Ireland III 2002-08 Dennis W. LaBarre 2009-17

THE CLEVEL AND ORCHESTR A Franz Welser-Möst, Music Director

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André Gremillet, Executive Director

Musical Arts Association

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As a courtesy to the audience members and musicians in the hall, late-arriving patrons are asked to wait quietly until the first convenient break in the program, when ushers will help you to your seats. These seating breaks are at the discretion of the House Manager in consultation with the performing artists.

of the world’s most beautiful concert halls, Severance Hall has been home to The Cleveland Orchestra since its opening on February 5, 1931. After that first concert, a Cleveland newspaper editorial stated: “We believe that Mr. Severance intended to build a temple to music, and not a temple to wealth; and we believe it is his intention that all music lovers should be welcome there.” John Long Severance (Cleveland Orchestra president, 1921-1936) and his wife, Elisabeth, donated the funds necessary to erect this magnificent building. Designed by the architectural firm of Walker & Weeks, its elegant Georgian exterior was constructed to harmonize with the classical architecture of other prominent buildings in the University Circle area. The interior of the building reflects a combination of design styles, including Art Deco, Egyptian Revival, Classicism, and Modernism. An ambitious expansion, renovation, and restoration of the facility was completed in 2000. HAILED AS ONE

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PAGERS, CELL PHONES, AND WRISTWATCH ALARMS All electronic and mechanical devices — including pagers, cellular telephones, and wristwatch alarms — must be turned off while in the concert hall.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND SELFIES, VIDEO AND AUDIO RECORDING Photographs of the hall and selfies to share with others can be taken when the performance is not in progress. However, audio recording, photography, and videography are prohibited during performances at Severance Hall. And, as courtesy to others, please turn off any phone or device that makes noise or emits light.

IN THE EVENT OF AN EMERGENCY Contact an usher or a member of house staff if you require medical assistance. Emergency exits are clearly marked throughout the building. Ushers and house staff will provide instructions in the event of an emergency.

CHILDREN AND FAMLIES Regardless of age, each person must have a ticket and be able to sit quietly in a seat throughout the performance. Season subscription concerts are not recommended for children under the age of 8. However, there are several age-appropriate series designed specifically for children and youth, including: Musical Rainbows, (recommended for children 3 to 6 years old), and Family Concerts (for ages 7 and older).

YOUNGER CHILDREN We understand that sometimes young children cannot sit quietly through a full-length concert and need to get up and move or talk freely. For the listening enjoyment of those around you, we respectfully ask that you and your active child step out of the concert hall to stretch your legs (and baby’s lungs). An usher will gladly help you return to your seat at an appropriate break.

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INTRODUCING THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT

Who was Prometheus? Pro-me-the-us (pro-MEE-thee-us), Greek: Προμηθέας a mythical Greek superhero who defied the gods to give fire (symbolizing power and learning) to humanity; he came to represent self-initiative and self-determination — and the shifting of political and sovereign power on earth, to come directly “from below” (of the people) and no longer from god-like royal authority “from on high.”

he story of Prometheus comes to us from Greek mythology, where he was one of the Titans (the second generation of divine beings), who were descended from primordial deities and who fought against and then later collaborated with the better-known Olympian gods under the rule of Zeus. Zeus and Prometheus were, at best, uneasy allies, and clashed and disagreed on humanity’s purpose and power. The tale of Prometheus features a handful of closely-related storylines. Two of these became especially symbolic for later thinkers, from Renaissance scholars in the 14th century to the new philosophers of the Enlightenment and poets and writers of the Romantic Era — and on up to today. Two of the central Promethean myths involve the gift of fire to, and the breathing of life into, humanity. Giving Fire to Humanity. Prometheus defied Zeus’s commands and gave fire to humanity. Metaphorically, this ability to create, corral, and control

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fire came to be seen as an essential part of giving independence and self-determination to humanity. Literally, fire provided power for civilization (cooking, heating, illumination), but it also symbolized knowledge, and the spark of learning or creativity. Breathing Life into the Human Species. In this storyline, Prometheus, with his own breath, blew life into the proto-clay figures intended as a new species, thus animating or creating humans as living species. Metaphorically, this was later seen to be giving souls to the human species in a spiritual sense, and of Prometheus being not just a semi-god but also a creator. In time, this became part of philosophical discussions regarding animating forms to life beyond the mere mechanical effect and expanded to include questions about a being’s innate ability to understand good vs. evil. The Greco-Judeo-Christian concepts of goodness — of original sin, of divine justice, of ancestral fault, and a host

Who Was Prometheus?

The Cleveland Orchestra


ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΑΣ 1.

of related component constructs surrounding good and evil — tie directly into this “animating” part of the myth. From a related angle, Mary Shelley’s early 19th-century novel Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus (written during Beethoven’s lifetime) is also a direct descendent of this part of the Greek myth, of bringing to life the inanimate. The book indirectly addresses the potential and inherent danger of upsetting “natural order” through science and technology. Such good vs. evil discussions tie back to the origins of civilization in the first myth, of the gift of fire and of fire enabling the creation and progress forward of civilization as a whole. Does knowledge bring wisdom or heartache? With freedom and liberty come responsibility for justice and betterment. The story of Prometheus is both a myth and a message — of the potential for heroic acts to change the world.

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2.

3.

4.

Prometheus as Superhero

1. Drawing of Prometheus chained to a rock and attacked by an eagle, by René-Michel Slodtz, circa 1750; 2. Prometheus bringing fire to mankind, painting by Heinrich Fuger, circa 1817; 3. Greek pottery, circa 550 B.C. Prometheus chained and his liver eaten by an eagle; 4. Frontispiece for an 1831 edition of Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus,” illustration by Theodor von Holst

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INTRODUCING THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT

The Fight for Good by Franz Welser-Möst

Franz Welser-Möst offers insight into his concept for The Prometheus Project — and of how Beethoven, working from a personal view of art and society, used music to turn philosophy into sound, to create music that would ignite the world.

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B E E T H O V E N S P E N T H I S L I F E — and devoted his art to — “fighting for Good.” He believed that humanity should work together to create a better, more civilized world, filled with justice and objective truth, derived from knowledge and understanding. Several years ago, as I was preparing for a new production of Beethoven’s opera Fidelio at the Salzburg Festival, I came across some lines by Plato in which the ancient Greek philosopher argued that the idea of good is more important than the idea of truth. Not that goodness is better than truth, but that understanding goodness and justice is ultimately more important than understanding truth. I started thinking about this — and about the many potential inherent conflicts between truth and goodness, between real life and humanity’s hopes and aspirations. Fidelio was written in the first decade of the 19th century, at a time when the idea of good, of goodness, had risen to be a very important question among the thinkers of the world — especially in philosophy, but also in politics and in the arts, too. The Enlightenment, across the 18th century, had focused new thinking about many things, including humanity’s place in the world, as a species and for each of us as individuals. Philosophers and writers were trying to define both goodness and truth, Beethoven & Prometheus

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and to understand the reality behind and of our existence. In many ways, both the American and French revolutions were disagreements over these concepts, about justice and truth and freedom — and what is good, what is right. These revolutions were philosophy turned into political argument, and then into actual battles for new ideals of freedom. One of the stories or metaphors that was important in these discussions was Prometheus, a figure from ancient Greek mythology who steals fire from the gods and empowers humanity with its flames. The Greeks wrote about the moral choice he made, to defy the gods for the good of humanity, and later philosophers rediscovered him as a metaphor, too — as a hero who did the right thing despite the consequences for himself. Artists rendered him in painting and sculpture. In Beethoven’s time, the fire that Prometheus took from the gods to give to humanity was seen to stand for many things. Literally, it is fire, which can heat and cook, which provides illumination, and which powers industry and science. Philosophically, it represents the spark of wisdom and knowledge, which enables civilization to be built and to propel progress forward. At the same time, fire requires care and self-awareness, because flames can destroy. Fire is a power that must be harnessed and controlled and focused for good. As I continued to think about this, I realized how these concepts and ideas tied into and even directly inspired Beethoven’s worldview, and helped to shape his deeply held belief in “fighting for Good.” From this I recognized that the idea and ideals of Prometheus

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would make a compelling way to examine Beethoven’s musical output — to help our modern brains, now evolved two centuries beyond Beethoven, to better understand what he was thinking when creating his art. I believe that there is particular resonance between Beethoven and the myth of Prometheus. It is a story that Beethoven knew well and drew upon, specifically, of course, in his ballet The

“The fire that Prometheus took from the gods to give to humanity stands for many things. Literally, it is fire, which can heat and cook and provide illumination. Philosophically, it represents the spark of wisdom and knowledge that propels civilization forward.” Creatures of Prometheus. But the ideas in this myth are even more central to Beethoven’s art. The “fiery core” of justice and freedom is not just the focus of Beethoven’s only opera. It also, I believe, permeates his entire creative output. And I am convinced that this provides a robust and insightful window toward understanding Beethoven’s intended meaning within his art. Thus, I began planning

The Prometheus Project

The Cleveland Orchestra


for this set of concerts under the title The Prometheus Project, t to examine Beethoven’s symphonies and other related orchestral works through performance and discussion. Related to this, I believe very strongly that Beethoven’s greatest works, that the best of all great art, in fact, is not mere entertainment. Great art actually delivers a message. Beethoven was not just amusing himself or trying to entertain us, he was wrestling with ideas. He was taking thoughts — his own view of the world — and, through music, turning philosophy into sound. For this very reason, Beethoven’s works are characterized, in German, as Bekenntnismusik, k literally “confessional music.” You have a belief, you make a commitment to it, and that is what you work to convey in your art. You tell the world what you believe. With an exceptional figure like Beethoven, I believe it is essential that we constantly look at new approaches to his work, to enliven and deepen our understanding of his genius. By thinking about his works through a Promethean lens, as heroic efforts, by listening to Beethoven’s music with this mindset, I believe that we can all hear his music again with fresh ears. Yes, of course we can continue to simply enjoy it as music — we should enjoy it! But there is meaning, too, and the underlying story is just as important. There is pleasure and passion, and there is also value and meaning. Understanding the meaning behind the music ties directly into one of several major shifts in thinking taking place during the Enlightenment — the Severance Hall 2017-18

elevating in importance of and focus on the individual, of individual selfdetermination and responsibility and free will. Through science and understanding, the Enlightenment was questioning the “divine right of kings” and replacing it with power derived from

“I believe there is a particular resonance between Beethoven and the myth of Prometheus. Beethoven knew the story well and drew upon it. Its ‘fiery core’ of justice and freedom is not merely the focus of his only opera — I believe it permeates his entire creative output.” the people. The new argument was that political power comes not from above but from within the people, that government serves the populace and not vice versa. Each person understands the world around us in a unique and personal way, and together we build a civilization through community. Beethoven’s lifetime was a very exciting and tumultuous era. Science and learning were advancing. Revolutions were questioning the old order. New ideas and new movements were pushing forward, in art and in philoso-

Prometheus & Beethoven

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phy and politics. Self-discovery and a personal point of view were put forward as important philosophical constructs. Classicism gave way to what became known as German Idealism, in which meaning comes from our own understanding, rather than as an inherent truth. Paradoxically, the Enlightenment, which banished superstition by promoting facts and learning and logic and reason, helped pave the way for the untamed emotional heights and depths of Romanticism. Yet none of this change was simple or clear-cut. One era does not begin at precisely one moment, and the previous order is over. Humans have a tendency to think too much within boxes and categories, to want to define and label things precisely, but the process of change and evolution is a messy one, at times gradual, and at other times revolutionary and swift. There are many trends happening at the same time, and overlapping. In this way exactly, in fact, each of Beethoven’s symphonies can be seen as a kind of time capsule message from differing points in his art, as the eras shift, from the ordered Classicism of Mozart and Haydn to a very personal Romanticism — and even including touches of Modernism — within Beethoven’s later works. Beethoven thought a great deal about many things. He read widely throughout his life. He was reading the philosophers and great writers of his time. He considered himself to be part of the world that the Enlightenment

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was creating, where humanity took center stage, and where the rule of kings and monarchs — and even the role of God — was being questioned. He saw himself, perhaps not exactly as a Promethean figure, but as a kind of talented genius fighting for the cause of humanity, for justice. He did so through his music. (The word genius, in should be noted, acquired its modern meaning during the Enlightenment, shifting from being merely the set of talents that a person possessed to be a term used to describe a uniquely capable person. The philosopher Jean Paul believed that it actually required a genius to create great art — and Beethoven had enough selfunderstanding of the scope of his own talents, he had a big enough ego, to believe that he was a genius of this type.) I believe that it is vitally important for us to understand that there are messages within Beethoven’s music, to try to see the world as he saw it, and then to listen to his musical arguments for a better world. Because the idea of fighting for good, and helping to ensure that civilization is on the right path forward, is still very important today — perhaps even more important than it ever has been. We need heroes, everyday heroes, who can tell us about good and truth, and who can forcefully remind us to search for the best ways forward as a multinational community sharing this small world together.

The Prometheus Project

The Cleveland Orchestra


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Honoring those who gave their lives The Catholic Cemeteries Association has been guiding veterans and their families through the burial planning process for over 150 years. Our masses and prayers remember those who have given their lives in service to our country. Join us for Memorial Day Mass to honor our fallen men and women of service.

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Faith, Hope, and Remembrance

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Music & Meaning BEETHOVEN’S CHANGING WORLD

by Mark Evan Bonds

Author and scholar Mark Evan Bonds writes about changing ideas of musical value and meaning . . . O N E O F F R A N Z W E L S E R - M Ö S T ’ S major goals with The Pro-

metheus Project is to challenge us to hear Beethoven’s music with fresh ears and open minds. One way to do this is to try to imagine how the composer’s original audiences heard his symphonies and overtures when they were brand new — when no one had ever heard them before. This is indeed a challenge, because nearly two centuries after the composer’s death, it is important to recognize that people of the past heard his music in a very different context. When Beethoven wrote his First Symphony in 1800, purely instrumental music was widely perceived as inferior to vocal music. Music with a sung text had the great advantage of being able to convey concepts and ideas directly through words. Critics recognized the emotional power of instrumental music and routinely referred to it as “the language of the heart,” but in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, emotions took a back seat to reason — and so vocal music retained its pride of place in the musical world. Franz Welser-Möst’s vision of Beethoven’s music as a form of philosophy is thus all the more challenging, for how can music without words convey concepts and ideas? Yet this is precisely how Beethoven’s contemporaries gradually came to recognize his sonatas, string quartets, and above all his symphonies, as philosophy Severance Hall 2017-18

Beethoven: Music & Meaning

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in sound. The image of Prometheus can help us better understand the profound change that took place over the course of Beethoven’s lifetime and how the music he wrote encouraged this new way of listening. In Greek mythology, Prometheus was a revolutionary and a liberator, a Titan who gave the gift of fire to mortals. In so doing, he elevated humans and brought them closer to the realm of the divine. Through his art, Beethoven did much the same. His music elevated his

to make sense of what they were hearing, to “work,” in effect, while listening. This was a radical and risky move, one that changed the basic relationship between composers and their public. Up until that time, listeners expected music — and especially instrumental music — to be a source of pleasure, not insight, and many critics of Beethoven’s time continued to approach music in this way. But those who invested the time and effort to come to terms with these new works began to realize that the listening experi-

“Beethoven’s Promethean gift to music-lovers was to write music that provoked listeners to ponder what might lie behind and beyond the surface of pleasurable sound. Those who accepted the challenge became empowered, active participants in the creation of art — and in this way elevated their own thinking.” contemporaries by compelling them to listen in a new way, one that helped them cultivate a divine spirit of their own. When Beethoven left Bonn for Vienna in 1792, one of his patrons, Count Waldstein, predicted that he would receive “the spirit of Mozart,” who had died a few months earlier, “from the hands of Haydn.” Waldstein was right. Beethoven did in fact absorb what we now think of as the “classical style” from his predecessors, but he carried things a step beyond — a very large step. The music of Haydn and Mozart was often full of surprises, but listeners were rarely puzzled by what they heard. Beethoven’s music was so consistently unpredictable that it challenged audiences

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ence could go beyond pleasure alone. This, then, was Beethoven’s Promethean gift to music-lovers: to write music that provoked his listeners to ponder what might lie behind and beyond the surface of pleasurable sound. Those who accepted the challenge became empowered, active participants in the creation of art — and in this way were able to elevate themselves. In Promethean terms, they were a step closer to the divine. Beethoven had the advantage of being in the right place at the right time. A generation earlier, such an approach might well have fallen flat. But he appeared on the scene when the writings of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) were turning the world of philosophy upside-down.

Beethoven: Music & Meaning

The Cleveland Orchestra


One of Kant’s most revolutionary ideas lay in his proposition that reality is something we can never truly know, and that what we think of as reality is a synthesis of our perceptions processed and constructed within our own selves, in our own minds. We internalize the outside world and in so doing produce our own understanding of it as individuals. This was a radically new way of thinking, and it formed a crucial element for the context of listening during Beethoven’s lifetime. Critical responses to his music, especially from about 1810 onward, reveal a growing perception of depth and meaning in his works. Listeners were beginning to engage with his music — and for that matter, all music — more deeply, just as Kant proposed that we, as human beings, must recognize our role as individuals in making sense of the world around us. This, I think, is precisely why the image of Prometheus works so well for a fresh approach to Beethoven’s music, because fire brings both pleasure and responsibility. Fire can warm our hearts and bodies, but we must handle it with care and apply it with purpose. We have a similar responsibility toward Beethoven’s music — beyond the sheer pleasure it gives (and it certainly gives plenty of that). The more we grapple with it, the greater the reward. Our understanding of Beethoven’s works has changed over time, yet the fire continues to burn brightly. Almost 250 years after his birth, we are still listening to Beethoven in new ways. Mark Evan Bonds is the Boshamer Distinguished Professor of Music at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, where he has taught since 1992. He is a former editor-in-chief of Beethoven Forum.

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More . . . books by Mark Evan Bonds Music as Thought: Listening to the Symphony in the Age of Beethoven (2006, Princeton University Press, 165 pages) — Before the 19th century, instrumental music was considered inferior to vocal music. Kant described music without words as “more pleasure than culture,” and Rousseau dismissed it for its inability to convey concepts. But by the early 1800s, a dramatic shift was under way. Purely instrumental music was being hailed as a means to knowledge and embraced precisely because of its independence from the limitations of language. What had once been perceived as entertainment was heard increasingly as a vehicle of thought. This book draws on contemporary accounts and a range of sources — philosophical, literary, political, and musical — to reveal how this music was experienced by those who heard it first. Absolute Music: The History of an Idea (2014, Oxford University Press, 380 pages) — What is music, and why does it move us? From Pythagoras to the present, writers have struggled to isolate the essence of “pure” or “absolute” music in ways that also account for its profound effect. This book traces the history of these efforts across more than two millennia, including music’s capacity to disclose philosophical truths. The core of this study focuses on the period between 1850 and 1945, and the wholesale shifting of views between absolute and program (storytelling) music. Although the idea of pure music is as old as antiquity, the term “absolute music” is itself relatively recent, coined in 1846 by the composer Richard Wagner, who used it pejoratively in his efforts to denounce the limitations of purely instrumental music.

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What makes a Symphony? ORIGINS AND FORM

LENGTH

There is no guidebook to writing a symphony. The form evolved across many decades, from a multi-movement suite of dances to become, in the 18th century, a unified set of three movements. Earlier suites were sometimes called an “overture,” sometimes a “sinfonia.” Haydn and Mozart began adding a fourth movement, helping to “standardize” this number. The third movement was most often still a dance, often in triple meter, often a minuet. Beethoven shifted this idea into a Scherzo (literally a “joke”), with a middle Trio section (named for the common practice of having, for contrast, something like a moment of chamber music in the middle). From the late 18th century onward, the expectation was that the first movement would be written in sonata form — a specific formula (exposition, development, and recapitulation), usually in a moderate to fast tempo with a slower introduction. Finales delivered the work (and the listener) to the home/destination key, resolving or restoring the sonority of the opening. Second movements were (usually) quieter affairs, contrasting with the opening. In his nine symphonies, through the force of his creativity, Beethoven helped both to further standardize expectations and to break them apart. He was, in a sense, pushing the walls out and remodeling or rearranging the “building” that a symphony could be — showing just what a master architect can do by following certain rules while breaking others. Indeed, if there aren’t rules, no one will understand that you’re innovating.

Eight of Beethoven’s symphonies have four movements, but in the Sixth Symphony he added a fifth. He also, in two instances, connected two movements together without a break. He greatly expanded how long a symphony could be, from Mozart or Haydn’s thirty-minute maximum to more than an hour in the Ninth. (Later composers, especially Mahler and Shostakovich, stretched the clock even further.)

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Beethoven’s Symphonies shown with date of premiere and length

Symphony No. 1 — 1800 25 minutes .

Symphony No. 2 — 1803 30 minutes .

Symphony No. 3 — 1804 45 minutes .

Symphony No. 4 — 1807 35 minutes .

Symphony No. 5 — 1808 30 minutes .

Symphony No. 6 — 1808 40 minutes .

Symphony No. 7 — 1813 35 minutes .

Symphony No. 8 — 1814 25 minutes .

Symphony No. 9 — 1824

Symphony: Form and Formula

65 minutes .

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MOVEMENT BY MOVEMENT — A Brief, Informal Walk-thru

1

Intro - Exposition — Development — Recapitulation - Coda

Sonata form Sonata form (or sonata-allegro form) is a specific structure for a musical movement, consisting of three main sections (exposition, development, and recapitulation). Developed from earlier, looser forms and standardized during the Classical Era of the late 18th century, especially by the fact of how Mozart and Haydn used the form. In the Classical sonata form, two melodies (or themes) are introduced and developed, then return in the third section.

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Often in three contrasting sections or A-B-A form. . .

Slow movement The slow movement of a symphony is written in a contrasting tempo, although some sections of the movement may be faster and louder. These slower movements — of symphonies or concertos — have been described as “sublime” and filled with emotion, and are often favorites of listeners. But, this music works at least part of its spell as a contrasting tempo and texture to the movements on either side.

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Dance 1 — Trio — Dance . . .

Scherzo The third movement of a Classical symphony is usually in a dance rhythm, often in triple meter. Beethoven began writing a “scherzo” instead; the term literally means “joke” and was in a markedly different style than the slow movement before it and the grand finale after it. There is usually a contrasting middle section, called the “Trio” section; this name comes from earlier dance suites, when a trio of instruments was often used to contrast with larger ensemble dances. Many symphonic Trios have a chamber-music-like quality, and often have two or three featured instruments.

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Structure varies: Sonata Allegro, or Rondo (Variations), or . . .

Finale The final movement wraps everything up, and usually brings the symphony back to the home key in which it began in the first movement. The structure varies, sometimes in a modified sonata form, a rondo (variations between a recurring section), or as a theme and set of variations, or sometimes with a fugue section. In many symphonies, the first and last movements are the longest, with two shorter movements in between.

The Cleveland Orchestra

Symphony: Form and Formula

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Symphonic Keys Understanding Beethoven’s Music by Franz Welser-Möst

L O O K I N G A T B E E T H O V E N ’ S M U S I C only within its historical timeframe

— in relation only to what was happening in music around him — is a selflimiting view that is fundamentally flawed. Beethoven’s mind was filled with philosophical ideas, from the ancient Greeks right up to the most recent writings of Enlightenment thinkers and the new German Idealists. He strongly believed that he could change the world — for the better — with his music, by advocating for freedom and equality and justice. Philosophy, indeed, gives us many keys to his thinking, because philosophical thought is always aiming to understand the whole, whereas historical details, looked at in isolation, get lost in specifics, without ever fitting the many disparate (but related) pieces of the “puzzle” together. Beethoven was always looking ahead to the future, informed from his own understanding of the past and present. One example that reveals much understanding is his choice of keys when writing each new work. His symphonies are based on a sophisticated, overall plan of harmonic meaning, in-

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Beethoven’s Keys

The Cleveland Orchestra


tended to appeal to his audiences through familiar associations, and to build from that familiarity in new and creative ways. In terms of how often he used which keys, a listing of frequency for his symphonic movements (from most often to least used) runs like this: F major / D minor, B major, E-flat major / C minor, C major / A minor, D major, A major, A-flat major / F minor. In each instance, the choice created a basic harmonic structure, giving each work and each movement its basic colorings and mood. Looking at this list and counting movement by movement, one notices that from C major, the center or top of the tonal circle, Beethoven moved more often in the direction of keys that incorporate flatted notes: there are 25 movements in flat keys, compared to only 7 in keys with sharps. This at first seems surprising for a composer whose works are so often described as classical, heroic, and grand. Afterall, the flat-keys he so clearly prefers are most often associated with the emotional power of Romanticism. But that, of course, is exactly what Beethoven was moving toward, not all at once, but step by step in his own way. F major is the key that Beethoven used most often. It stands for poetry, nature, and a religious sense of nature, as well as grace and humor. Additionally, the related key of D minor is also used quite often. It represents darkness, danger, and death. Here we might remember the emergence of pantheism — of worshipping Nature, which of course includes acceptance of death as a natural part of life. Here we hear the poetry of Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony (an “expression of feelings” more than a description of action, including grateful feelings to Severance Hall 2017-18

Sharps and Flats

the deity). We also hear the humor of the Eighth Symphony, and also the Romantic introspection of the first movement of the Third, and the gentle humor in the second movement of the First. Death, or the idea of it, we find in the first two movements of the Ninth Symphony, a mood eventually interrupted by the glories of brotherhood, with everyone singing together in the fourth movement. Next in frequency is B major, used in six movements. This is the key of hope, of rest and profundity, and of humor, specifically in Jean Paul’s view of humor as the “other side” of sweeping grandeur or sublimity — a term that in the late 18th century was used to describe a spiritual feeling toward perfection (spiritual in this sense being quite separate from religion and God). From one of the darkest introductions he ever wrote (along with the opening of the Egmont Overture and Florestan’s aria in Fidelio), Beethoven’s Fourth Symphony, in the key of B major, takes us into music of exuberant humor. A more mischievous humor inhabits the second movement of the Eighth Symphony. The “other side” of the coin brings us deeply Romantic music in the second movement of the Sixth (feelings combined with Nature!). And, in the third movement of the Ninth, Beethoven considers hope with two extended variations on a contemplative theme. Between the theme and the two variations, he works with a melody of deep yearning, a tune that seems to have no beginning and, more importantly, no end. Such longing represents a defining view of German Romanticism. The key of E-flat major (and its related C minor) follows next in frequen-

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cy of use. E-flat major is regarded as the Masonic key, which Mozart used with intensity and great poignancy. Three flats on the musical staff stood for the ideals of freedom, equality, fraternity. Additionally, E-flat major stands for the heroic, the struggle for spiritual meaning, and for solemnity. The Eroica Symphony (No. 3) is dedicated to a hero, a hero who stands for these very ideals, which are clearly sounded in the first, third, and fourth movements. In the fourth movement, Beethoven also chose to build this music using the final theme from his ballet The Creatures of Prometheus — referring to the myth itself and to his own role as the creator of this symphony, just as Pro-

Each tone is either colored or not colored. Innocence and simplicity are expressed in uncolored tones, Gentle, melancholic feelings Ge with flat notes; Wild and strong passions W with sharp notes. —Christian F. D. Schubart

metheus became a creator of human life and civilization. Human dignity, which for Beethoven was another indispensable ideal, is given musical voice in the second movement of the Fourth Symphony. In contrast, the related key of C minor energizes the funeral march of the Third Symphony, symbolizing the death of his hero, as well as victory over death (see C major) and saying farewell to the

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hero. In the first and third movements of the Fifth, this C minor includes a feeling of dark spiritual depth and fire through which his hero must pass. The fire (Prometheus as fact and symbol) can also be understood for purification, cleansing the soul to create humanity’s value and worth. C major, which Beethoven chose for four of his symphonic movements, was regarded in the Baroque Era as the most divine of all key signatures, the purest — without any sharps and flats, without any accidentals. The evolving use of this key before and in Beethoven’s music can be viewed to parallel the 18th century’s changing philosophical views, with Kant pushing God aside in favor of selfunderstanding and self-governance on earth. Not only do humans see themselves as rational beings, but we also have within us the power (the fire) to determine our lives and destiny. The youthful spirit of this kind of fire can be found in the C major of Beethoven’s First Symphony. The power of this key surges through the first, third, and fourth movements, and then becomes even more excessive in the final movement of the Fifth (which includes a citation of a French revolutionary song). The parallel minor to C major — A minor — is a yearning, poetic, lyrical key. Beethoven reserved this for the second movement of Seventh. Similar in frequency of use to E-flat major and C major, we find D major, the strongest of all keys. This scale represents jubilation, along with success and the achievement of worthy goals. This is the sound of communal rejoicing. Beethoven used this as the Second Symphony’s basic key, in which we can hear him already experimenting with ideas that he would perfect in the last movement of the Ninth. Keys and Meaning

The Cleveland Orchestra


We meet A major three times in Beethoven’s symphonic movements. This is the brightest and lightest key, which expresses emotional ecstasy and delight. So the second movement of the Second is flooded with light, a kind of slow dance that nearly sings. This mood is further developed in the Seventh Symphony, which Wagner describes as the “apotheosis of the dance” and in which Beethoven explores dance rhythms best understood as an expression of human movement and self-determination. Beethoven uses A-flat major just once in his symphonies. This is a dark, internalizing key symbolizing the pinnacle of German Romanticism — used by Wagner for the meeting of the lovers in the second act of his opera Tristan and Isolde. Beethoven uses it in the second movement of the Fifth symphony, juxtaposed against a kind of cadenza in C minor. This A-flat major brings Viennese rhythms that lead us, lull us, into a world in which we long for the clear C major of the finale. Similarly, Beethoven uses the parallel key of F minor just once, portraying the sinister storms and agitation of distressed souls. This is perfect for the famous thunderstorm of the Sixth Symphony, writing not the thunderstorm itself, but the unsettled feelings that it brings. —Franz Welser-Möst © 2018

Colored lithograph showing “Beethoven Composing the Pastoral Symphony by a Brook,” from the Almanac of the Zurich Music Society of 1834.

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Beethoven’s Keys

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BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

What did Beethoven’s symphonies actually sound like when they were new?

P E R F O R M A N C E

P R A C T I C E

Playful Choices

Helping Beethoven Sound Like Himself by Eric Sellen

T H R O U G H O U T H I S C A R E E R , and es-

pecially in preparing for The Prometheus Project, Franz Welser-Möst has given much thought to today’s evolving understanding of changing performance practice from the past — before and during Beethoven’s lifetime, and across the decades up to today. How did orchestral performances sound different twohundred years ago? How differently did musicians actually perform their instruments — in the use, for instance, of vibrato on stringed instruments. Or in changing norms of portamento (sliding between notes) or rubato (elasticity within a phrase, usually a momentary slowing down from the established tempo)? Particularly in preparing what amounts to a cycle of all Beethoven’s sym-

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phonies — a group of pieces created over a span of more than two decades — how to find an approach for ensuring consistency and unity to the set, while allowing (if not showcasing) the individuality and changing aspects of the composer’s creativity? The “early music” movement of the 20th century greatly changed our understanding of how music sounded in performance when first played — whether Renaissance pieces of the 1450s, Baroque works from the 1720s, or Classical symphonies from the 18th century. Scholars, together with pioneering musicians in performance and on recordings, have given us much perspective on how old music first sounded when it was new. Yet, as many practitioners readily admit, our certainty about many aspects

Sounding Like Beethoven

The Cleveland Orchestra


of the performing arts two-hundred years ago is limited. Performance practice itself varied from place to place, country to country, year to year — much more so in those days before recordings and jetplane travel allowed instant world-wide sharing. There wasn’t “one way” to play any piece of music, even when it was brand-new. For symphony orchestras in the modern world, the issue is complex. The orchestra itself, as an ensemble, has evolved and changed — dramatically since Beethoven’s lifetime 200 years back, and even substantially from a century ago when Gustav Mahler was alive. Instruments themselves have evolved, and so have audience expectations and understanding. Most of us would agree that the overly Romantic and plush sounds of symphony orchestras a hundred years ago — documented in early recordings with full vibrato, sweeping glissandos, and much disregard for the composer’s tempo markings — went too far in bringing old music “up-to-date.” Mahler’s reorchestrations of Beethoven’s and Schumann’s symphonies were more like arrangements of popular music, rather than helping listeners more clearly understand what those composers’ original artistic intentions were (although Mahler might disagree with that characterization of his intentions). By the mid-20th century, authenticists like Arturo Toscanini started to bring things “back to the score.” After which the period instrument movement opened a whole new set of questions, answers, and possibilities. NEW AND OLD IDEAS

Most symphony orchestras today work in a necessary middleground, acSeverance Hall 2017-18

knowledging that times have changed, but that past practice offers useful ideas and information. The past can’t be ignored, but neither can how the world around us has changed. “The Cleveland Orchestra plays a wide range of musical works, written over a time period of several centuries,” notes Franz Welser-Möst. “The musicians adjust their approach, but not so much that we are trying to sound like different ensembles, from different eras. We make choices, to bring a certain unified approach to the repertoire we play. Doing all of the Beethoven symphonies, as we are within The Prometheus Project, also requires making choices, even for these works, which were written across twenty years. The Classical Era did not end one day and the Romantic Era begin after breakfast the next day. The changes were across time, incremental and collective. Beethoven’s own understanding of music was also changing.” “We cannot choose to forget the music that has been written since Beethoven’s time,” Franz continues. “What we can do, what we must do, is find new and different ways to look at — and hear — Beethoven’s music. For this year’s festival, I am using the story of Prometheus as a metaphor and lens for what Beethoven was writing, not just in his symphonies, but across his lifetime, and throughout all of his music. With Prometheus as a focus, with an earnest and thoughtful approach, and studying his scores carefully, I believe that all of us, musicians and audiences, can engage with these great works of art with fresh ears. When studying an exceptional figure like Beethoven, it is essential that we constantly look at new approaches to his work, to enliven and deepen our understanding of his genius.” Thus, while stressing that he is

Making Choices in Performance

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not advocating any approach to performance practice that limits choices, Franz believes that to bring standard works to life, today’s performers must understand and acknowledge all of the ideas and approaches from the past and today — and ultimately, working together, they must create a suitably 21st-century way of performing for 21st-century audiences. He and the musicians of The Cleveland Orchestra are constantly working to balance varying techniques and instrumental forces in service to the music itself — to help make each of these works fresh and alive again, capitalizing on methods that help distinguish and highlight their many textures and layers. The facts of the score are the most important starting place — and largely inviolable — in preparation and performance. Without recordings, we only have a general idea about how music sounded in the past. Some details elude us. Written descriptions of how music was played depend on words, yet the meaning of those words varied from place to place, person to person, much more than today. Vibrato is understood today very specifically, but in centuries past, a set of varying Italian words were used by different writers to describe the same — and slightly different

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— effects. The once in-fashion notion that vibrato was almost never used in the Baroque and only came into consistent use in the Romantic 19th century, for instance, is no longer considered true. The transition, if it was obvious to anyone at the time that there was a direction of change, was not simple and straightforward. As Franz Welser-Möst points out, vibrato was used earlier and more widely by Baroque and Classical instrumentalists than some authentic performance advocates once admitted, though perhaps sparingly and not throughout an entire phrase or piece. But it was known, and used for effect. It was used more often and more extensively by musicians in some places than in others. The doubling of winds, for another example, was not a new idea in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but had been occurring for varying reasons for many decades. As Franz notes, we have clear descriptions that the wind instruments for Beethoven’s Ninth were, in fact, doubled from the score at the symphony’s premiere, clearly with the approval or acquiescence of the composer himself. The world is changing, in many many regards. The measure of a true artist — or a good teacher, or scientist, or student, or politician, or parent, or child — is in knowing what traditions to embrace and what change to encourage. Old and new can stand and work together, mixing past wisdom and creativity with today’s new energy and possibilities. —Eric Sellen 2017-18 is Eric Sellen’s 25th season as The Cleveland Orchestra’s program book editor.

Sounding Like Beethoven

The Cleveland Orchestra


Interested in More? L I S T E N A N D R E A D

The Prometheus Project Online clevelandorchestra.com/prometheus A unique extension of The Prometheus Project, created by The Cleveland Orchestra Archives and developed with funding from the National Endowment for the Arts, can be found on the Orchestra’s website, with special material about each symphony and overture. The site includes excerpts from historical audio and visual recordings from across the Orchestra’s first century, along with video of Franz Welser-Möst talking about the music, and written commentary about the Prometheus myth, the fight for Good, and Beethoven’s life. The website includes a recorded video of the Concert Preview discussion from May 9: Prometheus Project: Examining Beethoven’s Music through the Inspiration of the Enlightenment a conversation with Franz Welser-Möst and Mark Evan Bonds moderated by Francesca Brittan

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Enlightenment by David Wright

and F. Joseph Haydn thought about Art, Life, Music, Nature, and God from different viewpoints — in a world of changing philosophies and evolving aesthetics. The well-ordered and rational world of the Enlightenment was giving way to the new passions and fierce emotions of the Romantic Era.

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L A T E I N 1 7 9 2 , an unkempt-looking but

Thinking

Ludwig van Beethoven

obviously talented young composer-pianist arrived in Vienna from the provincial town of Bonn, with a mission, as one of his patrons put it, “to receive the spirit of Mozart from Haydn’s hands.” It was plain to Joseph Haydn from the start that his new pupil would be a handful. For his part, Ludwig van Beethoven chafed at his teacher’s corrections, and resisted suggestions that he use the phrase “pupil of Haydn” after his name. But old “Papa” was no pushover. Far from retiring gracefully and yielding the stage to his young rival, he undertook two year-long visits to England, where his brilliant success left him bestriding the music world as never before. Even the Viennese, who had taken Haydn for granted for thirty years, had to sit up and take notice. When he appropriated England’s greatest musical genre, the Handelian oratorio, to write The Creation, his conquest of Europe was complete. Not even the ambitious, well-connected young Beethoven could touch him. At least not yet. Beethoven, however, was preparing for his own music journey toward fame and the creation of “new music.” He savored the success of his Septet (Opus 20), in 1799, which would, in fact, remain his most popular work with the public throughout his lifetime. Of the Septet, Beethoven is said to The Age of Enlightenment

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HAYDN

have exclaimed, “This is my Creation!” Two years later, Beethoven scored a theatrical success with his music for the ballet The Creatures of Prometheus, commissioned by the famous dancer Salvatore Viganò. In terms of public acclaim, these were Beethoven’s big moments during these years, not the early works we think of today, such as the First Symphony, the Opus 18 string quartets, the “Spring” Sonata for violin, or the “Moonlight” Sonata for piano. Meeting Beethoven on the street, Haydn congratulated his former pupil for the Prometheus music. “Oh, dear Papa,” Beethoven replied, “you are too good; but it is no Creation by a long shot.” Haydn, having heard more than his share of such loose comparisons, shot back, “You are right. It is no Creation, and I hardly think it ever will be!” There may, in fact, have been a religious subtext to Haydn’s outrage. On another occasion, he labeled Beethoven an “atheist” — a remark interpreted by some modern biographers as referring merely to the young composer’s disrespect for authority rather than to his mixed and changing feelings surrounding religious faith. What little we know of the content of the Prometheus ballet, however, suggests a sharp philosophical divide between the devout Haydn and the freethinking Beethoven. While both The Creation and The Creatures of Prometheus celebrate the beauty of nature, Haydn follows the book of Genesis “religiously,” while Beethoven and Viganò attribute the life force to the

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mythological hero Prometheus, who breathes life into human form and steals fire to give to his “creatures,” after which there are introductions to Apollo and to each of the Classical muses. CLASSICAL VS. ROMANTIC

Haydn vs. Beethoven. Noble God(s) vs. rebel Prometheus. Divine providence vs. free thought, enterprise, and creative license. There can hardly be a clearer distinction between 18th- and 19th-century world views. (Not for nothing is a golden statue of a flying, flaming Prometheus the centerpiece of New York’s Rockefeller Center, a set of buildings intended to symbolize a new spirit of civilized creativity and prosperity.) Yes, Haydn was creative in his music, but less so in his everyday thinking. Beethoven moved quickly in both realms. But, can Beethoven’s mild-mannered, pastoral ballet score carry so much philosophical baggage? Certainly there are many more explicitly revolutionary and “Promethean” works in his catalog. Yet it is quite possible to offer evidence that many of Beethoven’s later musical themes, for many of his later works, can actually be found in elemenatry form within the ballet score — as a kind of resource book from which this composer developed musical works throughout the remainder of his life. A step too far? Possibly. Yet, at the very least, it is very clear that Beethoven — whose many sketches and fiercely-edited manuscripts indicate what a struggle composition was for him — subscribed all his life to a Promethean ideal of self-sacrifice to bring light and power to the people. As punishment for Prometheus’s own affront to their power, the gods chained him to a rock for all eter-

Classical vs. Romantic

The Cleveland Orchestra


Prometheus, by Paul Manship, at Rockefeller Center in New York City. Created in 1934, the sculpture shows Prometheus carrying fire to humanity after stealing it from the Chariot of the Sun.

nity. Beethoven similarly bore, and saw himself as bearing, his own many afflictions (including deafness) for the sake of enlightening humanity with his art. “Let me not sink into the dust inactive and inglorious,” he wrote in his diary, quoting the great Iliad poem, “but first complete great things, of which future times also shall hear.” THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

That the stories of Prometheus and Homer’s Iliad were available to Beethoven at all was a result of the Renaissance — literally a “rebirth” of stories and ideas from ancient Greece — and its 18th-century cousin The Enlightenment, defined by the philosopher Immanuel Kant as “humanity’s emergence from self-incurred immaturity.” Under the motto Sapere aude! [“Dare to be wise!”], Kant challenged humanity to throw off the authority of kings and priests, study nature, and think for ourselves. Beethoven — less a philosopher than a questioning, nature-loving, independent thinker — eagerly read Kant and other writers (underlining passages liberally) for confirmation of his artistic and ethical instincts. In one of his “conversation books” (utilized to write out dialog with guests Severance Hall 2017-18

when deafness hindered his communication), Beethoven wrote in response to someone’s question, “The moral law within us and the starry sky above us — Kant!!!” TIME AND OPPORTUNIT Y

This all-embracing composer had the good fortune to be born in 1770, during a period of intellectual and aesthetic ferment that defies later attempts to groom it neatly into a purely rational, Classical 18th century serenely awaiting the explosion of irrational Romanticism in the 19th. It was a time of turbulent thought, and evolving ideas, leaping forward and inching back, confused and nearly buried by an avalanche of new ideas and theorems. True enough, the great Encyclopédie of d’Alembert and Diderot was completed in 1772, the first comprehensive attempt to put the rational study of nature between covers. And Johann Georg Sulzer’s General Theory of the Fine Arts, published the previous year, brought the same encyclopedic spirit to criticism. But even as these monuments to order and rationality appeared, the literary movement known as Sturm und Drang

The Age of Enlightenment

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[“Storm and Stress”], dedicated to the expression of turbulent emotions, was reaching its peak, echoing through all the arts, including Haydn’s symphonies of that period. Wolfgang von Goethe’s ur-Romantic novel The Sorrows of Young Werther shook society to its foundations in 1774, with a tale of love so strong that it required suicide for an ending. And even as Kant was arguing in his Critique of Pure Reason that the human mind was capable of engaging only with ideas and directly-experienced phenomena, the German Idealist group of philosophers arose to challenge such restrictive concepts. Writers such as Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel argued instead that there was truth in each observer’s own perception of the world, including faith in things unseen, such as the unprovable

existence of God. The individualism and subjectivity that would define Romanticism in the 19th century clearly had philosophical roots in such Idealist thought. But even Enlightenment rationalists such as Kant and Edmund Burke gave considerable importance to the “sublime” in human experience, the awareness of the “starry sky” that transcends everyday affairs. It was this concept that, most im-

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Prometheus and Beethoven

The Cleveland Orchestra


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portantly for artists such as Beethoven, provided the route to a re-evaluation of music’s role in the arts. Enlightenment thinkers such as Rousseau mocked music as incapable of moral teaching unless provided with a written text, and Kant pronounced music “least among the arts, because it plays merely with emotions.” But in the Romantic aesthetic of the Schlegel brothers, Jean Paul, and E.T.A. Hoffmann, the quest for the sublime — for ineffable, unattainable truth — was a goal in itself. Music, uniquely liberated from the phenomenal burdens of words or pictures, became not the least but the highest of the arts, the ideal medium for that never-ending quest. If Beethoven wanted to mix the moral law with the starry sky in one sentence and attribute it to Kant, well, he was

Severance Hall 2017-18

entitled to his “take” on it all. Like Haydn’s The Creation, Beethoven’s The Creatures of Prometheus lives quite vividly in the phenomenal here-and-now. Certainly the protagonist’s theft of fire calls for dramatic music. And, by Franz Welser-Möst’s reckoning, whether in musical themes or merely in philosophical intentions, Beethoven drove forward into the Romantic Era with focus and a clear storyline. The knowledge of fire, used creatively, would not only catalog the rational world, but spur us onward toward greater justice, progress, and freedom. With Beethoven’s dynamic and exquisite — some say “sublime”! — soundtrack. David Wright lives in New Jersey and writes about music. He previously served as program annotator for the New York Philharmonic.

The Age of Enlightenment

© 2018 BY DAVID WRIGHT

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THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT I N T R O D U C I N G

T H E

BE E THOVE N

C O N C E R T S

Listening to the Music F O R M A N Y O F U S , Beethoven is classical music. And it is the music of

Ludwig van Beethoven that came to define serious classical music for every generation after him — audiences and musicians alike. Mozart and Haydn were brilliant (and creative and daring), as were Bach and Handel before tthem. But Beethoven upped the ante tenfold — and succeeded without comparison or compromise. He was, at suc ttimes, quite a grumpy man, but his creativity and foresight w were first-rate, and his musical genius without peer. In part, Beethoven’s advantage was working at a ttime that coincided with a great wave of new thinking about the world and each person’s rightful place in it. The a stage was set for Beethoven, but Beethoven was also the sta right genius to demonstrate music’s value in a new world order filled with Enlightenment reason tempered by an awakening of heightened emotional ardor sweeping forward into the Romantic movement. If Haydn, across dozens of symphonies, helped define the symphony as a form, Beethoven took that form and created something of absolute brilliance, filled with innovation and meaning. Beethoven wrote his nine symphonies across a span of 25 years — from 1799 to 1824. He worked on several simultaneously, almost as pairs, the Fifth and Sixth, and the Seventh and Eighth. Others were written one after another. Several are precursors of later works — the First has clear foreshadowing of the Fifth, just as the Second can be interpreted as an early In recognition of their extraordinary generosity study of the kind of musical ideas that in support of The Cleveland Orchestra’s Annual Fund, these concerts are dedicated to: blossomed twenty years later in the Thursday, May 10 — Mrs. Norma Lerner Ninth Symphony. and the Lerner Foundation In between those nine symphonies, Friday, May 11 — Mr. and Mrs. Alexander M. Cutler and during this same period, Beethoven Thursday, May 17 — Mr. and Mrs. Dennis W. LaBarre Friday, May 18 — Ms. Beth E. Mooney created a half dozen overtures alongside Saturday, May 19 — Richard J. Bogomolny his only opera, Fidelio, as well as writing and Patricia M. Kozerefski the five piano concertos and several sets of string quartets. After the Ninth Symphony, he went on to create the daring and complex Late String Quartets, imagining music moving forward in ever more revolutionary new ways. These festival concerts — performed in Cleveland, Vienna, and Tokyo in May and June — re-examine Beethoven’s symphonies viewed around

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Introducing the Concerts

The Cleveland Orchestra


19th-century lithograph of Beethoven as a gentleman.

the ideal of Promethean heroics. This is music as philosophical messenger. The mythological Prometheus dared to help humanity by stealing fire from the gods — to spark civilization and justice and goodness forward. Beethoven wanted a better world, and advocated for it through his music. Of course, it should be noted that Beethoven’s personal life did not always meet his aspirations. In fact, he often liked the idea of a shared humanity and brotherhood more than the reality of dealing with a particular individual. His life is filled with stormy and disagreeable relationships with friends and acquaintances. He compromised his own ideals because he was human — arguing and treating friends badly, or visiting prostitutes and then being wracked with guilt. For each of us, how we want live our lives is a constant struggle against the needs and necessities of everyday living. On the following pages, Franz Welser-Möst ABOUT THE MUSIC comments about Beethoven’s nine symphonies being performed for The Prometheus Project, deSymphony No. 1 tailing some of the composer’s means and methSymphony No. 2 ods and messages. A few details are very specific, Symphony No. 3 while others are a larger and overriding sensibilSymphony No. 4 ity and direction within the music, along with, of Symphony No. 5 course, the storylines that clearly go with some of Symphony No. 6 these pieces (especially the overtures and within the Ninth Symphony’s sung text). Symphony No. 7 By necessity, Franz’s comments here are Symphony No. 8 brief and introductory. It is in performance that Overtures he expands on and builds the case for each symPrometheus phony, for each heroic message. All together, Leonore No. 3 these thought-provoking special performances Coriolan are a time to experience, contemplate, and enjoy! Egmont —Eric Sellen

Severance Hall 2017-18

Introducing the Concerts

page 55 page 57 page 58 page 61 page 63 page 65 page 67 page 71 page 75 page 76 page 77 page 78

Grosse Fuge

page 81

Symphony No. 9

page 85

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T H E

C L E V E L A N D

O R C H E S T R A

THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT Cleveland — Severance Hall

Thursday evening, May 10, 2018, at 7:30 p.m.

Vienna — Musikverein

Thursday evening, May 24, 2018, at 7:30 p.m.

Tokyo — Suntory Hall

2O1 7-18 CENTENNIAL SEASON

Saturday evening, June 2, 2018, at 6:00 p.m.

Franz Welser-MĂśst, conductor LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Overture to The Creatures of Prometheus, Opus 43

see page 75

Symphony No. 1 in C major, Opus 21

see page 55

1. 2. 3. 4.

Adagio molto — Allegro con brio Andante cantabile con moto Menuetto: Allegro molto e vivace — Trio Finale: Adagio — Allegro molto e vivace

INTERMISSION

Symphony No. 3 (“Eroicaâ€?) iQ(Ă DWPDMRU2SXV 1. 2. 3. 4.

see page 58

Allegro con brio Marcia funebre: Adagio assai Scherzo: Allegro vivace — Trio — Coda Finale: Allegro molto — Poco andante — Presto

The May 10 concert is sponsored by Hyster-Yale Materials Handling, Inc.,. a Cleveland Orchestra Partner in Excellence.

The Cleveland Orchestra

Concert Program — Week 23a: May 10

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Two Brothers: Planning for the Future In Greek mythology, Prometheus was one of two brothers. His younger brother was named Epimetheus, from the Greek word meaning “afterthought.” As he grew up, Epimetheus spent much of his time thinking about yesterday, and last week, or looking at the history of a hundred years ago. All too rarely did he ever think about the future. In contrast, the name Prometheus was derived from the Greek word meaning “foresight” or “forethought.” And, true to his name, Prometheus was always thinking about the future and the possibilities tomorrow might bring. He wanted to be ready today for whatever might happen next — whether that was next month or even a century hence. It is with creativity and foresight that Franz Welser-Möst developed The Prometheus Project as part of launching The Cleveland Orchestra’s Second Century. You, too, can help ensure the future with generous forethought by joining The Cleveland Orchestra Heritage Socitey.

clevelandorchestra.com/legacy For more information, please contact Dave Stokley, Legacy Giving Officer, at 216-231-8006.


T H E

C L E V E L A N D

O R C H E S T R A

THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT Cleveland — Severance Hall

Friday evening, May 11, 2018, at 8:00 p.m.

Vienna — Musikverein

Sunday evening, May 27, 2018, at 7:30 p.m.

Tokyo — Suntory Hall

2O1 7-18 CENTENNIAL SEASON

Sunday afternoon, June 3, 2018, at 2:00 p.m.

Franz Welser-MĂśst, conductor LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Overture to Egmont, Opus 84

see page 75

Symphony No. 4 iQ%Ă DWPDMRU2SXV

see page 61

1. 2. 3. 4.

Adagio — Allegro vivace Adagio Allegro vivace — Trio Allegro ma non troppo

INTERMISSION

Symphony No. 7 LQ$PDMRU2SXV 1. 2. 3. 4.

see page 67

Poco sostenuto — Vivace Allegretto Presto — Trio Finale: Allegro con brio

The Cleveland Orchestra

Concert Program — Week 23b: May 11

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T H E

C L E V E L A N D

O R C H E S T R A

THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT Cleveland — Severance Hall

Saturday evening, May 12, 2018, at 8:00 p.m.

Vienna — Musikverein

Saturday evening, May 26, 2018, at 7:30 p.m.

Tokyo — Suntory Hall

2O1 7-18 CENTENNIAL SEASON

Tuesday evening, June 5, 2018, at 7:00 p.m.

Franz Welser-Möst, conductor LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Overture: Coriolan, Opus 62

see page 75

Symphony No. 8 in F major, Opus 93

see page 71

1. 2. 3. 4.

Allegro vivace e con brio Allegretto scherzando Tempo di Menuetto — Trio Allegro vivace

INTERMISSION

Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Opus 67 1. 2. 3. 4.

see page 63

Allegro con brio Andante con moto Scherzo: Allegro — Trio — Finale: Allegro

The May 12 concert is sponsored by Medical Mutual, a Cleveland Orchestra Partner in Excellence.

The Cleveland Orchestra

Concert Program — Week 23c: May 12

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Ludwig van Beethoven, 1815, painted by W. J. Mähler

Music is a higher revelation than all wisdom and philosophy. It is the wine of new creation and I am Bacchus who presses out this glorious wine for all and makes them drunk with the spirits. —Ludwig van Beethoven


T H E

C L E V E L A N D

O R C H E S T R A

THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT Cleveland — Severance Hall

Sunday afternoon, May 13, 2018, at 3:00 p.m.

Vienna — Musikverein

Friday evening, May 25, 2018, at 7:30 p.m.

Tokyo — Suntory Hall

2O1 7-18 CENTENNIAL SEASON

Wednesday evening, June 6, 2018, at 7:00 p.m.

Franz Welser-Möst, conductor LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Symphony No. 6 (“Pastoral”) in F major, Opus 68

see page 65

1. Awakening of cheerful feelings upon arriving in the country: Allegro ma non troppo 2. Scene by the brookside: Andante molto mosso 3. Jolly gathering of country-folk: Allegro — 4. Thunderstorm, Tempest: Allegro — 5. Shepherd’s Song: Gladsome and thankful feelings after the storm: Allegretto INTERMISSION

Symphony No. 2 in D major, Opus 36 1. 2. 3. 4.

see page 57

Adagio molto — Allegro con brio Larghetto Scherzo: Allegro — Trio Finale: Allegro molto

Leonore Overture No. 3, Opus 72a

The Cleveland Orchestra

Concert Program — Week 23d: May 13

see page 75

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T H E

C L E V E L A N D

O R C H E S T R A

THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT Cleveland — Severance Hall

Thursday evening, May 17, 2018, at 7:30 p.m. Friday evening, May 18, 2018, at 8:00 p.m. Saturday evening, May 19, 2018, at 8:00 p.m.

Vienna — Musikverein

Monday evening, May 28, 2018, at 7:30 p.m.

2O1 7-18 CENTENNIAL SEASON

Tokyo — Suntory Hall

Thursday evening, June 7, 2018, at 7:00 p.m.

Franz Welser-MĂśst, conductor LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Grosse Fuge iQ%Ă DWPDMRU2SXV

see page 81

IRUVWULQJTXDUWHWSHUIRUPHGE\VWULQJRUFKHVWUD

INTERMISSION

Symphony No. 9 (“Choral�) LQ'PLQRU2SXV 1. 2. 3. 4.

sung text, see page 88

Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso Molto vivace — Presto — Tempo I Adagio molto e cantabile — Andante maestoso Presto — Allegro assai — Presto (Finale on Schiller’s “Ode to Joy�)

Cleveland — Severance Hall ERIN WALL, soprano JENNIFER JOHNSTON, mezzo-soprano NORBERT ERNST, tenor DASHON BURTON, bass-baritone CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA CHORUS Lisa Wong, acting director

see page 85

LIVE RADIO BROADCAST

Saturday evening’s concert is being broadcast live on WCLV (104.9 FM). The concert will be rebroadcast as part of regular weekly programming on WCLV on Sunday afternoon, July 22, at 4:00 p.m. and again on Sunday, September 30, at 4:00 p.m.

The Severance Hall concerts are sponsored by Thompson Hine LLP, P a Cleveland Orchestra Partner in Excellence. The May 18 concert is also sponsored by Hahn Loeser & Parks LLP. P

The Cleveland Orchestra

Concert Program — Week 24: May 17, 18, 19

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BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Symphony No. 1 in C major, Opus 21 composed 1799-1800 T H E M U S I C O F Beethoven’s First Symphony is, I strongly be-

lieve, already a step toward his Fifth. It is not just a nice, happy, easy-going symphony (written in C major rather than the Fifth’s key of C minor). It has a direction, a kind of fire beneath the music that will carry us forward, from this symphony on through the next eight and beyond. This fact, that it is a precursor to the Fifth Symphony, gives us insight as to how this work should be played — and how we should listen to it. This symphony is too often dismissed as Beethoven’s version of Mozart or Haydn. Yes, of course, he had absorbed the Classical style from those famous and creative men’s work. But he also already has his own direction and style in mind — he had a strong sense of where he was headed musically. Beethoven was nearly thirty years old before he wrote his first symphony. He had spent the previous two decades, even as a teenager, writing a great deal of things, especially chamber music. As is so often the case with Beethoven, he didn’t write something until he was ready to — and he clearly looked around to understand what a symphony was before making his own claim toward writing what a symphony could become. The First is a declaration of what is to come. Using chords to open the introduction to the first movement is a device that Beethoven explores again and again in later works, here mixing together both uncertainty and then a clear sense of humor. The movement’s main body is brisk and filled with invention and a personality that is different from anything Mozart or Haydn would have written. The second movement is an expansion from the kind of chamber music he was creating, for instance, the String Quartet No. 4, written at the same time. The third movement is a minuet, not unlike those that filled so many earlier symphonies, except that Beethoven’s is quite different indeed. It is an early prototype for the kind of faster-paced scherzo or musical “joke” that Beethoven would make standard practice in symphonic form. The last movement is built on a kind of intense, fiery scale. Within this music, Beethoven’s spark of genius is clearly revealed. Again there is humor in an introduction, before the music is propelled forward, as if starting on a great and wonderful journey.

At a Glance Beethoven composed this symphony in 1799-1800. He led the first performance on April 2, 1800, at Vienna’s Hofburgertheater. The work was published with a dedication to Baron Gottfried van Swieten, one of Vienna’s most prominent music-lovers and patrons. The First Symphony runs about 25 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored it for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. The Cleveland Orchestra first performed Beethoven’s Symphony No. 1 in March 1929.

CLEVELAND May 10 Thursday VIENNA

May 24 Thursday TOKYO

June 2 Saturday

—Franz Welser-Möst © 2018 Severance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 1

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BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Symphony No. 2 in D major, Opus 36 composed 1801-02 J U S T A S T H E F I R S T S Y M P H O N Y already points to the Fifth,

the Second Symphony nods toward the Ninth. As I examine this score, whole sections are like an early study — almost an early version, in the same key — for what he will do two decades later. This is not to suggest that the Second Symphony can be dismissed on its own merits, because, again, it also clearly shows how Beethoven continued to break away from the Classical traditions of Mozart and Haydn. He understands those older rules, and already he is masterfully bending them with his own ideas. He is choosing, as Prometheus did, to break rules for a purpose. This is a symphony that only Beethoven could have written. Tellingly, we have a firsthand report from the composer’s friend Anton Schindler (1795-1864), where he describes a time when Beethoven played the second movement of this symphony on the piano. And Schindler very clearly talks about the many tempo variances that Beethoven took — which made the performance “sublime.” This tells us two things. First, that such techniques as rubato — the momentary slowing or shifting within a phrase from the established tempo — were not foreign to the young Beethoven. It was actually part of what he wanted. We too often today think of this kind of emotional breathing within music as part of Romantic music after Beethoven, but it was already known and used earlier. Second, the idea of sublimity, of experiencing something almost overpowering in detail, was also a part of the intention and objective. Immanuel Kant’s philosophical definition of the sublime — as something more than mere beauty, of a supreme achievement (in creation or in an experience or performance) — was in the vocabulary and desires of Beethoven and his friends. Musically, again, Beethoven starts the introduction to the first movement with chords, slowly taking us — harmonically and conceptually — toward the movement’s faster main section, which appears seamlessly from this musical probing. This is clearly an earlier conception of the opening of the Ninth. The music continues with the sublime second movement, followed by an exuberant Scherzo, which Beethoven specifically labeled with that term. The last movement follows in force, with a musical unity clearly of Beethoven’s vision.

At a Glance Beethoven began his Second Symphony in the autumn of 1801, but created most of it during the summer and early autumn of 1802 in the Vienna suburb of Heiligenstadt. The first performance took place on April 5, 1803, at Vienna’s Theater-an-derWien, led by the composer. This symphony runs about 30 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored the symphony for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. The Cleveland Orchestra first performed Beethoven’s Second Symphony in November 1922.

CLEVELAND May 13 Sunday VIENNA

May 25 Friday TOKYO

June 6 Wednesday

—Franz Welser-Möst © 2018 Severance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 2

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THE PROMETHEUS PROJECT

BE E THOVE N

Symphony No. 3 (“Eroicaâ€?) LQ(Ă DWPDMRU2SXV composed 1802-04 I T I S P O S S I B L E T O trace a span and lineage of philosophi-

At a Glance Beethoven composed this symphony between 1802 and 1804. He conducted the first performance at a private concert in the home of Prince Lobkowitz, to whom the work is dedicated, in December 1804. The first public performance took place on April 7, 1805, led by Beethoven. This symphony runs about 45 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored it for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 3 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. The Cleveland Orchestra first performed Beethoven’s “Eroica� Symphony in October 1920.

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cal messages translated by Beethoven’s genius into many musical details and coded messages across his works. This should not be surprising to us. Great composers had done this before him, and many have followed after, embedding in the beauty of music a strength of purpose; it is enough to recall the fascinating symbolism of some of Bach’s greatest works to understand that layers of meaning in art are a given and not the exception. The underlying idea within Beethoven’s Third Symphony, the “Eroica� (or “heroic� symphony), is perhaps the easiest of his purely instrumental symphonies to understand. Its meaning is encapsulated in the well-known story of the composer’s violent removal of its original dedication to Napoleon — a man who was the embodiment of the heroic ideal for many members of what we today label as the middle class, and for some aristocrats, too. This work clearly shows Beethoven as a “fighter for Good.� In conception, he was writing about a specific hero. Napoleon represented the people coming to power. And, at first, Napoleon was a true hero for Beethoven and his friends. But power, as they say, went to Napoleon’s head, and when he declared more and more control for himself, Beethoven was outraged — and removed the Frenchman’s name from the symphony’s title page. Still, Beethoven had a heroic work of art that he was creating, and the symphony was about more than a man, it was and is about the idea of a great hero. It could sound itself even against the reality of a certain French emperor, who was corrupted. At nearly 50 minutes, it also turned out to be the longest symphony that perhaps anyone had ever written up to that point — because the size of the idea required music to match. The Third Symphony also coincides, or grows out of, a major personal crisis in Beethoven’s life, his growing recognition that he was slowly going deaf — and the internal debate he waged with himself as to how this would affect his life and art. In 1802, while spending time at the town of Heiligenstadt near Vienna, he penned a document addressed to his brothers (but never shared with them), pouring out both his frustration and his heroic struggle with the condition that fate had dealt him. In the Heiligenstadt Testament, he declares that, rather than beSymphony No. 3 (“Eroica�)

The Cleveland Orchestra


ing defeated by his deafness, he will rise above it — because he has much more music within him to unleash and to write down. Musically, this heroism of ideals manifests itself from the start, even in the choice of the key of E-flat major, whose three flats stood for liberty, equality, and fraternity, expressing humanity and the sublimity of human expression. Compare this, for example, to Mozart’s The Magic Flute, whose overture opens with a series of solemn, wondrous E-flat major chords (which are tellingly repeated later in the opera in the scene between the opera’s hero and the temple’s Speaker). In Beethoven’s hands, the start of this symphonic journey begins with a deceptively simple statement of an E-flat major chord, stated twice, from which the music continues on immediately. Beethoven then builds this big movement from almost nothing more than those chords, laid out and developed. It is a tour de force of creativity. The second movement is labeled as a “funeral march.” It is vast in feeling but relatively simple in its musical building blocks. Again, it is the composer’s creativity in developing the material in varied ways and his pacing in carrying this procession forward, that so impress us. The intensity held within this music is remarkable. In the symphony’s Scherzo, Beethoven depicts nature within this “fight for Good,” as he would later do in the “Pastoral” Sixth Symphony and in the second movement of his opus summum, the Ninth Symphony. Compared to the other movements, this one is quite short. And it is deceptively light and airy, but throughout Beethoven creates a steady stream of energy and a building sense of anticipation. In some ways, this dance-like movement is a precursor to the Seventh Symphony, inviting us to move along toward the finale. The grouped horns bring clear strength and noble wonder. In the last movement of the “Eroica,” Beethoven quotes his own musical theme from the ballet Prometheus, about the Greek mythological figure who was a friend and benefactor of humanity. With this, he introduces a larger, universal idea of heroism to the symphony, making explicit the meaning of the entire work, with or without Napoleon as a flawed example.

“Napoleon Crossing the Alps” — a painting from 1805 by Jacques-Louis David, portraying the Frenchman as a fearless and heroic leader.

—Franz Welser-Möst © 2018

Severance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 3 (“Eroica”)

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Symphony No. 4 in B-flat major, Opus 60 composed 1806 I F T H E E R O I C A’ S role as a heroic symphony is obvious, the next

symphony, the Fourth, seems at first to be much more difficult to understand. Yet Enlightenment thinking — and Beethoven’s interest in new ideas and philosophical contemplation — gives us a way to approach this work also. Overall, this symphony seems light, cheerful, and humorous. But, if that is true, the first movement’s dark and ominous introduction is entirely out of place. At the start, in the gloomy tonality of B-flat minor, the music seems to be searching for something more. This serious undercurrent also shows through in the second movement, built in the key of E-flat major (the heroic key of the “Eroica” again!), as well as the pastoral element in the third movement’s Trio section (set in D-flat major, a key of many great musical farewells). Yet delicate and subtle humor is not incompatible with profound philosophical message. Indeed, humor informs and enlightens. As the writer and thinker Jean Paul (1763-1825) stated, humor and “the sublime” are two sides of the same coin. Comedy and tragedy are paired in the world for a reason, for they illuminate each other’s characteristics. Humor is not the absence of seriousness, but a commentary on the world around us. Continuing on, in the second movement of this often clever and witty symphony, Beethoven leads us once more to the heights (and depths) of human dignity and expression. In Beethoven’s time, humanity itself — as opposed to “the gods” — had become a central focus and arbiter of thought and morality, as distilled and expressed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. The slow movement sings about such transcendent and self-aware expression in broad, soaring melodies, suggesting a vision of, and a yearning for, the ideals in which Beethoven so firmly believed. There is, in fact, a great similarity in this music to Florestan’s great aria from the opening of Act II of Fidelio. In the symphony, the melody is accompanied by small, expressive motifs of sighing. Parallel thirds abound (as they also do in the slow movement of the Ninth Symphony), denoting fraternity and human companionship. (The slow movement of the Ninth also contains a climax in E-flat major, with a quotation from Masonic music.) In addition to the pastoral mood within the third movement, sublimity is also evident at the beginning of the last moveSeverance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 4

At a Glance Beethoven composed his Fourth Symphony during the summer and early fall of 1806. The first performance took place at Prince Lobkowitz’s residence in Vienna in March 1807; the first public performance was at the Burgtheater on April 13, 1808. Beethoven conducted both performances. This symphony runs about 35 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored it for flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. The Cleveland Orchestra first performed Beethoven’s Fourth Symphony during the ensemble’s seventh season, in 1924-25.

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ment, where Beethoven writes a singing melody that is closely related to the Prometheus theme in the “Eroica.” Together with this, the sublime intensity of this music — something more than beautiful — reinforces the echoed patterns of the Prometheus theme, telling us (again) that there is meaning within this music. One could, perhaps, even continue this discussion according to the famously ironic line from Voltaire’s Candide, that “everything is for the best in this best of all possible worlds.” Here, in the Fourth Symphony, Beethoven has reminded us that life is a jumble of many things — that humor and darkness contrast with one another for a purpose, as different ways of looking at the same thing. In a similar vein, simpler pastoral elements contrast with more complex musical ideas, showing us the range — and depth and breadth — of human thought and experience. —Franz Welser-Möst © 2018

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Symphony No. 4

The Cleveland Orchestra


BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Opus 67 composed 1804-08 I N T H E F I F T H S Y M P H O N Y , Beethoven’s philosophical and

political thoughts are sent through the purifying fire of the Enlightenment. This most classical of all symphonies shows us all of the Beethovenian ideals, inspired by the ancient world and then revived and re-energized by Enlightenment thinking, discussion, and discovery. The music’s grand arc — from darkness to light, from the uncertainty of fate to a celebration of life — embodies the composer’s journey of thought and thinking, distilling his belief in civilization’s power for betterment. Beethoven expresses these musical and philosophical paths with great power in the Fifth. This, certainly, is how he wages his “fight for the Good” — through music and meaning. This introspectively extroverted, heroic music speaks directly to all of us. The symphony’s music perfectly captures the Latin phrase per aspera ad astra — “through the fire to the stars.” The hotheaded Beethoven creates this fiery dramaturgy to such perfect form in the first movement, built from just a few notes, and then, in contrast, takes us to an imaginary world in the second movement — with music that is quintessentially Viennese. A-flat major, the second movement’s home key, is the flat sixth degree of C minor, a degree used as a deceptive cadence (!). Moreover, it also anticipates, in its harmonies and its layout, the dark night in the second act of Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde. In the symphony, this imaginary world is disrupted, time and again, by powerful C-major fanfares, giving us a foretaste of the last movement yet to come — in which the music really does reach for the stars! The gloomy Scherzo of a third movement, which revisits the fateful drama of the first movement, also contains a Trio section in which the finale’s triumphant C major is revealed in outline. Yet this triumph will only be possible after the third movement has sunk back into the fateful “knocking” (a heartbeat?!) of the first movement. Here Beethoven — and this was not lost on his contemporaries — fashioned the triumph of the last movement in such a way that the words of the French revolutionary hymn could be easily underlaid to the music. A timeless message was thus wrapped with a clear political statement. In this work, we listen, we experience, and we hear the essentials of Beethoven’s worldview, of music and politics.

At a Glance Beethoven began sketching this symphony as early as 1804, and completed it during the first months of 1808. The first performance took place on December 22, 1808, at the Theater-an-der-Wien in Vienna, at a long concert led by the composer and devoted entirely to his works. This symphony runs about 30 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored it for piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, contrabassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, and strings. The piccolo, contrabassoon, and trombones (which Beethoven had not used in his first four symphonies) play only in the fourth movement.

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—Franz Welser-Möst © 2018 Severance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 5

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BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Symphony No. 6 (“Pastoral”) in F major, Opus 68 composed 1806-08 T O O M A N Y P E O P L E mistakenly believe that Beethoven’s

Sixth Symphony is simply a musical description of being out in the countryside — here is the composer breathing fresh air, with nature all around. And he imitates the songs of birds and the sounds of a babbling brook and then a thunderstorm. Yes, he does create those sounds in the music, and what he writes is very creative. But the idea of depicting nature in music was not anything new. Vivaldi had done it, Bach had, too, and Handel and Mozart. The daring aspect in this work is how Beethoven approached the symphony form in the most Romantic and fulfilling way. This is music as poetry. It is not just the details, which are delightful, but the atmosphere that he creates — and especially the feelings that he is writing about. He says right on the first page of the score, with the opening movement, that this is about the “awakening of feelings upon arriving in the country.” This is a very Romantic idea. Here he is moving away from, or beyond, the idea of facts in the Enlightenment’s worship of science and thinking. Feelings are what matter, or they are equally important. As he himself said, the Sixth Symphony is not painting in sound — it is about the sensations of feelings. This music is as much about what is underneath, what is inside the self. This is Beethoven’s countryside. It is about what he finds and imagines there. This is what feeds his soul, as we might say today. He is the main character, but, as the symphony progresses, he also recognizes and embraces those around him, especially the farming folk who live in this land and make home there. So that here, in this symphony, the details and the feelings come together and bring a complete sense of reality, of delight and well-being. Yet it is built on moments of danger, of having to survive and work through each day to understand life. The sunshine and the rain — and the threatening thunderstorm — join together to create our full feelings about who we are and what we accomplish, what we share with those we love. We work hard, we play hard, we reach for and protect what life offers us. Because, with this symphony, especially, it is important to not simply look at Beethoven as a heroic composer, fighting and yelling and pursuing Good all the time. That does not do him Severance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 6 (“Pastoral”)

At a Glance Beethoven wrote his Sixth Symphony between 1806 and 1808. The first performance took place on December 22, 1808, in Vienna. The symphony was dedicated to Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz and Count Andrei Razumovsky. This symphony runs about 40 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored it for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, timpani, and strings. The Cleveland Orchestra first performed Beethoven’s Symphony No. 6 in December 1922.

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THEATER AN DER WIEN — This concert hall in Vienna, built in 1801, is

where Beethoven's opera Fidelio was first presented — and where the composer lived (in an upstairs apartment) for a time. Beethoven's Fifth and Sixth symphonies also received their premieres here in 1808.

justice — he is much more multi-faceted than that. The “fight for Good” must also take place within oneself. Sometimes it is about peace and harmony and acceptance. And it is about celebration, which is exactly what he does in this symphony, with the opening movements’ awakening of pleasure, which then give way to the deeper feelings of thanksgiving — of the village people after the storm, for the abundance of the harvest and the essential goodness of being alive, fully in harmony with nature and the land. In the final movement, when he is thanking God and nature for the totality of life here on earth, Beethoven works his magic by building the musical theme, in fact, on the basic harmony of a chord, as he does so often in so many pieces. Here, the musical harmony itself represents the larger harmony of the world — just as it will in the Ninth Symphony. —Franz Welser-Möst © 2018

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Symphony No. 6 (“Pastoral”)

The Cleveland Orchestra


BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Symphony No. 7 in A major, Opus 92 composed 1811-12 R I C H A R D W A G N E R famously said that Beethoven’s Seventh

is the “apotheosis of the dance.” Yet, I believe, it is also much more. Wagner’s comment has too often limited our view of this work. Yes, there are dance rhythms and an energy to the music, which makes you want to get up and “boogey.” But I believe that the fact of that energy tells us something more, especially as we examine the sections that are something beyond dance. In this symphony Beethoven explores an expansive aspect of life. He is celebrating movement, the way we walk and move, in many different ways. There is dancing, yes, but there is also the slow movement of a procession, perhaps a funeral march. And there is agility, and differing speeds, and repetition. It is about interacting with and moving through the world around us. It is a celebration of what our bodies can do. Yet this is not just the ability to move, but the meaning also. Here Beethoven is showing us what movement means philosophically across time — and how aging and changes in what we do and can do have an enormous impact on our lives. We all get older, and how we interact with the world evolves. Beethoven, too, was getting older. His hearing was almost — but not quite — gone by the time he wrote the Seventh Symphony. He was in the midst of a relationship with his “Immortal Beloved,” who was, he thought, perhaps his last chance for love and passion. Yet he was conflicted that he was dallying with this married woman. In fact, personal relationships were awkward for Beethoven throughout his life. He wondered what his future would be like, lonely and deaf — yet still filled with new musical ideas, still wanting to experience life to the fullest. To begin the Seventh Symphony, Beethoven once more uses the simplest of building blocks, starting his introduction to the first movement with chords, played together and then as a descending scale. Phrase by phrase, he adds a layer, a sense of melody, a unique musical fabric to carry the music forward into a full celebration of being alive, of dancing. This is music “gone wild,” of Beethoven letting his hair down, as we might say now. Carl Maria von Weber, upon hearing this opening movement, is supposed to have proclaimed that Beethoven was “ripe for the madhouse.” Today, we are more understanding. We can appreciate the composer’s willingness to provoke, to allow his Severance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 7

At a Glance Beethoven wrote his Seventh Symphony in 1811-12. He conducted the first performance on December 8, 1813, at a special concert at the University of Vienna. The score was published in 1816 with a dedication to Count Moritz von Fries, a Viennese nobleman and longtime patron. This symphony runs 3540 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored it for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. The Seventh was first played by The Cleveland Orchestra in April 1922.

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“Prometheus” chained and confronting his punishment, with an eagle as it attacks to devour his liver each day — drawing by the British artist Richard Cosway, circa 1795.

imagination to create music so vibrant and alive — and moving. The second movement brings a big contrast. He shifts to the key of E minor, the key of melancholy, stated with a chord in the woodwinds. And then a rhythm appears, quite the opposite of dancing and fun. Yet it is poignant and filled with emotion, and he builds it magnificently to a wondrous statement. The final two movements, again, offer contrast and difference. Here we are back to exuberance, filled with energy — here is the dance of life that Wagner heard in this music. Ultimately, I believe that we can look at this symphony, overall, as a philosophical statement, perhaps in a very telling way. We can tie this to a different part of the Prometheus myth, to the hero’s punishment, when he is chained to a rock and every day an eagle comes and eats part of his liver, causing great pain and loss. Yet each night, the liver is regenerated, so that Prometheus must endure the attack again, day after day. This is a metaphor for life, that things change, that each day consumes part of us and wears us down. But we also continue, we endure. And I believe there is some real essence of this in the Seventh Symphony, of good and bad, of celebration and dancing mixed together with the sadness and joys that life allows. We come to understanding through challenge and pain. Life is filled with emotional highs and lows — and each gives us perspective that the other cannot. The heartfelt joy of the Seventh Symphony’s last movement only works its magic because of what has transpired in the previous three movements. The energy that builds up is the joy of living captured in sound. —Franz Welser-Möst © 2018

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Symphony No. 7

The Cleveland Orchestra


HE ROES

AND

Trust yourself. Create the kind of self that you will be happy to live with all your life. Make the most of yourself by fanning the tiny, inner sparks of possibility into flames of achievement.

THINKE RS

The history of the world is none other than the progress of the consciousness of freedom. Georg W. F. Hegel (1770-1831)

Golda Meir (1898-1978)

We cannot seek achievement for ourselves and forget about progress and prosperity for our community. Our ambitions must be broad enough to include the aspirations of others, for their sake and for our own. Cesar Chavez (1927-1993)

Did you know that the human voice is the only pure instrument? That it has notes no other instrument has? It’s like being between the keys of a piano. The notes are there, you can sing them, but they can’t be found on any instrument. That’s like me. I live in between. I live in both worlds, the black world and the white world. Nina Simone (1933-2003)

Severance Hall 2017-18

Heroes and Thinkers

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BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Symphony No. 8 in F major, Opus 93 composed 1811-12 F O R M A N Y Y E A R S , Beethoven’s Eighth Symphony was

something of a puzzle to me. I found it the most difficult of his symphonies to really understand. I kept asking myself how to approach these four movements, which, at times, don’t quite seem to fit together? What was Beethoven thinking?! Within the past few years, however, during performances with The Cleveland Orchestra and as I studied his whole output again for The Prometheus Project, I believe I have finally started to gain some insight into this symphony. In part, Beethoven’s creative outlook had matured, and the juxtaposition of the differing movements was, I think, part of his plan. The Eighth is too often dismissed as one of the “less interesting, even-numbered” symphonies. This old notion ignores the music itself, however, and the breadth of contrast and forward-looking creativity written into this symphony. The musical writing is bigger and better — and more interesting and more complex — than many people realize on first hearing. In fact, this symphony is very much worth another look and listen. One aspect of the Eighth Symphony can be represented, or understood, through the German phrase “als ob,” meaning “as if.” Here, Beethoven was writing music in a different way, in part just to see how the music feels. He had matured to a kind of calm security with his own life, even toward accepting that his evolving deafness had not robbed him of understanding what his musical writing sounded like. He was sure enough of himself to experiment. Thus, important parts of this symphony are “as if” he is trying on something new, phrase by phrase, but not yet ready to claim each idea fully as his own. He’s reserving judgement — he doesn’t want the listener to know whether he is serious, or not. Yet he is deadly serious, and then wildly funny, almost at the same time. As I listen to this symphony, I hear phrasing that very much looks forward into the future. Here, Beethoven was wondering what might be next — not what would happen in his own life, but where his chosen art could go, how music might continue to evolve. There are phrases that sound, already, like music that Robert Schumann would write twenty years later. In a sense, this is an analogy to the myth of Prometheus — as an example through music, this is civilization developing forward Severance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 8

At a Glance Beethoven wrote his Eighth Symphony during 1811 and 1812, the largest part of it immediately upon finishing the Seventh Symphony during the summer of 1812, completing the new score in October 1812. Beethoven dedicated the score to Count Moritz von Fries. Despite increasing deafness, Beethoven conducted the first performance, at the Vienna Redoutensaal on February 27, 1814. This symphony runs about 25 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored it for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings

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from the initial spark of fire. This is music growing up and coming of age, reaching out its tendrils to find new directions in which to grow and expand. Without guidelines. The idea of “as if,” for me, makes it clear that Beethoven was just supposing, and of course offering a bit of joking fun, too. As a score, this is the shortest symphony that Beethoven wrote other than the First. The brevity, however, is not because he had less to say. Instead, he was working to condense and concentrate his writing, to distill each idea down to what is essential. (We see this tendency in so many composers as they matured, including Mahler, Sibelius, and Shostakovich, just to name three later symphonists of great importance.) In the Eighth, the first and last movements are both surprisingly fast in tempo, but for a reason. In the opening, Beethoven starts right off, without an introduction, and eventually invokes the musical spirit of the “Eroica” symphony, juxtaposing loud and soft passages and bringing everything together in a powerful climax. For the second movement, he skips the customary “slow movement” altogether. Instead, he incorporated music that he had recently written in homage to Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, the inventor

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Symphony No. 8

The Cleveland Orchestra


of the metronome. It is an obvious reference, and also a sly nod to changing times — quite literally, to different beats and an evolving world of invention. For the third movement, there is a minuet — something Haydn or Mozart did regularly, but which Beethoven hadn’t done since the First Symphony. Yet here he transforms a “normal” minuet into something much more seriously Romantic and mysterious, with a marvelous solo horn line to match. The last movement, in speed and dynamic range, is something of a continuation of the opening movement. The music drives forward almost without restraint, yet some odd surprises and interruptions “almost” happen — “as if.” But the music continues, with renewed momentum. Then Beethoven tosses in a rather over-sized coda section, which, despite its length and the energized starts and stops, is quite insistent in unfurling. There is a story that Beethoven, when asked why the Seventh Symphony was more popular than the Eighth, snapped back: “Because the Eighth is so much better.” It is, in fact, underrated and misunderstood. —Franz Welser-Möst © 2018

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Symphony No. 8

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HE ROES

AND

We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star in one of many, many galaxies. But we can understand the Universe. That makes us something very special. Stephen Hawking (1942-2018)

It is the artists of the world — the feelers and the thinkers — who will ultimately save us; who can articulate, educate, defy, insist, sing and shout the big dreams. Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990)

THINKE RS

Real knowledge is to know the extent of your ignorance. Confucius (551-479 B.C.)

It is often asserted that because woman has always been man’s slave — subject, inferior, dependent, under all forms of government and religion — slavery must be her normal condition. This might have some weight had not the vast majority of men also been enslaved for centuries to kings and popes, and orders of nobility, but who, in the progress of civilization, have reached complete equality. Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)

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Heroes and Thinkers

The Cleveland Orchestra


BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Four Overtures: Overture to the ballet, Opus 43 The Creatures of Prometheus composed 1800-01

Leonore Overture No. 3, Opus 72a composed 1806

Coriolan (Concert Overture), Opus 62 composed 1807

Overture to Egmont, Opus 84 composed 1809-10 AC RO S S H I S LI F E T I M E , Beethoven wrote a series of nearly a dozen overtures, some

as concert works, others for his only opera (Fidelio) or attached to incidental music for several dramatic stageworks. All of them are serious in subject matter. Most of them are related to Beethoven’s lifelong belief in the ultimate goodness of humanity — and the need both to “fight for Good” and for heroes to lead us forward by example or sacrifice. Beethoven’s earliest overture, from 1801, was part of a ballet score, titled The Creatures of Prometheus. The ballet’s storyline was directly related to Beethoven’s beliefs and to the central metaphor for this month’s Cleveland Orchestra festival. A hero (the demi-god Prometheus) defies authorities (the gods) to help humanity. Franz Welser-Möst believes that this philosophical outlook — of a hero fighting for justice — was central to Beethoven’s worldview and can be found embedded within much of his music. To Beethoven and Welser-Möst, music is rarely something merely pretty, or interesting, or amusing. Music can be those things, but, more importantly, it can be a call to arms, intellectually and spiritually. The festival’s concerts re-examine Beethoven’s symphonies viewed around the ideal of Promethean heroics, as well as four of the composer’s most dramatic overtures. Behind each storyline, the mythological Prometheus stands as metaphor, daring to help humanity. It may literally be Prometheus — stealing fire from the gods to spark civilization forward — in Beethoven’s only full-scale ballet score, or a different hero (Coriolan, Egmont, or Leonore) who makes a choice for Good and right, justice and freedom. This is music as philosophical messenger. P R O M E T H E U S : Beethoven wrote two ballets, a decade apart, during his early time

in Vienna. For the first, in 1791, his patron Count Leopold Waldstein paid the young Beethoven to write some music that Waldstein could pass off as his own. Ten years later, Beethoven had taken his rightful place at the center of Viennese musical life, and Severance Hall 2017-18

Four Overtures

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CLEVELAND May 10 Thursday VIENNA

May 24 Thursday TOKYO

June 2 Saturday Beethoven’s overture to the ballet The Creatures of Prometheus runs about 5 minutes in performance. The composer scored it for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings.

the ballet master at the Imperial Court, Salvatore Viganò, asked him for something new. Viganò had been appointed two years earlier, and was setting out to add new works to the repertoire by commissioning music for an original dance work each season. For the ballet, Viganò chose a storyline drawn upon the ancient myth of Prometheus, who advanced human evolution, civilization, and understanding. There are several storylines to the Prometheus myth: in one he literally breathes life into inanimate forms, while in another he steals fire from the gods and bestows this powerful gift to humanity, sparking the advancements in civilization that fire brings (cooking, manufacturing, heating, science, etc.). Beethoven’s music gave life to the ballet’s scenario — not unlike Prometheus breathing life into human form — providing dramatic action and revelation in Act One and plenty of celebration in Act Two. In the closing scene, Beethoven wrote a melody that he would reuse several times in later works, as a theme and variations for solo piano and as the dramatic fourth movement of his Third Symphony. (Scholars have traced back other tunes and motifs from Beethoven’s later work to moments in the ballet score; some of this was for meaningful purpose, while other moments may simply have been reappropriating a good tune for a new use.) Often excerpted in concert on its own, the Overture to The Creatures of Prometheus shows Beethoven’s early dramatic leanings and ability. As he would in so many works, he begins with chords, which quickly melt into a large, curving melody, followed by an agitated running figure in the strings. Woodwinds add commentary and flavor, with dramatic chords appearing against differing musical textures. And then, in an overture barely five minutes in length, Beethoven wraps everything up with fitting gusto. L E O N O R E N O. 3 : Beethoven wrote just one opera, spending

several difficult and challenging years creating it, revising it, and lovingly trying to perfect it. Fidelio is about a man wrongfully imprisoned, who is saved through the clever and daring efforts of his faithful wife, Leonore. The subject matter was close to Beethoven’s heart. The stage action mirrors his belief in freedom from political oppression and the boundless power of human love — as well as his ability to give musical voice to ideals of freedom, heroism, and the eternal striving for Goodness. “Fighting for Good” was not just a riveting storyline, but, Beethoven believed, integral to his life’s work as an artist. In the course of writing, producing, and revising the opera,

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Four Overtures

The Cleveland Orchestra


Beethoven wrote three versions of an overture for it, all now known as the “Leonore” overtures. (Beethoven had, in fact, wanted to call the opera Leonore, but was dissuaded from doing so in order to avoid confusion with an already existing opera by that same title.) Although the three were numbered upon publication, chemical testing of the manuscripts in the 20th century showed that they were actually written in the order 2-3-1. Thus, “No. 2” was first in 1805, and from this Beethoven expanded his musical ideas into “No. 3” the next year, only to narrow things again for “No. 1” three years later. Ultimately, however, Beethoven rejected them all. In performance, he came to understand that each of his “Leonore” Overtures was too big — that each so fully encapsulated the action (and emotional journey) of the opera into music that experiencing the opera itself became superfluous. In 1814, he wrote the much briefer and expectant Overture to Fidelio, which sets just the right mood, leaving the three “Leonore” Overtures as perfect and big-hearted material for symphonic concerts. (The once common practice of performing “Leonore” No. 3 in opera productions between the two scenes of Act Two, popularized but not begun by Gustav Mahler, has died off in recent years; there, too, the music overwhelms the action onstage.) Leonore No. 3 is the most-often performed, and the most fully developed, but all three follow a similar outline and deploy some of the same musical material. Beethoven begins with a repeated grand gesture of chords and ominous music, which gives way to a second set of dramatic chords and is then cleared away by a great sweeping melody. At a crucial moment, an off-stage trumpet silences the orchestra — previewing the way a trumpet call announces the governor’s arrival to grant pardons in the opera itself — leading on to closing music of great fanfare and rejoicing, of the triumph of good people over evil intentions.

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June 6 Wednesday Beethoven’s “Leonore” Overture No. 3 , one of four overtures he wrote for his opera, Fidelio, runs about 15 minutes in performance. The composer scored it for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, and strings.

CORIOL AN : Beethoven penned his concert overture Coriolan in 1807 in response to the hero portrayed in a contemporary play written by Heinrich Joseph von Collin (to whom Beethoven dedicated the overture). Collin’s play was itself a re-telling of Shakespeare’s Coriolanus. The storyline centers around a Roman general, Gaius Marcius, who saves the city of Corioli, thus gaining the honorary title Coriolanus. He then becomes embattled with Roman society’s expectations of what is right and wrong, honorable and disreputable. He is, in fact, a multi-sided hero, at first strong and successful, but later filled with venom and hatred at those who have turned against him. Such strong emotions and contrasts make good theater — and good music.

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Four Overtures

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CLEVELAND May 12 Saturday VIENNA

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June 5 Tuesday Beethoven’s concert overture Coriolan, inspired by a play by Heinrich von Collin, runs just under 10 minutes in performance. The composer scored it for woodwinds in pairs plus 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings.

In the play’s hero — alternately lionized and despised — Beethoven’s own beliefs in Goodness and character mirrored his own struggles against society’s expectations, and his fate-filled fight against deafness. Heroes must make choices, civilization must move forward. Onstage, Coriolan resolves his conflicting actions in response to his mother’s pleas to forgive the citizens arrayed against him. He relents, knowing that he will be killed for his misdeeds. The Overture begins with a series of dramatic chords across a harmonic progression, immediately unfolding into an agitated melody that keeps unrolling. Suddenly, there is calm and serene music. But this, too, is stabbed with chords of challenge and rumblings of timpani. Beethoven works through and develops this material, with an almost continuous sense of foreboding and energetic fighting. The opening chords return midway, as does the beautiful melody, briefly giving us a sense of safety. The hero’s stormy life continues, however, amidst bursts and stops, soundings and momentary calms. Eventually, the material gathers itself to the opening chords once more — and then angles downward to a quiet, subdued ending. This hero has split his life between good and bad, but fully accepts the outcome of his fateful choices. E G M O N T: Beethoven created his overture and incidental music to

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June 3 Sunday Beethoven’s Overture to Goethe’s play Egmont runs not quite 10 minutes in performance. The composer scored it for 2 flutes (second doubling piccolo), 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani,and strings.

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Wolfgang von Goethe’s play Egmont at the invitation of the German National Theater in Vienna in 1809-10. (Beethoven’s own First Symphony had been premiered at this same theater in 1800.) Goethe had completed the play in 1788, telling the story of a 16th-century Dutch hero, Count Egmont, who rallied the population and fought against Spanish subjugation of the Netherlands. Beethoven readily agreed to write incidental music for the play’s revival, with the subject matter so completely attuned to his own political beliefs in freedom and political justice. The Overture, often played by itself in the concert hall, is quintessential Beethoven. Grand chords begin a slow introduction filled with ominous portent. The chords are repeated along with slow melodic themes, before a sudden outburst of energy carries us rapidly forward in expectation and anticipation. The musical fight continues, in strong jabs and tuneful stirrings, building and developing not unlike one of Beethoven’s great symphonic movements. Eventually, a climactic and heroic tune calls forth in the brass, carrying the overture to a shining, triumphant finish. —Eric Sellen © 2018

Four Overtures

The Cleveland Orchestra


presents t

The Haunted Manor (Straszny Dwór)

by

Stanisław Moniuszko

This original production off The Cleveland Opera is ffully staged and costumed, sung in Polish with English translation projected.

Saturday, June 16, 2018 | 7:30 pm The Ohio Theatre, Playhouse Square | 1511 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland OH 44115 Tickets $25-$65 can be purchased through Playhouse Square box office at playhousesquare.org or by calling 216-241-6000 or 866-546-1353. 50% discount for children and students — use promo code MANOR The Haunted Manorr (Straszny dwór) an enemy; hence their oath never to marry. composed by the Polish composer Stanisław But, as they meet two lovely, extraordinary Moniuszko to the libretto by Jan Chęciński women, Hanna and Jadwiga, their brazen was premiered in 1865 in The Grand Opera in steadfastness is melted by the fire of their Warsaw. The opera combines a romance and hearts. Enhanced with magnificent choruses a comedy expressed through Polish dance- and ballet, and mingling comedy and pathos, style music. It is considered Moniuszko’s The Haunted Manorr is a brilliant example of best opera, and also the greatest among all opera semiseria. 19th-century Polish opera scores. For more information The story represents an idyllic call 216-816-1411 or visit view of life in a Polish country manor house thwarted by the theclevelandopera.org need of two young men, Stefan Manor house in Kalinowa, and Zbigniew, to defend their the probable original location for the setting of homeland against an invasion of The Haunted Manor.


HE ROES

AND

THINKE RS

Let us remember: One book, one pen, one child, and one teacher can change the world.

Prayer is not asking. It is a longing of the soul. It is daily admission of one’s weakness. It is better in prayer to have a heart without words than words without a heart.

Malala Yousafzai (b. 1997)

Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)

I feel about the airplane the same as I do in regard to fire. That is, I regret all the terrible damage caused, but I think it is good for the human race that we can fly. It is good that someone discovered how to start fires and that we have learned how to put fire to thousands of important uses.

Where globalization means, as it so often does, that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protest in the name of universal freedom. Nelson Mandela (1918-2013)

Orville Wright (1871-1948)

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Heroes and Thinkers

The Cleveland Orchestra


BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Grosse Fuge in B-flat major, Opus 133 composed 1825 B E E T H O V E N ’ S L AT E S T R I N G Q U A R T E T S are an extraordi-

nary set of masterpieces, in part because they are so enigmatic. Listening to each, we sense that there are layers of meaning behind the notes — that the music was intended to say more, to tell us and help us understand not just what Beethoven wanted to say musically, but how he viewed life itself. On his desk, Beethoven had a motto under glass, which he looked at each day as he sat down to work. The statement had come from the Greeks more than two thousand years before, as they studied Egyptian religion and spirituality. It was a saying that is supposed to have been inscribed on the temple of the goddess Isis: “Ich bin alles was ist, und was sein wird, und kein Sterblicher hat den Schleier von meinem Gesicht gehoben” [I am everything that is, and what shall be, and no mortal has lifted the veil from my face]. Across the centuries, this saying — and the goddess Isis herself — had come to symbolize the mysteries of Nature, to reflect the idea that some things in the natural world are unknowable. But in Beethoven’s time, as the Age of Enlightenment continued to blossom, scientists and philosophers and other great thinkers were coming to believe that the veil of mystery might in fact be lifted. They believed that humanity, by asking the right questions and searching in the right and logical way, could find the answers. Beethoven counted himself among these thinkers, who believed that civilization was headed toward a new understanding of the world, toward betterment, toward good. Like so many composers lucky enough to reach the later stages of life, Beethoven continued to expand his musical viewpoint, in part, by reducing it to the essentials, by working to eliminate anything extra in order to find the true essence of being. Beethoven looked at the ancient Egyptian motto on his desk every day — and in his own music, in his own way, he was trying to lift the veil, to understand and explain the world around him. In his later piano sonatas, and the Late Quartets, in the Missa Solemnis and the Ninth Symphony, he reached to expand the palette of what he had written before — in form and harmony, in the forces used to perform, and also in trying to complete the philosophical journey that he had started early on in his oeuvre. In preparation for these late works, he had devoted some Severance Hall 2017-18

Grosse Fuge, Opus 133

At a Glance Beethoven composed the Grosse Fuge as the last movement of his String Quartet in B-flat major (Opus 130) in 1825. It was first performed — with the preceding five movements of that quartet — on March 21, 1826. The publisher Artaria, however, requested a new finale for Opus 130, one that would be easier to perform. Beethoven wrote a new finale in November 1826. The Grande Fugue was published separately in May 1827. This work runs nearly 20 minutes in performance. Beethoven’s original scoring for string quartet is enlarged and augmented for string orchestra, including doubling of sections of the bass line by double basses. CLEVELAND

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time looking to the past, to music from earlier times, from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and the Baroque. This ongoing quest for knowledge and ideas prepared him to continue stretching his own approach and musical vocabulary. It did not matter if an idea was old or new. What mattered is that it was the right idea to convey what Beethoven needed to say at a given moment. The older he became, the bigger his tool set could be. But also, the more carefully he used it, focusing on the essence and the message within the music. I believe that we must take all of this into account when approaching Beethoven’s Late Quartets. There is something quite abstract about these masterpieces. Yet they also feel so very physical and substantial, so that playing them with four players at times doesn’t seem to be enough. Or, perhaps, it is better to say that performing them with a larger ensemble can, on occasion, help lift the veil on Beethoven’s worldview, giving us added insight. L I S T E N I N G T O T H E L AT E Q UA R T E T S

With his increasing hearing loss, Beethoven tried several different “ear trumpets.” They helped in the early stage, but eventually he came to rely on written conversations with guests.

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In many ways, Beethoven’s Late Quartets are pure philosophical ideas, even more than his symphonies. In fact, in a physical sense, none of them are real. They are just ideas, which only come to life in performance or, for musicians, when reading the score. So let us look at the score. What does all of this tell us about the Grosse Fuge, the “Grande Fugue,” which he wrote in 1825 as the final movement of his sixmovement Quartet in B-flat major (eventually published as Opus 130) — one of the five Late Quartets that he composed in the final two years of his life? Even more importantly, what do we learn from the fact that the Grosse Fuge so bewildered the few who heard it during Beethoven’s lifetime, and that he actually wrote a different final movement for that quartet, and let the Grosse Fuge stand on its own, enigmatically looking toward the future and to the past all at the same time? First of all, why did he write this movement as a fugue? In part, as he shifted from the Ninth Symphony and began these string quartets, he was narrowing his instrumental palette. And in every such reduction there is an enormous challenge. Yet such restrictions also, often, give new freedom and spark creativity. A fugue is the strictest form in classical music, and requires great discipline from a composer to create and carry out. Yet, here Beethoven combines it as just one element of a symphonic form. The fugue is just one movement, yes, but the movement Grosse Fuge, Opus 133

The Cleveland Orchestra


itself is divided up, with an introduction — which features what I call a “fate” theme — followed by the parts of a symphony: a slow movement, a scherzo (more or less), and then a fugue for the finale, which he then combines together with the fate theme almost as a kind of joyous dance. This is one of the most advanced and forward-looking pieces that Beethoven ever wrote. In a sense, he freed himself from normal forms and ideas to really look into the future. There are parts here that confused his contemporaries (of course!), because there are so many details that sound as if they could have been written in the 20th century. Yet he was looking back at the same time, to the fugue form and to the Ninth Symphony. In fact, much of this piece is related to the Ninth, which too often is seen as the last and biggest thing that Beethoven had to say musically. Yet, in his Late Quartets, and very much in whole sections of the Grosse Fuge, he is moving on and beyond. He is further refining and transforming the kind of ideas he pioneered in the Ninth. Remember the fugato in the last movement, before the glorious “Ode to Joy” ending with the entire chorus? In the Grosse Fuge, he distills that and clarifies the idea of a fugue further, and folds it almost in on itself. In this music, we find where he was headed after the Ninth — after summing up, in a grand symphony, the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, of German idealism, of nature and faith in nature, of Kantism, of religion, of Promethean heroics. In a way, the Grosse Fuge is another magnum opus. Here he tackles everything again, in a new and even more purified way. In this music, he is thinking ever more deeply. Here he was reaching almost beyond his own abilities, certainly beyond the understanding of most of his listeners. Two hundred years later, what can we find in this magnificent, enigmatic work? It is up to each of us, to listen and understand, to make our own choices — just as Prometheus did. It is up to each of us to recognize the power of this musical fire.

Beethoven on his deathbed, oil sketch by J. Dannhauser created at the composer’s apartment on March 28, 1827.

—Franz Welser-Möst © 2018

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Grosse Fuge, Opus 133

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HE ROES

AND

What is tolerance? It is the consequence of humanity. We are all formed of frailty and error; let us pardon reciprocally each other’s folly — that is the first law of Nature. Voltaire (1694-1778)

Nations will march toward the apex of their greatness at the same pace as their education. Nations will soar if their education soars; they will regress if it regresses. Nations will fall and sink in darkness if education is corrupted or completely abandoned.

THINKE RS

Sometimes we think that poverty is only being hungry, naked, and homeless. The poverty of being unwanted, unloved, and uncared for is the greatest poverty. We must start in our own homes to remedy this kind of poverty. Mother Teresa (1910-1997)

Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them, humanity cannot survive. Dalai Lama (b. 1935)

Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)

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BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Symphony No. 9 (“Choral”) in D minor, Opus 125 composed 1817-24 W H Y I S B E E T H O V E N ’ S N I N T H so popular? Is it just the

famous melody in the last movement that everyone can very simply sing along with and that has been used by so many for so many purposes? I don’t think so. This symphony is a high point in humanity coming to terms with being human. The political significance of the Ninth has never been in doubt. When Leonard Bernstein performed it in Berlin in 1989 after the Wall came down, for example, or when I had the honor of conducting Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony with the London Philharmonic in South Africa in 1994, after Nelson Mandela became the newly-elected President of that country. The chorus in Johannesburg consisted of people who up until then had been in conflict. It was a very moving moment in my life, and I will remember forever their expression of the desire that all society should grow together in a cultivated and civilized manner. But like any great work of art, to be fully understood, the Ninth Symphony has to be viewed as a product of its time. The ideas Beethoven embodied in the Ninth Symphony grew out of the philosophy of the Enlightenment and the political vision of the French Revolution, both of which made a profound impact on him as a young man. The work is also a reflection on religion — a humane form of Christianity in which the revolutionary ideal of fraternity is reconciled with the image of Christ as the “Brother.” (The Enlightenment placed humans in the center of all thinking, believing that reason and human thought could understand God’s Universe; whereas previously God Almighty had been alone at the center of understanding.) The Ninth also shows influences from Freemasonry, as well as parallels with the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a contemporary of Beethoven, in the way intellectual and religious ideas of separate origins are united and combined with one another. Friedrich Schiller, author of the text of the “Ode to Joy,” shared Beethoven’s ideals and was in every way a representative of the Enlightenment. Schiller called joy a “divine spark.” That spark is deep inside each of us — the knowledge that we all belong together, regardless of our differences. On one hand, we have a primal instinct to fight; yet on the other, we have just as great an innate need for harmony, for peace — a longing to come to an understanding with others. All this is addressed Severance Hall 2017-18

Symphony No. 9 (“Choral”)

At a Glance A theme from the Ninth Symphony appears in Beethoven’s sketchbooks as early as 1815, and there are some extended sketches from 1817-18. Beethoven did not begin concentrated work on the symphony until 1822, and completed the score in February 1824. It was first performed on May 7, 1824, at Vienna’s Kärtnertor. This symphony runs about 65 minutes in performance. Beethoven scored it for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, percussion (triangle, cymbals, and bass drum), and strings, plus a vocal quartet and 4-part chorus.

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May 17, 18, 19 VIENNA

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and articulated by Beethoven in a very direct and immediate way, through the text and through the music. Nearing the end of his life, Beethoven tried to encompass all of these theological, political, and philosophical ideas. Like its sister work, the Missa solemnis, which exceeded everything that had ever been said in sacred music, the Ninth Symphony brings together all that Beethoven believed and takes it to new expressive heights. MUSICAL SYMBOLISM

For every composer, keys can be understood as spiritual spaces of expression. Beethoven uses three tonalities prominently in the Ninth Symphony: D minor, B-flat major, and D major. From preceding generations of musicians, each key was accepted as having a meaning and purpose. Here, D minor stands for death, B-flat major for faith and hope, and D major for human victory and jubilation. The Ninth Symphony begins not in its stated key of D minor but a fifth above, in a whisper, as if the great question of human life were emerging from the primeval mist. The powerful, strict rhythms increase in dynamics to a fortissimo, as Beethoven wrestles with elementary questions that go to the core of human At the end of his existence. The second theme, which begins in B-flat major, centers on the interval of the perfect fourth, life, Beethoven tried which through the ages was seen as symbolic of Jesus to encompass many Christ. The theme’s ascent in this key is a reference theological, political, to Beethoven’s hope for humans at the time of the and philosophical Enlightenment. Symbolism of nature also has a place in the Ninth. ideas. The Ninth The first movement coda evokes, for a moment, a Symphony brings natural idyll in a rural setting: nature as the defining together all that principle of human thinking — a faith in nature that Beethoven believed Beethoven had earlier expressed in his Sixth Symphony, the “Pastoral.” Part of the first theme, which and extends it to exwas played powerfully and ominously by the entire pressive new heights. orchestra in D minor earlier, now returns in a soft and visionary form in D major, played by the horn (a symbol of nature). In the Trio section of the second-movement Scherzo, too, a nature idyll appears before our hearing eye; what is more, it anticipates the famous melody of the last movement, uniting the concepts of nature and liberty. The last movement begins with a piercing dissonance, combining the tonalities D minor (death) and B-flat major (hope), which have predominated until this point. When a human voice is first heard,

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Symphony No. 9 (“Choral”)

The Cleveland Orchestra


it warns us that we shouldn’t be concentrating on clashes and dissonances but rather on harmony, created through joy — through the joy of fraternal coexistence where everyone is equal. The melody of joy is followed by a quick march in B-flat major, a key we heard earlier in the symphony. Now, Beethoven shows us that hope and faith in these ideals will allow us to reach out for the stars. After this has been presented in the text by a tenor solo and the chorus, a fugato or fugue-like passage ensues, representing, just as a similar moment does in the Missa solemnis, the great internal and external struggle of humanity. Then, the entire chorus jubilantly sings the melody of joy, now in the march tempo. A grandiose double fugue develops this ode to joy, before Beethoven, once more, hints at the political dimension of the work. In the final section, reminiscent of the famous liberation duet from Beethoven’s opera Fidelio, Beethoven Beethoven’s Ninth uses all his strength to bring the religious, political, and philosophical dimensions together, supporting not only raises questions about humanity, the text with musical depth and breadth.

but offers answers as to how we can respond — based on the ideals of liberty, equality, fraternity, free thought, and a profound vision of human solidarity.

L I B E R T Y, E Q U A L I T Y, A N D J O Y

All of this, and more, is the reason why the Ninth Symphony moves us so much even today. It not only raises questions about humanity but also offers answers as to how we can, and perhaps should, respond — based on the ideals of liberty, equality, fraternity, free thought, and a profound vision of human solidarity. While the Ninth, with its text about freedom and brotherhood, is the easiest to “understand” of Beethoven’s nine symphonies, I hope that The Prometheus Project has helped us consider just how deep and how far those same messages run throughout so much of Beethoven’s music. He was writing music with a message. Let our ears listen, let our hearts sing that song, as we contemplate the many ways the world has changed — for good and bad — in the two centuries since Beethoven’s death. —Franz Welser-Möst © 2018

IN PERFECT HA R M O N Y SI N CE 1 98 8

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Symphony No. 9 (“Choral”)

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Symphony No. 9 (“Choral”) music by Ludwig van Beethoven texts adapted from An die Freude (“Ode to Joy”) by Friedrich Schiller BASS RECITATIVE (text by Beethoven)

O Freunde, nicht diese Töne! Sondern lasst uns angenehmere anstimmen, Und freudenvollere.

O friends, not these sounds! Let us sing more pleasant and more joyful ones instead.

BASS SOLO AND CHORUS (remainder of text by Schiller)

Freude, schöner Götterfunken, Tochter aus Elysium, Wir betreten feuertrunken, Himmlische, dein Heiligtum. Deine Zauber binden wieder Was die Mode streng geteilt, Alle Menschen werden Brüder Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.

Joy, beautiful divine spark, daughter from Paradise, We enter, drunk with fire, Heavenly One, into your sanctuary. Your magic reunites what daily life has rigorously kept apart, All men become brothers wherever your gentle wings abide.

SOLO QUARTET AND CHORUS

Wem der grosse Wurf gelungen, Eines Freundes Freund zu sein, Wer ein holdes Weib errungen, Mische seinen Jubel ein! Ja — wer auch nur eine Seele Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund! Und wer’s nie gekonnt, der stehle Weinend sich aus diesem Bund.

Anyone who has been greatly fortunate to be a true friend to a friend, each man who’s found a gracious wife, should rejoice with us! Yes, anyone who can claim but a single soul as his or her own in all the world! But anyone who has known none of this, must steal away, weeping, from our company.

Freude trinken alle Wesen An den Brüsten der Natur, Alle Guten, alle Bösen Folgen ihrer Rosenspur. Küsse gab sie uns und Reben, Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod, Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben, Und der Cherub steht vor Gott.

All beings drink of Joy at Nature’s breasts, all good creatures, all evil creatures follow her rosy path. She has given us kisses and vines, a friend loyal unto death, pleasure was given to the worm, and the angel stands before God.

TENOR SOLO AND MEN ’ S CHORUS

Tenor Happily as the sun flies across the sky’s magnificent expanse, hurry, brothers, along your path, joyfully, like a hero to the conquest.

Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen Durch des Himmels prächt’gen Plan, Laufet, Brüder, eure Bahn, Freudig, wie ein Held zum Siegen.

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Sung Text: Beethoven Ninth

The Cleveland Orchestra


CHORUS

Freude, schöner Götterfunken, Tochter aus Elysium, Wir betreten feuertrunken, Himmlische, dein Heiligtum. Deine Zauber binden wieder Was die Mode streng geteilt, Alle Menschen werden Brüder Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.

Joy, beautiful divine spark, daughter from Paradise, We enter, drunk with fire, Heavenly One, into your sanctuary. Your magic reunites what daily life has rigorously kept apart, All men become brothers wherever your gentle wings abide.

Seid umschlungen, Millionen! Diesen Kuss der ganzen Welt! Brüder — überm Sternenzelt Muss ein lieber Vater wohnen.

Be embraced, you millions! This kiss for the entire world! Brothers — beyond the starry canopy a loving Father must dwell.

CHORUS

Ihr stürzt nieder, Millionen? Ahnest du den Schöpfer, Welt? Such’ ihn überm Sternenzelt! Über Sternen muss er wohnen.

Do you fall to your knees, you millions? Do you sense the Creator, world? Seek Him above the starry canopy, beyond the stars he must dwell.

Freude, schöner Götterfunken, Tochter aus Elysium, Wir betreten feuertrunken, Himmlische, dein Heiligtum.

Joy, beautiful divine spark, daughter from Paradise, We enter, drunk with fire, Heavenly One, into your sanctuary.

Seid umschlungen, Millionen! Diesen Kuss der ganzen Welt!

Be embraced, you millions! This kiss for the whole world!

Ihr stürzt nieder, Millionen? Ahnest du den Schöpfer, Welt? Brüder — überm Sternenzelt Muss ein lieber Vater wohnen.

Do you fall to your knees, you millions? Do you sense the Creator, world? Brothers — beyond the starry canopy a loving Father must dwell.

SOLO QUARTET AND CHORUS

Freude, Tochter aus Elysium, Deine Zauber binden wieder Was die Mode streng geteilt, Alle Menschen werden Brüder Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.

Solo Joy, daughter of Elysium, Your magic reunites what daily life has rigorously kept apart, All men become brothers wherever your gentle wings abide.

Seid umschlungen, Millionen! Diesen Kuss der ganzen Welt! Brüder — überm Sternenzelt Muss ein lieber Vater wohnen. Freude, schöner Götterfunken, Tochter aus Elysium, Freude, schöner Götterfunken!

Be embraced, all people! This kiss for the whole world! Brothers — beyond the starry canopy a loving Father must dwell. Joy, beautiful divine spark! Daughter from Paradise! Joy, beautiful divine spark! (English translation by Eric Sellen)

Severance Hall 2017-18

Sung Text: Beethoven Ninth

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Erin Wall

Jennifer Johnston

Canadian soprano Erin Wall sings an extensive opera and concert repertoire spanning three centuries, from Mozart and Beethoven to Britten, Mahler, and Strauss and new works. She has sung leading roles with many of the world’s leading opera houses, including New York’s Metropolitan Opera, Italy’s Teatro alla Scala, Opéra National de Paris, Lyric Opera of Chicago, Santa Fe Opera, and the Vienna State Opera. She also appears in concert with major symphony orchestras throughout Canada and around the globe, and performs each year in recital. Ms. Wall’s training included studies at Western Washington University, Rice University, Music Academy of the West, and the Aspen Festival. She began her professional career in 2001 with the Ryan Opera Center at the Lyric Opera of Chicago. In recent seasons, Ms. Wall has sung Mahler’s Second, Fourth, and Eighth symphonies in twenty-five performances on five continents. Her discography includes Mahler’s Symphony No. 8 with the San Francisco Symphony, as well as Mozart’s Così fan tutte, Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9, and Britten’s War Requiem. She made her Cleveland Orchestra debut in 2016 singing Dvořák’s Stabat Mater. For more information, visit www.erinwall.com.

English mezzo-soprano Jennifer Johnston made her Cleveland Orchestra debut during the 2015-16 season, singing Mahler’s Third Symphony and Dvořák’s Stabat Mater. A former BBC New Generation Artist, she is a graduate of Cambridge University and the Royal College of Music and the recipient of many awards. Her operatic engagements have included performances with the Baltic Sea Festival, Bavarian State Opera, Beijing Festival, Festival d’Aix en Provence, Opera de Lille, Opera North, Salzburg Festival, Scottish Opera, and Teatro alla Scala in Milan. In concert, she has performed with major orchestras around the world, from Berlin and Vienna to Hong Kong, Cleveland, and Dallas. She has sung widely throughout Great Britain, including appearances at the Aldeburgh Festival, BBC Proms, and the London Song Festival. Noted for her interpretations of contemporary music, Ms. Johnston gave the world premieres of Anthony Payne’s orchestration of Vaughan Williams’s Four Last Songs and two song cycles by Cheryl Frances Hoad. Her discography can be found on BBC Music, Champs Hill Records, Naxos, Onyx, and Presto Classical. For more information, visit www.jenniferjohnstonmezzo.com.

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Soloists: Beethoven Ninth

The Cleveland Orchestra


Norbert Ernst

Dashon Burton

Austrian tenor Norbert Ernst has been an ensemble member of the Vienna State Opera since 2010. He studied in his native Vienna with Gerd Fussi at the Josef Matthias Hauer Conservatory and with Robert Holl and Charles Spencer at the University of Music and the Performing Arts. Mr. Ernst was a member of the German Opera on the Rhine, 2002-05, and has subsequently performed in works by Donizetti, Mozart, Strauss, and Wagner in opera productions with the Bavarian State Opera, Berlin State Opera, Grand Théâtre in Geneva, Gran Teatre del Liceu, Dutch National Opera, London’s Royal Opera House, Opéra de Monte Carlo, and the Opéra National de Paris. From 2004 through 2011, he was a permanent guest at the annual summer Bayreuth Festival. He has also appeared with the Cincinnati Opera, Opera Festival in Savonlinna, and at the Salzburg Festival. In recital, he has performed in Amsterdam, Berlin, Linz, Munich, New York, Paris, and Vienna. He made his Cleveland Orchestra debut in 2015 in Richard Strauss’s Daphne; he returned in May 2016 to sing Dvořák’s Stabat Mater. For more information, visit www. norbert-ernst.com.

American bass-baritone Dashon Burton made his Cleveland Orchestra debut in May 2005. He began his studies at Case Western Reserve University, graduated from the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music, and earned a master of music from Yale University’s Institute of Sacred Music in 2011. He has performed at the Bethlehem Bach Festival in Pennsylvania, Carmel Bach Festival, Cincinnati May Festival, and Spoleto USA Festival, and with the Charlotte Symphony, Copenhagen’s Le Concert Lorrain, Boston’s Handel & Haydn Society, Oratorio Society of New York, Philharmonia Baroque, and the Yale Schola Cantorum, among other ensembles. An advocate of new music, Mr. Burton has premiered works by William Brittelle and Edie Hill. He is a founding member of Roomful of Teeth, an ensemble devoted to new compositions and winner of the 2013 Grammy for Best Chamber Music/ Small Ensemble Performance. Mr. Burton received top prizes from the ARD International Music Competition and International Vocal Competition in the Netherlands, and the 2012 Oratorio Society of New York Competition. For more information, visit www.dashonburton.com.

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Soloists: Beethoven Ninth

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Lisa Wong Acting Director of Choruses Frances P. and Chester C. Bolton Endowed Chair The Cleveland Orchestra

Lisa Wong was appointed acting director of choruses for The Cleveland Orchestra with the start of the 2017-18 season. She had become assistant director of choruses for The Cleveland Orchestra in 2010. With the 2012-13 season, she took on the added position of director of the Cleveland Orchestra Youth Chorus. In addition to her duties at Severance Hall, Ms. Wong is an associate professor of music at the College of Wooster, where she conducts the Wooster Chorus and the Wooster Singers and teaches courses in conducting, choral literature, and music education. She previously taught in public and private schools in New York, Pennsylvania, and Indiana. Active as a clinician, guest conductor, and adjudicator, she serves as a music panelist for the National Endowment for the Arts. Recent accolades have included work at Kenyatta University in Nairobi, Kenya, as a part of Tunaweza Kimuziki, and as a conductor for “Conducting 21C: Musical Leadership for a New Century” in Stockholm, Sweden. Ms. Wong holds a bachelor’s degree in music education from West Chester University and master’s and doctoral degrees in choral conducting from Indiana University.

DEDICATION. HARD WORK. COMMITTED TO EXCELLENCE. Our passion for world-class performance underscores our proud support of The Cleveland Orchestra.

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Cleveland Orchestra Chorus

The Cleveland Orchestra


Cleveland Orchestra Chorus Lisa Wong, Acting Director

Daniel Singer, Acting Assistant Director Joela Jones, Principal Accompanist

The Cleveland Orchestra Chorus is one of the few professionally-trained, all-volunteer choruses sponsored by a major American orchestra. Founded at the request of George Szell in 1952 and following in the footsteps of a number of earlier community choruses, the Cleveland Orchestra Chorus has sung in hundreds of performances at home, at Carnegie Hall, and on tour, as well as in more than a dozen recordings. Its members hail from nearly fifty Cleveland-area communities and together contribute over 15,000 volunteer hours each year. BEETHOVEN’S NINTH SYMPHONY SOPRANOS

ALTOS

TENORS

BASSES

Lou Albertson BFC Amy F. Babinski Claudia Barriga Kimberly Brenstuhl Florence Brodowski Adriana Changet BFC Yu-Ching Ruby Chen Mary Grace Corrigan BFC Susan Cucuzza ♦ Karla Cummins BFC Anna K. Dendy Emily Engle Lisa Rubin Falkenberg ♦♦ Lisa Fedorovich Sarah Gaither Sarah Gould Sarah Grube BFC Rebecca S. Hall Lisa Hrusovsky ♦ Shannon R. Jakubczak Hope Klassen-Kay ♦ Kate Macy ♦♦ Jessica M. May Megan Meyer S. Mikhaila Noble-Pace Jennifer Heinert O’Leary ♦ Lenore M. Pershing Cassandra E. Rondinella Meghan Schatt Monica Schie ♦ Kay Tabor Megan Tettau BFC Jane Timmons-Mitchell ♦♦ Sharilee Walker ♦ Mary Wilson ♦ Constance D. Wolfe ♦

Alexandria Albainy ♦ Emily Austin ♦ Laura Avdey Debbie Bates Julie A. Cajigas Brianna Clifford Barbara J. Clugh Carolyn L. Dessin ♦ Marilyn Eppich ♦♦ Amanda Evans Diana Weber Gardner Ann Marie Hardulak ♦♦♦♦ Betty Huber ♦ Karen Hunt Sarah Hutchins Melissa Jolly Kate Klonowski Lucia Leszczuk ♦♦ Danielle S. McDonald Karla McMullen Clare Mitchell Peggy A. Norman ♦ Dawn Ostrowski Marta Perez-Stable Ina Stanek-Michaelis ♦ Rachel Thibo Martha Cochran Truby Gina L. Ventre Laure Wasserbauer ♦ Leah Wilson Debra Yasinow ♦♦ Lynne Leutenberg Yulish

Vincent L. Briley Gerry C. Burdick ♦♦ David Ciucevich Corey Hill 5 Daniel M. Katz ♦♦ Peter Kvidera ♦ Adam Landry Tod Lawrence ♦ Rohan Mandelia James Newby ♦♦ Ryan Pennington Matthew Rizer ♦ Ted Rodenborn John Sabol Lee Scantlebury ♦ James Storry ♦♦♦♦ Charles Tobias ♦♦ William Venable ♦ Michael J. Ward Allen White

Christopher Aldrich Craig Astler BFC Brian Bailey Jack Blazey Bryant M. Bush Sean Cahill Kevin Calavan Serhii Chebotar BFC Peter B. Clausen ♦ Nick Connavino Kyle Crowley Christopher Dewald Jeffrey Duber ♦ Matthew Englehart Richard Falkenberg ♦♦ Nicolas Gutierrez BFC Kurtis B. Hoffman Jason Howie Joshua Jones David Keller Jason Levy ♦ Scott Markov ♦ Tyler Mason Roger Mennell ♦♦ Robert Mitchell Stephen Mitchell Tom Moormann Keith Norman ♦♦♦ Tremaine Oatman ♦♦♦ Francisco X. Prado John Riehl ♦♦ Jarod Shamp Wiley Livingston Smith James B. Snell Stephen Stavnicky 5

Service Recognition ♦ 15-24 years ♦♦ 25-34 years ♦♦♦ 35-44 years ♦♦♦♦ 45+ years

5= Shari Bierman Singer Fellow

Carolyn Dessin, Chair, Cleveland Orchestra Chorus Operating Committee Jill Harbaugh, Manager of Choruses

Severance Hall 2017-18

Cleveland Orchestra Chorus

BFC = member of Blossom Festival Chorus

joining for these concerts at Severance Hall

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P H OTO BY M I C H A E L P O E H N

Franz Welser-Möst Music Director Kelvin Smith Family Endowed Chair The Cleveland Orchestra

Franz Welser-Möst is among today’s most distinguished conductors. The 2017-18 season marks his sixteenth year as music director of The Cleveland Orchestra, with the future of this acclaimed partnership extending into the next decade. The New York Times has declared Cleveland under Welser-Möst’s direction to be the “best American orchestra“ for its virtuosity, elegance of sound, variety of color, and chamber-like musical cohesion. The Cleveland Orchestra has been repeatedly praised for its innovative programming, support for new musical works, and for its renewed success in semi-staged and staged opera productions. Franz Welser-Möst and The Cleveland Orchestra are frequent guests at many prestigious concert halls and festivals around the world, including regular appearances in Vienna, New York, and Miami, and at the festivals of Salzburg and Lucerne. In the past decade, The Cleveland Orchestra has been hugely successSeverance Hall 2017-18

Music Director

ful in building up a new and, notably, younger audience through groundbreaking programs involving families, students, and universities. As a guest conductor, Mr. WelserMöst enjoys a close and productive relationship with the Vienna Philharmonic. His recent performances with the Philharmonic have included critically-acclaimed opera productions at the Salzburg Festival (Strauss’s Der Rosenkavalier in 2014, Beethoven’s Fidelio in 2015, Strauss’s Die Liebe der Danae in 2016, and Reimann’s Lear in 2017), as well as appearances at New York’s Carnegie Hall, at the Lucerne Festival, and in concert at La Scala Milan. He has conducted the Philharmonic’s celebrated annual New Year’s Day concert twice, viewed by millions worldwide. Last season, he led the Vienna Philharmonic in performances in Vienna and America, featuring three concerts at Carnegie Hall. He returns to the Salzburg Festival in 2018 for a new production of Strauss’s Salome. Mr. Welser-Möst also maintains relationships with a number of other European orchestras and opera companies. His 2017-18 schedule includes concerts with the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic, Zurich’s Tonhalle Orchestra, Orchestre de Paris, Leipzig Gewandhaus, Amsterdam’s Royal Concertgebouw, and Milan’s Filarmonica della Scala, as well as leading a gala with the Shanghai Grand Opera. From 2010 to 2014, Franz WelserMöst served as general music director of the Vienna State Opera. His partnership with the company included an acclaimed new production of Wagner’s Ring cycle and a series of critically-praised new pro-

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ductions, as well as performances of a wide range of other operas, particularly works by Wagner and Richard Strauss. Prior to his years with the Vienna State Opera, Mr. Welser-Möst led the Zurich Opera across a decade-long tenure, conducting more than forty new productions and culminating in three seasons as general music director (2005-08). Franz Welser-Möst’s recordings and videos have won major awards, including a Gramophone Award, Diapason d’Or, Japanese Record Academy Award, and two Grammy nominations. The recent Salzburg Festival production he conducted of Der Rosenkavalier was awarded with the Echo Klassik for “best opera recording.“ With The Cleveland Orchestra, his recordings include DVD recordings of live performances of five of Bruck-

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ner’s symphonies and a multi-DVD set of major works by Brahms, featuring Yefim Bronfman and Julia Fischer as soloists. A companion video recording of Brahms’s German Requiem was released in 2017. This past summer, Mr. Welser-Möst was awarded the 2017 Pro Arte Europapreis for his advocacy and achievements as a musical ambassador. Other honors and awards include the Vienna Philharmonic’s “Ring of Honor” for his longstanding personal and artistic relationship with the ensemble, as well as recognition from the Western Law Center for Disability Rights, honorary membership in the Vienna Singverein, appointment as an Academician of the European Academy of Yuste, a Decoration of Honor from the Republic of Austria, and the Kilenyi Medal from the Bruckner Society of America.

Music Director

The Cleveland Orchestra


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T H E

C L E V E L A N D

Franz Welser-Möst M U S I C D I R E C TO R

CELLOS Mark Kosower*

Kelvin Smith Family Chair

SECOND VIOLINS Stephen Rose * FIRST VIOLINS William Preucil CONCERTMASTER

Blossom-Lee Chair

Jung-Min Amy Lee ASSOCIATE CONCERTMASTER

Gretchen D. and Ward Smith Chair

Peter Otto FIRST ASSOCIATE CONCERTMASTER

Jessica Lee ASSISTANT CONCERTMASTER

Clara G. and George P. Bickford Chair

Takako Masame Paul and Lucille Jones Chair

Wei-Fang Gu Drs. Paul M. and Renate H. Duchesneau Chair

Kim Gomez Elizabeth and Leslie Kondorossy Chair

Chul-In Park Harriet T. and David L. Simon Chair

Miho Hashizume Theodore Rautenberg Chair

Jeanne Preucil Rose Dr. Larry J.B. and Barbara S. Robinson Chair

Alicia Koelz Oswald and Phyllis Lerner Gilroy Chair

Yu Yuan Patty and John Collinson Chair

Isabel Trautwein Trevor and Jennie Jones Chair

Mark Dumm Gladys B. Goetz Chair

Katherine Bormann Analisé Denise Kukelhan

Alfred M. and Clara T. Rankin Chair James and Donna Reid Chair

Bryan Dumm Muriel and Noah Butkin Chair

Eli Matthews 1 Patricia M. Kozerefski and Richard J. Bogomolny Chair

Sonja Braaten Molloy Carolyn Gadiel Warner Elayna Duitman Ioana Missits Jeffrey Zehngut Vladimir Deninzon Sae Shiragami Scott Weber Kathleen Collins Beth Woodside Emma Shook Dr. Jeanette Grasselli Brown and Dr. Glenn R. Brown Chair

Yun-Ting Lee Jiah Chung Chapdelaine VIOLAS Wesley Collins* Chaillé H. and Richard B. Tullis Chair 1

Charles M. and Janet G. Kimball Chair

Stanley Konopka 2 Mark Jackobs Jean Wall Bennett Chair

Arthur Klima Richard Waugh Lisa Boyko Richard and Nancy Sneed Chair

Lembi Veskimets The Morgan Sisters Chair

Eliesha Nelson Joanna Patterson Zakany Patrick Connolly

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The GAR Foundation Chair

Charles Bernard 2 Helen Weil Ross Chair

Emilio Llinás 2

Lynne Ramsey

Louis D. Beaumont Chair

Richard Weiss 1

The Musicians

Tanya Ell Thomas J. and Judith Fay Gruber Chair

Ralph Curry Brian Thornton William P. Blair III Chair

David Alan Harrell Martha Baldwin Dane Johansen Paul Kushious BASSES Maximilian Dimoff * Clarence T. Reinberger Chair

Kevin Switalski 2 Scott Haigh 1 Mary E. and F. Joseph Callahan Chair

Mark Atherton Thomas Sperl Henry Peyrebrune Charles Barr Memorial Chair

Charles Carleton Scott Dixon Derek Zadinsky HARP Trina Struble * Alice Chalifoux Chair This roster lists the fulltime members of The Cleveland Orchestra. The number and seating of musicians onstage varies depending on the piece being performed.

The Cleveland Orchestra


2O1 7-18

O R C H E S T R A FLUTES Joshua Smith * Elizabeth M. and William C. Treuhaft Chair

Saeran St. Christopher Marisela Sager 2 Austin B. and Ellen W. Chinn Chair

Mary Kay Fink PICCOLO Mary Kay Fink Anne M. and M. Roger Clapp Chair

OBOES Frank Rosenwein * Edith S. Taplin Chair

Corbin Stair Jeffrey Rathbun 2 Everett D. and Eugenia S. McCurdy Chair

Robert Walters

Samuel C. and Bernette K. Jaffe Chair

CLARINETS Afendi Yusuf * Robert Marcellus Chair

Robert Woolfrey Victoire G. and Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. Chair

Daniel McKelway

HORNS Michael Mayhew § Knight Foundation Chair

Jesse McCormick Robert B. Benyo Chair

Hans Clebsch Richard King Alan DeMattia TRUMPETS Michael Sachs * Robert and Eunice Podis Weiskopf Chair

Jack Sutte Lyle Steelman 2 James P. and Dolores D. Storer Chair

Michael Miller CORNETS Michael Sachs *

ENGLISH HORN Robert Walters

2

Robert R. and Vilma L. Kohn Chair

Yann Ghiro E-FLAT CLARINET Daniel McKelway Stanley L. and Eloise M. Morgan Chair

BASS CLARINET Yann Ghiro BASSOONS John Clouser * Louise Harkness Ingalls Chair

Gareth Thomas Barrick Stees 2 Sandra L. Haslinger Chair

Jonathan Sherwin CONTRABASSOON Jonathan Sherwin

Severance Hall 2017-18

CENTENNIAL SEASON

Mary Elizabeth and G. Robert Klein Chair

PERCUSSION Marc Damoulakis* Margaret Allen Ireland Chair

Donald Miller Tom Freer Thomas Sherwood KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS Joela Jones * Rudolf Serkin Chair

Carolyn Gadiel Warner Marjory and Marc L. Swartzbaugh Chair

LIBRARIANS Robert O’Brien Joe and Marlene Toot Chair

Donald Miller

Michael Miller

ENDOWED CHAIRS CURRENTLY UNOCCUPIED

TROMBONES Massimo La Rosa *

Sidney and Doris Dworkin Chair Sunshine Chair George Szell Memorial Chair

Gilbert W. and Louise I. Humphrey Chair

Richard Stout Alexander and Marianna C. McAfee Chair

Shachar Israel 2 BASS TROMBONE Thomas Klaber

* Principal § 1 2

Associate Principal First Assistant Principal Assistant Principal

EUPHONIUM AND BASS TRUMPET Richard Stout

CONDUCTORS Christoph von Dohnányi

TUBA Yasuhito Sugiyama*

Vinay Parameswaran

Nathalie C. Spence and Nathalie S. Boswell Chair

TIMPANI Paul Yancich * Otto G. and Corinne T. Voss Chair

MUSIC DIRECTOR LAUREATE ASSISTANT CONDUCTOR

Elizabeth Ring and William Gwinn Mather Chair

Lisa Wong ACTING DIRECTOR OF CHORUSES

Frances P. and Chester C. Bolton Chair

Tom Freer 2 Mr. and Mrs. Richard K. Smucker Chair

The Musicians

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CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA THE

December 1919, Grays Armory

From the Start

A Mission for Greatness in Community, Education, & Music by E R I C S E L L E N

A

2O1 7-18 CENTENNIAL SEASON

cclaimed for decades among the world’s top symphonic ensembles, The Cleveland Orchestra celebrates its 1OOth year during the 2017-18 season. Such fame and acclaim did not come without a plan. From the very beginning, the private citizens who created this public institution fully intended to foster a great musical ensemble that would carry the exceptional can-do spirit of the city of Cleveland far and wide. Generations have carried through on the hard work required to forge and sustain the Orchestra’s mission to share extraordinary musical experiences, to foster a love of music in students of all ages, and to proudly carry the name of the city it represents. The Early Decades: Creation, Growth, and the Construction of Severance Hall At the time the ensemble was created, in 1918, Cleveland was a rising industrial metropolis heavily involved in the steel industry and rivalling Detroit in car manufacturing. Rich magnates put the money together for the Orchestra’s early seasons, including John L. Severance, an acquaintance of John D. Rockefeller. Unusually for the era, a woman, Adella Prentiss Hughes, was the

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About the Orchestra

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guiding light behind the efforts to create a hometown band — and she worked tirelessly and with great political finesse to launch it on a trajectory toward being “as good as any orchestra in America.” Nikolai Sokoloff, the Orchestra’s first music director (1918-33), is often overlooked in light of his better-known suc-

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cessors. He was, however, certainly good enough to pull the group together and guide them forward for more than a decade. Those years saw the start of many education programs that continue today — the Orchestra has introduced more than 4 million young people to classical music across its first century — as well as extensive touring across the United States and to Cuba, and its first concerts at New York’s famed Carnegie Hall. Perhaps the biggest push in the early years came from John L. Severance when he donated money toward the ensemble’s permanent home concert hall, named to honor both Severance and his wife when it opened in 1931. Severance Hall was among the very first such buildings designed with radio broadcasting capability in its original schematics and quickly gave the musical ensemble a new sense of permanence, style, and purpose. Artur Rodzinski came next as music director (1933-43), injecting a new level of energy into the Orchestra’s music making. A gifted if mercurial leader, who may (or may not) have had a pistol strapped to him onstage when he conducted, Rodzinski had big ambitions and started out strong. For four seasons in the mid-1930s, the Orchestra’s season featured fully-staged opera productions at Severance Hall, with some of the day’s most-renowned stars, including Lotte Lehmann and Friedrich Schorr. However, the cost of presenting four or five operas each year, in the midst of the Depression, eventually forced their discontinuation. Rodzinski moved forward nevertheless, with recordings alongside new and rediscovered works. Finally, he left CleveThe Cleveland Orchestra


land to pursue his own career in the bigger cities of New York and, later, Chicago. For Erich Leinsdorf, the next music director (1943-46), timing was everything — and World War II largely precluded him from making much impact in Cleveland. Many of the ensemble’s musicians were on leave for military duty, and Leinsdorf himself was away part of the time for military service. Evenso, he made some solid recordings, led a variety of radio broadcasts, and re-affirmed his own bona fides for the high-powered international career he enjoyed in the ensuing decades. The Szell Era: Rise to International Fame George Szell, music director from 1946 until his death in 1970, took a credibly good orchestra and made it great. It’s not that he put The Cleveland Orchestra on the map, for it had been touring around the U.S. for years. It was more that he took the stage and insisted that Cleveland could be — in real fact, would become — as good

as any orchestra anywhere. His legendary standards focused 100 musicians toward a kind of peerless perfection that dazzled many ears. Just as a great restaurant grows its reputation through delivering consistent excellence, Szell was concerned with repeatability. Day in and day out, critics and audiences around the world could more and more count on The Cleveland Orchestra to deliver a great performance, everytime, anywhere. That predictability, coupled with the rise of audiophile home listening equipment (and stereo sound) turned Cleveland into a powerhouse in the recording studio, creating an outstanding catalog across the standard repertoire, many selections from which still hold their own as much as half a century later. The Orchestra’s ambitions also grew along with Szell’s tenure, touring internationally to amaze Europeans unaccustomed to such constant perfection in live performance. A ten-week tour in 1965 included a month in the Soviet Union, which became legendary among Cleveland’s musicians,

Education has long been a fundamental part of The Cleveland Orchestra’s programs each year, including teaching and coaching future musicians — such as these young students in 1929.

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About the Orchestra

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2O1 7-18

THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

CENTENNIAL SEASON

Second Century Celebration We are deeply grateful to the visionary philanthropy of the sponsors listed here who have given generously toward The Cleveland Orchestra’s 1OOth season in support of bringing to life a bold vision for an extraordinary Second Century — to inspire and transform lives through the power of music.

Presenting Sponsors

Leadership Sponsors Ruth McCormick Tankersley Charitable Trust

Sponsors

Calfee, Halter & Griswold LLP National Endowment for the Arts The Sherwin-Williams Company

Westfield Insurance KPMG LLP PwC

Global Media Sponsor

Series and Concert Sponsors We also extend thanks to our ongoing concert and series sponsors, who make each season of concerts possible: American Greetings Corporation BakerHostetler Buyers Products Company Dollar Bank Foundation Eaton Ernst & Young LLP Forest City Frantz Ward LLP The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company Great Lakes Brewing Company Hahn Loeser & Parks LLP Hyster-Yale Materials Handling, Inc. NACCO Industries, Inc. Jones Day KeyBank The Lincoln Electric Foundation Litigation Management, Inc. The Lubrizol Corporation Materion Corporation Medical Mutual MTD Products, Inc. North Coast Container Corp. Ohio Savings Bank Olympic Steel, Inc. Parker Hannifin Foundation PNC Bank Quality Electrodynamics (QED) RPM International Inc. The J. M. Smucker Company Squire Patton Boggs (US) LLP The Sherwin-Williams Company Thompson Hine LLP Tucker Ellis

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Second Century Century Sponsors Second

Severance HallOrchestra 2017-18 The Cleveland


staff, and board members for the Orchestra’s unflagging ability to put on a great performance for wildly enthusiastic audiences — even with circumstances of lessthan-optimal hotels, transportation, and backstage facilities. Despite his reputation, the steel-eyed taskmaster Szell was not entirely without emotion and understanding of those around him or of humanity as a collective society. Stories abound of small gestures of sympathy and understanding at fateful moments in the lives of longtime Orchestra musicians. And, having escaped in the 1930s from a Europe-turned-afoul, he was well-tuned to world politics and changing times — and to the need for public statements in times of crisis. Following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968, he led the Orchestra in a moving performance of the Funeral March from Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony, making a statement of solidarity and caring with the ongoing struggle for human justice. Planning and foresight by the Orchestra’s leadership also brought about increased performance opportunities. In 1968, the opening of the Orchestra’s parklike countryside summer home, Blossom Music Center, ensured the musicians of a year-round employment contract, further bonding them with their hometown audiences (who also lined up by the thousands at Blossom for rock-n-roll concerts by the era’s other big-name musical legends). Forging Ahead: Boulez and Maazel Upon Szell’s death, Pierre Boulez was appointed to an interim position as musical advisor for two seasons (1970-72). Boulez Severance Hall 2017-18

made his professional American debut with the Cleveland ensemble in 1965. His relationship as a friend and influence on the podium in Cleveland eventually extended to nearly half a century. He brought daring programming of new music along with new ideas to clear the accumulated earwax from old ways of listening to classics. His astute musical judgement and his extraordinary laser-like precision on the podium eventually won Cleveland five Grammy Awards. By example and with keen intellect and approach, he effortlessly encouraged the musicians across a widening spectrum of the repertoire. Lorin Maazel, the next music director (1972-82), stirred things up a bit for The Cleveland Orchestra. His high-energy leadership and fascinating programming, along with a compelling (if at times headstrong) conducting style also dared the musicians to make music in new ways. International touring continued, including the Cleveland’s first trips to South America and to Australia and New Zealand — with the Orchestra’s global reach becoming a true reality beyond its well-deserved reputation. The ensemble’s recordings also continued, with Maazel leading large swaths of the repertoire and helping the Orchestra pioneer digital recording. A New Golden Era: Dohnányi and a Restored Severance Hall Christoph von Dohnányi, the sixth music director (1982-2002), brought artistic leadership for a second “Golden Age,” as well as, finally, some critical distinction beyond being “the Orchestra that Szell built.” Dohnányi focused on both precision and

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warmth of sound, while presenting intriguing programming of standard works mixed together with lesser-known repertoire. Touring became an annual part of the Orchestra’s calendar, including regular residencies in Salzburg, performances throughout Europe, and first performances in China. These years also coincided with the final era of growth in commercial recording. The Cleveland Orchestra laid claim to being the “most-recorded orchestra in America” for nearly a decade, turning out album after album annually to wide acclaim and sales. In addition, Dohnányi revived the Orchestra’s operatic traditions, though mostly with in-concert presentations, and devoted his work to further polish and amalgamate the musicians’ gifted artistry and ensemblework. One of the greatest long-term achievements of Dohnányi’s tenure was the renovation and expansion of Severance Hall, which restored what many have called “America’s most beautiful concert hall” to visual interior splendor while simultaneously enhancing its famously clear and intimate acoustics. The work also restored the hall’s original 6,025-pipe concert organ, making it once again usable (from a new location within the hall) for the first time in half a century. Accelerando con moto: Welser-Möst and a New Century Franz Welser-Möst became The Cleveland Orchestra’s seventh music director in the autumn of 2002. His charge has been to carry the ensemble forward

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— first into the new millennium and now into the Orchestra’s own Second Century. His playbook has been to build on the best traditions of the past while steering clearly and with passionate directness to argue for music’s renewed relevance in a changing world. He has expanded repertoire while further honing the Orchestra’s flexibility for modern (and older) music. The Orchestra’s long operatic tradition has been augmented with the return of fullystaged opera productions to Severance Hall, including cutting-edge presentations filled with 21st-century technological know-how and wonder — all in service to telling the plotlines of challenging works in compelling ways and with superb casts. Welser-Möst has also led The Cleveland Orchestra in a series of acclaimed video and other recordings, further enlarging the ensemble’s storied recorded legacy. He has advocated for a renewed and extended focus aimed at serving the people of Cleveland, through expanded education offerings and a new diversity of programming and concert formats. Special ticketing programs offer free tickets for families to bring children with them to concerts, with a notable increase of younger people attending performances — with 20% of audiences now aged 25 and younger. In the past decade, the Orchestra has also extended its work as Cleveland’s ambassador to the world, regularly showcasing its extraordinary musicianship in music capitals and at festivals and in residencies across Europe and on tour in the

About the Orchestra

The Cleveland Orchestra


PHOTO BY ROGER MASTROIANNI

United States. With his contract extended to encompass a tenure of at least two decades, Welser-Möst continues to prepare The Cleveland Orchestra for its Second Century, serving the art of music and the people of its hometown earnestly and with the utmost dedication to harness the power of music to change lives and to inspire creativity and understanding. Tellingly, throughout the Orchestra’s history, there has been a strong tradition of leadership continuity, not just artistically (with only seven Music Directors in 100 years), but also in Presidents of the governing non-profit Board of Trustees (just twelve), and staff Executive Directors (only nine), providing a steady but focused progression of guidance propelling the Orchestra forward. Contrasted with the shifting sands at some other well-known ensembles, this unity of purpose and personnel has helped carry the Orchestra forward institutionally as a tireless agent for inspiring its hometown through great music. For, in truth, the Orchestra’s greatest strength remains the citizens of its hometown and the region surrounding Cleve-

land, whose forebears imagined such a world-famous orchestra could exist and then set about to make it happen. Individuals and corporations financed the Orchestra’s growth while insisting on excellence as the goal, not just musically, but in programs for educating and inspiring the city’s youth. That support continues today at uniquely high levels, boasting the greatest generosity of per capita donations for any major American orchestra. Thus, the extraordinary dream continues — marching The Cleveland Orchestra into a Second Century of achievement and success, arm in arm with the community whose name it carries.

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BEETHOVEN

Visualizing Beethoven . . . Students from Cleveland Institute of Art inspired by The Prometheus Project

What does music look like? That was the question posed to students at the Cleveland Institute of Art (CIA), in connection with The Cleveland Orchestra’s performances of Beethoven’s symphonies as part of this spring’s The Prometheus Project. Students in Kelsey Cretcher’s community projects class took up the challenge. As part of a course assignment, they were tasked with designing illustrations for one of the symphonies, based on their own feelings when listening to the music, in order to give them a sense of how their CIA studies might be applied in the real world of design and marketing. Two Orchestra staff members — Ilya Gidalevich (artistic administrator) and Brett Della Santina (manager, marketing and graphic design) visited the class to talk about the music and application of design. Class discussion points included: 1.) the use and development of illustration in a wide

variety of promotional and collateral materials for works and concerts, and 2.) the complications and creative challenges involved in working with musical pieces with — and without — a narrative storyline. One of the resulting student illustrations is shown here, and a series of them are being displayed at Severance Hall Beethoven concerts in May, in the Smith Lobby on the groundfloor.

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THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

“An Orchestra’s Ecstatic, Once-in-a-Lifetime Birthday Party” CLEVELAND — When I told people in the classical music world why I was traveling here for a few days, mouths tended to drop open. There were bursts of awe-struck laughter. There was jealousy. . . . Someone replied . . . ‘that’s my idea of heaven.’ This heaven, ascended toward by Franz WelserMöst and The Cleveland Orchestra as an exclamation point on its 100th anniversary celebrations, is simple enough to name: a performance of Olivier Messiaen’s Turangalîla-Symphonie on Wednesday evening, followed on Thursday by Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde. What might seem straightforward was actually extraordinary — even, perhaps, unprecedented. There are a lot of great, ambitious orchestras in the world; I don’t know another that would have gone for what the Clevelanders did this week. Tristan and Isolde is a nearly four-hour score of immense complexity that is not, to say the least, what a symphony orchestra pulls out every season. (The Cleveland Orchestra hadn’t done it whole since 1933.) Yet in the midst of a run of concert performances of the opera, this ensemble plopped a single go at Turangalîla, all 80 steroidally scored minutes of it. Inspired by the Tristan legend, Messiaen’s riotous celebration of love is a loopy, visionary kind-of concerto for piano and the whistling ondes martenot: think of a Chagall painting in sound. It usually requires nearly a week of dedicated preparation and a series of performances to justify the effort. Throwing together just one night of it — and bringing in soloists on the level of the star pianist Jean-Yves Thibaudet and the ondes master Cynthia Millar — is a little like building a five-star French restaurant for a single dinner service. It’s one way to define orchestral luxury. To program it alongside Wagner’s opera, though, as part of a festival dubbed “The Ecstasy of Tristan and Isolde,” is not luxurious as much as slightly insane. The reason this plan made it . . . into viable — indeed, beautiful — life? This is The Cleveland Orchestra, the culture of which may be understated but which knows precisely what it’s capable of. . . . Many ensembles would have done the Prelude and Liebestod from Wagner’s opera — or maybe, like the Boston Symphony Orchestra recently, an excerpted act. A few would have done a complete Tristan and Isolde alone. Maybe one or two would have added a bonus performance of a suite from Prokofiev’s Romeo and Juliet. . . . But even before a season-ending Beethoven cycle that will tour to Vienna and Tokyo, Cleveland proved its mettle, yet again, by going above and beyond. Oh, and did I mention that Saturday [April 28] brings a dive into sacred love, with 16th-century brass pieces, contemporary choral works, a Bach cantata and solo-organ fantasias? That’s the evening before the final Tristan and Isolde matinee. Just another weekend in the life of America’s most understatedly amazing orchestra.” —Zachary Woolfe excerpted from: New York Times, April 27, 2018

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THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

Gourmet Matinees set for Blossom’s 2018 special 50th anniversary summer

THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

H A I L A N D FA R E W E L L Thomas Klaber retires from The Cleveland Orchestra at the end of the 2017-18 season, following 33 years as the ensemble’s bass trombone player. Born in Kentucky, Tom began playing the euphonium at age 9. At 13, he started lessons with Betty Glover, who was the bass trombonist with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. At age 18, he switched to bass trombone, and in 1980 he won a position with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. He joined The Cleveland Orchestra in 1985, succeeding Edwin Anderson. Mr. Klaber also performed as principal euphonium with the Blossom Festival Band for over a decade, beginning in 2001. The entire Cleveland Orchestra family thanks him for his years of musicianship and service, and extends best wishes for the years ahead.

Blossom’s Gourmet Matinee series returns in 2018 with three delightful and insightful daytime programs. The long-running series of meet-the-artist luncheons, presented by the volunteers of the Blossom Friends of The Cleveland Orchestra, showcases the individual stories and artistry of musicians involved with the Orchestra’s annual Blossom Music Festival. Each event features a lively discussion session with a musician or small ensemble, and usually includes a musical performance. Lunch is included, reservations are required ($50 per program, or $135 for all three). Presented at Knight Grove on the Blossom Music Center grounds. The 2018 dates are on three Mondays: June 25, July 30, and August 20. The June date features members of the Cleveland Orchestra Youth Orchestra. For more information or to make reservations, email Peggy Krinsky at krinsky212@gmail.com.

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THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

Summer Musical Offerings . . . Orchestra performs at Severance Hall, Blossom, and downtown

Annual free downtown concert celebrates 1OOth Birthday: July 6

2O18 summer season celebrates Blossom’s 5Oth Anniversary

The Cleveland Orchestra returns to downtown Cleveland this year on Friday, July 6, on Mall B. The event marks the Orchestra’s 29th annual free downtown community concert and is the official celebration of the Orchestra’s 1OOth birthday in 2018. Brought to you by Cuyahoga Arts & Culture, this summer’s “Star-Spangled Spectacular” will be conducted by music director Franz Welser-Möst and is sponsored by KeyBank. Musical selections include works by Wagner, Rossini, and Johann Strauss, as well as pieces by Copland and John Philip Sousa, plus Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture. Complete details are being announced this spring and will be available online at clevelandorchestra.com.

Blossom Music Center marks its 50th anniversary in 2018, and The Cleveland Orchestra is planning a special season and summer-long celebration at its summer home. For this milestone year, the annual Festival is presented by The J.M. Smucker Company, with BLOSSOM special 5Oth Anniversary CelM U S I C F E S T I VA L ebration events sponsored by The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. Highlights include a season-opening concert YEARS 1968- 2O18 led by Franz Welser-Möst, a special presentation (July 8) of Roger Daltrey Performs The Who’s “Tommy” with The Cleveland Orchestra, as well as three movie showings featuring the Orchestra performing the complete score soundtracks for each film, plus the traditional Fourth-of-July band concerts led by Loras John Schissel (July 3 and 4). The summer’s special Blossom 50th Anniversary Celebrations include a special Benefit Evening: A Symphony of Food & Wine on Friday, July 13, presented by Blossom Friends of The Cleveland Orchestra and featuring dinner onstage in the Pavilion with a wine auction and performance by members of the Orchestra. Honorary Chairs for the benefit evening are Peter Van Dijk, who designed the music center’s award-winning Pavilion, and his wife, Bobbi. Since it opened in 1968, Blossom Music Center has become one of our nation’s premier outdoor performing spaces for music of all genres, drawing more than 400,000 visitors each summer, with cumulative attendance of more than 20 million in Blossom’s 50-year history. Blossom Music Center was created as the summer home of The Cleveland Orchestra and opened in July 1968 with performances of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony conducted by George Szell. Festival tickets go on sale Tuesday, May 1. For complete details, visit clevelandorchestra.com.

Summers@Severance offers three Friday musical evenings The Cleveland Orchestra’s fifth year of Summers@Severance in 2018 offers three Friday night concerts. This popular summer series offers a unique, enjoyable atmosphere to hear the Orchestra and socialize with friends and family in the beauty of University Circle surrounding Severance Hall. The series is sponsored by Thompson Hine LLP and for 2018 takes place on July 27, August 10, and August 24, featuring a range of music from Brahms and Bartók, to Haydn and Mozart. Series tickets (all three concerts as a package) are now on sale through the Severance Hall Ticket Office or online. Individual concert tickets go on sale beginning Tuesday, May 1, 2018, in person or online at clevelandorchestra.com. Severance Hall 2017-18

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Musicians Emeritus of T H E

C L E V E L A N D R E T I R E D

O R C H E S T R A

M U S I C I A N S

Listed here are the living members of The Cleveland Orchestra who served more than twenty years, all of whom now carry the honorary title of Emeritus. Appointed by and playing under four music directors, these 44 musicians collectively completed a total of 1549 years of playing in The Cleveland Orchestra — representing the ensemble’s ongoing service to music and to the greater Northeast Ohio community. Listed by instrument section and within each by retirement year, followed by years of service. FIRST VIOLIN Keiko Furiyoshi 2005 — 34 years Alvaro de Granda 2 2006 — 40 years Erich Eichhorn 2008 — 41 years Boris Chusid 2008 — 34 years Gary Tishkoff 2009 — 43 years Lev Polyakin 2 2012 — 31 years Yoko Moore 2 2016 — 34 years SECOND VIOLIN Richard Voldrich 2001 — 34 years Stephen Majeske * 2001 — 22 years Judy Berman 2008 — 27 years Vaclav Benkovic 2009 — 34 years Stephen Warner 2016 — 37 years VIOLA Lucien Joel 2000 — 31 years Yarden Faden 2006 — 40 years Robert Vernon * 2016 — 40 years CELLO Martin Simon 1995 — 48 years Diane Mather 2 2001 — 38 years Stephen Geber * 2003 — 30 years Harvey Wolfe 2004 — 37 years Catharina Meints 2006 — 35 years Thomas Mansbacher 2014 — 37 years BASS Harry Barnoff 1997 — 45 years Thomas Sepulveda 2001 — 30 years Martin Flowerman 2011 — 44 years HARP Lisa Wellbaum * 2007 — 33 years

FLUTE/PICCOLO John Rautenberg § 2005 — 44 years Martha Aarons 2 2006 — 25 years OBOE Robert Zupnik 2 1977 — 31 years Elizabeth Camus 2011 — 32 years CLARINET Theodore Johnson 1995 — 36 years Franklin Cohen * 2015 — 39 years Linnea Nereim 2016 — 31 years BASSOON Ronald Phillips 2 2001 — 38 years Phillip Austin 2011 — 30 years HORN Myron Bloom * 1977 — 23 years Richard Solis * 2012 — 41 years TRUMPET/CORNET Charles Couch 2 2002 — 30 years James Darling 2 2005 — 32 years TROMBONE Edwin Anderson 1985 — 21 years Allen Kofsky 2000 — 39 years James De Sano * 2003 — 33 years PERCUSSION Joseph Adato 2006 — 44 years Richard Weiner * 2011 — 48 years LIBRARIAN Ronald Whitaker * 2008 — 33 years

* Principal Emeritus § 1 2

Associate Principal Emeritus First Assistant Principal Emeritus Assistant Principal Emeritus

listing as of January 2018

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Appreciation

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THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

M . U . S . I .C . I . A . N S . A . L . U .T. E

The Musical Arts Association gratefully acknowledges the artistry and dedication of all the musicians of The Cleveland Orchestra. In addition to rehearsals and concerts throughout the year, many musicians donate performance time in support of community engagement, fundraising, education, and audience development activities. We are pleased to recognize these musicians, listed below, who volunteered for such events and presentations during the 2016-17 season. Mark Atherton Martha Baldwin Charles Bernard Katherine Bormann Lisa Boyko Charles Carleton Hans Clebsch John Clouser Kathleen Collins Ralph Curry Marc Damoulakis Alan DeMattia Vladimir Deninzon Scott Dixon Elayna Duitman Bryan Dumm Mark Dumm Tanya Ell Kim Gomez Wei-Fang Gu Scott Haigh David Alan Harrell Miho Hashizume Shachar Israel Mark Jackobs Dane Johansen Joela Jones Richard King Thomas Klaber Alicia Koelz Stanley Konopka Mark Kosower Analisé Kukelhan Paul Kushious Jung-Min Amy Lee Yun-Ting Lee Emilio Llinás

Takako Masame Eli Matthews Jesse McCormick Daniel McKelway Donald Miller Michael Miller Robert O’Brien Peter Otto Chul-In Park Joanna Patterson Zakany William Preucil Lynne Ramsey Jeffrey Rathbun Frank Rosenwein Marisela Sager Jonathan Sherwin Thomas Sherwood Emma Shook Joshua Smith Saeran St. Christopher Corbin Stair Lyle Steelman Richard Stout Yasuhito Sugiyama Jack Sutte Kevin Switalski Gareth Thomas Brian Thornton Isabel Trautwein Robert Walters Carolyn Gadiel Warner Scott Weber Richard Weiss Robert Woolfrey Derek Zadinsky Jeffrey Zehngut

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Special thanks to musicians for supporting the Orchestra’s long-term financial strength The Board of Trustees extends a special acknowledgement to the members of The Cleveland Orchestra for supporting the institution’s programs by jointly volunteering their musical services for several concerts each season. These donated services have long played an important role in supporting the institution’s financial strength, and were expanded with the 2009-10 season to provide added opportunities for new and ongoing revenuegenerating performances by The Cleveland Orchestra. “We are especially grateful to the members of The Cleveland Orchestra for this ongoing and meaningful investment in the future of the institution,” says André Gremillet, executive director. “These donated services each year make a measureable difference to the Orchestra’s overall financial strength, by ensuring our ability to take advantage of opportunities to maximize performance revenue. They allow us to offer more musical inspiration to audiences around the world than would otherwise be possible, supporting the Orchestra’s vital role in enhancing the lives of everyone across Northeast Ohio.”

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THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

Individual Annual Support The Cleveland Orchestra is sustained through the annual support of thousands of generous patrons. The leadership of those listed on these pages (with gifts of $2,000 and more) shows an extraordinary depth of support for the Orchestra’s music-making, education presentations, and community initiatives.

Giving Societies gifts during the year prior to July 1, 2017 Adella Prentiss Hughes Society

gifts of $50,000 to $99,999

gifts of $100,000 and more Musicians of The Cleveland Orchestra+ (in-kind support for community programs and opportunities to secure new funding) Mr. Richard J. Bogomolny and Ms. Patricia M. Kozerefski+ Dr. and Mrs. Hiroyuki Fujita+ Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Horvitz+ James D. Ireland IV The Walter and Jean Kalberer Foundation+ Dr. and Mrs. Herbert Kloiber (Europe) Mr. and Mrs. Dennis W. LaBarre+ Mrs. Norma Lerner and The Lerner Foundation+ Mrs. Emma S. Lincoln+ Milton and Tamar Maltz John C. Morley+ Mr. Patrick Park (Miami) Mr. and Mrs. Albert B. Ratner James and Donna Reid Mr. and Mrs. Richard K. Smucker+ Mr. and Mrs. Franz Welser-Möst+

With special thanks to the Leadership Patron Committee for their commitment to each year’s annual support initiatives: Barbara Robinson, chair Robert N. Gudbranson, vice chair Ronald H. Bell Iris Harvie James T. Dakin Faye A. Heston Karen E. Dakin Brinton L. Hyde Henry C. Doll David C. Lamb Judy Ernest Larry J. Santon Nicki N. Gudbranson Raymond T. Sawyer Jack Harley

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George Szell Society

Mr. William P. Blair III+ Blossom Friends of The Cleveland Orchestra The Brown and Kunze Foundation Jeanette Grasselli Brown and Glenn R. Brown+ Mr. and Mrs. Alexander M. Cutler+ Mrs. John A Hadden Jr. T. K. and Faye A. Heston Mr. and Mrs. Donald M. Jack, Jr. Elizabeth B. Juliano Giuliana C. and John D. Koch+ Toby Devan Lewis Virginia M. and Jon A. Lindseth Mr. and Mrs. Alex Machaskee+ Ms. Nancy W. McCann+ Ms. Beth E. Mooney+ Rosanne and Gary Oatey (Cleveland, Miami)+ The Honorable and Mrs. John Doyle Ong+ Mr. and Mrs. Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. Mrs. Alfred M. Rankin, Sr. Charles and Ilana Horowitz Ratner+ Barbara S. Robinson (Cleveland, Miami)+ Sally and Larry Sears+ Mary M. Spencer (Miami)+ Mrs. Jean H. Taber* Barbara and David Wolfort (Cleveland, Miami)+

+ Multiyear Pledges Multiyear pledges support the Orchestra’s artistry while helping to ensure a sustained level of funding. We salute those extraordinary donors who have signed pledge commitments to continue their annual giving for three years or more. These donors are recognized with this symbol next to their name: +

Individual Annual Annual Support Individual

The Cleveland Orchestra


Elisabeth DeWitt Severance Society

Dudley S. Blossom Society gifts of $15,000 to $24,999

gifts of $25,000 to $49,999 Mr. and Mrs. William W. Baker Dr. and Mrs. Wolfgang Berndt (Europe) Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Bolton+ Mr. Yuval Brisker Mary Alice Cannon Mr. and Mrs. David J. Carpenter+ Jill and Paul Clark Robert and Jean* Conrad+ Judith and George W. Diehl George* and Becky Dunn Friends of The Cleveland Orchestra (formerly the Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Committee of The Cleveland Orchestra) JoAnn and Robert Glick+ Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey Gund Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Healy+ Mary and Jon Heider (Cleveland, Miami) Mrs. Marguerite B. Humphrey+ Junior Committee of The Cleveland Orchestra Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Keithley Mr. and Mrs. Douglas A. Kern Milton A. and Charlotte R. Kramer Charitable Foundation Margaret Fulton-Mueller+ Mrs. Jane B. Nord William J. and Katherine T. Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Neill Julia and Larry Pollock+ Mr. and Mrs. James A. Ratner Marc and Rennie Saltzberg Larry J. Santon and Lorraine S. Szabo+ The Ralph and Luci Schey Foundation+ Hewitt and Paula Shaw Richard and Nancy Sneed+ Jim and Myrna Spira R. Thomas and Meg Harris Stanton+ Ms. Ginger Warner (Cleveland, Miami) Anonymous (2)

Listings of all donors of $300 and more each year are published annually, and can be viewed online at CLEVELANDORCHESTRA . COM

Gay Cull Addicott+ Randall and Virginia Barbato Dr. Christopher P. Brandt and Dr. Beth Sersig+ Dr. Ben H. and Julia Brouhard Irad and Rebecca Carmi Mr. and Mrs. William E. Conway Mrs. Barbara Cook Mary Jo Eaton (Miami) Dr. and Mrs. Robert Ehrlich (Europe) Mr. Allen H. Ford Ms. Dawn M. Full Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Gillespie Richard and Ann Gridley+ Robert K. Gudbranson and Joon-Li Kim+ Kathleen E. Hancock Sondra and Steve Hardis Jack Harley and Judy Ernest David and Nancy Hooker+ Joan and Leonard Horvitz Richard and Erica Horvitz (Cleveland, Miami) Allan V. Johnson Jonathan and Tina Kislak (Miami) Mr. Jeff Litwiller+ Mr. and Mrs. Thomas B. McGowan Mr. Thomas F. McKee Mr. and Mrs. Stanley A. Meisel The Miller Family+ Sydell Miller Lauren and Steve Spilman Stacie and Jeff Halpern Edith and Ted* Miller+ Mr. Donald W. Morrison+ Dr. Anne and Mr. Peter Neff Mr. and Mrs. James A. Saks Rachel R. Schneider+ Mrs. David Seidenfeld+ Kim Sherwin+ William* and Marjorie B. Shorrock+ Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Umdasch (Europe) Tom and Shirley Waltermire+ Mr. and Mrs. Fred A. Watkins+ Mr. and Mrs. Jeffery J. Weaver Meredith and Michael Weil Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey M. Weiss Paul and Suzanne Westlake listings continue

The Cleveland Severance HallOrchestra 2017-18

Individual Individual Annual Annual Support Support

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Frank H. Ginn Society gifts of $10,000 to $14,999 Mr. and Mrs. Dean Barry Laurel Blossom Irma and Norman Braman (Miami)+ Mr. D. McGregor Brandt, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Brown J. C. and Helen Rankin Butler+ Richard J. and Joanne Clark Mrs. Barbara Ann Davis+ Dr. M. Meredith Dobyns Henry and Mary* Doll+ Nancy and Richard Dotson+ Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Duvin Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd H. Ellis Jr. Mr. Brian L. Ewart and Mr. William McHenry Carl Falb+ Bob and Linnet Fritz Albert I. and Norma C. Geller Dr. Edward S. Godleski Patti Gordon (Miami) Amy and Stephen Hoffman

Thomas H. and Virginia J.* Horner Fund+ James and Claudia Hower Mrs. Elizabeth R. Koch Stewart and Donna Kohl Dr. David and Janice Leshner Don H. McClung Joy P. and Thomas G. Murdough, Jr. (Miami)+ Brian and Cindy Murphy+ Mr. Raymond M. Murphy+ Mr. J. William and Dr. Suzanne Palmer Douglas and Noreen Powers Audra* and George Rose+ Paul A. and Anastacia L. Rose Steven and Ellen Ross Mr. and Mrs. David A. Ruckman Dr. Isobel Rutherford Dr. and Mrs.* Martin I. Saltzman+ David M. and Betty Schneider Carol* and Albert Schupp Mr. and Mrs. Oliver E. Seikel

Seven Five Fund Mrs. Gretchen D. Smith+ The Stair Family Charitable Foundation, Inc. Lois and Tom Stauffer Mr. and Mrs. Jonathan M. Steingass Bruce and Virginia Taylor+ Mr. Joseph F. Tetlak Rick, Margarita, and Steven Tonkinson (Miami)+ Gary L. Wasserman and Charles A. Kashner (Miami) Pysht Fund The Denise G. and Norman E. Wells, Jr. Family Foundation+ Robert C. Weppler Sandy and Ted Wiese Sandy Wile and Joanne Avenmarg Tony and Diane Wynshaw-Boris+ Max and Beverly Zupon Anonymous (4)

The 1929 Society gifts of $5,000 to $9,999 Robert and Alyssa Lenhoff-Briggs Dr. and Mrs. D. P. Agamanolis Susan S. Angell Mr. William App William Appert and Christopher Wallace (Miami) Robert and Dalia Baker Fred G. and Mary W. Behm Mr. and Mrs. Jules Belkin Daniel and Trish Bell (Miami) Mr. William Berger Howard Bernick and Judy Bronfman Mr. David Bialosky and Ms. Carolyn Christian+ Suzanne and Jim Blaser Robert and Alyssa Lenhoff-Briggs Dr.* and Mrs. Jerald S. Brodkey Frank and Leslie Buck+ Ms. Maria Cashy+ Drs. Wuu-Shung and Amy Chuang+ Ellen E. & Victor J. Cohn+ Kathleen A. Coleman+ Diane Lynn Collier and Robert J. Gura+ Marjorie Dickard Comella The Sam J. Frankino Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Matthew V. Crawford Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Daugstrup Mr. and Mrs. Thomas S. Davis Pete and Margaret Dobbins+ Carl Dodge Mr. and Mrs. Paul Doman Mary and Oliver* Emerson Dr. D. Roy and Diane A. Ferguson William R. and Karen W. Feth+

116

Joseph Z. and Betty Fleming (Miami) Scott A. Foerster Joan Alice Ford Michael Frank and Patricia A. Snyder Barbara and Peter Galvin Joy E. Garapic Dr. and Mrs. Adi Gazdar Brenda and David Goldberg Mr. and Mrs. Randall J. Gordon+ Angela and Jeffrey Gotthardt Harry and Joyce Graham Mr. Paul Greig AndrĂŠ and Ginette Gremillet Ms. Nancy L. Griffith The Thomas J. and Judith Fay Gruber Charitable Foundation Robert N. and Nicki N. Gudbranson+ David and Robin Gunning Gary Hanson and Barbara Klante Mr. Robert D. Hart Clark Harvey and Holly Selvaggi+ Iris and Tom Harvie+ Henry R. Hatch Robin Hitchcock Hatch Dr. Robert T. Heath and Dr. Elizabeth L. Buchanan+ Janet D. Heil* Anita and William Heller+ Mr. Loren W. Hershey Patrick* and Jean Holden Steve and Mary Hosier Elisabeth Hugh+ David and Dianne Hunt Mr. and Mrs. Brinton L. Hyde

Individual Annual Support

Pamela and Scott Isquick+ Donna L. and Robert H. Jackson Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. Janus Joela Jones and Richard Weiss Andrew and Katherine Kartalis Milton and Donna* Katz Dr. Richard and Roberta Katzman Dr. and Mrs. Richard S. Kaufman Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Kelly Dr. and Mrs. William S. Kiser James and Gay* Kitson+ Mrs. Natalie D. Kittredge Rob and Laura Kochis Tim and Linda Koelz+ Mr. and Mrs.* S. Lee Kohrman Mr. Clayton R. Koppes Mr. James Krohngold+ Mr. and Mrs. Peter A. Kuhn+ Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Lafave, Jr. David C. Lamb+ Kenneth M. Lapine and Rose E. Mills+ Anthony T. and Patricia A. Lauria Dr. Edith Lerner Mr. Lawrence B. and Christine H. Levey+ Judith and Morton Q. Levin+ Dr. Stephen B. and Mrs. Lillian S. Levine+ Dr. Alan and Mrs. Joni Lichtin+ Mr. Rudolf and Mrs. Eva Linnebach+ Anne R. and Kenneth E. Love Robert and LaVerne* Lugibihl Elsie and Byron Lutman Ms. Jennifer R. Malkin Mr. and Mrs. Morton L. Mandel

The Cleveland Orchestra


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117


Alan Markowitz M.D. and Cathy Pollard Mr. and Mrs. E. Timothy McDonel James and Virginia Meil Dr. Susan M. Merzweiler Loretta J. Mester and George J. Mailath Claudia Metz and Thomas Woodworth+ Lynn and Mike Miller+ Drs. Terry E. and Sara S. Miller Curt and Sara Moll Ann Jones Morgan+ Mr. John Mueller Lucia S. Nash Georgia and Carlos Noble (Miami)+ Richard and Kathleen Nord Thury Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. Osenar Mr. Henry Ott-Hansen Mr. Robert S. Perry Nan and Bob Pfeifer+ Mr. and Mrs. Richard W. Pogue In memory of Henry Pollak Dr. and Mrs. John N. Posch+ Ms. Rosella Puskas Mr.* and Mrs. Thomas A. Quintrell

Mr. and Mrs. Roger F. Rankin Brian and Patricia Ratner Amy and Ken Rogat Carol Rolf and Steven Adler Dr. and Mrs. Michael Rosenberg (Miami) Dr. and Mrs. Ronald J. Ross Rosskamm Family Trust Robert and Margo Roth+ Dr. and Mrs. Robert C. Ruhl Mrs. Florence Brewster Rutter+ Drs. Michael and Judith Samuels (Miami) Patricia J. Sawvel Raymond T. and Katherine S. Sawyer Linda B. Schneider Dr. and Mrs. James L. Sechler Mr. Eric Sellen and Mr. Ron Seidman Vivian L. Sharp Mr. James E. Simler and Ms. Amy Zhang Naomi G. and Edwin Z. Singer+ The Shari Bierman Singer Family Drs. Charles Kent Smith and Patricia Moore Smith+ Roy Smith Mr. Eugene Smolik

Mr. and Mrs. William E. Spatz+ atz+ George and Mary Stark Mr. and Mrs. Donald W. Strang, rang, Jr. Stroud Family Trust Dr. Elizabeth Swenson+ Robert and Carol Taller+ Mr. and Mrs. Bill Thornton Dr. Russell A. Trusso Robert and Marti Vagi+ Robert A. Valente and Joan A. Morgensten+ Dr. Gregory Videtic and Rev. Christopher McCann Walt and Karen Walburn Dr. Beverly J. Warren Mr. and Mrs. Mark Allen Weigand+ Dr. Edward L. and Mrs. Suzanne Westbrook Tom and Betsy Wheeler Richard Wiedemer, Jr.+ Dr. and Mr. Ann Williams+ Bob and Kat Wollyung Anonymous

James Carpenter 2 seats (In memory of Christina) (Miami) Dr. Victor A. Ceicys Mr. and Mrs. James B. Chaney Dr. Ronald* and Mrs. Sonia Chapnick Mr. Gregory R. Chemnitz Mr. and Mrs. Homer D. W. Chisholm Dr. William and Dottie Clark Drs. John and Mary Clough Drs. Mark Cohen and Miriam Vishny Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Cohen (Miami) Mr. and Mrs. Mark Corrado Douglas S. Cramer / Hubert S. Bush III (Miami) Mr. and Mrs. Manohar Daga+ Karen and Jim Dakin Mrs. Frederick F. Dannemiller Mr. Kamal-Neil Dass and Mrs. Teresa Larsen+ Dr. Eleanor Davidson Mrs. Lois Joan Davis Michael and Amy Diamant Dr. and Mrs. Howard Dickey-White+ Dr. and Mrs. Richard C. Distad Maureen Doerner & Geoffrey White Carolyn J. Buller and William M. Doll Mr. George and Mrs. Beth Downes+ Ms. Mary Lynn Durham Mr. and Mrs. Ronald E. Dziedzicki Mrs. Mary S. Eaton Mr. and Mrs. Bernard H. Eckstein Esther L. and Alfred M. Eich, Jr.+ Erich Eichhorn and Ursel Dougherty Mr. S. Stuart Eilers Peter and Kathryn Eloff+ Harry and Ann Farmer

Mr. William and Dr. Elizabeth Fesler Mr. Paul C. Forsgren Richard J. Frey Mr. and Ms. Dale Freygang Peggy A. Fullmer Ms. Marilee Gallagher Mr. William Gaskill and Ms. Kathleen Burke Mr. Wilbert C. Geiss, Sr. Anne and Walter Ginn Dr.* and Mrs. Victor M. Goldberg Mr. and Mrs. David A. Goldfinger Dr. and Mrs. Ronald L. Gould Dr. Robert T. Graf Nancy F. Green (Miami) Ms. Anna Z. Greenfield Drs. Erik and Ellen Gregorie Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Griebling Dr. and Mrs. Franklin W. Griff Candy and Brent Grover Nancy and James Grunzweig+ Mr. and Mrs. John E. Guinness Mr. Davin and Mrs. Jo Ann Gustafson Dr. Phillip M. and Mrs. Mary Hall Douglas M. and Amy Halsey (Miami) Mr. and Mrs. David P. Handke, Jr. Elaine Harris Green Lilli and Seth Harris Barbara L. Hawley and David S. Goodman Matthew D. Healy and Richard S. Agnes In Memory of Hazel Helgesen Mr. and Mrs. Jerry Herschman The Morton and Mathile Stone Philanthropic Fund Dr. Fred A. Heupler Mr. Robert T. Hexter Dr. and Mrs. Robert L. Hinnes

Composerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Circle gifts of $2,000 to $4,999 Mr. and Mrs. Charles Abookire, Jr. Ms. Nancy A. Adams Mr. and Mrs.* Robert J. Amsdell Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey R. Appelbaum+ Mr. and Mrs. James B. Aronoff+ Art of Beauty Company, Inc. Ms. Patricia Ashton Steven Michael Auvil and Elise Hara Auvil Mr. and Mrs. Eugene J. Beer Dr. Ronald and Diane Bell Drs. Nathan A. and Sosamma J. Berger Mr. Roger G. Berk Barbara and Sheldon Berns Jayusia and Alan Bernstein (Miami) Margo and Tom Bertin John and Laura Bertsch Howard R. and Barbara Kaye Besser Ms. Deborah A. Blades Bill* and Zeda Blau Doug and Barbara Bletcher Georgette and Dick Bohr Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Bole Irving and Joan M. Bolotin (Miami) Mrs. Loretta Borstein Lisa and Ronald Boyko Mr. and Mrs. David Briggs Mr. and Mrs. Henry G. Brownell Mrs. Frances Buchholzer J. C. Burkhardt Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Busha Rev. Dr. Joan Brown Campbell and Rev. Dr. Albert Pennybacker Dr. and Mrs. William E. Cappaert John and Christine Carleton (Miami) Mrs. Millie L. Carlson+ Mr. and Mrs. Frank H. Carpenter

92 118

Individual Annual Annual Support Individual

The Cleveland Orchestra


Thomas and Mary Holmes Gail Hoover and Bob Safarz+ Dr. Keith A. and Mrs. Kathleen M. Hoover+ Dr. Randal N. Huff and Ms. Paulette Beech+ Ms. Laura Hunsicker Gretchen Hyland and Edward Stephens Jr. Ruth F. Ihde Dr. and Mrs. Scott R. Inkley William W. Jacobs Mr. and Mrs. Bruce D. Jarosz Robert and Linda Jenkins Dr. and Mrs. Donald W. Junglas Barbara and Michael J. Kaplan Mr. Donald J. Katt and Mrs. Maribeth Filipic-Katt Ms. Deborah Kaye The Kendis Family Trust: Hilary & Robert Kendis and Susan & James Kendis Bruce and Eleanor Kendrick Dr. Gilles* and Mrs. Malvina Klopman+ Fred* and Judith Klotzman Cynthia Knight (Miami) Drs. Raymond and Katharine Kolcaba+ Marion Konstantynovich Jacqueline and Irwin* Kott (Miami) Dr. Ronald H. Krasney and Vicki Kennedy+ Mr. Donald N. Krosin Alfred and Carol Lambo Mr. and Mrs. John J. Lane, Jr. + Mrs. Sandra S. Laurenson Dr. and Mrs. Arthur Lavin Michael Lederman Ronald and Barbara Leirvik Mr. and Mrs. Ernest C. Lemmerman Michael and Lois Lemr Irvin and Elin Leonard+ Mr. Alan R. Lepene Robert G. Levy+ Drs. Todd and Susan Locke Mary Lohman Ms. Mary Beth Loud Mrs. Idarose S. Luntz Damond and Lori Mace Ms. Linda Macklin David Mann and Bernadette Pudis Janet A. Mann Herbert L. and Ronda Marcus Martin and Lois Marcus Mr. and Mrs. Raul Marmol (Miami) Dr. and Mrs. Sanford E. Marovitz+ Ms. Dorene Marsh Dr. Ernest and Mrs. Marian Marsolais Mr. Fredrick Martin Ms. Amanda Martinsek Dr. and Mrs. William A. Mast Mr. Julien L. McCall Ms. Charlotte V. McCoy William C. McCoy Mr. and Mrs. Christopher J. McKenna Mr. and Mrs. Tom McLaughlin Ms. Nancy L. Meacham Mr. and Mrs. James E. Menger Mr. and Mrs. Trent Meyerhoefer Ms. Betteann Meyerson+ Beth M. Mikes Abby and Jake Mitchell Mr. and Mrs. William A. Mitchell+

Severance HallOrchestra 2017-18 The Cleveland

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas W. Morris Bert and Marjorie Moyar+ Susan B. Murphy Randy and Christine Myeroff Steven and Kimberly Myers+ Ms. Megan Nakashima Joan Katz Napoli and August Napoli Richard B. and Jane E. Nash Deborah L. Neale Robert D. and Janet E. Neary Steve Norris and Emily Gonzales Marshall I. Nurenberg and Joanne Klein Richard and Jolene Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Callaghan Mr. and Mrs. John Olejko Dr. and Mrs. Paul T. Omelsky Mr. Robert Paddock Mr. John D. Papp George Parras+ Dr. Lewis E. and Janice B. Patterson David Pavlich and Cherie Arnold Matt and Shari Peart Dr. and Mrs. Gosta Pettersson Henry Peyrebrune and Tracy Rowell Dr. Roland S. Philip and Dr. Linda M. Sandhaus+ Dale and Susan Phillip Maribel A. Piza (Miami)+ Mr. Carl Podwoski Dr. Marc A. and Mrs. Carol Pohl Brad Pohlman and Julie Callsen Mr. Robert and Mrs. Susan Price Ms. Sylvia Profenna Mr. Lute and Mrs. Lynn Quintrell Drs. Raymond R. Rackley and Carmen M. Fonseca+ Ms. C. A. Reagan Dr. Robert W. Reynolds Ms. Janet Rice David and Gloria Richards Ms. Carole Ann Rieck Mrs. Charles Ritchie Joan and Rick Rivitz Mr. D. Keith and Mrs. Margaret Robinson Mr. Timothy D. Robson+ Ms. Linda M. Rocchi Dick A. and Debbie Rose Mr. Kevin Russell (Miami) Mrs. Elisa J. Russo+ Fred Rzepka and Anne Rzepka Family Foundation Dr. Harry S. and Rita K. Rzepka+ Dr. Vernon E. Sackman and Ms. Marguerite Patton+ Fr. Robert J. Sanson Ms. Patricia E. Say+ Mr. Paul H. Scarbrough+ Robert Scarr and Margaret Widmar Bob Scheuer Don Schmitt and Jim Harmon Mr. James Schutte+ Mr. and Mrs. Alexander C. Scovil Dr. John Sedor and Ms. Geralyn Presti Ms. Kathryn Seider Charles Seitz (Miami) Drs. Daniel and Ximena Sessler+ Mr. Kenneth and Mrs. Jill Shafer Donna E. Shalala (Miami) Ginger and Larry Shane

Individual Annual Annual Support Support Individual

Harry and Ilene Shapiro Ms. Frances L. Sharp Larry Oscar and Jeanne Shatten+ Dr. and Mrs. William C. Sheldon+ Terrence and Judith Sheridan Mr. Richard Shirey+ Mr. and Mrs. Reginald Shiverick+ Michael Dylan Short Mr. Robert Sieck Laura and Alvin A. Siegal Howard and Beth Simon Ms. Ellen J. Skinner Ms. Anna D. Smith Ms. Janice A. Smith Sandra and Richey Smith+ Mr. and Mrs.* Jeffrey H. Smythe Mrs. Virginia Snapp Ms. Barbara Snyder Mr. Marc Stadiem Ms. Sharon Stahler Dr.* and Mrs. Frank J. Staub Mr. Alan L. Steffen Mr. Eduardo Stern (Miami) Frederick and Elizabeth Stueber Mr. Taras G. Szmagala, Jr. Kathy* and Sidney Taurel (Miami)+ Dr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Timko Mr.* and Mrs. Robert N. Trombly Steve and Christa Turnbull+ Mrs. H. Lansing Vail, Jr. Bobbi and Peter van Dijk Mrs. Stasia M. Vavruska Brenton Ver Ploeg (Miami) Teresa Galang-ViĂąas and Joaquin Vinas (Miami) Mr. and Mrs. Les C. Vinney George and Barbara von Mehren Mr. Norman Wain Ms. Laure A. Wasserbauer+ Margaret and Eric* Wayne+ Alice & Leslie T. Webster, Jr. Mr. Peter and Mrs. Laurie Weinberger Michael and Danielle Weiner Dr. Paul R. and Catherine Williams Ms. Claire Wills Richard and Mary Lynn Wills Elizabeth B. Wright+ William Ronald and Lois YaDeau Rad and Patty Yates Ken and Paula Zeisler Dr. William Zelei Mr. Kal Zucker and Dr. Mary Frances Haerr Anonymous (3)+ Anonymous (8)

+ has signed a multiyear

pledge (see information box earlier in this section)

* deceased

Thank You 119 93


Jewish values teach us to care for future generations. The Jewish Federation of Cleveland can help you leave a precious inheritance and lasting legacy for your children, grandchildren, and our community. Find out how you can become a member of the Jewish Federation of Cleveland’s Legacy Society by contacting Carol F. Wolf for a confidential conversation at 216-593-2805 or cwolf@jcfcleve.org.

L’dor V’dor. From Generation to Generation. Create Your Jewish Legacy

www.jewishcleveland.org


THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

Corporate Support The Cleveland Orchestra extends heartfelt gratitude and partnership with the corporations listed on this page, whose annual support (through gifts of $2,500 and more) demonstrates their belief in the Orchestra’s music-making, education initiatives, and community presentations.

Annual Support gifts during the year prior to July 1, 2017 The Partners in Excellence program salutes companies with annual contributions of $100,000 and more, exemplifying leadership and commitment to musical excellence at the highest level. PARTNERS IN EXCELLENCE $300,000 AND MORE

Hyster-Yale Materials Handling NACCO Industries, Inc. KeyBank The J. M. Smucker Company PARTNERS IN EXCELLENCE $200,000 TO $299,999

BakerHostetler Eaton Jones Day PNC Bank Raiffeisenlandesbank Oberösterreich (Europe) PARTNERS IN EXCELLENCE $100,000 TO $199,999

American Greetings Corporation Medical Mutual Nordson Corporation Foundation Squire Patton Boggs (US) LLP Thompson Hine LLP

The Cleveland Severance HallOrchestra 2017-18

$50,000 TO $99,999

DLR Group | Westlake Reed Leskosky Dollar Bank Foundation Forest City Litigation Management, Inc. Parker Hannifin Foundation Quality Electrodynamics (QED) Anonymous $15,000 TO $49,999

Buyers Products Company Case Western Reserve University Ernst & Young LLP Frantz Ward LLP The Giant Eagle Foundation Great Lakes Brewing Company Hahn Loeser & Parks LLP The Lincoln Electric Foundation The Lubrizol Corporation Materion Corporation MTD Products, Inc. North Coast Container Corp. Ohio Savings Bank, A Division of New York Community Bank Olympic Steel, Inc. RPM International Inc. The Sherwin-Williams Company Tucker Ellis LLP

Corporate Annual Annual Support Support

$2,500 TO $14,999 Akron Tool & Die Company American Fireworks, Inc. BDI BestLight LED Brothers Printing Co., Inc. Calfee, Halter & Griswold LLP Cleveland Clinic Cleveland Steel Container Corporation The Cleveland Wire Cloth & Mfg. Co. Cohen & Company, CPAs Community Counselling Services Consolidated Solutions Cozen O’Connor (Miami) Dominion Energy Charitable Foundation Evarts Tremaine The Ewart-Ohlson Machine Company Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. Glenmede Adam Foslid/Greenberg Traurig (Miami) Gross Builders Huntington National Bank Littler Mendelson, P.C. Live Publishing Company Macy’s Miba AG (Europe) Northern Haserot Oatey Ohio CAT OMNOVA Solutions Oswald Companies Park-Ohio Holdings PolyOne Corporation RSM US, LLP Southern Wine and Spirits (Miami) Stern Advertising Struktol Company of America University Hospitals Ver Ploeg & Lumpkin (Miami) Anonymous (2)

87 121


Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s time for a new identity. One that tells the story of creativity in Ohio and illustrates it.

Expression is an essential need. By better illustrating our story, we can better help you express yours.

Complete the story at oac.ohio.gov/identity.

30 EAST BROAD STREET, 33RD FLOOR, COLUMBUS, OHIO 43215-3414 | 614-466-2613 OAC.OHIO.GOV | @OHIOARTSCOUNCIL| #ARTSOHIO


THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA

Foundation/Government Support The Cleveland Orchestra is grateful for the annual support of the foundations and government agencies listed on this page. The generous funding from these institutions (through gifts of $2,500 and more) is a testament of support for the Orchestra’s music-making, education initiatives, and community presentations.

Annual Support gifts during the year prior to July 1, 2017 $1 MILLION AND MORE

The Cleveland Foundation Cuyahoga County residents through Cuyahoga Arts and Culture $500,000 TO $999,999

The George Gund Foundation Ohio Arts Council $250,000 TO $499,999

Kulas Foundation John P. Murphy Foundation $100,000 TO $249,999

Paul M. Angell Family Foundation Elizabeth Ring Mather and William Gwinn Mather Fund David and Inez Myers Foundation The Kelvin and Eleanor Smith Foundation $50,000 TO $99,999

The George W. Codrington Charitable Foundation GAR Foundation The Gerhard Foundation, Inc. Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation Martha Holden Jennings Foundation Myra Tuteur Kahn Memorial Fund of The Cleveland Foundation Miami-Dade County Department of Cultural Affairs (Miami) The Frederick and Julia Nonneman Foundation The Nord Family Foundation The Payne Fund

The Cleveland Severance HallOrchestra 2017-18

$15,000 TO $49,999

The Abington Foundation The Batchelor Foundation, Inc. (Miami) Mary E. & F. Joseph Callahan Foundation The Helen C. Cole Charitable Trust The Mary S. and David C. Corbin Foundation Mary and Dr. George L. Demetros Charitable Trust The Char and Chuck Fowler Family Foundation The Helen Wade Greene Charitable Trust National Endowment for the Arts Sandor Foundation Albert G. & Olive H. Schlink Foundation Jean C. Schroeder Foundation The Sisler McFawn Foundation Dr. Kenneth F. Swanson Fund for the Arts of Akron Community Foundation The Veale Foundation The Edward and Ruth Wilkof Foundation

$2,500 TO $14,999 The Ruth and Elmer Babin Foundation Dr. NE & JZ Berman Foundation The Bernheimer Family Fund of the Cleveland Foundation Eva L. and Joseph M. Bruening Foundation Cleveland State University Foundation The Cowles Charitable Trust (Miami) Elisha-Bolton Foundation The Harry K. Fox and Emma R. Fox Charitable Foundation The Jean, Harry and Brenda Fuchs Family Foundation, in memory of Harry Fuchs The Hankins Foundation The Muna & Basem Hishmeh Foundation Richard H. Holzer Memorial Foundation The Laub Foundation Victor C. Laughlin, M.D. Memorial Foundation Trust The Lehner Family Foundation The G. R. Lincoln Family Foundation The Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel Foundation The Margaret Clark Morgan Foundation The M. G. O’Neil Foundation Paintstone Foundation Charles E. & Mabel M. Ritchie Memorial Foundation The Leighton A. Rosenthal Family Foundation SCH Foundation Miami-Dade County Public Schools (Miami) Harold C. Schott Foundation Kenneth W. Scott Foundation Lloyd L. and Louise K. Smith Memorial Foundation The South Waite Foundation The O’Neill Brothers Foundation The George Garretson Wade Charitable Trust The S. K. Wellman Foundation The Welty Family Foundation Thomas H. White Foundation, a KeyBank Trust The Wuliger Foundation Anonymous (2)

Foundation/Government Annual Foundation/Government Annual Support Support

85 123


THE CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA Administrative Staff EXECUTIVE OFFICE André Gremillet EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

Lynn Cameron EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT

as of May 10, 2018

CONCERT OPERATIONS & FACILITIES MANAGEMENT

AUDIENCE ENGAGEMENT & MARKETING

Julie Kim

Ross Binnie

SENIOR DIRECTOR, OPERATIONS & FACILITIES

Laura Clelland FACILITIES COORDINATOR

ARTISTIC ADMINISTRATION Mark Williams CHIEF ARTISTIC OFFICER

Elle Henig ARTISTIC PLANNING ASSOCIATE

Ilya Gidalevich ARTISTIC ADMINISTRATOR

Nicholas Ramsey ARTISTIC PLANNING COORDINATOR

Barb Bodemer DRIVER

Orchestra Personnel Carrie Marcantonio DIRECTOR

David Snyder MANAGER

Elizabeth Carney PERSONNEL ASSISTANT

Choruses Jill Harbaugh MANAGER

Julie Weiner MANAGER, YOUTH CHORUSES

Orchestra Operations Julia Lin DIRECTOR, ORCHESTRA OPERATIONS

Joan Katz Napoli SENIOR DIRECTOR

Sandra Jones MANAGER, EDUCATION & FAMILY CONCERTS

Mollibeth Cox MANAGER, COMMUNITY LEARNING PROGRAMS

Sarah Lamb MANAGER, COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

Rose Breckenridge LECTURER & ADMINISTRATOR, MUSIC STUDY GROUPS

Lauren Generette MANAGER, CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA YOUTH ORCHESTRA

Austin Land ARTISTIC & OPERATIONS COORDINATOR, YOUTH ORCHESTRA AND EDUCATION

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT

Marketing & Audience Services Julie Stapf SENIOR DIRECTOR OF MARKETING

Amy Gill TOUR AND OPERATIONS MANAGER

Christine Honolke ASSOCIATE MANAGER

Stage Joe Short

Sales & Marketing Valerie Szepiwdycz MARKETING MANAGER

Jerry Golski SALES MANAGER (thru May 2018)

STAGE MANAGER

Jaclyn Nachman (beginning May 2018) SALES MANAGER

Gil Gerity John Riley Don Verba Dave Vacca

Carlo Claridad MANAGER, DATA MARKETING & ANALYTICS

STAGEHANDS

Concerts & Events Jessica Norris MANAGER

Kim Svenson ASSOCIATE MANAGER

David Szekeres SENIOR MANAGER, DESIGN & PUBLICATIONS

Brett Della Santina MANAGER, MARKETING & GRAPHIC DESIGN

Don McClung DIGITAL MEDIA CONSULTANT

Facilities Nina Hose ASSISTANT MANAGER, BUILDING OPERATIONS

Pete Wieneke

EDUCATION & COMMUNITY PROGRAMS

CHIEF BRAND OFFICER

Rosemary Klena

LEAD BUILDING ENGINEER

Bob Nock Jimmy Watt Christopher Downey Michael Evert Renee Pettway (apprentice) BUILDING ENGINEERS

Shelia Baugh George Felder Michelle Williams DOOR PERSONS

Quinn Chambers Steven Washington Pauletta Hughes HALL STAFF LEADS

Antonio Adamson Kervin Hinton Dwayne Johnson Jerome Kelly Renee Pettway Darrell Simmons Glynis Smith Dwayne Taylor HALL STAFF & CLEANERS

Rolland Allen GROUNDSKEEPER

Digital Marketing Ryan Buckley ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, DIGITAL MARKETING & WEBSITE

Patron Services Robert Phillips DIRECTOR, CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE

Dan Sheehan MANAGER, RETAIL & CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT

Adam Clemens HOUSE MANAGER

Patricia Fernberg ASSOCIATE HOUSE MANAGER

Deborah Pettus-Bey Ellen Cubberley SALES ASSOCIATES

Ticket Services Tim Gaines TICKET OFFICE MANAGER

Joan Eppich ASSOCIATE MANAGER

Carrie Felder ASSISTANT MANAGER

Cindy Adams Monica Berens Larry Parsons Randy Yost CUSTOMER SERVICE REPRESENTATIVES

Mary Ellen Snyder Sharon Matovich TICKETING SERVICE REPRESENTATIVES

Facility Sales Bob Bellamy SALES MANAGER, SEVERANCE HALL

124

Administrative Staff

The Cleveland Orchestra


clevelandorchestra.com PHILANTHROPY & ADVANCEMENT Abby Mitchell Public Relations Justin Holden DIRECTOR

Rebecca Calkin MANAGER, MEDIA RELATIONS

Michael Ritzert EDITORIAL & MEDIA RELATIONS COORDINATOR

Archives Andria Hoy ARCHIVIST

Deborah Hefling ARCHIVES ASSISTANT

Program Book Eric Sellen EDITOR

CHIEF DEVELOPMENT OFFICER

Severance Hall

11001 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106

Allison Denham SENIOR DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATE

Emily Thome SENIOR DIRECTOR OF DEVELOPMENT

Rachel Lappen SENIOR DIRECTOR OF DEVELOPMENT

Cassandra O’Shea MANAGER, DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATIONS

Carey Skinner CAMPAIGN ASSOCIATE

Leadership & Individual Giving Elizabeth Arnett Paille

Administrative Offices

216-231-7300 Ticket Office

216-231-1111 or 800-686-1141 Group Sales

216-231-7493

DIRECTOR, ANNUAL GIVING

FINANCE & ADMINISTRATION James E. Menger CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER

Shirley Rundo ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT

Finance Janice Brennan CONTROLLER

Barbara S. Snyder ACCOUNTING MANAGER

Carolann Oravec PAYROLL MANAGER

Christina Dutkovic ACCOUNTING ASSOCIATE

Information Technology David Vivino DIRECTOR

Randy Conn DATABASE ANALYST

Theresa Henderson NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR

Mailroom Jim Hilton SUPERVISOR

Delores Perry MAILROOM CLERK

Em Ezell ANNUAL GIVING OFFICER

Moneeb Iqbal ANNUAL GIVING OFFICER

Brian Deeds INDIVIDUAL GIVING MANAGER

Laurie Burman

Judy Murphy DIRECTOR

Ruth Mercer HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGER

Lisa Saneda HUMAN RESOURCES ASSOCIATE

216-231-7355 Media & Public Relations

216-231-7476

MAJOR GIFT OFFICER

Carolyn Teter Gordon MAJOR GIFT OFFICER

Archives

216-231-7382

Institutional Giving and Government Support Andrew Bednarski CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT RELATIONS OFFICER

Legacy Giving David Stokley LEGACY GIVING OFFICER

Yvette Hanzel

Individual Giving

216-231-7545 Corporate/Foundation Giving

216-231-7518

DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATE

Development Stewardship, Volunteers, & Events Jill Robinson DIRECTOR

Margaret Gautier COORDINATOR

Legacy Giving

216-231-8006 Volunteers

216-231-7557

Lori Cohen COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP LIAISON

Sarah Jessie

HUMAN RESOURCES

Education & Community Programs

DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATE

Development Data Operations Mark Halford DIRECTOR, DEVELOPMENT DATA

Jessica Albright DATABASE COORDINATOR

Customer Experience

216-231-7441 Severance Hall Rental Office

216-231-7421

Mary Finnerty DEVELOPMENT OPERATIONS ASSOCIATE

2O1 7-18 CENTENNIAL SEASON

Severance Hall 2017-18

Administrative Staff

125


BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

with

A C E N T R A L I D E A within the myth of Prometheus is fire as a positive force (a.k.a. power, knowledge, energy) to propel humanity and civilization forward. Yet, for all the good it has brought and wrought — including advances in medicine, science, justice, learning, and the arts — civilization has also unleashed challenges and extremes: weapons of mass destruction, poverty, social chasms between rich and poor, famine, human-induced climate change, political upheaval, and conflicting moral values. Even democracy isn’t universally agreed to be the best or only method for “Good” government. For every step forward, there are unexpected consequences, because humanity is a flawed species. “Justice for all” often implies one-size-fits-all, when varying individuals (and groups) may require or respond best to entirely different methods and means. We may not even agree on what “Good” we should be pursuing together. Art for entertainment vs. art as a Beethovenian call to arms? Liberal vs. conservative, socialism vs. libertarianism? Surely none of these offer a single answer

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or philosophy that would or could actually make us all happy. What was once agreed for the common good has been riven by extreme disagreement. How to proceed? As Franz Welser-Möst argues it, Beethoven’s musical works are a call to action and not merely simple and enjoyable moments of ear candy. The idea is to listen, think, and then make a difference. The following book titles are among many places to start, filled with arguments for and against civilization’s achievements, successes, and dilemmas. The list is in no way definitive; add your own — share and discuss with friends and strangers (and those you disagree with). —Eric Sellen Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker. 575 pages. (Viking, 2018) A decidedly optimistic view of humanity’s future, argued with facts, passion, and enthusiasm. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah. 464 pages. (Harper, 2015). A cold-eyed look at human evolution through

The Changing World

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three formative revolutions: Cognitive, Agricultural, and Scientific. Set in the context of human happiness, growth, and thinking. The Death and Life of the Great Lakes by Dan Egan. 384 pages. (W.W. Norton, 2018). A detailed look at evolution and pollution in the Great Lakes, including ideas for restoring the Lakes and invigorating the communities that surround them.

Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human by Richard Wrangham. 320 pages. (Basic Books, 2009). The author argues that fire and cooking — the shift from raw to cooked foods — was a key ingredient to enable human brains to grow, propelling civilization forward with nutrition, knowledge, and communication.

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus by Charles C. Mann. 480 pages. (Knopf, revised edition 2006). A detailed look at what we know of life in the Americas before Europeans arrived en mass. Including achievements in learning, food, the arts, and a discussion of just how “wild” the landscape was (or wasn’t).

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies by Jared Diamond. 528 pages. (W.W. Norton, 2005 revised edition). This Pulitzer Prize-winning book attempts to understand why economic development occured so unevenly around the world — why, across 5,000 years of civilizattion, some places have flourished and advanced through learning and science while others languished or disappeared.

Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley, published 1818 (during Beethoven’s lifetime). The original Romantic Era tale, which asked questions about the potential good (and bad) of advancing technology and humanity’s need to tinker with nature and the world.

Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States by James C. Scott. 335 pages. (Yale University, 2017). The author puts forth the hypothesis that hunter-gatherers were happier as people, in the pre-historic era before civilization, than we are today. Farming brought both gains and losses.

The History of the World in Six Glasses by Tom Standage. 311 pages. (Walker, 2005). A look at how different methods for creating and preserving drinks (fermentation, distillation, effervescence, and cultivation) marched civilization forward, one drink at a time.

The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion by Jonathan Haidt. 528 pages. (Pantheon, 2012). A discussion about finding common ground between left and right, and how to stop misinterpreting people’s values and moral judgements in the modern world.

Rescuing Prometheus: Four Monumental Projects that Changed the Modern World by Thomas P. Hughes. 372 pages. (Pantheon, 1998). A discussion of changing systems in technology, management, engineering, and communication, to explain just how far humanity lept forward in capability and potential in recent generations.

Four Fish: The Future of the Last Wild Food by Paul Greenberg. 284 pages. (Penguin Press, 2010). A look at how fish farming is changing how (and what) we eat, and how to choose which fish can best continue or grow to be good food for humanity as climates and environments and science evolve.

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BE E THOVE N THE PROME THE U S PROJEC T

Afterword PERSONAL CHOICES When I was very young and growing up, my siblings and I thought we had a very normal life. We went to school and we each learned a musical instrument. And I always say, “I lived the life of a dog” — I had no worries. I was carefree. But, in fact, I was also careless in certain ways. When I was 18, I was in a very bad car accident. And it was at that moment when I started to realize that my life was in my own hands. Not just my physical life, but who I was and who I would become. It was up to me to make something of myself. Looking back, I understand that I had to become my own Prometheus, to make a choice. Very often I am asked by young musicians: where did my success come from? To begin with, of course, we are each born with a set of talents, and it is important to recognize those and then to work positively with what you have been given. We find this idea in every major philosophy, in every religion — it’s up to each of us, it’s up to you to do something with your life. And that is Prometheus, to make a choice for Good. But it is also important to remember that Prometheus made a choice for humanity but in defiance of Zeus. Choices are exactly that, choosing one thing over another. I believe that it is important for each of us to discover the spark within us, to find the fire that matters, and to put that fire to good use — to make a difference in this world. I remember when I was perhaps six years old and just starting to go to school, and my mother said to me, “Don’t sit at home and be boring, do something!” And that was the first real impulse for me, when I understood, perhaps a little, the difference between childhood and being an adult. We each have choices to make as we grow older — to find what excites us and what makes each of our lives different. And also the urge to find commonality and agreement. As Beethoven would wish it, let us take responsibility to search for and encourage the Good in each of us. —Franz Welser-Möst May 2018

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Afterword: The Prometheus Project

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Ludwig Lud wig g va v n Beet eethov hoven, en, 18 818, 1 pe p nci c l draw rawing ing by Au A gus gustt von Klö Klöber ber

Music is the mediator between the life of the mind and the senses. —Ludwig van Beethoven


HE ROES

AND

If we wish to rebuild our cities, we must first rebuild our neighborhoods. And to do that, we must understand that the quality of life is more important than the standard of living. Harvey Milk (1930-1978)

Returning hate for hate multiplies hate, adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars. Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate. Only love can do that. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968)

Is it wrong for me to love my own? Is it wicked for me because my skin is red? Because I am Sioux? Because I was born where my father lived? Because I would die for my people and my country? Sitting Bull (1831-1890)

THINKE RS

You gain strength, courage, and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You are able to say to yourself, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;I lived through this horror. I can take the next thing that comes along.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)

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Heroes and Thinkers

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HE ROES

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Freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction. We didn’t pass it to our children in the bloodstream. It must be fought for, protected, and handed on for them to do the same. Ronald Reagan (1911-2004)

THINKE RS

We need to reject any politics that targets people because of race or religion. This isn’t a matter of political correctness. It’s a matter of understanding what makes us strong. The world respects us not just for our arsenal; it respects us for our diversity and our openness and the way we respect every faith. Barack Obama (b. 1961)

There will be no end to the troubles of states, or of humanity itself, until philosophers become kings in this world, or until those we now call kings and rulers really and truly become philosophers, and political power and philosophy thus come into the same hands.

Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less. Marie Curie (1867-1934)

Plato (428-347 B.C.)

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Heroes and Thinkers

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Rainey Institute El Sistema Orchestra

A SYMPHONY OF

success

We believe that all Cleveland youth should have access to high-quality arts education. Through the generosity of our donors, we have invested nearly $2 million since 2016 to scale up neighborhood-based programs that now serve 1,500 youth year-round in music, dance, theater, photography, literary arts and curatorial mastery. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a symphony of success. Find your passion, and partner with the Cleveland Foundation to make your greatest charitable impact.

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The Cleveland Orchestra May 10-19 Concerts  

The Prometheus Project: The Music of Beethoven

The Cleveland Orchestra May 10-19 Concerts  

The Prometheus Project: The Music of Beethoven