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Art Studies 1 WFX-2

Theatre Group Jireh Magayanes Key concepts and terms

Rae Anne Anonuevo History of World Theatre

Karla Apostol Filipino Theatre History

Patricia AlvarADO Current Issues in THEATRE Layouting and Cover Art ď Š


Jireh Magayanes is a 16-year-old BS Psychology student at UP Diliman. She is usually reserved and quiet, but is agreeable once you talk to her. She’s nerdy, geeky, and childish; sometimes she just wants to sing like there’s no tomorrow and act like no one’s watching her. She loves anime, books, music, Skandar Keynes, and David Archuleta. She also writes fan fiction and short prose from time to time, and she blogs. Most importantly, she just loves God and tries to live for Him every single day.


Rae Anne Anonuevo is a 17 year old Molecular Biology and Biotechnology student at the University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City. This playwright wishes to introduce herself not in a highly formal manner but by simply being her. All the movies, personalities, and songs mentioned were of most interest to the playwright. ď Š Anne, as what her friends would call her is a very sweet and exciting girl. She likes to smile like the sun, fall out of bed, sing like a bird, which makes it dizzy for her head, spin like a record, crazy on a Sunday night. She likes to laugh a lot especially with her closest Friends, family and even strangers; that you’ll get a Hangover of the fun and good times you had with her and makes you want to bond with her more and get a Hangover. She is very appreciative of the good things in life and does not forget to thank people for it, not like My Amnesia Girl. She doesn’t like fights. Who even wants one? But when things get out of hand, she is very willing to give a friendship one more chance. She can be spontaneous and fun like Katy Perry; yet she can be laid back and just cool like Maroon 5. She likes to live her teenage dream, and aspires someday that she can have her own eurotrip with her loved ones.


Karla Apostol is a bubbly girl taking up BS Tourism in UP Diliman with a mindset of traveling the world someday. She loves taking photographs of anything under the sun. She also loves books; it is her means of escape from reality for a while.


Tricia is one proudly geeky biology major happily pursuing her interests in both the sciences and the performing arts. As much as she loves playing the piano, drawing, cooking, and taking pictures of various animal and plant phyla, she hates having pictures taken of herself and thus refuses to have her facebook profile picture on this playbill. Her favorite Broadway actor is Telly Leung (aka Angel from RENT and one of the Dalton Warblers in Glee). One day, she’d like to travel to New York City with her high school bff’s, have lunch at the Life Café, pull the tables together, and sing “La Vie Boheme” like there’s no day but today.


Key Concepts and Terms •

Theatre Is a branch of performing arts focusing on live performers creating a self-contained drama. Aristotle’s six elements of theater

Stagecraft

• •

• • • • • •

Plot Character Idea Language Music Spectacle

The technical aspect of a theater production. Sub-disciplines are: Lighting, Audio, Carpentry, Costumes, Props, and Production. •

Kinds of Theatre places:

Arena/Stadium • Proscenium • Thrust • Traverse • Theater-in-theround • Black box


• Act- the major division in a theater production • Scene- action done in a single setting • Dialogue- speech

between two or more people • Cast- the actors who are to perform in a play • Soliloquy- talking • Understudy- one who is to while or as if alone take a role if the actor playing the role should miss a performance • Tone- the playwright’s attitude towards his/her work or material • Tempo- the pace of the scene/play

• Tech rehearsal- rehearsal solely devoted to the technical aspects of the production • Dress rehearsal- the last rehearsal, treated as a performance. • Run-through- rehearsal without stopping for changes or correction


History of World Theatre DANCE DRAMA  combination of ritual and

storytelling first on the African continent (3300 BC) SHAMAN • •

Go-betweens to the spirit world Performs his mastery in a state of trance ANIMISM •

belief in spirits to animate objects

MASKS • disguises the shaman performer transforming him into a spirit presence • Initially derived from the ecstatic contortion of the shaman’s face during trance


 

Athens, Greece (5th Century BC) Greek theater has its origin in religion (polytheistic)

DITHYRAMBS •

Lengthy hymn, sung and danced by a group of fifty men to praise Dionysus

SATYR PLAYS

OLD COMEDY •

Makes fun of society, politics or culture, and frequently its characters are contemporary recognizable TRAGEDY personalities Aristophanes

central character called a tragic protagonist or hero suffers some serious misfortune which is not accidental

Aristotle

Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides

structured like a Greek tragedy but parodied the mythological and heroic tales that were treated seriously in the tragedies.


Scripts became less important and the work of the performers became more prominent

Hellenistic theaters had become stone structures, two stories high and considerably bigger than most modern NEW COMEDY theaters.  More realistic, more down-to-earth, its comedy arose and complications of the everyday life of Greek citizens. 

MENANDER – best known writer of Greek New Comedy

Artists of Dionysus – a guild of actors, chorus members, playwrights and various other theater personnel •

MIMES

Travelling players who presented a variety of entertainments, including juggling, acrobatics, wordless dances dramatizing fables, and sketches with dialogue


Mainly from Greek influences

Developed sophisticated forms of popular entertainment

ETRUSCANS – civilization from North Rome who introduced popular entertainment

ROMAN COMEDY

ROMAN TRAGEDY

Influence from New Comedy

Not meant to be performed for large public audiences

Plautus and Terrence

Seneca

HORACE – the Roman Aristotle, wrote the “Arts Poetica”, the only Latin treatise on dramatic criticism still in existence


EARLY MIDDLE AGES •

Touring minstrels kept the theatrical tradition alive

LATER IN THE MIDDLE AGES •

Liturgical Drama – written in Latin, presented by clergymen and choir boys, presented in monasteries

MYSTERY OR CYCLE PLAYS: THE PAGEANT WAGON

MORALITY PLAYS: EVERYMAN

HIGH MIDDLE AGES: SECULAR DRAMA RELIGIOUS DRAMA focuses on the significance of religion, COMIC DRAMA emphasizes the imperfections and scandals of everyday human behavior.


TOTAL THEATER

EARLY THEATER

• Synthesis or integration of elements – acting, mime, dancing, • music, text

Patronage of the Imperial Court The “Pear Garden” was founded in 714

THEATER IN THE YUAN DYNASTY (1271-1368) •

Zaju – form of drama perfected in the Yuan dynasty

THEATER IN THE MING DYNASTY (1368-1644) •

Writers focused on making dramas than plays to please the elite, making the theater ornate and artificial

GROUNDPLAN OF THE NO THEATER

THEATER AFTER THE MING DYNASTY (1368-1644) •

Heavily patronized by the rich, began to lose all real contact with the larger public

MING PERIOD: LUTE SONG by Gao Ming

KABUKI THEATER


• •

Witnessed major innovations in four areas of theater arts – acting, dramatic criticism, theater architecture and scene design. Restructuring of the theater COMMEDIA DELL’ARTE CHARACTERS

From left to right: Harlequin, Pantalone, Isabella, Dottore, Capitano

PERSPECTIVE IN SCENE DESIGN

TEATRO OLIMPICO

TEATRO FARNESE

POLE AND CHARIOT SYSTEM FOR WINGS AND SHUTTERS


Development of brilliant drama: Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson Refined episodic structure, had imaginative staging techniques

ELIZABETHAN DRAMA • •

LORD CHAMBERLAIN’S MEN

Had Roman and Italian influences Mixed higher and lower characters and included comic scenes in serious plays Performers became increasingly accomplished at creating both comic and serious characters, mastering physical activities such as sword fighting and speaking verses effectively.

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE

1564 - 1616

1564 - 1593

COURT ENTERTAINME NT: THE MASQUE ELIZABETHAN PLAYHOUSES: PUBLIC THEATERS


Also used the episodic form

Mostly dealt with Spanish heroes and heroines: both common and nobility

Religious drama was evident

Women were employed as performers

THE CORRALES


Expanded and refined Italian Renaissance practices

Establishment of Comedie Franciase, the government-supported French national theater in 1680

NEOCLASSICAL IDEAS • • •

Pierre Corneille (1606 – 1684) Dramaturgy Stagecraft

FRENCH TRAGEDY •

Jean Racine (1639-1699)

FRENCH COMEDY •

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (1622 – 1673)

PALAIS CARDINAL THE HOTEL DE BOURGOGNE

COMEDIE FRANCAISE

PETIT BOURBON


• • • • • •

Italian influence: proscenium arch, perspective painting, wingand-shutter scenery French influence: neoclassical ideas Comedy of Manners Women appeared on the English stage for the first time Acting companies in London established a contract system Theatrical entrepreneurs began to emerge

RESTORATION DRAMA Fusion of Elizabethan stage conventions with those of the Italian and French theaters in drama, architecture and design

TRAGEDY •

John Dryden

FRENCH COMEDY •

Aphra Behn (1640 – 1689) RESTORATION THEATERS: THE DURY LANE THEATER


A time of experimentation

New forms of drama were developed

Multipoint perspective was introduced, local colors and three-dimensional properties became more common in sets

The role of a director emerged

By the end of the 18th century, melodrama had begun to emerge

BALLAD OPERA •

SENTIMENTAL COMEDY • •

Reaffirms middle class morality Comedie Larmoyante

Spoken dialogue DRAME alternated with songs• any serious drama that did not fit the set to contemporary necolassical definition of tragedy • BOURGEOIS – domestic tragedy melodies

COMIC OPERA

Actors dressed as cupids held signs onstage on which were printed speeches

DROTTNINGHOLM BIBIENA SET DESIGN THEATER COVENT GARDEN


• • • • •

• •

POPULAR Break – away from neoclassical rules ENTERTAINMENT Melodrama was the most popular genre The Well-Made Play surfaced • Minstrel show, burlesque, Star – system in acting variety, vaudeville, circus Actors based their acting more on observable life Gas end electricity provided a controllable source of light Peking opera was developed MELODRAMA

ROMANTICISM •

“song drama” or “music drama” Plays were written to arouse strong emotions •

First half of the 19th century PROSCENIUM THEATER

BOOTH’S THEATER

THE WELL-MADE PLAY •

A term to describe a play which builds mechanically to its climactic moments


Marked by the advent of realism and naturalism

Symbolist plays came into existence

Anti-realistic plays were experimented

Increased contact between Asia and the western world led to cross– cultural influences in theater.

REALISTIC DRAMA •

NATURALISTIC DRAMA

Henrik Ibsen (1828 – 1906) Represented everyday life

A subdivision of realism – an extreme form

SYMBOLISM • •

The leading anti-realistic movement bet. 1880-1910 Presented themes of the mystery of being and the cosmos

ECLECTICS •

Theater artists who tried to bridge the gap between realism and antirealism


The era of the world wars mirrored the social upheavals in theater Anti-realistic movements developed in Europe Rise of totalitarianism affected theater in the Soviet Union, Germany, Spain, etc. New playwrights and Broadway fares were introduced in the United States

• • • •

EXPRESSIONIST DRAMA • •

Often opposed to society and the family Structured station plays

FUTURISTIC DRAMA • •

Idealized war and the developing machine age Ridiculed museum art

SURREALIST DRAMA •

Set in a dreamworld, mixing recognizable events with fantastic happenings


• • •

More genres of drama emerged “Selective Realism” Regional professional theaters became firmly established in America

ABSURDIST DRAMA •

MULTIMEDIA

Presents human existence as futile or absurd

Joins theater with other arts

EXISTENTIALIST DRAMA •

God does not exist and humanity alone in an irrational universe

ENVIRONMENTAL THEATER •

The entire theater space is performance space SELECTIVE REALISM •

A type of realism that heightens certain details of action, scenery and dialogue while omitting others

DOCUMENTARY DRAMA •

Based on historical documents which give them an air of authenticity


• • •

New forms of theater have developed Performance art became a significant alternative form Many companies and established theaters confronted new aesthetic issues

CONTEMPORARY THEATER •

Combination of abstraction and realism so that their work cannot be classified

PERFORMANCE ART •

Emphasis was not on narrating a story or exploring recognizable characters but rather on the visual and ritualistic aspects of performing.


Vicente Barrantes “ Tagalog theater was definitely derived from Spanish theater, and that there had been none of it before Spanish contact �

Wenceslao Retana


Rituals and ceremonies

The many rituals that punctuated the daily life of the Filipinos were mostly marked by some mimetic action. Example : Pagdiwata

Indigenous drama Definition of drama (before) : -- as “action” or “deed” involving mimesis or mimicry

Songs and dances •

Songs and dances were usually part of the ritual ; and when outside of ritual, often had mimetic elements of their own.

customs Other nonritualistic or nonceremonial customs of the early Filipinos also qualify as drama not only because of mimetic action, but also because in some cases an element of “pretend” has entered the practice or game.


• Spanish culture = through Nueva Espana. • Native awit & corrido

comedia

The friars, in their zeal to Christianize the natives, used many methods of communicating their message, including the drama or dramatization, a pedagogical tool long used by the Jesuits in their teaching

• First dramatization were taught by the friars to their Filipino students for such festive occasions as the arrival of church notables, the feasts of saints, or the inauguration of churches or schools. First play was a comedia by Vicente Puche •

First recorded full-length (in three acts/ jornadas) was then taught to the elementary school children of Cebu who presented it to honor the first bishop-designate of Cebu, Fray Pedro de Agurto

First play in vernacular written by a Spaniard was on the martyrdom of Santa Barbara.

Most famous comedia of all time (1637): For the celebration of an actual victory of Christians over Moros => Corcuera defeated Kudarat (May) => boys acted out this victory by playing at “moros y cristianos” (June) => Father Hieronimo Perez’s play gran comedia was performed (July 5)


Religious drama •

Jesuits use religious/semi-religious dramatic forms to serve as an audiovisual reinforcement in their teaching of religion

St. helena’s search for the true cross (may)

CLASSIFICATION (Nicanor Tiongson) •

Based on Liturgy – Siete Palabras (Seven Last Words) on Good Friday

Derived from the Liturgy – Osana on Palm Sunday

Based not on the Liturgy but on the Liturgical Calendar – Santakrusan (May)


•

19th century : Western variety of theater, that is, scripted, costumed, and staged plays, were a prominent reality in the Philippines

Huseng Sisiw (Jose de la Cruz)

Francisco Balagtas

Teatro de Tondo -one of the first Manila theater built. Narciso de la Escosura & Carlota Coronel went to Manila 1848 due to political deportations


• •

Alejandro Cubero “father of Spanish theater” Elisea Raguer zarzuela actress

Contempary plays not about moro-cristiano •

La Conquista de Jolo by Antonio Garcia del Canto

The zarzuelas

• Filipinization of zarzuela by means of its birth in the vernacular • First vernacular Zarzuela – Mariano Proceso Pabalan Byron’s Ing Managpe • First professional Philippine theater

• Theme : Filipino domestic life


The drama • Moved into the vernacular even before the sarswela. • Mostly in prose and predominantly romantic and/or tragic and/or comic.

• First published play was Cornelio Hilado’s Ang Babai nga Huwaran

Juan Abad’s Tanikalang Guinto

Plays were staged at a time when the Sedition Law forbade.

“printing, publishing, or circulating any handbill, newspaper, or publication, advocating… independence or separation” •

In 1907, National Assembly was called, negotiations for independence began, the anger died down, and the dramas thereafter played on predictable formulae of family conflict and tragedy, romantic triangles, and the like.


Cirio H. Panganiban’s veronidia • One of the most famous romantic dramas of this period

Atang de la Rama

Reasons why it dramatically faded.. The English language had by the thirties become established as the language of the educated, the intelligentsia, and the elite. Serious competition from two newer forms of entertainment : Vaudeville & the movies. • Sarswelas and dramas themselves become stereotyped. •


Vod-a-vil • •

Originated in France; Introduced in the Phil by the Americans Filipino bodabil was introduced by Sunday Reantaso. But the credit for really establishing the forms belongs to Lou Borromeo.

Katy de la Cruz

Bodabil  The Clover Theater Show  Burlesque  then to excuses for girlie and strip shows

The __________ of the philippines

Eddie Mesa


• Stage shows served - to keep the spirits up - communicate messages of hope to the audience

• Copying American performers • Fallen on bad times with shows that contain vulgar skits, acrobatic acts, and “fashion show”


• Became strong during the 1945 when the American presence returned. • Centered in schools – U.P Dramatic Club directed by Wilfredo Maria Guerrero

• Semi professional groups – Barangay Theater Guild

Palanca memorial awards

• Encouragement for the writing of plays in English since 1954 – One-act play as a prize category and later the three-act play as well. • FIRST AWARD WAS GIVEN TO ALBERTO FLORENTINO’S THE WORLD IS AN APPLE

The return to the vernacular

• Less audiences -- > language was the problem • Onofre Pagsanghan “Filipino was absolutely as capable as English or any other language to containing the whole ideas and emotions found in Western drama


• Most of the plays being written and presented, however, are in the realistic temper, reflecting problems, concerns, and ideas of the present-day Filipino • SOCIAL REALISM • PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM • LEGEND & HISTORY

THEATER GROUPS IN UP • •

U.P REPERTORY COMPANY DULAANG U.P


With today’s advancements in technology, practically anything is accessible through the internet, including bootlegged videos of popular Broadway and West End musicals. Furthermore, there is the notion “if a play is already franchised into a movie, such as Hairspray, why do I need to spend tons of money on a single show when I could just buy a DVD?”

See above. An average show at the RCBC Theatre in Makati costs a little more than 2000Php. That’d be a seat at the very back, mind you.

Just because a character needs to strip naked or the play involves puppet sex (read: Avenue Q), must that specific part be omitted? There’s a fine, fine, line between essential, effective storytelling and plain vulgarity, and some people tend to forget that.

So… what exactly is Philippine theatre? Name practically any form of theatre and a foreign influence would come to mind. Just because a local company adapts a world-renowned script of Jonathan Larson’s, does that mean the show they were able to produce already has a distinct Filipino flavor?


http://ezinearticles.com/?Contemporary-Philippine-Theatre:Woes-And-Foes&id=5175385 CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, vol. VII http://avhrc-kultura.blogspot.com/2007/07/philippinetraditional-theater-forms.html www.wikipedia.org www.dictionary.reference.com

http://homepages.wmich.edu/~cedwards/Teachingmodules/mo dules/Theater%20Terms%20and%20Definitions.pdf


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