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KPMG’s Disclosures Handbook: Accounting and Financial Reporting in the Global Airline Industry


KPMG’s Global Airline practice KPMG International is the coordinating entity for a global network of professional service firms that provide audit, tax and advisory services with an industry focus. The aim of KPMG member firms is to turn knowledge into value for the benefit of their clients, people and the capital markets. With nearly 100,000 people worldwide, member firms provide audit, tax and advisory services to 731 cities in 144 countries. Through its member firms, KPMG has invested extensively in developing a high-quality airline team. KPMG’s understanding of the industry is both current and forward looking, thanks to KPMG’s member firms’ global experience, knowledge sharing, industry training and the use of professionals with direct experience in the airline industry. KPMG member firms serve the market leaders within the airline sector. They provide external audit services to 26 percent of passenger airlines in the top 50 airline companies ranked by revenue. They also provide other services to over 60 percent of these airlines. KPMG’s strength lies in its professionals and their knowledge and experience gathered from working with a large and diverse client base. KPMG’s industry experience helps the team understand both your business priorities and the strategic issues facing your company. KPMG’s Global Airline practice’s presence in many major international markets, combined with industry knowledge, positions KPMG well to assist you in recognizing and making the most of opportunities, as well as implementing changes necessitated by industry developments. For more information on KPMG’s Global Airline practice, please contact:

Martin Sheppard Head of Aviation +61 2 9335 8221

Dr. Ashley Steel Global Chair – Transport +44 20 7311 6633 Alternatively, visit KPMG’s website at With thanks to KPMG’s Transport practice in Australia. Authors Julian McPherson Malcolm Ramsay Special thanks to Rachel Gadiel Charmaine Hopkins Rachel Riley Sharon Smith

Introduction In this, the first volume of KPMG’s Airline Accounting and Financial Reporting Handbook, KPMG has focused on airlines reporting under U.S. reporting standards and airlines that are transitioning to reporting under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). This handbook looks at some of the key accounting and reporting issues in the passenger airline industry. For companies listed on the main

IFRS and legacy GAAPs of a selection of

European, and a number of Asia-Pacific

major airlines. There are signs of

exchanges, there has been a

convergence between IFRS and U.S.

fundamental change in the basis of

reporters in areas such as accounting for

financial reporting in 2005. Since

frequent-flyer schemes, however differing

September 1, 2005 these companies’

fact patterns and interpretations of the

financial statements have been prepared

requirements in IFRS and U.S. GAAP

under IFRS. Management has been

continue to result in differences in the

working through the impact of adopting

application of these standards. The

IFRS and disclosing changes to

upcoming and proposed guidance issued

stakeholders through 2005. CFOs face

by the International Accounting Standards

the challenge of explaining company

Board (IASB) indicates that IFRS, like

performance on a new basis – with

existing U.S. regulations, will require

greater emphasis on measurement of

enhanced disclosures about the key

items at fair values rather than historic

sources of estimation and uncertainty at

cost – giving rise to greater volatility and

the balance-sheet date that may impact

less certainty in financial results. In our

the carrying amounts of assets and

experience, items not required to be

liabilities over the next reporting period.

recognized in the financial statements under legacy Generally Accepted

Risks and cautionary factors have been

Accounting Principles (GAAP) are now

disclosed by airlines reporting in the U.S.

required to be recognized under IFRS.

for a number of years. This handbook

Such items include derivatives, share-

analyzes and compares the risk factors

based payment plans and the recognition

disclosed in a sample of the Securities

of the surplus or deficit position of

and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings

defined benefit post-employment plans.

of passenger airlines listed on the U.S. exchanges.

KPMG’s Global Airline practice provides an analysis of the disclosures of critical

In order to highlight key financial

accounting policies by airlines. Not

reporting trends and issues impacting

surprisingly, the financial reports

airlines, KPMG’s Global Airline practice

surveyed highlight that revenue

has surveyed the 2005 public financial

recognition is a key area of disclosure.

regulatory filings (annual and interim

This handbook looks at example

reports, 10-Ks, 20Fs and IFRS conversion

accounting policies across U.S. GAAP,

releases) of 23 of the world’s airlines that

currently, or will in the near future, report

(1) critical accounting policies (2)

(3) disclosure of risk factors. KPMG

under either U.S. GAAP or IFRS. The

disclosures around transition from

reviewed samples of disclosures made

focus of KPMG’s disclosure survey was:

previous GAAP to IFRS; and

by the following airlines.


Regulatory filing surveyed and reporting GAAP

GAAP under which 2006 financial regulatory filing will be prepared

Air France – KLM Group

Annual report and 20F – March 31, 2005 French GAAP, U.S. GAAP1 and September 30, 2005 half year under IFRS as adopted by the European Union

IFRS as adopted by the European Union, U.S. GAAP1

Alitalia – Linee Aeree Italiane S.p.A

Annual report – December 31, 2005 IFRS as adopted by the European Union

IFRS as adopted by the European Union

AMR Corp/American Airlines Inc

10k – December 31, 2005 U.S. GAAP


British Airways plc

Annual report and 20F – March 31, 2005 UK GAAP, U.S. GAAP1 and IFRS as adopted by the European Union financial information release for year ended March 31, 2005 (issued July 2005)

IFRS as adopted by the European Union, U.S. GAAP1

Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd

Annual report – December 31, 2005 Hong Kong Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards

Hong Kong Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS based)

Continental Airlines Inc

10k – December 31, 2005 U.S. GAAP


Delta Air Lines Inc

10k – December 31, 2005 U.S. GAAP


Deutsche Lufthansa AG

Annual report – December 31, 2005 IFRS as adopted by the European Union

IFRS as adopted by the European Union

easyJet plc

Annual report – September 30, 2005 UK GAAP and IFRS as adopted by the European Union financial information release for the year ended September 30, 2005 (issued January 2006)

IFRS as adopted by the European Union

Iberia Lineas Aereas de Espara, S.A

Annual report – December 31, 2004

IFRS as adopted by the European Union

Japan Airlines Corporation

Annual report – March 31, 2005 Japanese GAAP

Japanese GAAP

JetBlue Airways Corporation

10k – December 31, 2005 U.S. GAAP




Regulatory filing surveyed and reporting GAAP

GAAP under which 2006 financial regulatory filing will be prepared

Northwest Airlines Corporation

10k – December 31, 2005 U.S. GAAP


Qantas Airways Limited

December 31, 2005 half year, IFRS


Ryanair Holdings plc

Annual report and 20F– March 31, 2005 Irish, UK GAAP and U.S. GAAP1 and IFRS as adopted by the European Union explanation of the financial impact for the year ended March 31, 2005 (issued August 2005)

IFRS as adopted by the European Union, U.S. GAAP1

SAS Group

Annual report – December 31, 2005 IFRS as adopted by the European Union

IFRS as adopted by the European Union

Singapore Airlines Limited

Annual report – March 31, 2005 Singapore Financial Reporting Standards

Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS based)

South African Airways

Annual report – March 31, 2005 South African GAAP

South African GAAP (IFRS based)

Southwest Airlines Co.

10k – December 31, 2005 U.S. GAAP


Swiss International Airlines (Group)

Half-year report – June 30, 2005 IFRS


United Airlines – UAL Corporation

10k – December 31, 2005 U.S. GAAP


U.S. Airways – America West Holdings Corporation

10k – December 31, 2005 U.S. GAAP


Virgin Blue Holdings Limited

Annual report – September 30, 2005, Australian GAAP

Australian equivalents to IFRS

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Foreign Private Issuer in the U.S.

KPMG’s Global Airline practice has taken

otherwise of these policies, rather the

This handbook is not a comparison of

direct extracts from various airline

examples used are to demonstrate

U.S. GAAP and IFRS but rather a

accounting policies. These extracts have

current accounting disclosure practice

comparison of financial accounting

been taken from the relevant publicly

and to facilitate discussion on key airline

policies and reporting disclosures made

available regulatory report noted above.

accounting issues as identified by

by airlines reporting under U.S. GAAP

No comment is made by KPMG’s Airline


and those transitioning to reporting

practice in regard to the adequacy or

under IFRS.

v i K P M G ’s D i s c l o s u r e s H a n d b o o k : Ac c o u n t i n g a n d F i n a n c i a l Re p o r t i n g i n t h e G l o b a l A i r l i n e I n d u s t r y

Forewords We are pleased to present KPMG’s first Disclosures Handbook for the global airline industry. With the current industry focus on reducing costs in times of record oil prices and continued global conflict, at no time has it been more important to have transparency in the reporting practices of airlines. ]There has been a fundamental shift in the basis of reporting in the past 18 months with many global airlines converting to IFRS. The next move forward is no doubt the continued harmonization of IFRS and U.S. GAAP. This handbook takes a first look at how IFRS and U.S. GAAP disclosures and accounting policies line up. Whilst the result of convergence to date is encouraging in some areas, divergence still remains in other areas such as maintenance accounting and in some aspects of derivatives accounting. It is interesting to note the extensive critical accounting policy disclosures that U.S. regulators require. This is an area that until now has had little focus in annual reports elsewhere in the world. Future IFRS requirements may see expanded disclosures from airlines in this area and these disclosures will be worthy of review. The impact of the transition to IFRS has varied considerably between airlines, with approximately U.S.$3.5 billion of net assets being wiped off the opening balance sheets of the airlines surveyed. Almost more importantly, the assets and liabilities recognized under IFRS are often subject to volatile fair value movements, which we expect will impact the balance sheet and income statement of these airlines on an ongoing basis. It is still early days in the accounting standard convergence process. We expect a clearer picture will emerge as airlines complete their first full sets of IFRS financial statements during 2006. However, more direct dialogue is required with standard-setting bodies to ensure that the airline industry perspective is understood. Airlines are truly global businesses and on the ‘front line’ in terms of the impact of changes to global regulations. Hence it is essential that their circumstances are taken into account. We hope you find this handbook a useful reference point when contemplating airline specific accounting treatments. Martin Sheppard Head of Aviation KPMG in Australia Dr. Ashley Steel Global Chair, Transport KPMG LLP UK This publication provides an excellent and timely point of reference as many airlines are reviewing their disclosures. IFRS has moved on from determining and reporting transition impacts to ‘live’ business as usual reporting under the new GAAP, which will provide a challenge to CFOs reporting to stakeholders. KPMG’s Airline Practice has worked with the IATA Accounting Working Group to assist airlines with accounting and reporting issues through a series of Airline Accounting Guidelines (AAG) over the last 10 years, with the most recent AAG issued in June 2005 covering foreign currency translation and hedging. This continued relationship has enhanced accounting and reporting in the airline industry. John Vierdag Chairman – IATA Accounting Working Group International Air Transport Association

Executive summary 1 Critical accounting policies 1.1 Revenue recognition

1 3 3

1.1.1 Passenger and freight revenue


1.1.2 Frequent flyer accounting


1.2 Property, plant and equipment


1.2.1 Aircraft cost


1.2.2 Maintenance accounting


1.2.3 Airport landing and gate slots


1.2.4 Depreciation and residual values


1.2.5 Impairment testing


1.3 Aircraft leasing 1.3.1 Sale and leaseback transactions

1.4 Financial instruments

27 27


1.4.1 Hedge accounting


1.4.2 Embedded derivatives


2 Airline risk factors 3 Analysis of transition to IFRS in 2005 Appendix – Aircraft useful lives, depreciation rates and residual values KPMG’s Global Airline practice contacts

35 47 50 54

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Executive summary The airline industry has faced increasingly complex accounting requirements with transition to IFRS and changes in U.S. GAAP reporting over the past few years.

The U.S. has experienced significant

airlines. Typically, airlines are exposed to

changes with the introduction of the

changes in fuel price, foreign exchange

Sarbanes-Oxley legislation and reporting

rates and interest rates. Accounting for

under Section 404, with many U.S.

hedging activities is burdensome and will

foreign private issuers reporting under

usually lead to some volatility in the profit

this framework for the first time this

and loss, particularly when hedge

coming year. The risk of ‘getting it wrong’

accounting requirements are not met and

from an accounting or internal control

therefore the fair value of the derivative

perspective has never been higher and

is marked to market through the profit or

regulators in many countries have been

loss. Companies in the airline industry

more active and willing to challenge

generally have higher cashflow volatilities

accounting treatments.

and higher asset bases compared to many other industries, which leave them

The transition to IFRS by European and

vulnerable to asset impairment if there

certain Asia-Pacific carriers has set

are sudden demand shocks. The range

airlines on a path toward harmonization

and impact of the risk factors KPMG has

of financial reporting. The reporting

reviewed highlights the potential for

KPMG has surveyed, demonstrates that

volatility in results.

global airlines transitioning to IFRS have made similar adjustments in their

The nature of IFRS transition adjustments

financial statements. KPMG’s survey also

KPMG has reviewed illustrates a trend

highlights that IFRS transition

toward harmonization of accounting

adjustments have been significant in

policies between airlines, which should

terms of their size and nature on the

enable greater comparability for

balance sheet and the income statement

stakeholders when reviewing the

in the areas of recognition and

reporting of different airlines. However,

measurement of financial instruments,

KPMG’s survey also shows that differing

property, plant and equipment, revenue

accounting policy choices remain under

recognition and accounting for post-

IFRS, both on transition and on an

employment benefits.

ongoing basis, which suggests some differences in the basis of accounting will

Looking ahead, KPMG’s Global Airline

continue. Divergent interpretations of

practice believes that the ongoing

accounting standards, along with

transition to IFRS, and the increasing

different airline fact patterns, will often

trend to a fair value measurement basis,

result in differences in the application

is likely to lead to greater volatility for

of IFRS.

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The goal of one set of harmonized accounting standards is moving forward slowly with the increasing collaboration of the U.S. Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) and IASB with a view to convergence of IFRS and U.S. GAAP. The ‘roadmap’ set out in the agreement between these standard-setters includes a series of steps that require completion prior to the SEC agreeing to eliminate its reconciliation requirement for SEC foreign private issuers that report under IFRS. Convergence topics on the FASB/IASB agenda include; accounting for revenue, intangible assets, leasing and financial instruments. It is no coincidence that these topics are the critical accounting policies highlighted by airlines in their reporting and discussed in this survey. As a result of the work of the IASB and FASB, divergence in significant airline accounting policies is likely to be reduced gradually. For example, the IASB is reviewing the choices for the capitalization of borrowing costs which may more closely align IFRS with U.S. GAAP, whilst the FASB is reviewing maintenance accounting which may reduce some, if not all, of the discrepancies with IFRS. The overall message it would seem is that in this phase of almost continual transition and convergence of U.S. GAAP and IFRS, the need for engagement and communication between airlines and standard-setters has never been greater.

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1 Critical accounting policies 1.1 Revenue recognition

The general accounting practice

when to recognize unavailed revenue

1.1.1 Passenger and freight revenue

for passenger and freight revenue

which occurs where tickets are not used

recognition is that revenue received is

(also known as ’breakage’). Judgements

Perhaps the most critical accounting

deferred and classified as a liability on

and assumptions underpinning estimates

policy for all airlines is revenue

the balance sheet until the passenger

of when to recognize unavailed revenue

recognition, with the industry generally

or freight is actually uplifted at which

can have a significant impact on results.

generating thin profit margins. Airline

time the revenue is recognized in profit

For this reason, the majority of U.S.

revenue recognition extends from core

and loss.

airlines surveyed highlight this as an area

passenger and freight revenue to

of significant judgement in their financial

accounting for complex loyalty or

This recognition principle results in

frequent flyer programs.

estimation being required to determine


4 K P M G ’s A i r l i n e R i s k a n d Ac c o u n t i n g Po l i c i e s a n d D i s c l o s u r e s H a n d b o o k

Sample of accounting policies British

Passenger ticket and cargo waybill sales, net of discounts, are recorded as current liabilities in the ’sale in


advance of carriage’ account until recognised as revenue when the transportation service is provided. Commission costs are recognised at the same time as the revenue to which they relate and are charged to cost of sales. Unused tickets are recognised as revenue using estimates regarding the timing of recognition based on the terms and conditions of the ticket and historical trends. Other revenue is recognised at the time the service is provided.

Reporting GAAP:

IFRS as adopted by the European Union


Passenger and cargo sales are recognised as operating revenue when the transportation is provided. The


value of unused tickets and air waybills is included in current liabilities as sales in advance of carriage and recognised as revenue if unused after two years and one year respectively.

Reporting GAAP:

Singapore Financial Reporting Standards


…Tickets sold for passenger air travel are initially referred to as “Air traffic liability”. Passenger revenue is


recognized and air traffic liability is reduced when the service is provided (i.e., when the flight takes place). “Air traffic liability” represents tickets sold for future travel dates and estimated future refunds and exchanges of tickets sold for past travel dates. The balance in “Air traffic liability” fluctuates throughout the year based on seasonal travel patterns and fare sale activity. The Company's “Air travel liability” balance at December 31, 2005 was $649 million, compared to $529 million as of December 31, 2004… Events and circumstances outside of historical fare sale activity or historical Customer travel patterns, as noted, can result in actual refunds, exchanges, or forfeited tickets differing significantly from estimates. The company evaluates its estimates within a narrow range of acceptable amounts. If actual refunds, exchanges or forfeiture experience results in an amount outside of this range, estimates and assumptions are reviewed and adjustments to “Air traffic liability” and to “Passenger revenue” are recorded, as necessary. Additional factors that may affect estimated refunds and exchanges include, but may not be limited to, the Company's refund and exchange policy, the mix of refundable and non-refundable fares, and promotional fare activity. The company's estimation techniques have been consistently applied from year to year; however, as with any estimates, actual refund, exchange, and forfeiture activity may vary from estimated amounts…

Reporting GAAP:

U.S. GAAP (currency quoted in U.S. dollars)

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Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies

expenses incurred in generating revenue,

The financial reports surveyed highlight

such as commissions, taxes and other

key assumptions and judgements which

levies, does not impact net profit or loss,

impact passenger and freight revenue

it impacts non-GAAP financial performance

recognition. These include determining:

measures such as unit cost per seat mile

• when and how unavailed revenue

ratios that receive close attention from

recognized on the balance sheet

Whilst an accounting policy of offsetting

analysts and finance providers.

should be released to profit and loss • the amount of expenses to be netted

The disclosure of one-off changes to

against revenues rather than being

estimates is guided by the relevant

recognised as a cost of sale; and

reporting GAAP. A number of airlines in

• the disclosure of changes in customer

the survey have reported these changes

behaviour or ticket conditions between

as they occur. The materiality of the

reporting periods which result in

change in estimate is likely to guide the

one-off amounts of revenue being

extent of the disclosure.


Survey findings In practical terms, implementation of

All airlines surveyed defer passenger and

an appropriate revenue recognition

freight revenue until the customer or

accounting policy and underlying

cargo is uplifted. There are a variety of

methodology will be dependent on

disclosures dealing with accounting for

available historical data, sophistication of

unavailed revenue. The U.S. airlines

revenue accounting systems and the

surveyed state that they recognize

availability of data to determine breakage

unavailed revenue based on estimates

rates. For example, whether breakage

that are underpinned by historic trends,

data is available by ticket type, route

adjusting for ticket usage patterns,

(leisure routes may have different

refunds, exchanges and inter-line

breakage rates than business routes) and

adjustments. Generally, other airlines

inter-line tickets (where a passenger

state only that unavailed revenue is

ticket is sold by one airline but the

recognized on a ’systematic basis’.

passenger is flown by another airline).

Singapore Airlines is the only airline that

The sample accounting policies show

states specifically that passenger

that methods vary from detailed

unavailed revenue is recognized on a

statistical and historical trend analysis to

time expiry basis if the ticket remains

time based recognition. In either

unused for more than two years.

instance, the underlying ticket terms and conditions are key in determining an appropriate accounting policy.

6 K P M G ’s D i s c l o s u r e s H a n d b o o k : Ac c o u n t i n g a n d F i n a n c i a l Re p o r t i n g i n t h e G l o b a l A i r l i n e I n d u s t r y

1.1.2 Frequent flyer accounting

• ’Deferred revenue’ method. Revenue from sold points is deferred on the

Customer loyalty programs or ’frequent

balance sheet and recognized in the

flyer’ programs are now a core product

profit or loss when the award points

offering for most multiple-class airlines

are redeemed. For earned points, a

and a growing number of low cost

portion of the passenger revenue is

carriers to differentiate from competitors

deferred as a liability in the balance

and capture higher yielding business

sheet and only recognised as revenue

customers. Frequent flyer programs offer

when the points are redeemed. No

passengers the opportunity to earn

associated provisions are required.

points or ’miles’, which can be redeemed in exchange for free flights or other

Revenue and cost recognition profiles are

products. Points or miles are principally

profoundly different under the two

earned in two ways:

methodologies. Airlines reporting under

• Earned points – points earned through

U.S. GAAP and many airlines that have

travel on an airline or an airline’s

transitioned to IFRS apply the ‘deferred

partners’ qualifying flights.

revenue’ method for sold points. The

• Sold points – points sold to third

majority of airlines continue to account

parties such as credit card providers,

for earned points using the ‘incremental

hotels and car rental companies. These

cost’ method. Most U.S. airlines discuss

third parties reward their customers

accounting under both methodologies

with points when they purchase or

and provide a summary of both

use their products. Cash is received

methodologies. The Qantas disclosure

by the airline from the third party upon

summarizes the accounting position

issue of the points by the airline.

under IFRS. The International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee

There are two principle methods of

(IFRIC), the interpretation body for IFRS,

accounting for frequent flyer programs in

is currently looking at loyalty program

the airline industry:

accounting and the appropriate revenue

• ’Incremental cost’ method. Revenue

recognition. As IFRS converges with U.S.

from sold points is recognized

GAAP, it will be interesting to see the

immediately and passenger revenue

outcome of the IFRIC’s review.

for flights on which passengers earn points is recognised in accordance with the airline’s revenue recognition policy (see 1.1.1). A provision is then recognized based on the marginal or incremental cost per point (i.e. the cost of fuel, meals, insurance and ticketing costs) to the airline of point redemption. The provision is extinguished when the passenger utilizes or ’burns’ the points.

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Sample of accounting policies United Airlines

Frequent Flyer Accounting. United’s Mileage Plus frequent flyer program awards mileage credits to passengers who fly on United, Ted, United Express, the Star Alliance carriers and certain other airlines that participate in the program. Additionally, United sells mileage credits to participating airline partners in the Mileage Plus program and ULS sells mileage credits to non-airline business partners. In any case, the outstanding miles may be redeemed for travel on United, or any airline that participates in the program (in which case, United pays a designated amount to reimburse the transporting carrier). The Company has an obligation to provide this future travel; therefore, we recognize a liability and corresponding expense for mileage earned by passengers who flew on United, Ted, United Express, Star Alliance partners, or one of the Mileage Plus airline partners. For miles earned by members through non-airline business partners, a portion of revenue from the sale of mileage is deferred and recognized when the transportation is provided. At December 31, 2005, our estimated outstanding number of awards to be issued against earned and outstanding mileage credits was approximately 10.1 million, compared to 10.2 million for December 31, 2004. We currently estimate that approximately 8.3 million of these awards will ultimately be redeemed and, accordingly, have recorded a liability of $923 million, which includes the deferred revenue from the sale of miles to non-airline business partners. We utilize a number of estimates in accounting for the Mileage Plus program that require management judgment as discussed below. Members may not reach the threshold necessary for a free ticket award and outstanding miles may not always be redeemed for free travel. Therefore, based on historical data and other information, we estimate how many miles will never be used for an award and exclude those miles from our estimate of the Company’s liability. We also estimate the average number of miles that will be used to redeem an award, which can vary depending upon member choices from alternative award categories. If average actual miles used per award redeemed are more or less than previously estimated, we must subsequently adjust the liability and corresponding expense. A hypothetical 1% change in our estimate of breakage, currently estimated at 18%, has approximately a U.S. $3.5 million effect on the liability.

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Sample of accounting policies When a travel award level is attained by a Mileage Plus member, we record a liability for the estimated incremental cost to United of providing the related future travel, based on expected redemption. For award redemptions expected to occur on United, United’s incremental costs are estimated to include variable items such as fuel, meals, insurance and ticketing costs, for what would otherwise be a vacant seat. The estimate of incremental costs does not include any indirect costs or contribution to overhead or profit. A change to these cost estimates, such as a significant change in jet fuel prices, could have a significant impact on our liability in the year of change as well as in future years, since underlying variable cost factors can differ significantly from period to period. A hypothetical 1% change in the cost of jet fuel has approximately a U.S. $783 thousand effect on the liability. In 2005, 1.9 million Mileage Plus travel awards were used on United, as compared to 1.7 million awards used in 2004, and 2.0 million in 2003. This number represents the number of awards for which travel was actually provided and not the number of available seats that were allocated to award travel. These awards represented 6.6 percent of United’s total revenue passenger miles in 2005, 7.4% in 2004 and 9.0% in 2003. Passenger preference for Saver awards, which have stringent seat inventory level limitations but require the use of fewer miles to redeem the award, keeps the potential displacement of revenue passengers on United by award travel at a lower level than would be the case for less restrictive awards. Total miles redeemed for travel on United in 2005, including travel awards and class-of-service upgrades, represented U.S. 79% of the total miles redeemed, of which 70% were used for travel within the US and Canada… Reporting GAAP:

U.S. GAAP (currency quoted in U.S. dollars)


The Qantas Group receives revenue from the sale to third parties of rights to have Qantas award points allocated to members of the Qantas Frequent Flyer Program. This revenue is deferred and recognised in the Income Statement when the points are redeemed and passengers uplifted. Members of the Qantas Frequent Flyer Program also accumulate points by travelling on qualifying Qantas and partner airline services. The obligation to provide travel rewards to members arising from these points is provided for as points are accumulated, net of estimated points that will not be redeemed. The provision is based on the incremental cost (being the cost of meals, fuel and passenger expenses) of providing the travel rewards. The provision is reduced as members redeem awards or if their entitlements expire.

Reporting GAAP:


Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies

Application of the ’incremental cost’

when a ticket is sold, versus deferring


a portion of a ticket value attributable

The financial reports surveyed emphasise

• Displacement of fare-paying

to the points. Most of the U.S. airlines

that frequent flyer accounting involves a

passengers – to support use of the

surveyed note that displacement of

high level of estimation and judgement.

‘incremental cost’ method, it is

revenue passengers is kept to a

The reports surveyed make reference to

important for airlines to analyse the

minimal level through management of

a number of estimates that form the

level of displacement of fare-paying

load factors, frequent flyer inventory,

basis of accounting for these schemes,

passengers to demonstrate that

frequent flyer travel ’black out’ periods

as outlined below.

frequent flyers are utilising a seat that

and this is illustrated through the the

would otherwise be vacant. This is a

low ratio of points usage to revenue

key assumption in enabling the airline

passenger miles (see table on page 9).

to raise a provision for the points

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• Estimation of the incremental cost of

This portion of revenue is then

inactive accounts, mileage related to

fulfilling the award. Airlines estimate

deferred in the balance sheet and

accounts that have not yet reached the

the marginal or incremental cost of a

recognised as revenue when the

lowest level of free travel award, and

point. The incremental cost may differ

points are utilised.

mileage in active accounts that have

depending on whether the points are expected to be redeemed on its own

reached the lowest level of free travel • Proportion of cash earned on sold

award but which are not expected to ever

airline or other airlines or providers of

points – where cash is received from

services. When points are purchased

third parties on the sale of points, how

from other airlines or providers of

much revenue (if any) can be

A number of U.S. airlines and U.S. GAAP

services to satisfy redemptions, they

recognized on sale with the remainder

filers disclose the portion of ‘Revenue

are accrued at the contractual rate of

(usually the whole or vast majority of

Passenger Miles’ relating to frequent

expected redemption on those carriers

value) recognized on uplift.

flyer award flights as part of their

be redeemed for free travel …”

rationale that there is minimal passenger

and service providers. When the points are redeemed by flying on that

Survey findings

displacement from award flights. These

airline or a partner airline the liability is

One of the distinct trends the survey

disclosures are summarised on page 9.


highlights is the move towards adoption of the ‘deferred revenue’ method for sold

Application of both ’incremental cost’ and

points for non-U.S. airlines. Cathay

’deferred’ method

Pacific, British Airways and Qantas have

• Estimation of breakage rates (i.e.

transitioned from ‘incremental cost’ to

points awarded which will not be

‘deferred revenue’ accounting for sold

utilised) will depend on point expiry

points in the 2005 reporting period, the

time limits and are usually determined

latter two on adoption of IFRS in 2005.

by reference to historical rates of point

All airlines surveyed that report under


U.S. GAAP adopt a ‘deferred revenue’

• Assessment of the threshold at which

approach for sold points and the

an accrual for points is recognized.

‘incremental cost’ method for earned

Some airlines such as American, Delta

points. All other airlines surveyed adopt

and United Airlines do not accrue a

the ‘incremental cost’ method for earned

liability until a frequent flyer member


reaches the minimum threshold mileage to claim a free flight.

The level of disclosures in relation to the measurement of provisions under the

Application of the ’deferred revenue’

‘incremental cost’ method varies. JetBlue


state that in estimating their provision for

• Estimation of the revenue per point –

such incremental costs ‘we currently

this is relevant where airlines have

assume that 90 percent of earned

adopted ‘deferred revenue’ accounting

awards will be redeemed and that 30

for earned points. When applying this

percent of our outstanding points will

methodology to earned points, an

ultimately result in awards’.

airline must estimate the portion of revenue paid for a ticket that relates to

American Airlines’ 10k states, “in making

the frequent flyer points earned when

the estimate of free travel awards,

the ticket is purchased.

American has excluded mileage in

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Airline 2005




American Airlines1





America West2





British Airways





Continental Airlines4





Delta Airlines4





Northwest Airlines4





Southwest Airlines5





United Airlines4





N/D = Not disclosed 1 = of passengers boarded 2 = Average awards redeemed as a percentage of revenue passenger miles in each year 3 = Frequent flyer revenue passenger kilometres (RPK) as a percentage of total RPKs) 4 = Award flights as a percentage of revenue passenger miles in each year 5 = of revenue passengers carried

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1.2 Property, plant and equipment

IFRS requires major component parts of

1.2.1 Aircraft cost

depreciation policies applied to each

The airline industry has contended with

identified component. Typically, this might

several significant events in recent times

involve separately identifying and

that have led to major losses, bankruptcy

depreciating components such as

or bankruptcy protection of a number of

airframes, engines, cost of major

major airlines. This has included the

inspections, modifications, seats, in-flight

terrorist attacks in New York and London,

entertainment, landing gear, rotables

SARS, the Iraq war, Bali bombings and

and repairables.

assets to be capitalized and appropriate

avian flu. These events have impacted the secondary aircraft market and

A common feature of aircraft purchase

consequently the valuation of aircraft

contracts are the offering of manufacturer

assets in financial statements.

or engine ’credits’ to airlines as an incentive to purchase a manufacturer’s

Aircraft and aircraft-related assets are

aircraft or engine. These credits are in-

high-cost assets. The list price of a new

substance rebates or discounts from the

wide-bodied aircraft may be in the

purchase price of the asset and are

hundreds of millions of dollars.

typically deducted from the acquisition

Accounting for such high value and

cost of the asset capitalized on the

complex assets involves consideration of

balance sheet.

several factors. Foremost of these is the determination of what costs are capitalized as part of the cost of the aircraft. Generally all costs incurred in bringing the aircraft into working condition should be capitalized. This will include purchase-right payments and may also include capitalized borrowing costs where the funds are borrowed specifically (or a notional allocation of general indebtness) for an aircraft that is deemed to be a ‘qualifying’ asset. Under IFRS there is a choice as to whether borrowing costs relating to a ‘qualifying’ asset are expensed, whereas U.S. GAAP requires such borrowing costs to be capitalized. (This principle is the subject of review by the IASB with the potential for the option to expense borrowing costs being eliminated).

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Sample of accounting policies easyJet

Tangible fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation… … An element of the cost of a new aircraft is attributed to prepaid maintenance of its engines and airframe… The cost of new Airbus aircraft comprises the invoiced price of the aircraft from the supplier less the estimated value of other assets received by easyJet for no consideration in connection with the transaction to purchase aircraft. Principal assets received for no consideration in connection with the acquisition of aircraft include the following: • Cash – The cash received is recognised as an asset in the balance sheet. The corresponding credits are treated as a discount and are spread equally across each of the 120 Airbus aircraft to be delivered. • Aircraft spares – These are capitalised in the balance sheet at their list price and are then depreciated according to easyJet’s stated accounting policies for spares. The corresponding credits are then spread equally across the cost of each of the 120 Airbus aircraft to be delivered. Advance payments and option payments made in respect of aircraft purchase commitments and options to acquire aircraft where the balance is expected to be funded by mortgage financing are recorded at cost. On acquisition of the related aircraft, these payments are included as part of the cost of aircraft and are depreciated from that date…

Reporting GAAP:

easyJet’s disclosure of anticipated accounting policies under IFRS as adopted by the European Union released in January 2006


Items of property, plant and equipment are initially recorded at cost, being the fair value of the consideration provided plus incidental costs directly attributable to the acquisition… Major modifications to aircraft and the costs associated with placing the aircraft into service are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset to which they relate. The cost of major inspections of aircraft and engines is capitalised and depreciated over the scheduled usage period to the next major inspection event. All other aircraft maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Manpower costs in relation to employees that are dedicated to major modifications to aircraft are capitalised as part of the cost of the modification to which they relate. Borrowing costs associated with the acquisition of qualifying assets such as aircraft and the acquisition, construction or production of significant items of other property, plant and equipment are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset to which they relate.

Reporting GAAP:


Air France–KLM

Special rule for the opening balance sheet In the context of the initial application of the IFRS and in accordance with the option offered by IFRS 1, the Group valued the fair value of its fleet at April 1, 2004 and used this valuation as the “assumed cost”. This treatment thus allows the Group to have all of its fleet accounted for at fair value, given that market value was used when valuing the acquisition balance sheet for the acquisition of the KLM group in the same period (May 1, 2004). The valuations were conducted by independent experts.

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Sample of accounting policies Principles applicable since April 1, 2004 Property, plant and equipment are recorded at the historical acquisition or manufacturing cost, less total amortizations and any depreciation for loss of value. The financial interest on the capital used to finance the investments during the period prior to operation are an integral part of the historical cost. Insofar as investment installments are not financed by specific loans, the Group uses the average interest rate on the current unallocated loans at the end of the period in question. Maintenance costs are booked as expenses for the period, with the exception of programs that extend the useful life of the asset or increase its value, which are then capitalized (maintenance on airframes and engines excluding parts with limited useful lives). Flight equipment The acquisition price of aircraft equipment is denominated in foreign currencies. It is converted at the payment price or, if applicable, at the hedging price assigned to it. Manufacturers’ discounts if any are deducted from the value of the asset in question. Aircraft are depreciated using the straight-line method over their average estimated useful life. Since April 1, 2004, this period has been set at 20 years without residual value except in special cases. Given a market in which transactions are denominated in U.S. dollars, and the useful life set on average at 20 years, no residual value on the date of entry into service is determined on the acquisition date. The accounting standard recommends an annual review of the residual value and the amortization schedule. During the operating cycle, in developing fleet replacement plans, the Group reviews whether the amortizable base or the useful life should be adapted and, if necessary, determines whether a residual value should be recognized. Any airframes and engines (excluding parts with a limited useful life) are isolated from the aircraft acquisition price and amortized over the current duration until the next scheduled major maintenance event. Aircraft parts are recorded in the consolidated balance sheet as fixed assets. The amortization period varies from 3 to 20 years depending on the technical properties of each item. Reporting GAAP:

IFRS as adopted by the European Union

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Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies

• Accounting for modifications to aircraft. Modifications may require

Outlined below are the key factors that

capitalization depending on their

impact the accounting for aircraft cost:


• The level of component parts which are identified and capitalized and the

• Accounting for maintenance

useful lives and residual values of

expenditure. Airlines must distinguish

these components. (Useful lives,

between one-off maintenance repairs

depreciation rates and residual values

which restore an asset to its normal

are considered in further detail in

condition, for example, repairs arising

section 1.2.4.)

from birdstrike damage which should be expensed, as opposed to major

• The elements of costs to be

maintenance expenditure or

capitalized into the aircraft. Costs

expenditure which replaces

capitalized under IFRS are not always

components of an aircraft. For

the same as those permitted under

example, a new type of business class

U.S. GAAP, for example, under IFRS

seat or more efficient fuel delivery

interest costs are either capitalised or

system which would be capitalizable

expensed whereas under U.S. GAAP

as an asset. (This is discussed in more

interest costs must be capitalised

detail in section 1.2.2.)

where the company has deemed an aircraft to be a qualifying asset. Also,

Survey findings

hedging gains or losses on progress

The nature of costs disclosed by airlines

payments are generally included in the

as capitalized as part of the cost of the

determination of the cost of the

aircraft were generally consistent.

aircraft and where IFRS and U.S. GAAP differ on accounting for

The accounting for manufacturers’

derivatives, it may impact the costs

credits/discounts were not disclosed by

that can be capitalized.

most airlines surveyed, however when the accounting policy was disclosed such

The treatment of credits received from

as by easyJet, they were deducted from

aircraft or engine suppliers to incentivise

the initial cost of the asset.

the purchase of aircraft. These credits come in various forms including

Where aircraft were purchased through a

guaranteed trade-in values, spare parts

series of progress payments, the interest

support, marketing support, training

attributed to these payments was

support or introduction cost support. The

generally capitalized as a cost of the

financial statements of airlines surveyed

underlying aircraft asset.

indicates that the vast majority of these rebates are offset against the cost

The level of disclosure in respect of

capitalized in respect of the aircraft and

accounting for component parts of an

not recognized as revenue in the profit

aircraft and associated depreciation

or loss.

policies is summarized in section 1.2.4.

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1.2.2 Maintenance accounting

The survey highlighted that airlines adopt

aircraft. Instead (using aircraft as an

varying accounting policies for

example) IFRS requires that major

Airlines are required to conduct varying

maintenance. Routine ’day-to-day’

inspection costs are recognized as a

levels of aircraft maintenance which

maintenance is usually expensed. Heavy

component of the cost of aircraft asset

involve significantly different labor and

or major cyclical maintenance is

and depreciated over the period to the

materials inputs.

accounted for in three different ways

next heavy maintenance ‘event.’

(depending on the reporting GAAP): Maintenance requirements depend on

expensed as incurred; capitalized as a

U.S. GAAP allows any of the three

the age and type of aircraft and the route

component part of the aircraft’s cost and

options of expensing major maintenance:

network over which they operate.

depreciated over the period to the next

expensing as incurred, capitalization as a

Technological changes mean that ‘new

major maintenance ’event’; or provided

component part of the aircraft or creation

generation’ aircraft have maintenance

for in advance based on the expected

of provisions for expected costs in

profiles different to older aircraft.

cost of maintenance. Power-by-the-hour

advance. However, the FASB is currently

maintenance agreements are becoming

reviewing the option to create a provision

Fleet maintenance requirements may

more prevalent, with the accounting for

in advance for expected maintenance

involve short cycle engineering checks,

these depending on the substance of the

costs, with the current preferred option

for example, component checks, monthly

agreement and whether the aircraft is

to expense as incurred. Under both IFRS

checks, annual airframe checks, periodic

owned or leased.

and U.S. GAAP routine servicing and

heavy maintenance (eg. ’C’ checks and

maintenance costs must be expensed

’D’ checks) and engine checks. With ‘new

The accounting policy adopted is

generation’ aircraft changing historic

somewhat dependent on the GAAP

maintenance profiles, the fact pattern of

under which the airline reports. IFRS

the airline’s actual system of

prohibits creating a provision for major

maintenance is crucial.

maintenance in advance for owned

as incurred.

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Sample of accounting policies British Airways

Major overhaul expenditure, including replacement spares and labour costs, is capitalised and amortised over the average expected life between major overhauls. All other replacement spares and other costs relating to maintenance of fleet assets are charged to the income statement on consumption or as incurred respectively.

Reporting GAAP:

IFRS as adopted by the European Union


Routine maintenance, airframe and engine overhauls are charged to expense as incurred or when the asset is


inducted at the vendor for service, except engine overhaul costs covered by power-by-the-hour type agreements, which are accrued on the basis of hours flown. Modification that enhance the operating performance or extend the useful lives of airframes or engines are capitalized and amortized over the remaining estimated useful life of the asset.

Reporting GAAP: Ryanair

U.S. GAAP With respect to the group’s operating lease agreements, where the group has a commitment to maintain the aircraft, provision is made during the lease term for the obligation based on estimated future costs of major airframe and certain engine maintenance checks by making appropriate charges to the profit and loss account calculated by reference to the number of hours or cycles operated during the year. All other maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.

Reporting GAAP:

Irish and UK GAAP with no difference noted in the subsequent IFRS release in August 2005

United Airlines

Maintenance and repairs, including the cost of minor replacements, are charged to maintenance expense as incurred, except for costs incurred under our power by the hour engine maintenance agreements, which are expensed based upon the number of hours flown‌

Reporting GAAP:


U.S. Airways

Maintenance and repair costs for owned and leased flight equipment are charged to operating expense as incurred. AWA historically recorded the cost of major scheduled airframe, engine and certain component overhauls as capitalized assets that were subsequently amortized over the periods benefited, (referred to as the deferral method). U.S. Airways Group charges maintenance and repair costs for owned and leased flight equipment to operating expense as incurred. In 2005, AWA changed its accounting policy from the deferral method to the direct expense method. While the deferral method is permitted under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, U.S. Airway Group and AWA believe that the direct expense method is preferable and the predominant method used in the airline industry. The effect of this change in accounting for aircraft maintenance and repairs is recorded as a cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle.

Reporting GAAP:


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Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies

• How is the useful life for capitalized maintenance determined? It may be

The financial reports surveyed show that

difficult to establish accurate periods

capitalization of heavy maintenance or

for maintenance depreciation given

providing for maintenance in advance

different aircraft utilization/cycles.

requires significant levels of judgment on the part of management due to the

Survey findings

estimation involved. Where maintenance

Airlines reporting under IFRS, or

is capitalized, in our experience

transitioning to IFRS account for major

management typically consider:

maintenance as a component of the

• What maintenance events are

aircraft and capitalize and depreciate the

capitalized? What defines ’major

maintenance cost over the period until

maintenance’ – is it by type of check

the next maintenance ‘event’. Almost all

or measured by a quantitative

airlines surveyed that have transitioned to

threshold? What constitutes major

IFRS including British Airways, Air France

maintenance for airframes and for

– KLM and Qantas have moved from a


policy of expensing all maintenance to

• What constitutes a major cyclical

capitalizing heavy maintenance.

maintenance expense versus ’abnormal’ maintenance? • How are costs measured? The

Of the airlines surveyed, accounting for maintenance and repairs under ’power-by-

measurement of costs may be clear

the-hour’ contracts generally were

if it is based on an actual invoices

accrued and expensed on the basis of

provided by a third party, but how are

hours flown.

costs attributed if an airline undertakes its own maintenance? • How are power-by-the-hour contracts

Airlines surveyed that report under U.S. GAAP either capitalized or expensed

accounted for? Straight forward

maintenance costs. A limited sample of

power-by-the-hour costs are expensed

the airlines surveyed disclosed the

but often top-up or refund

treatment of maintenance costs on

arrangements embedded in the

different fleet types.

contracts may mean that by-the-hour arrangements are in substance maintenance prepayments and therefore require different accounting. • How are maintenance costs for aircraft subject to an operating lease accounted for? Typically aircraft operating leases include requirements to undertake maintenance in line with manufacturers’ recommendations and some airlines provide for maintenance on a flying hour basis.

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1.2.3 Airport landing and gate slots

resulted in airlines trading airport landing

operating rights is generally capitalized as

and gate slots in an informal ’secondary

an intangible asset by airlines reporting

As global air traffic continues to grow,

market’, particularly at key international

under IFRS and U.S. GAAP.

space at airports is becoming

hubs such as London Heathrow. The cost

increasingly constrained. This has

of acquiring landing slots or airport

Sample of accounting policies American

Route acquisition costs and airport operating and gate lease rights represent the purchase price attributable


to route authorities (including international airport take-off and landing slots), domestic airport take-off and landing slots and airport gate leasehold rights acquired. Indefinite-lived intangible assets (route acquisition costs) are tested for impairment annually on December 31, rather than amortized, in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 142, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” (SFAS 142). Airport operating and gate lease rights are being amortized on a straight-line basis over 25 years to a zero residual value.

Reporting GAAP:


British Airways

Landing rights acquired from other airlines either directly or as a result of a business combination are capitalised at cost (or at fair value if acquired through a business combination) and amortised over a period not exceeding 20 years. The carrying value is reviewed for impairment if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Reporting GAAP:

IFRS as adopted by the European Union


Routes represent the right to fly between cities in different countries. Routes are indefinite – lived intangible assets and are not amortized. We perform a test for impairment of our routes in the fourth quarter of each year. Airport operating rights represent gate space and slots (the right to schedule an arrival or departure within designated hours at a particular airport). Airport operating rights are amortized over the stated term of the related lease or 20 years…

Reporting GAAP:



Airport landing slots are stated at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Airport landing slots are allocated to cash generating units and are not amortised as they are considered to have an indefinite useful life and are tested annually for impairment.

Reporting GAAP:


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Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies

for impairment annually and when there

Several airlines surveyed had capitalized

are indicators of impairment at reporting

acquired landing slots as indefinite life

The financial reports surveyed highlight


intangible assets. A number of the U.S.

that accounting for landing slots or

airlines surveyed had capitalized airport-

operating rights is dependent on the

Survey findings

operating rights and amortized them over

underlying rights and length of access

The accounting policies of the airlines

a period of 20-25 years.

that the slots or rights provide. Under

surveyed were mixed. The majority of

both U.S. GAAP and IFRS intangible

non-U.S. airlines surveyed made no

The impairment testing of intangible

assets with an indefinite useful life are

specific disclosures in relation to aircraft

assets is considered in section 1.2.5.

not amortized, but rather are assessed

landing slots.

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1.2.4 Depreciation and residual values

aircraft. These aircraft have reduced

vary across airlines. This may cause

operating costs and are adversely

significant differences in periodical

Two of the most basic but important

impacting the values of older aircraft in

profitability and impact the comparability

accounting estimates airline management

the secondary market. When decisions

of businesses within the industry.

make is the useful lives and residual

are made to retire aircraft earlier than

values of aircraft. These estimates

anticipated, accelerated depreciation may

determine effective depreciation rates.

need to be applied prospectively to reduce the carrying value of aircraft.

Useful lives and residual values of existing aircraft fleets are increasingly

Aircraft-related, asset depreciation

being impacted by ‘new generation’

policies and residual value assumptions

Sample of accounting policies Alitalia

Tangible assets are depreciated on a straight line basis every year using depreciation rates intended to reflect the remaining useful life of the assets. More specifically, the following rates of depreciation are charged on the fleet – depreciation is in line with normal practice in the air transport industry: Long haul aircraft (B777, B767, MD11)

20 years

Short-medium haul aircraft (A321, A320, A319, MD80, ERJ145)

18 years

5% 5.5%

Turboprop aircraft (ATR 72)

14 years


The recoverability of the value of tangible assets is checked using the method laid down by IAS 36 as described under “Impairment of assets”. The depreciable amount of a tangible asset consists of its initial book value net of its residual value. IAS 16 defines residual value as an estimate of the amount the business expects to recover through the sale of the asset, net of disposal costs, assuming the asset is already in the condition expected for it at the end of its useful life. The Alitalia Group has adopted a certain percentage of the initial historic cost of its aircraft as their residual value as follows: 10%

For B777, B767, MD11, A321, A320, A319, ERJ145


For MD80, ATR72


For ATR42

Useful life is intended as the period of time during which an asset is expected to be available for use by the business. The Alitalia Group extends the useful life of those aircraft which, having undergone their third heavy maintenance, show a lag between the depreciation period of the aircraft and the period of the cyclical maintenance…

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Sample of accounting policies …Where the individual components of a complex tangible asset have different useful lives, they are recorded separately so that they can be depreciated over their useful lives using a component approach. In particular, aircraft have been broken down into the following components: • heavy maintenance (i.e. D-check, IL inspection); • airframe; • engine. The component approach is also used to separate the value of land and buildings. Only buildings are depreciated. Assets held under finance leases are depreciated based on their estimated useful lives in the same manner as owned assets… Reporting GAAP:

IFRS as adopted by the European Union


The provision for depreciation of operating equipment and property is computed on the straight-line method


applied to each unit of property, except that major rotable parts, avionics and assemblies are depreciated on a group basis. The depreciable lives used for the principal depreciable asset classifications are: Depreciable Life American jet aircraft and engines

20-30 years

Major rotable parts, avionics and assemblies

Life of equipment to which applicable

Improvements to leased flight equipment

Term of lease

Buildings and improvements (principally on leased land)

5-30 years or term of lease, including estimated renewal options when renewal is economically compelled at key airports

Furniture, fixtures and other equipment

3-10 years

Capitalized software

3-10 years

Effective January 1, 2005, in order to more accurately reflect the expected useful life of its aircraft, the Company changed its estimate of the depreciable lives of its Boeing 737-800, Boeing 757-200 and McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft from 25 to 30 years. As a result of this change, Depreciation and amortization expense was reduced by approximately U.S. $108 million for the year ended December 31, 2005. Residual values for aircraft, engines, major rotable parts, avionics and assemblies are generally five to ten percent, except when guaranteed by a third party for a different amount. Equipment and property under capital leases are amortized over the term of the leases or, in the case of certain aircraft, over their expected useful lives. Lease terms vary but are generally ten to 25 years for aircraft and seven to 40 years for other leased equipment and property. Reporting GAAP:

U.S. GAAP (currency quoted in U.S. dollars)

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Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies

Survey findings

Determining an appropriate depreciation

policy assumptions are mixed. Generally

rate and associated aircraft residual value

aircraft assets are depreciated over 15 to

is dependent on a number of factors

25 years to residual values of between


0 to 20 percent. The straight-line method

• intended life of the fleet type being

of depreciation is the most commonly

operated by the airline • estimate of the economic life from the manufacturer

Depreciation and residual value accounting

used. Airline disclosures demonstrate that a small change in estimate can have a large impact on profit or loss. Appendix 1

• fleet deployment plans including

shows that there is significant divergence

timing of fleet replacements

depreciation assumptions. In our experience

• changes in technology

this is likely to reflect the different flying

• repairs and maintenance policies

patterns of each airline as well as differing

• aircraft operating cycles (long-haul

management views on this matter.

aircraft may have a different

Appendix 1 summarizes the individual

depreciation profile to high cycle short

asset type, useful lives, depreciation rates

haul aircraft)

and residual values of the airlines surveyed.

• prevailing market prices and the trend in price of second hand and replacement aircraft • legal constraints on registration • aircraft-related fixed asset depreciation rates, for example, rotables and repairables may reflect the airline’s ability to use common components across different aircraft types.

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1.2.5 Impairment testing

fuel prices. The industry, in particular the

The airline industry is highly capital

U.S., has lost billions of dollars over the

intensive. The majority of airlines have

past five years. Achieving an acceptable

hundreds of millions to billions of U.S.

return on capital is a constant challenge.

dollars of tangible assets capitalized on their balance sheet representing aircraft

The directors and management of airlines

and related infrastructure and support

not meeting required returns on capital or


sufficient levels of profitability are likely to be regularly reviewing the carrying

Whilst capital investment is high,

value of aircraft assets. Both IFRS and

earnings have historically been volatile.

U.S. GAAP require that a review for

The airline industry is vulnerable to

impairment be undertaken if events

economic recession and external demand

indicate that asset-carrying amounts may

shocks such as those caused by terrorist

not be recoverable, and this be done at

acts, pandemics or overseas conflicts.

least annually.

The latest challenge being record high

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Sample of accounting policies Air France –

Pursuant to IAS 36 "Impairment of Assets", the Group reviews annually the book values of tangible and


intangible assets in order to assess whether there is any indication showing that the value of these assets could change. If such an indication exists, the recoverable value of the assets is estimated in order to determine the amount, if any, of the loss of value. The recoverable value is the higher of two values: the fair value minus selling costs and its useful value. When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable value of an asset considered separately, it is attached to other assets. The Group determined that the smallest level at which assets could be tested were the cash-generating units (CGU) corresponding to the Group’s business sectors. When the recoverable value of a CGU is less than its book value, a depreciation is recognized. This depreciation is allocated first to the balance sheet value of the goodwill. The remainder is allocated to the other assets composing the CGU prorated on the basis of their book value. The recoverable value of the CGUs is determined by using a discount rate corresponding to the weighted average cost of the Group’s capital, which was 7.5% for fiscal 2004/05.

Reporting GAAP:

IFRS as adopted by the European Union


We record impairment losses on long-lived assets used in operations, primarily property and equipment and airport operating rights, when events and circumstances indicate that the assets might be impaired and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the carrying amount of those items. Our cash flow estimates are based on historical results adjusted to reflect our best estimate of future market and operating conditions. The net carrying value of assets not recoverable is reduced to fair value. Our estimates of fair value represent our best estimate based on industry trends and reference to market rates and transactions. We recognized fleet impairment losses in 2003 which were partially the result of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and the related aftermath. These events resulted in a re-evaluation of our operating and fleet plans, resulting in the grounding of certain older aircraft types or acceleration of the dates on which the related aircraft were to be removed from service. The grounding or acceleration of aircraft retirement dates resulted in reduced estimates of future cash flows. We recorded an impairment charge of $65 million to reflect decreases in the fair value of our owned MD-80s and spare parts inventory for permanently grounded fleets. We estimated the fair value of these aircraft and related inventory based on industry trends and, where available, reference to market rates and transactions. All other long-lived assets, principally our other fleet types and airport operating rights, were determined to be recoverable based on our estimates of future cash flows. There were no impairment losses recorded during 2004 and 2005. We also perform annual impairment tests on our routes, which are indefinite life intangible assets. These tests are based on estimates of discounted future cash flows, using assumptions consistent with those used for aircraft and airport operating rights impairment tests. We determined that we did not have any impairment of our routes at December 31, 2005.

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Sample of accounting policies We provide an allowance for spare parts inventory obsolescence over the remaining useful life of the related aircraft, plus allowances for spare parts currently identified as excess. These allowances are based on our estimates and industry trends, which are subject to change and, where available, reference to market rates and transactions. The estimates are more sensitive when we near the end of a fleet life or when we remove entire fleets from service sooner than originally planned. We regularly review the estimated useful lives and salvage values for our aircraft and spare parts. Reporting GAAP:

U.S. GAAP (currency quoted in U.S. dollars)


…All goodwill was for the first time subjected to a regular recoverability test under IAS 36 in financial year 2005. The tests have been performed at the level of the smallest cash generating unit (‘CGU’) on the basis of the value in use. The goodwill originating from the acquisition of Air Dolomiti S.p.A and of the Eurowings group has in this connection been tested as the smallest independent cash generating unit at the level of Lufthansa AG and it regional partners. The following table provides an overview of the goodwill tested and the assumptions included in the respective recoverability tests. CGU

Segment Carrying amount of goodwill Impairment Revenue growth p.a. planning period EBITDA margin planning period Rate of investment planning period Planning period Revenue growth p.a. after the end of the planning period EBITDA margin after the end of the planning period Rate of investment after the end of the planning period Discount rate





AG and


Chefs USA

Chefs Korea

regional partners Passenger business


Group Catering


€249m –

€20m €20m

€557m €280m

€65m –

2.5% to 6.4% 8.1% to 9.9%

2.5% to 4.6% 9.2% to 9.4%

-8.5% to 0.2% 4.7% to 5.1% -2.8% to 8.6% 4.7% to 5.1%

3.5% to 5.7% 3 years

0.6% to 1.3% 3 years

2% 4 years

1.0% to 1.9% 3 years









5.7% 9.8%

0.9% 9.5%

2% 9.8%

1% 9.8%

The assumptions used for the recoverability tests are based on external sources in the planning period. In some cases, risk reductions have been effected in order to allow for special regional features and market share trends specific to the respective company. In case revenue growth of the LSG Sky Chefs USA group should stagnate at 0 percent at the end of the planning period, this would result in an additional impairment of €78m under ceteris-paribus conditions. Reporting GAAP:

IFRS as adopted by the European Union (currency quoted in Euros)

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Sample of accounting policies U.S. Airways

We assess the impairment of long-lived assets and intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors which could trigger an impairment review include the following: significant changes in the matter of use of the assets; significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results; or significant negative industry or economic trends. An impairment has occurred when the future undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the carrying amount of those items. Cash flow estimates are based on historical results adjusted to reflect management’s best estimate of future market and operating conditions. The net carrying value of assets not recoverable is reduced to fair value. Estimates of fair value represent management’s best estimate based on appraisals, industry trends and reference to market rates and transactions. Changes in industry capacity and demand for air transportation can significantly impact the fair value of aircraft and related assets.

Reporting GAAP:


Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies • Both IFRS and U.S. GAAP embody the

on a number of different bases including: • Assessing that all aircraft assets should be grouped for impairment

concept that impairment testing

testing (based on economic

should be performed on the smallest


group of assets that work together to generate independent cash flows, ie (CGUs). • Determining the appropriate asset group to use as a basis for impairment testing requires significant judgment.

• Grouping assets on an aircraft fleet type basis.

Survey findings Many U.S. airlines have booked impairment charges in relation to aircraft assets. U.S. airlines generally disclose that asset impairment is undertaken on an aircraft type basis.

• Considering impairment on an individual aircraft asset basis. • Allocating aircraft assets to individual routes or route groups.

The disclosure of asset groups is

The majority of non-U.S. airlines surveyed were silent as to the basis on which impairment testing is undertaken, including the assets grouped for

limited in the reports surveyed, with

Different airlines’ circumstances will be

impairment testing. No non-U.S. airlines

only Lufthansa identifying the actual

the critical factor in applying this in

reported any impairment charges, other

CGU’s tested. It appears that airlines


than Lufthansa (see sample accounting

have assessed asset groups

policy on page 25).

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1.3 Aircraft leasing

financing is structured as a sale and

over the life of the lease), whether the

1.3.1 Sale and leaseback transactions

leaseback, then the lease arrangement

aircraft and/or related deposits and

may be classified as a finance or

capitalized costs can be derecognized

Varying financing structures (some of

operating lease. However, the key

from the balance sheet; whether there is

which are tax driven) are put in place to

accounting considerations generally

a requirement to consolidate any special

help enable airlines to finance aircraft

remain the same irrespective of the

purpose leasing entities and the cashflow

orders from manufacturers and refinance

classification of the lease. They include:

disclosures required.

existing aircraft. These transactions may

timing of recognition of gain or loss on

occur prior to or post delivery. If the

sale (ie at the point of sale or deferred

Sample of accounting policies easyJet

…easyJet enters into sale and leaseback transactions whereby it sells to a third party rights to acquire aircraft. On delivery of the aircraft, easyJet subsequently leases the aircraft back, by way of operating lease. Any profit on the disposal, where the price that the aircraft is sold for is not considered to be fair value, is deferred and amortised over the lease term of the asset. Purchase rights (being the amount of pre delivery deposits paid) for aircraft that are expected to be sold and leased back to lessors are considered to be monetary assets. These are disclosed separately from fixed assets…

Reporting GAAP:

IFRS as adopted by the European Union


…During 2005, we entered into sale and leaseback transactions for six EMBRAER 190 aircraft acquired during the year. Gains associated with sale and leaseback operating leases have been deferred and are being recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term as a reduction to aircraft rent expense…

Reporting GAAP:



Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the


leased assets are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss accounts on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Gains or losses arising from sale and operating leaseback of aircraft are determined based on fair values. Differences between sale proceeds and fair values are deferred and amortized over the minimum lease terms…

Reporting GAAP:

Singapore Financial Reporting Standards

Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies In KPMG’s experience there are a number of issues in analyzing and accounting for

lessor is required. One of the primary

remove the final delivery payment to

risks of aircraft financing is who bears

the aircraft manufacturer from an

the residual aircraft value risk.

airline’s cash flow statement as it is

• At what date was there a sale? This

made by the lessor. If there is an

lease transactions. These include:

impacts not only the timing of any

intention to sell the aircraft prior to

• Has there been a sale of the aircraft?

profit recognition and balance sheet

delivery the classification of the

An analysis of whether the risks and

impact but also cashflow statement

security deposits also requires

benefits have been transferred to the

disclosures as a sale pre-delivery may


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• Are the sale proceeds at fair value?

Survey findings

Aircraft fair values are often difficult to

The method of determining fair values is

determine owing to the significant

not disclosed by airlines so it is difficult to

discounts to list prices given to large

determine how this is analyzed, particularly

aircraft orders. Assessments of fair

for newer aircraft types, that do not have

values are often complicated by the

a track record of open market sales.

capitalization of interest costs, hedging gains or losses and other costs into

The treatment of leaseback transactions

the cost of the aircraft by airlines.

in the cashflow statement is clear.

When these costs are totaled do they

However some airlines have made

represent an appropriate fair value to

disclosures where non cash financing

be analyzed against the lessor’s upfront

transactions have taken place – a

payment in a sale and leaseback?

requirement under IFRS and U.S. GAAP.

When the transaction involves older aircraft this determination of appropriate

There may be further disclosures around

fair values is more complex as these

aircraft financing as the first annual

may lack recent relevant sales

reports prepared under IFRS are



Whilst third party ’desktop’ valuations are a useful starting point to assess the fair value of an aircraft, other important factors to be considered include: analysis of the nature of costs capitalized into the aircraft value; benchmarking of lease rates; and understanding the economic rationale for any gain or loss on disposal. Under IFRS gains or losses on sale and operating leasebacks, if deemed at fair value, are recognized in the profit and loss account immediately whereas they are generally amortized over the life of the lease under U.S. GAAP where there is on-going involvement in the asset.

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1.4 Financial instruments

certainty over the future price or rate that

and Measurement’, is being applied by

will be paid for an existing or forecast

airlines reporting under IFRS for the first

1.4.1 Hedge accounting

transaction. Whilst principles for accounting

time from January 1, 2005 onwards.

Airlines, in common with other entities,

for financial instruments are broadly similar

are exposed to fluctuations in foreign

under both IFRS and U.S. GAAP, differences

The financial report disclosures relating to

exchange rates, interest rates and

in detail result in disparities in accounting.

hedge accounting vary according to the hedging activities airlines undertake. Two

commodity prices. The U.S. GAAP standard on the recognition

extracts of hedge activities accounting

In order to manage or limit exposure to

and measurement of financial instruments

policies are set out below; one airline

changes in rates or prices, many airlines

and hedge accounting (FAS 133) has

reporting under U.S. GAAP and one

undertake hedging activities. These

been effective for several years. The IFRS

under IFRS.

activities typically involve the use of

standard providing similar guidance, IAS

derivative financial instruments to provide

39 ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition

Sample of accounting policies Southwest

The Company utilizes financial derivative instruments primarily to manage its risk associated with changing


jet fuel prices, and accounts for them under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 133, “Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities”, as amended (SFAS 133). See “Qualitative and Quantitative Disclosures about Market Risk” for more information on these risk management activities and see Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on SFAS 133, the Company’s fuel hedging program, and financial derivative instruments. SFAS 133 requires that all derivatives be marked to market (fair value) and recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. At December 31, 2005, the Company was a party to over 400 financial derivative instruments, related to fuel hedging, for year 2006 and beyond. The fair value of the Company’s fuel hedging financial derivative instruments recorded on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2005, was $1.7 billion, compared to $796 million at December 31, 2004. The large increase in fair value primarily was due to the dramatic increase in energy prices throughout 2005, and the Company’s addition of derivative instruments to increase its hedge positions in future years. Changes in the fair values of these instruments can vary dramatically, as was evident during 2005, based on changes in the underlying commodity prices. Market price changes can be driven by factors such as supply and demand, inventory levels, weather events, refinery capacity, political agendas, and general economic conditions, among other items. The financial derivative instruments utilized by the Company primarily are a combination of collars, purchased call options, and fixed price swap agreements. The Company does not purchase or hold any derivative instruments for trading purposes. The Company enters into financial derivative instruments with third party institutions in “over-the-counter” markets. Since the majority of the Company’s financial derivative instruments are not traded on a market exchange, the Company estimates their fair values. Depending on the type of instrument, the values are determined by the use of present value methods or standard option value models with assumptions about commodity prices based on those observed in underlying markets. Also, since there is not a reliable forward market for jet fuel, the Company must estimate the future prices of jet fuel in order to measure

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Sample of accounting policies the effectiveness of the hedging instruments in offsetting changes to those prices, as require by SFAS 133. Forward jet fuel prices are estimated through the observation of similar commodity futures prices (such as crude oil, heating oil, and unleaded gasoline) and adjusted based on historical variations to those like commodities. Fair values for financial derivative instruments and forward jet fuel prices are both estimated prior to the time that the financial derivative instruments settle, and the time that jet fuel is purchased and consumed, respectively. However, once settlement of the financial derivative instruments occurs and the hedged jet fuel is purchased and consumed, all values and prices are known and are recognized in the financial statements. Based on these actual results once all values and prices become known, the Company’s estimates have proved to be materially accurate. Estimating the fair value of these fuel hedging derivatives and forward prices for jet fuel will also result in changes in their values from period to period and thus determine how they are accounted for under SFAS 133. To the extent that the total change in the estimated fair value of a fuel hedging instrument differs from the change in the estimated price of the associated jet fuel to be purchased, both on a cumulative and period-to-period basis, ineffectiveness of the fuel hedge can result, as defined by SFAS 133. This could result in the immediate recording of noncash charges or income, even though the derivative instrument may not expire until a future period. Likewise, if a cash flow hedge ceases to qualify for hedge accounting, those periodic changes in the fair value of derivative instruments are recorded to “Other gains and losses” in the income statement in the period of the change. Ineffectiveness is inherent in hedging jet fuel with derivative positions based in other crude oil-related commodities, especially considering the recent volatility in the prices of refined products. In addition, given the magnitude of the Company’s fuel hedge portfolio total market value, ineffectiveness can be highly material to financial results. Due to the volatility in markets for crude oil and related products, the Company is unable to predict the amount of ineffectiveness each period, including the loss of hedge accounting, which could be determined on a derivative by derivative basis or in the aggregate. This may result in increased volatility in the Company’s results. Prior to 2005, the Company had not experienced significant ineffectiveness in its fuel hedges accounted for under SFAS 133, in relation to the fair value of the underlying financial derivative instruments. The significant increase in the amount of hedge ineffectiveness and unrealized gains on derivative contracts settling in future periods recorded during 2005 was due to a number of factors. These factors included: the recent significant increase in energy prices, the number of derivative positions the Company holds, significant weather events that have affected refinery capacity and the production of refined products, and the volatility of the different types of products the Company uses in hedging. The number of instances in which the Company has discontinued hedge accounting for specific hedges had increased recently, primarily due to the foregoing reasons. In these cases, the Company had determined that the hedges will not regain effectiveness in the time period remaining until settlement and therefore must discontinue special hedge accounting, as defined by SFAS 133. When this happens, any changes in fair value of the derivative instruments are marked to market through earnings in the period of change.

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Sample of accounting policies As the fair value of the Company’s hedge positions increases in amount, there is a higher degree of probability that there will be continued and correspondingly higher variability recorded in the income statement and that the amount of hedge ineffectiveness and unrealized gains or losses recorded in future periods will be material. This is primarily due to the fact that small differences in the correlation of crude oil-related products are leveraged over large dollar volumes. SFAS 133 is a complex accounting standard with stringent requirements, including the documentation of a Company hedging strategy, statistical analysis to qualify a commodity for hedge accounting both on a historical and a prospective basis, and strict contemporaneous documentation that is required at the time each hedge is executed by the Company. As required by SFAS 133, the Company assesses the effectiveness of each of its individual hedges on a quarterly basis. The Company also examines the effectiveness of its entire hedging program on a quarterly basis utilizing statistical analysis. This analysis involves utilizing regression and other statistical analyses that compare changes in the price of jet fuel to changes in the prices of the commodities used for hedging purposes (crude oil, heating oil, and unleaded gasoline). The Company continually looks for better and more accurate methodologies in forecasting future cash flows relating to its jet fuel hedging program. These estimates are used in the measurement of effectiveness for the Company’s fuel hedges, as required by SFAS 133. Any changes to the Company’s methodology for estimating future cash flows (i.e, jet fuel prices) will be applied prospectively, in accordance with SFAS 133. While the Company would expect that a change in the methodology for estimating future cash flows would result in more effective hedges over the long-term, such a change could result in more ineffectiveness, as defined, in the short-term, due to the prospective nature of enacting the change… Reporting GAAP:

U.S. GAAP (currency quoted in U.S. dollars)


Qantas is subject to foreign currency, interest rate, fuel price and credit risks. Derivative financial instruments are used to hedge these risks. Qantas policy is not to enter, issue or hold derivative financial instruments for speculative trading purposes. Derivative financial instruments are recognised at fair value both initially and on an ongoing basis. The method of recognising gains and losses resulting from movements in market prices depends on whether the derivative is a designated hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged. The Qantas Group designates certain derivatives as either; (1) hedges of the fair value of recognised assets or liabilities or a firm commitment (fair value hedge); or (2) hedges of highly probable forecast transactions (cash flow hedges). Gains and losses on derivative financial instruments qualifying for hedge accounting are recognised in the same income statement category as the underlying hedged instrument. Qantas documents at the inception of the transaction the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking each transaction. Qantas also documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of whether the hedging instruments that are used in hedge transactions have been and will continue to be highly effective.

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Sample of accounting policies Fair Value Hedge Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Income Statement, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. Cash Flow Hedge The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in Equity in the Hedge Reserve. Amounts accumulated in the Hedge Reserve are recognised in the Income Statement in the periods when the hedged item will affect profit or loss (ie. when the underlying income or expense is recognised). Where the hedged item is of a capital nature, amounts accumulated in the hedge reserve are transferred from equity and included in the measurement of the initial cost or carrying amount of the asset or liability. When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or the entity revokes designation of the hedge relationship but the hedged forecast transaction is still expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss at that point remains in equity and is recognised in accordance with the above policy when the transaction occurs. If the underlying hedged transaction is no longer expected to take place, the cumulative unrealized gain or loss recognised in equity in respect of the hedging instrument is recognised immediately in the Income Statement. Derivatives That Do Not Qualify For Hedge Accounting From time to time certain derivative financial instruments do not qualify for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of any derivative instrument, or part of a derivative instrument, that does not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised immediately in the income statement in Other Expenses ($18.8 million net gain in the six months to 31 December 2005). Fair Value Calculations The fair value of financial instruments traded in active markets is based on quoted market prices at the balance sheet date. The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market are determined using valuation techniques consistent with accepted market practice. The Qantas Group uses a variety of methods and input assumptions that are based on market conditions existing at balance date. The fair value of derivative financial instruments includes the present value of estimated future cash flows. Reporting GAAP:

IFRS (currency quoted in Australian dollars)

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Key considerations in applying the sample accounting policies

Survey findings

The financial reports surveyed show the

along with foreign exchange and interest

high level of complexity associated with

rates. Airlines communicate the impact of

meeting onerous hedge accounting

hedge accounting in various ways. British

requirements, particularly jet fuel

Airways, for example, discloses the

hedging. Both IFRS and U.S. GAAP

impact of fuel hedge ineffectiveness as a

require detailed documentation and

separate line item in its income statement.

hedge effectiveness testing requirements

Many of the U.S. carriers provide detailed

to be met before hedge accounting can

reconciliations of the impact of hedge

be applied. Key requirements include:

accounting on, for example, fuel costs.

Most airlines surveyed hedge jet fuel

• Ensuring hedge documentation is in place for all hedges at inception and

In the key area of hedge effectiveness

throughout the life of the hedge.

testing, few airlines provide disclosure of

• Ensuring that hedge documentation

the details of the methodology used

clearly sets out the hedged item,

other than the type, for example,

hedging instrument, risk management

regression testing. There is little

objective, strategy and how the entity

disclosure of the key assumptions used

will test for effectiveness both

in testing effectiveness.

prospectively and retrospectively. • As a result of the requirement to

Some airlines in the U.S. have noted that

hedge commodity price risk in its

in 2005, for the first time they are

entirety, it is not possible to designate

experiencing significant hedge

a component of jet fuel hedge (eg

ineffectiveness. This is primarily based on

crude oil) as a hedged risk. Neither

the record high, and highly volatile fuel

U.S. GAAP nor IFRS mandate an

prices experienced. This has continued

approach to determining hedge

well into 2006 and is likely to be a key

effectiveness on a prospective or

consideration for airlines when reporting.

retrospective basis. Typically the methods used to assess hedge

At the time of publication, many European

effectiveness on a prospective and

and Asia-Pacific airlines had not finalized

retrospective basis are: regression

and issued their first annual reports under

analysis, variance reduction or dollar

IFRS. It remains to be seen how the level

offset hedge tests (which under both

of disclosure around hedge accounting

GAAP’s needs to be in the 80-125

under IAS 39 compares with the detailed

percent effectiveness range). When

disclosures in the financial reports shown

using statistical tests, key estimates

under FAS 133.

such as length of data sets, prices and hedge ratios require consideration.

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1.4.2 Embedded derivatives

maintenance and parts suppliers and in

Airlines enter into numerous complex

certain circumstances these contracts

contracts with aircraft manufacturers,

may contain embedded derivatives.

Sample of accounting policies No separate airline accounting policies were noted in the surveyed airlines.

Key considerations

when the contract currency is routinely

Survey findings

A key factor in determining the need to

denominated or the currency commonly

None of the airlines reporting under IFRS,

separate an embedded derivative is how

used in the economic environment in

or transitioning to IFRS, made any

closely related a derivative is to the host

which the transaction takes place.

disclosure about the impact of, or

contract. One of the likely areas where

accounting for, embedded derivatives.

embedded derivatives may occur is

In the airline industry it is common place

There were no separate disclosures by

where contracts are denominated in a

for contracts to be denominated in U.S.

the U.S. GAAP reporters surveyed.

currency that is not the functional

dollars even where the dollar is not the

currency of either the airline or of the

functional currency of any of the

other party to the contract. In such cases,

contracting parties. Common examples

the embedded derivative would

include fuel purchases, jet aircraft and

potentially require separation and

aircraft spares purchases, inter-airline

measurement at fair value. No separation

settlements and elements of airframe

of an embedded derivative is required

and engine maintenance.

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Airline risk factors Risk factors

of risk factors on a company’s financial

This section of the handbook highlights

development. KPMG surveyed the most

the significant business risk factors

recent relevant SEC regulatory filings of

disclosed by airlines in SEC filings. These

11 SEC airlines and considered their

risks are described in domestic and

quantitative and qualitative disclosures

foreign SEC registrants’ annual financial

about risks.

reports. Risks include increasing competition, economic, political, security

The table on page 36 summarizes the

and business specific risks as well as

principle risks disclosed by each airline.

financial exposures. These risks or

Our commentary and a sample of

cautionary factors are included in order to

disclosures related to these risks are

alert stakeholders to the possible impact

set out after the table.

Geopolitical risk



Economic conditions

High levels of debt

Labor costs and employee retirement obligations

Insurance costs

British Airways


Air France – KLM

Southwest Airlines

American Airlines


Continental Airlines

North West Airlines

JetBlue Airways

Increasing cost of jet fuel


United Airlines

U.S. Airways

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Risk factors

Security costs

Risk in international operations Changes in interest rates

Failure of technology

Significant operating losses

Airline bankruptcies

Early retirements

Service interruptions at major hubs


Reliance on suppliers

Dependence on key personnel

Liquidity risks

Aircraft utilization

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KPMG comment Increasing costs of jet fuel

Sample risk disclosures “Our business is dependent on the price and availability of aircraft fuel. Continued periods of historically high fuel costs, significant disruptions in the

Jet fuel is one of the largest and most

supply of aircraft fuel or significant further increases in fuel costs could have a

volatile expenses that all airlines are

significant negative impact on our operating results.

exposed to. The rise in global oil prices has led to jet fuel cost increases of up

Our operating results are significantly impacted by changes in the availability or price

to 30 percent of total airline costs and

of aircraft fuel. Fuel prices increased substantially in 2004 compared with 2003 and

is now expected by many airlines to be

continued to increase through 2005 and into 2006. Due to the competitive nature of

the largest single cost in 2006 where

the airline industry, we generally have not been able to increase our fares or

historically this has been labor. Airline’s

otherwise increase revenues sufficiently to offset the rise of fuel prices in the past

exposure to volatile fuel prices can be

and we may not be able to do so in the future. Although we are currently able to

managed to some extent by hedging,

obtain adequate supplies of aircraft fuel, it is impossible to predict the future

supply agreements and passing on

availability or price of aircraft fuel. In addition, from time to time we enter into

increased costs through passenger fuel

hedging arrangements to protect against rising fuel costs. Our ability to hedge in


future, however, may be limited.” – U.S. Airways

Geopolitical risks

“Risk Factors Relating to Terrorist Attacks and International Hostilities.

Geopolitical risks are outside the

Reservations of Ryanair’s flights to London dropped materially for a number of days

control of airlines. The mitigation

in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks in London on July 7, 2005 and

strategy of most airlines has been to

failed attacks on July 21, 2005. In fiscal 2005, flights into and out of London accounted

significantly increase mandatory and

for 15.4 million, or 56%, of passengers travelling on the Company’s network. As in

voluntary airline security spending and

the past, the Company reacted to these acts of terrorism by initiating system-wide

obtaining insurance from the

fare sales to stimulate demand for air travel. Future acts of terrorism, particularly in

commercial market and in some

London, or other markets that are significant to Ryanair, could have a material

jurisdictions, governments. In some

adverse effect on the Company’s profitability or financial condition should the

markets, insurers are looking to limit

public’s willingness to travel to and from those markets be reduced as a result.”

coverage to certain types of attacks.

– Ryanair


”The airline industry is fiercely competitive and fares are at historically low levels.

Legacy airlines in virtually all major

Service over almost all of our routes is highly competitive and fares remain at historically

regions have been increasingly

low levels. We face vigorous, and in some cases, increasing competition from major

impacted by competition from low cost

domestic airlines, national, regional, all-cargo and charter carriers, foreign air carriers,

carriers (LCCs). LCCs typically have

LCCs, and, particularly on shorter segments, ground and rail transportation. We also face

substantially lower cost bases than

increasing and significant competition from marketing/operational alliances formed by our

legacy airlines through lower labour

competitors. In addition, the competitive landscape we face would be altered

costs, simplified operations and lower

substantially by industry consolidation, including merger, equity investment and joint

infrastructure costs. Competition from

venture transactions. The percentage of routes on which we compete with carriers

LCCs has driven passenger fares down

having substantially lower operating costs than ours has grown significantly over the past

and LCC’s have taken market share,

decade, and we now compete with LCCs on 75 percent of our domestic network.

focusing on high frequency point to point operations versus the more traditional hub model.

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KPMG comment

Sample risk disclosures Certain alliances have been granted immunity from anti-trust regulations by governmental authorities for specific areas of cooperation, such as joint pricing decisions. To the extent alliances formed by our competitors can undertake activities that are not available to us, our ability to effectively compete may be hindered. Pricing decisions are significantly affected by competition from other airlines. Fare discounting by competitors has historically had a negative effect on our financial results because we must generally match competitors’ fares, since failing to match would result in even less revenue. More recently, we have faced increased competition from carriers with simplified fare structures, which are generally preferred by travelers. Any fare reduction or fare simplification initiative may not be offset by increases in passenger traffic, a reduction in costs or changes in the mix of traffic that would improve yields. Moreover, decisions by our competitors that increase – or reduce – overall industry capacity, or capacity dedicated to a particular domestic or foreign region, market or route, can have a material impact on related fare levels.” – American Airlines


“Changes in international, regional and local regulation and legislation could significantly increase our costs of operations or reduce our revenue.

The airline industry is highly regulated in terms of rights of access to markets

Our operations are subject to a high degree of international, European and national

and the ‘freedoms’ an airline may have.

regulation covering most aspects of our operation, including traffic rights, fare

Bilateral agreements, based on the

setting, operating standards (the most important of which relate to safety, security

domocile of carriers, currently

and aircraft noise), airport access and slot availability.

dominate however, new ’open skies’ agreements are in place in some

Additional laws and regulations and additional or increased taxes, airport and

markets and are on the way in others.

navigation rates and charges have been proposed from time to time that could

Also, airlines often operate out of near

significantly increase our cost of operations or reduce our revenues. The ability of

monopoly airports which can over short

European carriers to operate international routes is subject to change because the

periods significantly increase the

applicable arrangements between European and foreign governments may be

charges airlines face. This combined

amended from time to time, or because appropriate slots are not available. Laws or

with other aeronautical charges, which

regulations enacted in the future may adversely affect our business.”

airlines have limited ability to negotiate,

– Air France – KLM

result in this area being of risk to airlines. Economic conditions

”Our business is affected by many changing economic and other conditions beyond our control and our results of operations tend to be volatile.

The demand for passenger airlines is often linked directly to GDP growth.

Our business, and that of the rest of the airline industry is affected by many changing

Macro economic changes appear to

conditions largely outside of our control, including among others:

correlate to passenger numbers.

• actual or potential changes in international, national, regional and local economic,

Therefore this is a key airline risk area.

business and financial conditions, including recession, inflation and higher interest rates, war, terrorist attacks or political instability; • changes in consumer preferences perceptions, spending patterns or demographic trends; • actual or potential disruptions to the air traffic control system;

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KPMG comment

Sample risk disclosures • increases in, costs of safety, security and environmental measures; • outbreaks of diseases that affect travel behavior or • weather and natural disasters…”– American Airlines

High levels of debt

“We have a significant amount of fixed obligations and we will incur significantly more fixed obligations, which could harm our ability to meet our growth strategy

The airline industry is characterized by

and impair our ability to service our fixed obligations.

high fixed costs or obligations that leave airlines vulnerable to changes in

As of December 31, 2005, our debt of $2.33 billion accounted for 71.9% of our total

demand, such as occurred post the

capitalization. Most of our long-term and short-term debt has floating interest rates.

terrorist attacks of September, 2001

In addition to long-term debt, we have a significant amount of other fixed obligations

and pandemics such as SARS in Asia.

under lease related to our aircraft, airport terminal space, other airport facilities and

Other issues may cause significant

office space. As of December 31, 2005, future minimum lease payments under

increases in costs over short periods,

noncancelable leases and other financing obligations were approximately $786

including jet fuel, and the ability of

million for 2006 through 2010 and an aggregate of $1.95 billion for the years thereafter.

airlines to service fixed costs and

We have commenced construction of a new terminal at JFK with PANYNJ. The

attract and service capital.

minimum payments under this lease will be accounted for as a financing obligation and have been included above. As of December 31, 2005, we had commitments of approximately $6.44 billion to purchase 192 additional aircraft and other flight equipment over the next seven years, including estimated amounts for contractual price escalations. We will incur additional debt and other fixed obligations as we take delivery of new aircraft and other equipment and continue to expand into new markets. We typically finance our aircraft through either secured debt or lease financing. Although we believe that debt and/or lease financing should be available for our aircraft deliveries, we cannot assure you that we will be able to secure such financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. Our high level of debt and other fixed obligations could: • impact our ability to obtain additional financing to support capital expansion plans and for working capital and other purposes on acceptable terms or at all; • divert substantial cash flows from our operations and expansion plans in order to service our fixed obligations; • require us to incur significantly more interest or rent expense than we currently do, since most of our debt has floating interest rates and five of our aircraft leases have variable-rate rent; and • place us at a possible competitive disadvantage compared to less leveraged competitors and competitors that have better access to capital resources. Our ability to make scheduled payments on our debt and other fixed obligations will depend on our future operating performance and cash flow, which in turn will depend on prevailing economic and political conditions and financial, competitive, regulatory, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. We have no lines of credit, other than two short-term borrowing facilities for certain aircraft predelivery deposits. We are dependent upon our operating cash flows to fund our operation and to make scheduled payments on our debt and other fixed obligations. We cannot

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KPMG comment

Sample risk disclosures assure you that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flow from our operations to pay our debt and other fixed obligations as they become due, and if we fail to do so our business could be harmed. If we are unable to make payments on our debt and other fixed obligations, we could be forced to renegotiate those obligations or obtain additional equity or debt financing. To the extent we finance our activities with additional debt, we may become subject to financial and other covenants that may restrict our ability to pursue our growth strategy. We cannot assure you that our renegotiation efforts would be successful or timely or that we could refinance our obligations on acceptable terms, if at all.” – JetBlue (currency quoted in U.S. dollars)

Labor disputes and employee

“Union disputes, employee strikes and other labor-related disruptions may

retirement obligations

adversely affect our operations.

A significant cost issues for many

Our business plan includes assumptions about labor costs going forward. Currently,

legacy airlines is the funding of post

the labor costs of both AWA and U.S. Airways are very competitive and very similar;

employment plans and labour

however, we cannot assure that labor costs going forward will remain competitive,

agreements. A number of airlines have

either because our agreements may become amendable or because competitors may

significant post employment plan

significantly reduce their labor costs. Approximately 80% of the employees within

liabilities. Major U.S., European and

U.S. Airways Group are represented for collective bargaining purposes by labor unions.

Asian airlines are seeking to reduce

In the United States, prior to the merger these employees were organized into nine

costs through restructuring labour or

labor groups represented by five different unions at U.S. Airways, seven labor groups

post employment plans. This is either

represented by four different unions at AWA, four labor groups represented by

through Chapter 11 proceedings in the

four different unions at Piedmont, and four labor groups represented by four

U.S. or other restructuring. The risk of

different unions at PSA. There are additional unionized groups of U.S. Airways

industrial unrest or financial stress of

employees abroad.

funding these agreements is common. Relations between air carriers and labour unions in the United States are governed by the Railway Labor Act (the “RLA”). Under the RLA, collective bargaining agreements generally contain “amendable dates” rather than expirations dates, and the RLA requires that a carrier maintain the existing terms and conditions of employment following the amendable date through a multi-stage and usually lengthy series of bargaining processes overseen by the National Mediation Board. This process continues until either the parties have reached agreement on a new collective bargaining agreement, or the parties have been released to “self-help” by the National Mediation Board. Although in most circumstances the RLA prohibits strikes, after release by the National Mediation Board carriers and unions are free to engage in self-help measures such as strikes and lock-outs. None of the U.S. Airways labor agreements becomes amendable until December 31, 2009. Of the AWA labor agreements, three are currently amendable, and a fourth becomes amendable in 2006. There is the potential for litigation to arise in the context of the labor integration process. Unions may bring court actions or grievance arbitrations, and may seek to compel airlines to engage in the bargaining processes where the airline believes it has no such obligation. There is a risk that one or more unions may pursue such

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KPMG comment

Sample risk disclosures judicial or arbitral avenues in the context of the merger, and, if successful, could create additional costs that we did not anticipate. There is also a risk that disgruntled employees, either with or without union involvement, could engage in illegal slowdowns, work stoppages, partial work stoppages, sick-outs or other action short of a full strike that could individually or collectively harm the operation of the airline and impair its financial performance.” – U.S. Airways

Insurance costs

“Insurance costs increased significantly after September 11, 2001, and may increase in the future, and the amount of available insurance coverage may be

Whilst insurance costs have receded

further limited as a result of similar events.

from post September 11 highs, the availability of appropriate insurance at

Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, insurance premiums for

an acceptable premium remains a key

airlines increased significantly, especially for risks relating to terrorism. In addition, in


the immediate aftermath of September 11, 2001, insurance companies renegotiated insurance coverage for certain risks relating to war and other hostilities, charging substantially higher rates and limiting coverage to a uniform amount of $50 million. As a result, the European Commission authorized European governments to offer coverage to airlines, at a charge, for loss amounts that exceeded the insurance coverage available in the market for war and other hostilities. In the event of further terrorist attacks or acts of war, government support similar or comparable to the coverage that was made available in the immediate aftermath of September 11, 2001 may not be made available, insurance premiums may be increased further or insurance may be made available only with additional limitations on coverage. Any failure to obtain adequate insurance coverage or insurance coverage at financially acceptable terms in the future would materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.” – Air France – KLM (currency quoted in Euros)

Security costs

“Additional security requirements may increase our costs and decrease our traffic.

In response to new regulation and

Since September 11, 2001, the Department of Homeland Security (“DHS”) and TSA

passenger concerns, many major

have implemented numerous security measures that affect airline operations and

airlines have spent hundreds of millions

costs, and are likely to implement additional measures in the future. Most recently,

on additional security costs over the

DHS has begun to implement the U.S.-VISIT program (a program of fingerprinting

last 5 years. With every new regulation,

and photographing foreign visa holders), announced that it will implement greater

comes a cost implication. Even if these

use of passenger data for evaluating security measures to be taken with respect to

costs are recovered, they increase

individual passengers, expanded the use of federal air marshals on our flights (thus

costs which the passenger ultimately

displacing additional revenue passengers and causing increased customer

pays for. Only three airlines highlighted

complaints from displaced passengers), begun investigating a requirement to install

this risk, which may indicate that

aircraft security systems (such as active devices on commercial aircraft as

airlines believe that the financial burden

countermeasures against portable surface to air missiles) and expanded cargo and

of security may have peaked and that it

baggage screening. DHS has also required certain flights to be cancelled on short

is a cost that passengers are willing to

notice for security reasons, and has required certain airports to remain at higher

pay for.

security levels than other locations.

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KPMG comment

Sample risk disclosures In addition, foreign governments also have begun to institute additional security measures at foreign airports we serve, out of their own security concerns or in response to security measures imposed by the U.S. A large part of the costs of these security measures is borne by the airlines and their passengers, and we believe that these and other security measures have the effect of decreasing the demand for air travel and the attractiveness of air transportation as compared to other modes of transportation in general. Security measures imposed by the U.S. and foreign governments after September 11, 2001 have increased our costs and therefore adversely affected our financial results, and additional measures taken in the future may result in similar adverse effects… ” – Continental

Risk in international operations

“Our international operations could be adversely affected by numerous events, circumstances or government actions beyond our control.

This risk is similar in nature to other regulatory risks noted, however it is

Our current international activities and prospects could be adversely affected by

wider in terms of non airline specific

factors such as reversals or delays in the opening of foreign markets, exchange

risks, for example highlighting foreign

controls, currency and political risks, taxation and changes in international

exchange risk.

government regulation of our operations, including the inability to obtain or retain needed route authorities and/or slots.” – American Airlines

Changes in interest rates

“We are exposed to changes in interest rates.

As airlines are generally significant

We had $6.4 billion of debt and capital lease obligations that were accruing interest

users of debt financing, interest rate

as of December 31, 2005 and $1.9 billion of total balance sheet cash, cash

risk is an important management issue.

equivalents, and short term investments as of December 31, 2005. Of this

The risk of exposure to both fixed and

indebtedness, 66% bears interest at floating rates. An increase in interest rates

floating rates can be managed to some

would have an overall negative impact on our earnings as increased interest expense

extent by hedging activities.

would only be partially offset by increased interest income.”– North West (currency quoted in U.S. dollars)

Failure of technology

“We could be adversely affected by a failure or disruption of our computer, communications or other technology systems.

Legacy airlines have traditionally built proprietary systems to meet

We are increasingly dependent on technology to operate our business. The

organisational IT needs. Over the last

computer and communications systems on which we rely could be disrupted due to

ten years third party software providers

events beyond our control including natural disasters, power failures, terrorist

have provided IT solutions for the

attacks, equipment failures, software failures and computer viruses and hackers. We

airline industry and there has been

have taken certain steps to help reduce the risk of some (but not all) of these

significant outsourcing activity. The

potential disruptions. There can be no assurance however, that the measures we

importance of the internet in providing

have taken are adequate to prevent or remedy disruptions or failures of these

the distribution channel for low cost

systems. Any substantial or repeated failures of these systems could impact our

carriers and now legacy airlines make

operations and customer service, result in the loss of important data, loss of

these systems key.

revenues, increased costs, and generally harm our business.

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KPMG comment

Sample risk disclosures Moreover, a catastrophic failure of certain of our vital systems (which we believe is a remote possibility) could limit our ability to operate our flights for an indefinite period of time, which would have a material adverse impact on our operations and our business.” – American Airlines

Significant operating losses

“We continue to experience significant losses.

A key risk identified by some U.S.

Since September 11, 2001, we have incurred significant losses. We reported a net

airlines which have consistently posted

loss of $68 million in 2005 and expect to incur a significant loss for the first quarter

losses in recent years.

of 2006 under current market conditions. Losses of the magnitude incurred by us since September 11, 2001 are not sustainable if they continue. These losses are primarily attributable to decreased yields on passenger revenue since September 11, 2001 and record high fuel prices. Passenger revenue per available seat mile for our mainline operations was 5.8% lower for the year ended December 31, 2005 versus 2000 (the last full year before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks). We have been able to implement some fare increases on certain domestic and international routes during 2005, but these increases have not fully offset the substantial increase in fuel prices. Our ability to raise our fares is limited due to the substantial price competition in the airline industry, especially in U.S. domestic markets. We cannot predict when or if yields will increase. Further, we cannot predict the long-term impact of any changes in fare structures, most importantly in relation to business fares, booking patterns, low-cost competitor growth, increased usage of regional jets, customers’ directly booking on the internet, competitor bankruptcies and other changes in industry structure and conduct, but any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.” – Continental Airlines (currency quoted in U.S. dollars)

Airline bankruptcies

“The airline industry has incurred significant losses resulting in airline restructurings and bankruptcies, which could result in changes in our industry.

Several of the largest U.S. airlines have spent time, or are currently in, Chapter

In 2005, the domestic airline industry reported its fifth consecutive year of losses,

11. The ability of these carriers to

which is causing fundamental and permanent changes in the industry. These losses

restructure and reduce costs to better

have resulted in airlines renegotiating or attempting to renegotiate labor contracts,

complete with competitors has been

reconfiguring flight schedules, furloughing or terminating employees, as well as

highlighted as a key risk.

consideration of other efficiency and cost-cutting measures. Despite these actions, several airlines, including Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines in September 2005, have sought reorganization under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code permitting them to reduce labor rates, restructure debt, terminate pension plans and generally reduce their cost structure. In the fall of 2005, U.S. Airways, which had been in bankruptcy, and American West completed a merger, which may enable the combined entity to have lower costs and a more rationalized route structure and therefore be better able to compete. It is foreseeable that further airline reorganizations,

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KPMG comment

Sample risk disclosures bankruptcies or consolidations may occur, the effects of which we are unable to predict. We cannot assure you that the occurrence of these events, or potential changes resulting from these events, will not harm our business or the industry. – JetBlue

Liquidity issues

“We have substantial liquidity needs and face significant liquidity pressure.

Substantial indebtedness, either pre

At December 31, 2005, our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments

Chapter 11 or as a consequence of

were $2.0 billion. This amount reflects the net proceeds from our sale of ASA to

Chapter 11 is a significant issue in

SkyWest and the net proceeds from our borrowings under our post-petition

terms of an airlines’ ability to raise

financing agreements (“Post-Petition Financing Agreements”), which consist of a

further capital. Many U.S. carriers have

Secured Super-Priority Debtor-in-Possession Credit Facility from a syndicate of

restrictions due to substantially all

lenders (the “DIP Credit Facility”) and a modification agreement with American

remaining assets being encumbered.

Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc (“Amex”) and American Express Bank,

This issue is not restricted to the U.S.,

F.S.B that modified existing agreements with Amex under which Amex purchases

with it being flagged by European

SkyMiles from us (the “Amex Post-Petition Facility”).

carriers as well. We have substantial liquidity needs in the operation of our business and face significant liquidity challenges due to historically high aircraft fuel prices, low passenger mile yields, credit card processor holdbacks and cash reserves and other cost pressures. Accordingly, we believe that our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will remain under pressure during 2006 and thereafter. Because substantially all of our assets are encumbered and our Post-Petition Financing Agreements contain restrictions against additional borrowing, we believe we will not be able to obtain any material amount of additional debt financing during our Chapter 11 proceedings.” – Delta Airlines (currency quoted in U.S. dollars) Safety

“We are at risk of losses and adverse publicity stemming from any accident involving our aircraft.

Airline safety has always been a key industry issue. Risk disclosures are

If one of our aircraft were to crash or be involved in an accident, we could be

limited to a minority of airlines

exposed to significant tort liability. The insurance we carry to cover damages arising


from any future accidents may be inadequate. In the event that our insurance is not adequate, we may be forced to bear substantial losses from an accident. In addition, any accident involving an aircraft that we operate or is operated by an airline that is one of our codeshare partners could create a public perception that our aircraft are not safe or reliable, which could harm our reputation, result in air travelers being reluctant to fly on our aircraft and harm our business.” – Delta Airlines

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KPMG comment

Sample risk disclosures

Dependence on key personnel

“Dependence on key personnel.

This risk factor is not a specific airline

The Company’s success depends to a significant extent upon the efforts and abilities

issue. The value of a capable senior

of its senior management team, including Michael O’Leary, the Chief Executive of

management team is an intangible that

Ryanair, and key financial, commercial, operating and maintenance personnel. Mr

is difficult to quantify. It is interesting to

O’Leary’s current contract may be terminated by either party upon 12 months’ notice.

note that labor cost percentages are

See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees – Compensation of

now debt covenants for some airlines.

Directors and Senior management – Employment Agreements”. The Company’s success also depends on the ability of its executive officers and other members of senior management to operate and manage effectively both independently and as a group. Although the Company’s employment agreements with Mr. O’Leary and its other senior executives contain non-competition and non-disclosure provisions, there can be no assurance that these provisions will be enforceable in whole or in part. Competition for highly qualified personnel is intense, and the loss of any executive officer, senior manager or other key employee could have a material adverse effect upon the Company’s business, operating results and financial condition.” – Ryanair

Reliance on suppliers

“Supplier failure.

Airlines, like all businesses, are

The Group is dependent on third parties, e.g. fuel suppliers, caterers, IT, for important

dependent on their suppliers to enable

aspects of its operation. It is essential that critical supplies should be maintained; if

delivery of their own services. Failure

this were not so, operations would be disrupted and the business and results would

of suppliers can cause major disruptions

suffer.” – British Airways

and financial loss. Services interuptions at hubs

“Interruptions or disruptions in service at one of our hub airports cold have a material adverse impact on our operations.

Virtually all airlines operate from a small

We operate principally through primary hubs in Charlotte, Philadelphia and Phoenix

number of key airports or hubs through

and secondary hubs/focus cities in Pittsburgh, Las Vegas, New York, Washington, D.C.

which their flights originate. Disruptions

and Boston. A majority of our flights either originate or fly into one of these locations.

at these hubs may have a major impact

A significant interruption or disruption in service at one of our hubs could result in

on those airlines operations.

the cancellation or delay of a significant portion of our flights and, as a result, could have a severe impact on our business, operations and financial performance.” – U.S. Airways

Early retirements

“The retirement of a significant number of our pilots prior to their normal retirement age of 60 could require significant contributions to our defined

Early retirement of employees is an

benefit pension plan for pilots, significantly disrupt our operations and

increasingly common feature where

negatively impact our revenue.

airlines are in financial distress. Employees take early retirement in

Under our defined benefit pension plan for pilots (“Pilot Plan”), Delta pilots who

order to crystallise the benefits they

retire can elect to receive 50% of the present value of their accrued pension benefit

have accrued under post employment

in a lump sum in connection with their retirement and the remaining 50% of their

plans and avoid the risk of a potential

accrued pension benefit as an annuity after retirement. In recent years, our pilots

reduction in benefits in the event of the

have retired prior to their normal retirement age of 60 at greater than historical levels

airlines bankruptcy.

due to (1) a perceived risk of rising interest rates, which could reduce the amount of

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Sample risk disclosures their lump sum pension benefit; and/or (2) concerns about their ability to receive a lump sum pension benefit if a notice of intent to terminate the Pilot Plan is issued during a restructuring under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. While the Pilot Plan is currently prohibited from making the lump sum payments, it is currently projected that the lump sum feature would become available in October 2006 if the Pilot Plan is not subject to termination proceedings prior to that date. If a significant number of pilot early retirements occurs in the near future, the resulting lump sum payments, combined with other factors, could trigger a requirement to make contributions to the Pilot Plan in excess of amounts currently estimated. The amount of any additional contribution depends on factors that are not currently known and, therefore, cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. An additional contribution could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity. A significant number of pilot early retirements in the near future could also disrupt our operations and have a material adverse impact on our revenues because there may not be enough pilots to operate certain aircraft types for a period of time, the duration of which cannot be determined. We and ALPA had agreed to certain provisions that helped mitigate the effect of pilot early retirements on our operations over the past eighteen months, but these provisions expired on December 31, 2005. As of January 31, 2006, approximately 1,700 of our 5,900 pilots on the active roster are at or over age 50 and thus were eligible to retire at the beginning of February 2006.”– Delta Airlines Aircraft utilization

“We rely on maintaining a high daily aircraft utilization rate to keep our costs low, which makes us especially vulnerable to delays.

A dependence on high aircraft utilization as a risk factor has only been

One of our key competitive strengths is to maintain a high daily aircraft utilization

recognized by one low-cost carrier and

rate, which is the amount of time that our aircraft spend in the air carrying passengers.

highlights the importance of high asset

High daily aircraft utilization allows us to generate more revenue from our aircraft

utilization to the business model and

and is achieved in part by reducing turnaround times at airports so we can fly more

future profitability.

hours on average in a day. The expansion of our business to include a new fleet type, new destinations, more frequent flights on current routes and expanded facilities could increase the risk of delays. Aircraft utilization is reduced by delays and cancellations from various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including adverse weather conditions, security requirements, air traffic congestion and unscheduled maintenance. Reduced aircraft utilization may limit our ability to achieve and maintain profitability as well as lead to customer dissatisfaction.” – JetBlue

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Analysis of transition to IFRS in 2005 Introduction

Since January 1, 2005, depending on the

handbook is an analysis of the impact of

For companies listed on the main

jurisdiction within which the airlines

the transition to IFRS of the surveyed

European and a number of Asia-Pacific

operate, certain airlines have been

airlines based on public filings. At the

stock exchanges, there has been a

required to prepare their financial

time of writing this handbook, airlines

fundamental change in the basis of

statements under IFRS or equivalents

with March 31, 2006 financial year ends

financial reporting for the 2005 year.

thereof. Set out in this section of the

had not yet issued their annual report.

Impact of transition to IFRS on total equity Airline 2

Air France


– KLM Transition date

Shareholder’s equity (pre-IFRS)




Pacific2 U.S.$m1




April 1 04

Jan 1 04

April 1 04









Virgin Blue





Oct 1 04

July 1 04

April 1 04

April 1 04







IFRS/IAS standard IAS 19

Employee benefits




First-time adoption





of IFRSs IAS 18


IAS 16

Property, plant

IAS 21

Changes in foreign

(307.9) 137.5





and equipment 280.2




exchange rates IAS 12

Income taxes


IAS 27/28

Scope of consolidation


IAS 17



Share-based payments


Goodwill arising on




(36.5) (11.1)


business combinations IFRS 5

Assets held for resale


IAS 28



IAS 20

Government grants

IAS 38

Intangible assets

(3.8) (21.6)

Deferred tax on IFRS adjustments




(9.8) (0.6)

Total impact on transition









IAS 39/32









Financial instruments3

$U.S.D impact has been calculated by applying a KPMG sourced rate at transition date to the figures stated in the airline financial report. A number of airlines, such as Singapore Airlines, Cathay Pacific and South African Airways have GAAPs which are progressively adopting equivalents to IFRS. Whilst these changes are not all reflected in the table above, they are included in the commentary below. Iberia has not been included in the table as the full opening balance sheet information was not available, and they are not included in the commentary below. 3 IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement and IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation have been adopted in the financial year following transition in accordance with the transition exemptions of IFRS 1 “First-time adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards”. 4 Information not available at time of publication. 1 The 2

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IAS 19 – Employee benefits

IAS 18 – Revenue

Singapore Airlines (on a prospective

IFRS requires post-retirement employment

Airlines receive revenue from the sale of

basis), South African Airways and SAS

defined benefits such as pension plans to

frequent flyer points or miles to third

Group. Other airlines such as Air France –

be recognised on the balance sheet. One

parties under frequent flyer programs.

KLM and Ryanair had already adopted

area of IAS 19 that had, and we anticipate

Under many legacy GAAPs, revenue

this accounting treatment historically. Air

will continue to have, a significant impact

received from the sale of these points to

France – KLM has made an adjustment

on airlines financial statements has been

third parties was recognized when the

for rebates on fixed assets which were

the recognition of the ‘funded status’ of

sale was made. Cathay Pacific, British

recognized as income under French

post-employment defined benefit plans.

Airways and Qantas have transitioned

GAAP. This reduced assets and equity by

On transition to IFRS, airlines were

from immediate revenue recognition on

U.S.$30.8 million.

required to determine whether defined

sale of points, to deferred revenue

benefit plans were in a deficit or surplus

accounting, the latter two on adoption of

position by measuring the present value

IFRS in 2005. See handbook section 1.1.2

IAS 21 – The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates

of defined benefit obligation

for analysis of this accounting policy. Air

Under UK GAAP certain U.S. dollar

(incorporating all cumulative actuarial

France – KLM generated a gain on

denominated assets and liabilities had

gains and losses to the extent recognised

exchange of summer and winter landing

been treated as a foreign operation

by the entity) and the fair value of the

slots. Under French GAAP the group

(branch) by British Airways and easyJet

associated plan assets. The net position

recognised the gain as revenue

with the U.S. dollar as their functional

(surplus or deficit) was then recognized

immediately whereas under IFRS, the

currency. As a result exchange

on the balance sheet as an asset or a

group considered that the transfer of the

movements on re-translation of assets

liability, depending on the funding status

risks and benefits inherent in ownership

and liabilities had been taken to reserves

of the plan. While not an airline specific

of the slots was not yet complete.

rather than through the Income

issue, many legacy airlines have

Therefore the recognition of the gain on

Statement. IAS 21 provides additional

significant defined benefit and other post

the exchange was deferred as a liability

criteria to allow the functional currency to

employment programs. Air France – KLM,

on balance sheet.

be determined and therefore certain aircraft owing companies have ceased to

Qantas Airways, British Airways, Ryanair

be U.S. dollar branches under IAS 21 and

adjustments on transition to IFRS.

IAS 16 – Property, plant and equipment

British Airways and easyJet have also

When an asset is made up of several

Sterling functional currencies. Exchange

recognized an annual leave provision on

components which have a cost that is

movements on monetary items are now

transition to IFRS. Alitalia recognized a

significant in relation to the overall cost of

taken to the profit and loss.

provision for staff airline tickets as a long-

the item IAS 16 requires that these

term benefit. It was the only airline to

components be capitalised and depreciated.

IAS 12 – Income taxes

disclose this provision as an IFRS

Components which may be separately

Adjustments have been made by airlines


identified include airframes, engines,

including British Airways, easyJet,

and Alitalia have all recognized

have been reassessed as having UK

modifications, heavy maintenance, seats,

Qantas and Virgin Blue to tax effect their

IFRS 1 – First time adoption of IFRS

landing gear etc. One of the frequent

IFRS adjustments. Air France – KLM has

Air France – KLM opted to revalue the Air

adjustments made on transition to IFRS

recognized a deferred tax liability for the

France portion of its aircraft fleet to fair

has been to capitalize major aircraft

realisable gain that will arise when its

value on transition to IFRS. This resulted

maintenance and engine overhaul costs

perpetual subordinated loan securities

in a U.S.$588.2 million adjustment to reduce

and depreciate them over the period to

are redeemed. There is also a small

equity on transition. Similarly, Alitalia has

the next inspection or overhaul. Airlines

adjustment for the deferred tax on the

chosen to adopt the fair value method for

that have changed their accounting for

undistributed reserves of equity affiliates.

its ATR42 aircraft (the amount of the

heavy maintenance on transition to IFRS

adjustment has not been specified).

include Qantas, British Airways, Alitalia,

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Deferred tax on IFRS adjustments

was taken by most airlines, with goodwill

Air France, Alitalia and the SAS Group

balances effectively frozen at transition

have separately disclosed the tax effect of

date with amortization of goodwill no

IFRS transition adjustments. Other

longer recognized as an expense in the

airlines have disclosed the impact of IFRS

profit or loss.

adjustments net of tax.

IAS 23 – Borrowing costs IAS 27 – Consolidated and separate financial statements

Air France – KLM has retrospectively

Air France – KLM has consolidated

borrowing costs relating to qualifying

entities under IFRS which had not been


applied an adjustment to capitalise

consolidated under French GAAP. IAS 27 requires an entity be consolidated when

IAS 38 – Intangible assets

the power to control the entity is

Adjustments made by Alitalia relate to

demonstrated. Accordingly, Air France

deferred start-up, expansion and training

Parthairs Leasing (AFPL) has been fully

costs as well as the cessation of

consolidated on transition to IFRS.

amortization of goodwill.

IAS 17 – Leases

finance leases to operating leases.

IAS 39 – Financial instruments: Recognition and Measurement and IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation

Qantas have reclassified a number of

Common measurement differences

aircraft from operating leases to finance

related to:

leases on transition. Air France – KLM

• recognition of all derivative financial

The application of the lease classification criteria in IAS 17 resulted in Alitalia reclassifying 20 of its MD80 aircraft from

also reclassified 13 aircraft from operating

instruments at fair value on balance

lease to finance leases. Qantas made

sheet (all airlines where relevant)

an additional adjustment to recognize

• recognition of finance charges based

contracted rental escalations on a

on the effective interest method

straight-line basis.

(Alitalia, Qantas, Ryanair, SAS Group) • reclassification of convertible

IFRS 2 – Share-based payment The fair value of share based entitlements granted to employees is

instruments between debt and equity (Alitalia) • creation of hedge accounting reserves

recognized as an expense spread over

in equity in relation to cashflow

the period during which employees

hedges (Alitalia, Ryanair, Qantas,

become entitled to the equity instrument.

Singapore Airlines, SAS Group) • adjustments to investments classified

IFRS 3 – Business combinations

as available-for-sale (Alitalia, Qantas,

easyJet elected not to restate business

Singapore Airlines, SAS Group)

combinations and as a result ceased

• the movement in the intrinsic value of

amortisation of U.S.$561.1 million of

zero cost option collars are taken to

goodwill. The goodwill will be subject to

equity reserves and the time value to

annual impairment testing. This election

the profit or loss (easyJet, Qantas).

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Appendix Useful lives, depreciation rates and residual values disclosed by airlines

Set out in this Appendix are the useful

Unless otherwise noted, the method of

aircraft and note that the useful life may

lives, depreciation rates and residual

depreciation used is on a straight line

change if the cycle assumptions are

values in relation to aircraft and aircraft

basis. Some airlines have used estimated


related assets.

cycles to determine the useful life of the

Asset category



Air France – KLM Alitalia Alitalia Alitalia Alitalia American Airlines British Airways British Airways British Airways British Airways Cathay Pacific Cathay Pacific Continental Airlines Delta easyJet easyJet easyJet Iberia Airlines Iberia Airlines Japan Airlines

Asset category

Aircraft Long haul (B777, B767, MD11) Short-medium haul aircraft (A321, A320, A319, MD80, ERJ145) Turboprop aircraft (ATR 72) Heavy maintenance Jet aircraft and engines Boeing 747 - 400 and 777 - 200 Boeing 767 - 300 and 757 - 200 Airbus 321, A320, A319, Boeing 737 - 400 Embraer RJ145, British Aerospace 146 Passenger aircraft Freighter aircraft Jet aircraft and simulators Owned flight equipment Aircraft Aircraft improvements Aircraft pre-paid maintenance Aircraft cells Aircraft components Aircraft

Useful life (years)

Annual depreciation rate

Residual value

20 20

* 5%

nil 10%a

18 14 5.5 to 8 20 to 30 * * * * * 20 20 to 27 10 to 25 7 3 to 7 3 to 7 22 4 to 7 Useful life of aircraft type2

5.5% 7.14% * * 3.7%1 4.7%1 4.9%1 4.8%1 * * * * * * * * * *

5 - 10% 0% * 5 - 10% * * * * 0 - 10% 0 - 20% 15% 5 - 40% * * * * * *

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Asset category


Asset category

Useful life (years)

Annual depreciation rate

Residual value

25 fleet life 12 20 10 to 20 Inspection life 20 23 Period to next check (8-12 B737-800) 20 15 15 5 15 less age of aircraft 15 years less age of aircraft * 23 to 25 25 to 30 * 10 to 15 3 to 5 Term of lease up to 10 years 5 to 25 5 to 20 20 8 15 10 to 15

* * * * * * * *

20% 10% 15% 0 - 20% 0 - 20% * â‚Ź500,000 15%

* * * * *

nil 10% 10% 20% 20%



* 4% * * 10-25% * *

10% * 15% * * 5% - 20% *

* * * * * * *

* * * 10% * 10% *



Jetblue Airways Jetblue Airways Lufthansa Qantas Qantas Qantas Ryanair Ryanair Ryanair

Aircraft Aircraft parts New aircraft Jet aircraft and engines Non-jet aircraft and engines Major aircraft inspections Boeing 737 - 200 Boeing 737 - 800 Embedded maintenance

SAS Group Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines

Aircraft New passenger aircraft New freighter aircraft Training aircraft Used freighter aircraft

Singapore Airlines

Used passenger aircraft

South African Southwest Airlines United Airlines Virgin Blue Swiss Airlines

Passenger aircraft Aircraft and engines Aircraft Airframe, engines and landing gear Aircraft Heavy maintenance Improvements to leased aircraft

U.S. Airways Lufthansa SAS Group SAS Group Singapore Airlines Swiss Airlines

Passenger aircraft Spare engines Reserve engines Engine components Spare engines Spare engines

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Useful lives, depreciation rates and residual values disclosed by airlines continued

Asset category


Asset category

Useful life (years)

Annual depreciation rate

Residual value

Air France – KLM American Airlines

Spare parts Major rotable parts, avionics and assemblies

3 to 20 life of equipment to which applicable 5 to 25 25 to 30 10 8 to 10 18 8 to 273 15 to 20 15 Fleet life N/D 5 10 to 20 12 to 14 10 10 3 to 12 Term or useful life (6 years) 6 to 10 6 3 to 10 2 to 65 8 to 27 12 3 to 10 Lease term 4 to 25

* * *


Rotables, repairables and spare parts

Flight simulators

Flight and ground equipment

U.S. Airways Continental easyJet Iberia Airlines Iberia Airlines Japan Airlines Qantas Singapore Airlines Southwest Airlines Virgin Blue Alitalia Air France - KLM Iberia Airlines Singapore Airlines Swiss Airlines U.S. Airways

Rotables and repairables Rotable spare parts Aircraft spares Spare parts - repairable Spare parts - rotating Spare parts Aircraft spare parts Spare parts Aircraft parts Rotables and maintenance parts (used) Flight simulators and electronic equipment Flight simulators Flight simulators Flight simulators Simulators Property and equipment - ground

Continental Airlines Continental Airlines Continental Airlines Delta Airlines Japan Airlines Japan Airlines Jetblue Airways Jetblue Airways Jetblue Airways Northwest Airlines SAS Group

Flight and ground equipment Food service equipment Surface transportation/ground equipment Ground property and equipment Ground property and equipment Flight equipment In-flight entertainment systems Property and equipment - ground Flight equipment leasehold improvement Flight equipment Workshop and aircraft servicing equipment


* * * * * * * * * * 20% 20% * * * *


* 10% nil 10 10-20% 0-20% nil 4% 4% * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * *

nil nil * * * nil nil nil *



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Asset category

Fixtures, fittings and other equipment

Computer equipment

Plant and equipment


Air France - KLM American Airlines British Airways Cathay Pacific easyJet Iberia Airlines Iberia Airlines Iberia Airlines Lufthansa Northwest Airlines SAS Group Singapore Airlines South African Virgin Blue Air France - KLM American Airlines Cathay Continental Airlines easyJet Iberia Airlines Japan Airlines Virgin Blue Alitalia Continental Airlines Lufthansa United Airlines Virgin Blue

Asset category

Fixtures and fittings Fixtures, fittings and other equipment Equipment Other equipment Furniture, fittings and equipment Furniture and fittings Land transport items Machinery, fixtures and tools Office and factory equipment Other property and equipment Other equipment and vehicles Other Containers Leasehold improvements Equipment and tooling Capitalized software Software development Computer software Hardware and software Data processing equipment Software Computer equipment Plant, machinery, equipment and fittings Maintenance and engineering equipment Plant and machinery Property, plant and equipment Plant and equipment

Useful life (years)

8 to 15 3 to 10 3 to 25 3 to 7 3 10 7 to 10 10 to 15 3 to 10 3 to 32 3 to 5 1 to 12 * * 5 to 15 3 to 10 < 4 years 3 to 10 3 4 to 7 5 to 7 * 10 8 10 3 to 15 *

Effective annual depreciation rate. Straight-line method used for all categories except Boeing 747 and DC 10's, where declining-balance method is used. 3 Declining balance method is used. * Not disclosed. 1 2

Annual depreciation rate

* * * * * * * * * * * * 5% 20-40% * * * * * * * 33.30% 10% * * * 20%

Residual value

* * * nil * * * * * * * nil * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

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KPMG’s Global Airline practice contacts Martin Sheppard Australia Head of Aviation +61 2 9335 8221 Dr Ashley Steel United Kingdom Global Chair – Transport +44 20 7311 6633 Argentina Norbeto Cors +54 11 4316 5806 Belgium Patrick de Poorter +32 9 241 8810 Brazil Manuel Fernandes +55 21 3231 9412 Canada Steve Beatty +1 416 777 3569 Czech Republic Stanislav Cervenan +420 222 123 944 Denmark Soeren Thorup Soerensen +45 3818 3594 Egypt Hossam Fahmy +20 2 536 1581 Finland Solveig Tornroos-Huhtamaki +358 9 6939 3733 France Philippe Arnaud +33 1 5377 3809

Germany Ulrich Maas +49 30 2068 4888

Peru Jessica Oblitas +51 1 9792 2440

Hong Kong Andrew Weir +852 2826 7243

Portugal Sattar Sikander +351 210 110 090

Hungary Andrea Sartori +36 1 887 7215

Russia Richard Glasspool +7 095 937 4470

Ireland Sean O’Keefe +353 1 410 1241

Singapore Wah Yeow Tan +65 6213 2503

Italy Marco Giordano +39 06 80 96 13 47

South Africa Tshidi Mokgabudi +27 11 647 6735

India Manish Mohnot +91 22 2491 3030

Spain Miguel Angel Ibanez +34 91 5550 132

Japan Toshio Ikeda +81 3 3266 1142

Sweden Roland Nilsson +46 8 723 9309

Korea Peter C Kim +82 2 2112 0880

Switzerland Roger Neininger +41 1 249 21 25

Mexico Hector A Ramirez +52 55 5246 8545

Taiwan Beryl Lin +886 2 2715 9760

Netherlands Herman van Meel +31 20 656 7222

Thailand John Sim +66 2 677 2288

New Zealand Paul Herrod +64 9 3675 323

United States Chris Xystros +1 757 616 7009

Norway Aage Seldal +47 5157 8219

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The information contained herein is of a general nature and is not intended to address the circumstances of any particular individual or entity. Although we endeavor to provide accurate and timely information, there can be no guarantee that such information is accurate as of the date it is received or that it will continue to be accurate in the future. No one should act on such information without appropriate professional advice after a thorough examination of the particular situation. KPMG International is a Swiss cooperative that serves as a coordinating entity for a network of independent firms operating under the KPMG name. KPMG International provides no audit or other client services. Such services are provided solely by member firms of KPMG International (including sublicensees and subsidiaries) in their respective geographic areas. KPMG International and its member firms are legally distinct and separate entities. They are not and nothing contained herein shall be construed to place these entities in the relationship of parents, subsidiaries, agents, partners, or joint venturers. No member firm has any authority (actual, apparent, implied or otherwise) to obligate or bind KPMG International or any other member firm, nor does KPMG International have any such authority to obligate or bind any member firm, in any manner whatsoever.

Š 2006 KPMG International. KPMG International is a Swiss cooperative that serves as a coordinating entity for a network of independent firms operating under the KPMG name. KPMG International provides no services to clients. Each member firm of KPMG International is a legally distinct and separate entity and each describes itself as such. All rights reserved. Printed in Australia. KPMG and the KPMG logo are registered trademarks of KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. May 2006. VIC9838IM. Liability limited by a scheme approved under Professional Standards Legislation.

KPMG's Disclosures Hanbook 2005 - Accounting and Financial Reporting in the Global Airline Industry  

Accounting and Financial Reporting in the Global Airline Industry KPMG INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT