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A thesis presented in partial fulillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Fine Arts in Jewelry & Metalsmithing at the Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI By Louise Hjort

Approved by Master’s Examination Committee:

Tracy Steepy Thesis Chair Associate Professor, Graduate Director Department of Jewelry & Metalsmithing

Lori Talcott Thesis Advisor Visiting Professor, Department of Jewelry & Metalsmithing

David Katz Thesis Advisor Assistant Professor, Department of Ceramics


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Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude to everyone who has been supportive of this project and my time at RISD, my fellow graduate students, professors whom I have studied under, and friends back home. A special thanks to: Tracy Steepy for her unwavering support, professional guidance, conceptual expertise and encouragement throughout my study and research. Lauren Fensterstock for being incredibly generous in sharing ideas, concepts and thoughts in order to advance my thesis work. Her work has been a major inluence, and has motivated my conceptual thinking. Lori Talcott for making acute and sensitive observations about my thinking and writing. I would also like to thank her for her kindness in sharing her extensive research on the history and cultural inheritance of jewelry. David Katz for serving on my committee. His thoughtful questions and comments have been greatly valued. Noam Elyashiv for guiding me when I have experienced technical dificulties. I have really appreciated her way of problem solving, leading me to delicate and minimalistic results. Josephine Hjort for lying all the way to Providence to shoot my work with the greatest sensitivity and for helping me with the layout of this book. Anne West for giving me the best foundation for my thesis writing through her class Mapping the Intelligence of Your Work. Johan Van Aswegen, Kelly Inield, Amelia Millan Osma and Ronak Hingarh for modeling and bringing my pieces to life. Eiman Rezaei for being an immense help in iguring out my exhibition display. You were much appreciated. My lovely parents, for all their support and guidance. Last but not least I would like to thank Adam Scott Christensen for his continuous love and encouragement through the last two years.


Abstract

The Entropic Sublime is a thesis exploration seeking to understand the reciprocal relationship between people

and the environment. As a contemporary jewelry artist, my intention is to create links between larger concepts of anthropogenic entropy caused by the jewelry industry and our spatial and temporal perception of where the entropy takes place. Spatial, is our physical distance to something

or somewhere or how we perceive voids and the absence of things. Temporal, refers to how we understand changes through time. Perceptions of natural environments are contextual, set by culture, and inevitably framed by humans. Phenomenology is an attempt to consider that while the world itself exists objectively (out there), we can know it only through personal, subjective experience (in here). From an environmental stance, one might assume that the general subjective experience of the anthropogenic entropy has developed into a condition of myopia. It could be that either the disorder is everywhere in our ield of vision, making it impossible to understand the scale of our environmental situation, or that the destruction is completely abstracted by the distance between here and there. The collision between these outer and inner worlds provokes feelings, sentiments - even passions and anxieties. By following Robert Smithson’s concept of Non-Site,1 my intention is to create a connection between an existing

environmental site and the human body through the format of contemporary jewelry. My strategy is to juxtapose satellite imagery of environmental sites with pilgrim badges, which were a form of jewelry used as a souvenir by medieval

pilgrims. With this thesis I intend to connect what we know from a irst person experience to what we understand from third person abstractions.


I NT RO D U CTIO N

Pessimists argue that our planet is running out of resources as the world population continues to increase, contributing to growing concerns that the consumption of more non-renewable resources will be required in order to maintain our current standard of living. In contrast, optimists maintain that the world will never lack resources - even if non-renewable resources will by deinition one day be exhausted - because humankind will discover other resources as substitutes for existing resources.2 In many ways this argument over the state of our natural environment may seem schizophrenic. Some believe that we live in a world that is incapable of deciding whether to dominate nature in the name of civilization, or to worship it, untouched, as a means of escape from civilization. In Beyond Wilderness and Lawn from 1998, Michael Pollan explains that as the unlikely coexistence of these two contradictory ideas suggests, we tend relexively to assume that nature and culture are intrinsically opposed,

engaged in a kind of zero-sum game in which the gain of one entails the loss of the other.3 Instead of setting up binaries, the objective of this thesis is to navigate these contradictions and complexities, and what it means to be a human concerned for the environment. The perspective of this thesis corresponds to Merleau-Ponty’s idea of “lifeworld as lesh,� which is the understanding of an ontological connectedness and mutuality; it is the idea that everything that is, is so because of everything else that exists.4 Concepts such as anthropogenic entropy, spatial and temporal perception, as well as the body in relation to natural environments will be discussed. Through the format of contemporary jewelry, I intend to create an understanding of how we perceive our bodies in relation to the environment.


Inverted Landscapes Object 01, 2015 Plaster 2.7” x 2.7” x 1.5”

A NTHROPOGE NIC E NT RO PY

Entropy, Mining and Toxic Waste


The word entropy originates from the Greek word entropia, from en (in or within) and trope (a turning, or transformation). Entropy is an irreversible process within an isolated system; it is a gradual decline into disorder. It can be regarded as a dispersal of matter and energy. When the isolated system is no longer capable of change, it has reached the maximum state of entropy. This state is equivalent to equilibrium.5

context of entropy, I am inclined to disagree with this saying. One should cry over spilled milk. The reason why is because it is an irreversible process where it is statistically improbable that the milk is going to move back into the glass. This image can be applied to the notion of glaciers melting into the ocean, the destruction of coral reefs, ocean acidiication, the fragmentation of natural habitats, species extinction, and the list continues.

Entropy can also be described by imagining a glass of milk. If one were to spill it, the entropy of this isolated system would be increased. There is an old saying, “one should not cry over spilled milk.� With the risk of sounding sentimental, in the

When looking at the physical structure of entropy it can be explained with nouns such as disruption, dissolution, disintegration, erosion, which are words that I have used to guide some of the visual presences in my work. I used

the concept of entropy as a guide for my process while making a past body of work, Inverted Landscapes (2014). I built ridged structures of either plaster or porcelain around organic forms. The organic materials were burned out of the ridged structures, leaving behind negative spaces. These negative spaces can also be regarded as alternative versions of inverted landscapes.


Inverted Landscapes No. 1, Necklace, 2015 Blackened strerling silver, plaster, steel wire


Inverted Landscapes No. 2, Brooch, 2015 Blackened brass, plaster, stainless steel


Inverted Landscapes No. 3, Brooch, 2015 Blackened sterling silver, porcelain, stainless steel


Left: Rachel Whiteread Untitled (One Hundred Spaces), 1995 Resin (100 units) Dimensions variable

Right: Rachel Whiteread Ghost, 1990 Plaster on steel frame 269 x 355.5 x 317.5 cm

An artist who has been mentioned several time when discussing my work in a visual context, is Rachel Whiteread. Whiteread is an English sculptor employing traditional casting methods and materials that are commonly used in the preparation of sculptures rather than for the inished object. With materials such as plaster, rubber and resin, she makes sculptures of the spaces in, under and on everyday objects. Her art operates on many levels and her choice of subject

matter relects an awareness of the intrinsically human-scaled design of an objects. Whiteread’s main focus seems to be on objects that we surround ourselves with in everyday life. She exploits the severing of this connection, by removal of the object’s function, to express absence and loss. While Whiteread focuses on objects and spaces known to the average Westerner, my work seeks to communicate spaces and places that are abstracted from our everyday life. The

places I am referencing are sites that are altered by humans in order to sustain modern life, a concept I also refer to as anthropogenic entropy.


The effects of environmental change and human cultures have a long and complex history, spanning many millennia and varying greatly through time and from place to place. However, it is primarily during the last one hundred years that the human population has soared from little more than one billion to seven billion, and with this, economic activity has increased nearly tenfold between 1950 and 2015. As a result, half of Earth’s land surface has been domesticated for human use and most of the world’s isheries are fully or nearly over-exploited.6 From an environmental standpoint, one might say that anthropogenic entropy has developed

into a condition of myopia. It can be compared to Timothy Morton’s idea of being inside the gigantic worm in “The Empire Strikes Back.” For a while, you can kid yourself that you’re not inside a gigantic worm, until it starts digesting you. Because the worm is “everywhere” in your ield of vision, you can’t really tell the difference between it and the surface of the asteroid you think you landed on.7 A fantasy that is often used when ecologists speak of natural systems is the absence of humans – something that once was a reality. Today, it is dificult to imagine the world without humans, and although we started out as hunter-


Fig. 1: Post small-scale mining environment in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon.

gatherers, not taking more from nature than we needed, we now face a reality where humans have a steady effect on the structure, function, aerial boundaries, and species composition of the planet’s ecosystems.8 Metal mining provides us with materials essential for modern life. But mining is also one of the most destructive industries in the world.9 Mercury pollution, cyanide spills, ecosystem deprivation, not to mention civil wars, are just a some of the detrimental effects of the jewelry industry. Due to poor planning and weak regulation, mining has caused environmental destruction, severely altering the surrounding lands and waters.

Irresponsible mining practices have caused soil erosion and deforestation, and in some extreme cases, have caused entire ecosystems to collapse. Additionally, the majority of the world’s gold is extracted from open-pit mines, where immense volumes of earth are scoured away and processed for the retrieval of trace elements. In open-pit mining, mining companies reach the gold-laden rock, known as ore, by digging or blasting from the ground level, creating enormous craters. These landscapes are altered to an extent that makes them visible from space.


Another reality of open-pit mining is waste. Only 0.000001 percent of the ore obtained from openpit mining consists of gold. Earthworks, a nonproit organization dedicated to protecting communities and the environment from the adverse impacts of mineral and energy development, estimates that in order to produce enough raw gold to make a single ring, twenty tons of toxic waste is discarded.10 Toxic waste is mainly produced through the methods of heap leaching and amalgamation. Heap leaching is a method commonly used to extract gold from ore in open-pit mining. The ore is crushed into ine particles and then heaped into large piles and sprayed with cyanide, which seeps down through the ore and bonds with the gold. The resulting gold-cyanide solution is collected at the bottom of the heap and pumped to a mill where chemicals are used to separate the gold from the cyanide. Amalgamation is the gold extraction method most often used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Here miners bring crushed ore into contact with mercury, binding the gold with the mercury, forming an alloy called amalgam. The mercury is then removed from the amalgam by dissolving it in nitric acid or evaporating it with heat, leaving only the gold behind. Both heap leaching and amalgamation leave behind large amounts of toxic waste. To “dispose� of the waste from heap leaching, mine operators often construct a dam to place the waste inside. These dams, however, are not always structurally sound. They can leak or even fail creating a long-term environmental hazard. The waste from amalgamation mainly comes in the form of vapor released by burning mercury, which is extremely harmful to the environment and to the health of miners and their immediate community.


Mercury, not inhaled during the burning process settles into the surrounding environment or circulates globally for future deposition far from the site, where it is absorbed and processed by a variety of living organisms, including humans. This transformed elemental mercury is called methylmercury. Methylmercury is one of the most dangerous neurotoxins that contaminate the food chain through bioaccumulation11. Through my research I found that gold mining causes more global mercury pollution than any other source. This motivated me to think about a new body of work.12 Madre de Dios is a piece from 2016. It concerns the problem of environmental destruction and mercury pollution in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon by illegal, small-scale gold mining. The altered environment is visible from space and the satellite imagery used in the piece is in courtesy of NASA. The images were taken on October 15, 2003 (top), and September 3, 2011 (lower), by the Thematic Mapper on the Landsat 5 satellite.13 The gold leafed sections on the lower image mark the areas that have been altered by small-scale gold mining during the past eight years, resulting in serious mercury poisoning affecting both the people and the wildlife in the area. The gold revealed in the image is relative to the average amount of mercury that would have been used to reine that tiny amount of gold, which is 31,8 grams of mercury per 0,034 gram of gold. The image that is edged in the bottom of the frames correspond to the topographical structure of the diseased site, which is represented in ig. 1. The purpose of this piece is to explore the special aspects of a distant place, as well as to suggest a movement of the materials from the site to our bodies.


Previous page: Madre de Dios, Brooch, 2016 Repurposed copper, hematite plating, glass, gallium (substitute for mercury), stainless steel, 24kt gold, NASA satellite imagery on vellum

In a conversation with Christina Miller, Cofounder, Chair and Advisory Council for Ethical Metalsmiths, she stated that mining has an effect on the environment, period!14 There is no way to argue against that statement. However, there are options that we, as individual artists or large co-operations, can make to become more responsible. Within the jewelry industry recycling is not necessarily a contemporary term. As jewelry is both portable wealth and a liquid asset, jewelers have recycled for centuries, not the least because of changes in fashions, but also during times of war and inancial duress. The idea behind Ethical Metalsmiths is to create a community for jewelers, artists, and consumers who wish to become informed activists for responsible mining, sustainable economic

development, and veriied, ethical sources of materials for use in jewelry manufacturing. Miller states that there are many methods of how to close the gap between where materials are harvested and the general public and I would be interested in seeing how a contemporary jewelry artist would approach this gap.15 Through my work, I am looking to explore how I as a contemporary jewelry artist can affect this gap between mining and making. In the following text I will discuss further how I use my work to investigate the use of material, notions of phenomenology, and the theory of Non-Site.


TEM P ORAL AND SPAC IA L P E RC E PT I O N O F P L AC E S Phenomenology of Perception, Scale, Voids / Negative spaces

Perception is our “absolute proximity” to things and, at the same time, our “irremediable distance” from them.16 - Maurice Merleau-Ponty


Appreciation of natural environments in the Western world seems to have been an invention of the late 18th century, of the Romantics, or more speciically, an invention of people who lived in cities. It is remarkable how quickly the movement developed, given that half a century earlier the wilderness had been demonized as heathen, unregenerate, and the haunt of Satan.17 Perceptions of natural environments are culturally constructed, framed by belief or knowledge, and embedded within habits of thought and behavior. Some of our Western perceptual inheritance of natural environments seems to have derived from the Enlightenment, an era when it was thought that the environment was for humans to mold and craft to an ideal – we “cultured nature,” and it was thereby idealized and tamed. To understand this concept it is important to understand the idea of phenomenology. Phenomenology is an attempt to describe the basic structures of human experience and understanding from a irst person point of view, in contrast to the relective, third person perspective that tends to dominate scientiic knowledge and common sense. Phenomenology calls us to return, as Husserl put it, “to the things themselves.” By “things” Husserl did not mean real concrete objects, but the ideal abstract forms and contents of experience as we live them; not as we have learned to imagine and describe them according to the categories of science and other acknowledged opinions. As explained in the abstract, phenomenology is an attempt to consider that, while the world itself exists objectively (out there), we can know it only through personal, subjective experiences (in here).18


Previous page: Fig. 2: Fragments of forest in the agricultural landscape around Sinop, Brazil, in the Amazon rainforest. Courtesy of Google Earth.

If phenomenology is a product of how individuals interpret and experience the world, then the attitude towards this artistic inquiry involves describing the world as it is experienced by humans; what the world is and means to humans, what it means to humans to have a world, and how humans relate to this world, to each other – to all possible ‘things’ of the world.19 Further, this thesis concentrates on two kinds of perceptual experiences of the environment, our temporal perception and spatial perception. There are different kinds of temporal experiences, one of which involves the notion of change. In other words, what it means to perceive one event following another. However, some changes happen at such a slow rate (in comparison to the human state), that it is impossible for us to perceive them. In many environmental systems, change irst becomes evident when the circumstances are irreversible. The increase of entropy, conceptualized as decline in ecological disorder, can be described through David Quammen’s concept of a ine Persian carpet and a hunting knife. An ecosystem is a tapestry of species and relationships. Chop away a section, isolate that section, and there arises the problem of unraveling.20 In this setting,

we cut the carpet into thirty-six equal pieces, each one a rectangle. Does this mean that we now have thirty-six nice Persian throw rugs? No. All we are left with is three-dozen ragged fragments, each one worthless and commencing to come apart. Using the same logic outdoors and it begins to explain why the tiger, Panthera tigris, is now extinct from the island of Bali. It suggests why the jaguar, the puma, and forty-ive species of birds have been extirpated from a place called Barro Colorado Island, and why countless other creatures are now mysteriously absent from myriad other sites.21 Destruction and degradation of natural ecosystems are the primary causes of decline in global biodiversity. Altered habitat for mining purposes typically leads to fragmentation, the division of habitat into smaller and more isolated fragments separated by a matrix of humantransformed land cover. Broad-scale destruction and fragmentation of vegetation is a highly visible result of human land-use throughout the world, largely caused by logging. Logging occurs for different economical reasons, including mining for metals and precious stones. This phenomenon is also called habitat


fragmentation, which is the “breaking apart” of continuous habitat, such as tropical forest or semiarid shrubland, into distinct pieces.22 When this occurs, a variety of interrelated processes are set in motion: a reduction in the total amount of the original vegetation (i.e. habitat loss); subdivision of the remaining vegetation into fragments, remnants or patches (i.e. habitat fragmentation); and introduction of new forms of land-use to replace vegetation that is lost. These processes are closely intertwined, so it is often dificult to separate the exact effect of each on the species or community of concern. This can lead to the skepticism that “habitat fragmentation” is an ambiguous, or even meaningless concept.23 As the human eye is not capable of perceiving greater spaces, fragmentation has been a strategy for humans when dealing with natural environments, as well as when replicating them through imagery. Thus, degradation of natural environments seems like no surprise, when considering that we only until recently (in the broader sense) have been able to perceive the totality of the planet through fragments. However, today’s technology reveals at high resolution, satellite data sets on how human activities are transforming global ecosystems.

In my earlier piece from 2015 called Postcards from New Guinea was motivated by the notion of habitat fragmentation. The idea was to visualize entropy in the form of a landmass changing through time. The format of a map merged with the metaphor of an exhausted stamp, is used as a visual reference to the anthropogenic entropy that has altered the island of New Guinea. The stamps are placed directly on the wall in a horizontal line, so that the viewer can move physically through the suggested timeline. By placing the stamps directly on the wall and leaving out the concept of a frame, the idea is to place the viewer inside the frame, instead of as an outsider looking at or into a frame. The gold leaf is introduced to represent the raw materials that are harvested from the two expanding goldmines in New Guinea, causing habitat fragmentation in the surrounding environments. The void relates to the absence of something that was once there.


Postcards from New Guinea, 2015 24kt gold leaf on wall 5” × 87” × 1”


Spatial perception is the ability to evaluate our physical distance to something or somewhere. Good spatial perception is our capacity to assess how things are arranged in space, as well as considering their relations in the environment. In Poetics of Space, Bachelard refers to a longing for places that are not appreciated enough in that leeting hour, contemplating how to make good from far.24 I connect this contemplation to Thicket No. 1 (1989), a sculptural piece made by Roni Horn.25 It is an aluminum slab, which incorporates a

Roni Horn Thicket No. 1, 1989 Aluminium, plastic 5.08 cm x 162.5 cm x 121.9 cm

sentence from Simone Weil’s Gravity and Grace: “To see a landscape as it is when I’m not there.” What is irst seen is a minimalist object with marks that resemble black bar codes on the sides of the slab. Closer inspection of these reveals a text, which was there all along but not visible from a distance. As Horn mentioned in an interview with Jan Howard from 1994, Thicket No. 1 gives the viewer an inkling of not being present. The contradiction lies in the instinctive weighing of that inkling against the reality, the certainty, of


one’s physical presence in that same moment.26 It may be physically impossible, but somehow to see a landscape, as it is when one is not there, seems a valid motivation for environmental art in a world where the human presence is increasingly felt everywhere.


BODY AND TH E EN VI RO NM E NT Robert Smithson, Pilgrimages, Body and Non-Site, First Person Experience / Third Person Abstractions

One of the forerunners of environmental art, and speciically of referencing larger places through sculptural works of art, is Robert Smithson, with his theory of The Non-Site from 1968.27 The NonSite is a series of indoor earthworks – a three dimensional logical picture that is abstracted from an actual site. To understand this language one will have to appreciate the metaphor that one site can represent another site, which does not actually resemble it.28 Between the actual site and The Non-Site itself exists a space of metaphoric signiicance. It could be that “travel” in this space is a vast metaphor. Everything between the two sites could become physical metaphorical material devoid of natural meanings and realistic assumptions.29 Both A Non-Site, Franklin, New Jersey, 1968 and A Non-Site, Pine Barrens, New Jersey, 1968, involves bins illed with raw material samples

from the sites, occupying the space of the gallery, and on the walls, visual documentation of the sites in the form of maps or aerial photographs. Putting the material samples into bins brings the entropic site into focus, yet neither one stands independent of the other. Therefore, it is not the visual documentation of the site alone, but their relation to the “logical picture” of assembled material samples beneath that matters. What drew me to Smithson’s theory of Non-Site was his ability to transport the viewer mentally to a speciic physical site, much like a mental pilgrimage, which will be discussed later. The idea can seem very abstract, but with visual clues and materials gathered from the actual site the viewer is given the opportunity to make the connection between here and there. In an interview with Tony Robbin conducted in 1968, Smithson explains:


I’m interested in expanding the limits beyond the interior of a room so that one can experience a greater scale in terms of a work of art…. As I say our usual idea of looking at art as an object in a room without any kind of other references seems to be a product of reductive formalism, which just gives you one object. My method operates more in a dualistic frame of reference that gives rise to an ininite number of possibilities. It sort of bifurcates, so that the work of art doesn’t exist merely as one object…. The site and Non-Site become like interactive relections.30


Robert Smithson A Non-Site, Franklin, New Jersey, 1968 Painted wooden bins, limestone, work on paper: gelatin-silver prints and typescript on paper with graphite and transfer letters mounted on mat board 16,1” x 82,1” x 103”

Robert Smithson A Non-Site, Pine Barrens, New Jersey, 1968 Aluminum bins, sand, work on paper: aerial photograph, map 12” x 65,1” x 65,1”


In Medieval Modern, Alexander Nagel challenges us to understand the topographical reliquary of a pilgrim box in terms of Smithson’s theory on Non-Site. He explains that taking rocks away as souvenirs of a place is a very old practice.31 In the ifteenth century, a growing desire was to go on pilgrimage, both real and imaginary. The most spiritually remunerative pilgrimage was to holy sites.32 The logic of a pilgrim’s box, which is shown in ig. 3, corresponds fairly precisely to the logic of Smithson’s Non-Site theory. The Palestine box holds stone samples from different, clearly designated locations, and displayed at a distance from their original site. The box lid carries paintings that are more recognizable than the contents of the box. However,

as in Smithson’s Non-Sites, it is the painting in relation to the assembled rocks that is signiicant.33 In contemporary language one might refer to the rocks in the pilgrim box as a form of souvenir. Medieval souvenirs also came in the form of metal badges (shown in ig. 4), which were collected and worn by pilgrims. There were precious, unique pieces, fashioned for the elite, and larger series of massproduced pieces for the common pilgrim. The latter were produced from cheap materials such as pewter, but these were precious nonetheless because of their spiritual and symbolic value.34 Pilgrim badges served different purposes for each individual, and they may have had multiple

meanings for each person as well. The badges evidenced the wearer’s personal sacriice, as it signiied their journey to a site, often far away from their home, in order to pray and pay homage to the relics of a saint. Pilgrim badges sometimes became “secondary” relics. Since relics were often believed to have certain powers that could result in miracles like the healing of the sick, the pilgrim badge functioned in a similar manner as a “secondary” relic, which was brushed against the relic or reliquary in order to “absorb” the essence of the saint into the badge. 35 In other words the pilgrim badges were to some extent used as stand-ins for the scale of the actual holy sites, and through imagining the site you were able to go there on a metaphysical or mental pilgrimage.


However, one did not necessarily need a badge in order to do a mental pilgrimage. All one needed was a reference, such as the words from the earlier mentioned piece by Horn: “To see a landscape as it is when I’m not there.� By imagining the scale and physicality of a speciic place, one was able to go on a mental pilgrimage. When understanding scale, we tend to use our bodies as the reference of comparison. Photography is often considered to be an authority of truth, but also has the capacity to express distortion. It is a medium that is ever present in our culture, and promises the ability to capture objective reality. Used broadly and even democratically, photography offers a particularly powerful way to connect personal histories to the wider world.36 While photographers have the capacity to consider large constellations, jewelers tend to have a magniied vision of things.

Fig. 3: Box with Stones from the Holy Land, s Box: Tempera and gold leaf on wood 24.1 x 18.4 x 4.1 cm Vatican, Museo Sacro.


sixth-seventh century. Early Christian (Palestine).


In my series Pitmines, 2016, I am working with the scale of site through satellite images to capture the immensity of an environmental place in relation to a pilgrim badge, which seeks to construct an intimate experience between the body and the site. The relationship between the actual site and the Non-Site is a dimensional element but one must go beyond logic to understand what is large and what is small.37 As Gaston Bachelard stresses, in looking at a miniature, unlagging attention is required to integrate all the detail.38 Further, he states that the cleverer one becomes at miniaturizing the world, the better one will possess it and in doing this, it must be understood that values become condensed and enriched in the miniature.39 Pitmines, 2016 consist of three pieces each named after the mine, which they represent Grasberg, Super Pit and Bingham. Grasberg is the largest goldmine in the world and is located right in the middle of Lorentz National Park in Indonesia. The mine is owned by the American company Freeport McMoRan and according to Earthworks there is dumped about 80 million tons of waste debris into the surrounding river systems every year.40

Fig. 4: Various medieval pilgrim badges in pewter


Super Pit also known as the Fimiston Open Pit, is Australia’s largest open cut gold mine. The Super Pit is located on the southeast edge of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia.41 The Bingham Canyon Mine, more commonly known as Kennecott Copper Mine among locals, is an open-pit mining operation extracting large amounts copper. It is located southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, in the Oquirrh Mountains and is the deepest man-made excavation in the world.42 The series deal with our spatial perception of the negative spaces created by these pit-mining craters. Negative spaces are classiied by the hollowing out a solid that already existed. Hollowed out caves in ancient times would be the irst example. The craters of pit mines could be the contemporary example. My pilgrim badges are made out of bio resin and raw gold ore and are miniature vacuums of the actual mine craters represented in the satellite imagery. The satellite imagery is placed on the loor in 20” x 20” tempered glass frames, inviting the viewer to step into the frame. The aim is to construct a form of pilgrimage, experienced from the same perspective as the satellite that recorded imagery on the loor. My intention is that the viewer will inspect the pilgrim badges and then study the satellite imagery to understand the relationship between the threedimensional topographical structure of the pilgrim batches and the two-dimensional satellite imagery. In contrast to Smithson’s Non-Sites, which does not invite physical engagement with the viewer,43 the series of Goldmines are indented to be worn and interacted with, which encourages both a perceptual and sensory experiences with the piece. The negative space in the imagery becomes a manifestation of the hidden, or the memory of a


material that is no longer there. The void suggests both absence and presence and is a process involving negation and entropy. The pilgrim badges therefore function as modest surrogates for these voids or negative spaces.


Super Pit, Brooch, 2016 Bio resin, raw gold ore, recycled sterling silver, tempered glass, wood frame, paint, NASA satellite imagery on vellum


Grasberg, Brooch, 2016 Bio resin, raw gold ore, recycled sterling silver, tempered glass, wood frame, paint, NASA satellite imagery on vellum


Bingham, Brooch, 2016 Bio resin, raw gold ore, recycled sterling silver, tempered glass, wood frame, paint, NASA satellite imagery on vellum


My latest series of work, Diamond Mines, 2016, is made up by 5 pieces, each responding to the sites where some of the largest diamond mines are located. They are, as in my series Pitmines, named after the mines that they represent, Letlhakane, Jwaneng and Orapa, which are all located in Botswana, and Diavik and Ekati, located in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The intention with this body of work was to experiment with how to create physicality from multiple two-dimensional images, instead of relying on a three-dimensional form to support the satellite imagery. Each piece is made up by a satellite image printed on a sheet of aluminum and a pilgrim badge made out of laser edged glass in a sterling silver frame. Etched on the glass of the pilgrim badges are two-dimensional topographical representations of the diamond mines.

The satellite images are sourced through Google Earth, which allowed me to zoom in on the exact location of the mines. The images chosen are from the surrounding areas of the mines, suggesting what the landscape looked liked before the mining took place. The pilgrim badges are then placed on top of the satellite imagery, and when looking through the etched mines on the glass, the aim is to create an interruption in the landscape. The layering of information is what creates the physicality of this body of work. When the badges are worn, the body becomes a substitute for the landscape, and by responding to the clothing of the wearer the topographical structures etched on the glass, are either revealed or hidden.


Orapa, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum


Ekati, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum


Letlhakane, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum


Diavik, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum


Jwaneng, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum


C O N C LUS ION

It is more crucial than ever that humans connect with the environment. When considering art as an “engaged practice,” one that fully includes the viewer in a dialogue, artists have the opportunity to become mediators between science and the general public. The challenge of this thesis has been to help the viewer sense and understand the relevance of a nonictional place. Although we rely on environmental sites to sustain our modern lifestyle, they are still abstracted from our everyday life, mainly due to their physical distance from us. The aim of this thesis has been to explore this gap through the context of contemporary jewelry. In my research, I have therefore concentrated on jewelry traditions that have been used to connect the body to speciic places.

Medieval pilgrim badges caught my attention for this very reason. Medieval scholar Alexander Nagel, in his book “Medieval Modern,” makes an important connection between pilgrim souvenirs and Robert Smithson’s theory of NonSite. This connection has been a central component to the conceptual framework of my thesis project. Further, in order locate the viewer somewhere in between here and there, I have employed scale as a strategy to capture the immensity of place in relationship to the intimacy of the human body. Outside the gallery space I see these pieces belonging to collectors. The pieces would follow the same guidelines as limited edition prints; they are one-offs, but can also be accompanied by a larger collection.

Each piece is therefore a representation of a different site. They can be regarded as permanent, interactive installations that can be separated and worn into the world, but also displayed in relation to the accompanying imagery in a more private setting. With this work I aspire to create a space that generates thoughts on what we know from irst person experience and what we understand from third person abstractions – where scientiic facts can be appreciated through visual representations.


PL ATES PL AT E 0 1

D ETA I L

Louise Hjort Inverted Landscapes Object 01, 2015 Plaster 2.7” x 2.7” x 1.5” Photo Credit: Louise Hjort


PL AT E 02

D ETA I L

Louise Hjort Inverted Landscapes No. 1, Necklace, 2015 Blackened strerling silver, plaster, steel wire Photo Credit: Josephine Hjort Model: Johan Van Aswegen


PL AT E 03

D ETA I L

Louise Hjort Inverted Landscapes No. 2, Brooch, 2015 Blackened brass, plaster, stainless steel Photo Credit: Josephine Hjort Model: Amelia Millan Osma


PL AT E 04

D ETA I L

Louise Hjort Inverted Landscapes No. 3, Brooch, 2015 Blackened sterling silver, porcelain, stainless steel Photo Credit: Josephine Hjort Model: Johan Van Aswegen


P L AT E 05

D ETA I L

Louise Hjort Madre de Dios, Brooch, 2016 Repurposed copper, hematite plating, glass, gallium (substitute for mercury), stainless steel, aluminum frame, 24kt gold, NASA satellite imagery on vellum Photo Credit: Josephine Hjort Model: Johan Van Aswegen Satellite Photo Credit: NASA images by Robert Simmon, using Landsat data from the USGS Global Visualization Viewer. Caption by Joel N. Shurkin. Metadata Data Date: October 15, 2003 - September 3, 2011 Visualization Date: July 23, 2012 Sensor(s): Landsat 5 – TM


PL AT E 06

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Louise Hjort Postcards from New Guinea, 2015 24kt gold leaf 5” × 87” × 1” Photo Credit: Louise Hjort


PL AT E 07

D ETA I L

Louise Hjort Super Pit, Brooch, 2016 Bio resin, raw gold ore, recycled sterling silver, tempered glass, wood frame, paint, NASA satellite imagery on vellum Photo Credit: Louise Hjort Model: Kelly Infield Satellite Photo Credit: NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Metadata Data Date: February 15, 2010 Visualization Date: February 18, 2010 Sensor(s): EO-1 - ALI Categories: ALI


PL AT E 08

D ETA I L

Louise Hjort Grasberg, Brooch, 2016 Bio resin, raw gold ore, recycled sterling silver, tempered glass, wood frame, paint, NASA satellite imagery on vellum Photo Credit: Josephine Hjort Model: Johan Van Aswegen Satellite Photo Credit: Astronaut photograph ISS011-E-9620 was acquired June 25, 2005, with a Kodak 760C digital camera with a 400 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and the Image Science & Analysis Group, Johnson Space Center. Metadata Data Date: June 25, 2005 Visualization Date: August 1, 2005 Sensor(s): ISS - Digital Camera


PL AT E 09

D ETA I L

Louise Hjort Bingham, Brooch, 2016 Bio resin, raw gold ore, recycled sterling silver, tempered glass, wood frame, paint, NASA satellite imagery on vellum Photo Credit: Josephine Hjort Model: Ronak Hingarh Satellite Photo Credit: The featured astronaut photograph ISS015-E-29867 was acquired September 20, 2007, by the Expedition 15 crewwith a Kodak 760C digital camera using an 800 mm lens. The image is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and the Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Metadata Data Date: September 20, 2007 Visualization Date: October 22, 2007 Sensor(s): ISS - Digital Camera Categories: Astronaut Photography, Digital Camera


PL AT E 10

D ETA I L Louise Hjort Orapa, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum Photo Credit: Louise Hjort Model: Kelly Infield Satellite Photo Credit: Google Earth, captured by Louise Hjort


PL AT E 11

D ETA I L Louise Hjort Ekati, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum Photo Credit: Josephine Hjort Model: Ronak Hingarh Satellite Photo Credit: Google Earth, captured by Louise Hjort


PL AT E 12

D ETA I L Louise Hjort Letlhakane, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum Photo Credit: Louise Hjort Model: Amelia Millan Osma Satellite Photo Credit: Google Earth, captured by Louise Hjort


PL AT E 13

D ETA I L Louise Hjort Diavik, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum Photo Credit: Louise Hjort Model: Kelly Infield Satellite Photo Credit: Google Earth, captured by Louise Hjort


PL AT E 14

D ETA I L Louise Hjort Jwaneng, Brooch, 2016 Glass, recycled sterling silver, spring steel, Google Earth image on brushed alluminum Photo Credit: Josephine Hjort Model: Johan Van Aswegen Satellite Photo Credit: Google Earth, captured by Louise Hjort


I M AG E I ND EX Rachel Whiteread Untitled (One Hundred Spaces), 1995 Resin (100 units) Dimensions variable Source: www.tate.org.uk

Rachel Whiteread Ghost, 1990 Plaster on steel frame 269 x 355.5 x 317.5 cm Source: www.saatchigallery.com

Fig. 1: Post small-scale mining environment in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon. Source: www.mongabay.com

Fig. 2: Fragments of forest in the agricultural landscape around Sinop, Brazil, in the Amazon rainforest. Courtesy of Google Earth.


Roni Horn Thicket No. 1, 1989 Aluminium, plastic 5.08 cm x 162.5 cm x 121.9 cm Source: www.tate.org.uk

Robert Smithson A Non-Site, Pine Barrens, New Jersey, 1968 Aluminum bins, sand, work on paper: aerial photograph, map 12” x 65,1” x 65,1” Source: www.robertsmithson.com

Robert Smithson A Non-Site, Franklin, New Jersey, 1968 Painted wooden bins, limestone, work on paper: gelatin-silver prints and typescript on paper with graphite and transfer letters mounted on mat board 16,1” x 82,1” x 103” Source: www.robertsmithson.com

Fig. 3: Box with Stones from the Holy Land, sixth-seventh century. Early Christian (Palestine). Box: Tempera and gold leaf on wood 24.1 x 18.4 x 4.1 cm Vatican, Museo Sacro.


Medieval Pilgrim Badge, Late Medieval; 15th century Pewter Source: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk

Medieval Pilgrim Badge, Late Medieval; 15th century Pewter Source: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk

Medieval Pilgrim Badge, 14th-15th century Pewter Source: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk

Medieval Pilgrim Badge, Late 14th century Pewter Source: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk


Medieval Pilgrim Badge, Late Medieval; 15th century Pewter Source: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk

Medieval Pilgrim Badge, Late Medieval; 15th century Pewter Source: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk

Medieval Pilgrim Badge, Late Medieval; 15th century Pewter Source: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk

Medieval Pilgrim Badge, Late 15th-early 16th century Pewter Source: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk


EN D NOTES 1

“Estate of Robert Smithson, A Provisional Theory of Non-Sites:” http://www.robertsmithson.com/essays/provisional.htm.

2

Yifan Ding, “Impact of Afluence and Overexploitation of Natural Resources,” Environment and Development, Vol. 1, (2009).

3

Michael Pollan, “Beyond Wilderness and Lawn,” Harvard Design Magazine Issue 4, 1998, p. 1

4

Karin Dahlberg, Helena Dahlberg, Nancy Drew, Maria Nyström, Relective Lifeworld Research, (Professional Pub Serv, 2008), p. 39

5

Oxford Dictionaries: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/deinition/american_english/entropy

6

Will Steffen et al, “Executive summary of the book: Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure,” Springer IGBP Synthesis, (2004)

7

Timothy Morton, “Introducing the idea of “hyperobjects”: A new way of understanding climate change and other phenomena,” High Country News, Issue 47, 2015

8

Emilio F. Moran, People and nature: an introduction to human ecological relations, (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2006).

9

Earthworks: https://www.earthworksaction.org/issues/detail/mining#.VwvuR2PRxEc

10

Earthworks: http://nodirtygold.earthworksaction.org/impacts#.VtOi68c0pSV

11

Black Smith Institue: http://www.blacksmithinstitute.org/artisanal-gold-mining.html

12

Brilliant Earth: http://www.brilliantearth.com/top-ten-jewelry-issues/

13

NASA images by Robert Simmon, using Landsat data from the USGS Global Visualization Viewer. Caption by Joel N. Shurkin.

14

Miller, Christina. Interviewed by Louise Hjort. Phone interview. Providence, RI, 3/19-2016.

15

Miller, Christina. Interviewed by Louise Hjort. Phone interview. Providence, RI, 3/19-2016.

16

Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception, (Routledge, 2013)

17

Michael Pollan, “Beyond Wilderness and Lawn,” Harvard Design Magazine Issue 4, 1998

18

Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception, (Routledge, 2013)

19

Karin Dahlberg, Helena Dahlberg, Nancy Drew, Maria Nyström, Relective Lifeworld Research, (Professional Pub Serv, 2008), p. 36.

20

David Quammen, The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions, (Scribner, 1996)

21

Will Steffen et al, “Executive summary of the book: Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure,” Springer IGBP Synthesis, (2004)

22

Joern Fischer and David B. Lindenmayer, “Landscape modiication and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis,” Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 16: 265–280, (2007)

23

Joern Fischer and David B. Lindenmayer, “Landscape modiication and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis,” Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 16: 265–280, (2007)

24

Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, (Boston : Beacon Press, 1969), p. 190.


25

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/horn-thicket-no-1-t07178

26

http://some-landscapes.blogspot.com/2006/06/thicket-no-1.html

27

“Estate of Robert Smithson, A Provisional Theory of Non-Sites:” http://www.robertsmithson.com/essays/provisional.htm.

28

“Estate of Robert Smithson, A Provisional Theory of Non-Sites:” http://www.robertsmithson.com/essays/provisional.htm.

29

“Estate of Robert Smithson, A Provisional Theory of Non-Sites:” http://www.robertsmithson.com/essays/provisional.htm.

30

Alexander Nagel, Medieval Modern: Art Out of Time (London: Thames and Hudson, 2012).

31

Alexander Nagel, Medieval Modern: Art Out of Time (London: Thames and Hudson, 2012).

32

Kathryn M. Rudy, “A Guide to Mental Pilgrimage: Paris, Bibliothèque de L’Arsenal Ms. 212”, Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte Vol. 63: 494-515, (2000)

33

Alexander Nagel, Medieval Modern: Art Out of Time (London: Thames and Hudson, 2012).

34

Jos Koldeweij, The Wearing of Signiicant Badges, Religious and Secular: The Social Meaning of a Behavioural Pattern, 307-328 in Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Late Middle Ages, (1999).

35

Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand, Push me, pull you (electronic resource): imaginative, emotional, physical, and spatial interaction in late medieval and Renaissance art, (Leiden, 2011).

36

Roger Thompson, “Installation Photography and the Transformation of the Viewer”, Don’t Take Photos Issue 5, Fall 2015, p. 35.

37

Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, (Boston : Beacon Press, 1969), p. 150.

38

Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, (Boston : Beacon Press, 1969), p.1 59.

39

Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, (Boston : Beacon Press, 1969), p. 150.

40

Earthworks: https://www.earthworksaction.org/iles/publications/Troubled-Waters_Otomina_Ajkwa_Rivers_WestPNG.pdf

41

Super Pit oficial site: http://superpit.com.au

42

Report by Earthworks and Oxfam America: https://www.earthworksaction.org/iles/publications/NDG_DirtyMetalsReport_HR.pdf

43

Alexander Nagel, Medieval Modern: Art Out of Time (London: Thames and Hudson, 2012), p. 121.


B I B L I O G RAPH Y BOOKS Alexander Nagel, Medieval Modern: Art Out of Time (London: Thames and Hudson, 2012). Andrew Goudie and Heather Viles, Landscapes and Geomorphology: A Very Short Introduction, (OUP Oxford, 2010). Arnaud Maillet, The Claude Glass: Use and Meaning of the Black Mirror in Western Art (New York: Zone Books, 2004). David Abram, The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World, (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2012). David Quammen, The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions, (Scribner, 1996). Emilio F. Moran, People and nature: an introduction to human ecological relations, (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2006). Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, (Boston : Beacon Press, 1969). George Monbiot, Feral: Rewilding the Land, the Sea and Human Life, (Allen Lane, 2013). Gerald Bast, Elias G. Carayannis, David F. J. Campbell, Arts, Research, Innovation and Society, (Springer, 2015). Gina Glover, Geof Rayner and Jessica Rayner, The Metabolic landscape: perception, practice and the energy transition (London, UK: Black Dog Publishing, 2014). Ian Bogost, Alien Phenomenology, or What It’s Like to Be a Thing, (University Of Minnesota Press, 2012). James H. Rolling, Jr., Art-Based Research, (New York: Peter Lang Primer, 2013). Jane Bennett, Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things, (Duke University Press, 2009). J.B. MacKinnon, The Once and Future World: Nature As It Was, As It Is, As It Could Be, (Random House Canada, 2013). Johan Rockström and Mattias Klum, Big world, small planet: abundance within planetary boundaries (Yale University Press, 2015). Karin Dahlberg, Helena Dahlberg, Nancy Drew, Maria Nyström, Relective Lifeworld Research, (Professional Pub Serv, 2008). Linda Weintraub, To life!: eco art in pursuit of a sustainable planet (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012). Lucy R. Lippard, Undermining: A Wild Ride Through Land Use, Politics, and Art in the Changing West, (The New Press, 2014).


Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception, (Routledge, 2013). Maya Ying Lin, Maya Lin: Here and There (PaceWildenstein, 2013). Maya Ying Lin, Maya Lind: Systematic landscapes / essays by Richard Andrews, John Beardsley (Yale Uiversity Press, 2006). Robert Smithson, Unpublished Writings in Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, (University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2nd Edition, 1996). Sarah Blick and Laura D. Gelfand, Push me, pull you (electronic resource): imaginative, emotional, physical, and spatial interaction in late medieval and Renaissance art, (Leiden, 2011). Susan Stewart, On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection, (Duke University Press Books, 1992). Stephen M. Meyer, The End of the Wild, (Boston Review Books, 2016). Teresita Fernández, As Above So Below, (MASS MoCA, 2014). Teresita Fernández, David Norr and Dave Hickey, Teresita Fernandez: Blind Landscape, (JRP Editions, 2010). Thomas Nagel, Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False, (Oxford University Press, 2012). Timothy Morton, Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World (Posthumanities), (University Of Minnesota Press, 2013).

PAPERS & JOURNALS Albert Llausàs, and Pascual-Joan Nogué, “Indicators of landscape fragmentation: The case for Combining ecological indices and the perceptive approach,” Manzar: The Iranian Scientiic Journal Of Landscape 5, no. 22: 43-40, (2013): Art Source, EBSCOhost, accessed November 7, 2015. Andrew Menard, “Robert Smithson’s Environmental History,” Oxford Art Journal Vol. 37 Issue 3, 285-304, (2014). Brian Robinson and Yi-Fu Tuan, “Surface Phenomena and Aesthetic Experience,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers Vol. 80 No. 3: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.: 455–57, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2563625. Edmunds Valdemars Bunkše, “Sensescapes: or a Paradigm Shift from Words and Images to All Human Senses in Creating Feelings of Home in Landscapes.” Proceedings Of The Latvia University Of Agriculture: Landscape Architecture & Art 1, no. 1:


10-15, (2012): Art Source, EBSCOhost, accessed November 7, 2015. Jochen A. G. Jaeger, Tomáš Soukup, Luis F. Madrĩán, Christian Schwick, and Felix Kienast, “Landscape fragmentation in Europe,” Joint EEA-FOEN report, (2015). Joern Fischer and David B. Lindenmayer, “Landscape modiication and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis,” Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 16: 265–280, (2007). Jos Koldeweij, The Wearing of Signiicant Badges, Religious and Secular: The Social Meaning of a Behavioural Pattern, 307328 in Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Late Middle Ages, (1999). Julia Czerniak, “Challenging the Pictorial: Recent Landscape Practice.” Assemblage, (1997): JSTOR Journals, EBSCOhost, accessed November 27, 2015. Kathryn M. Rudy, “A Guide to Mental Pilgrimage: Paris, Bibliothèque de L’Arsenal Ms. 212”, Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte Vol. 63: 494-515, (2000), http://www.jstor.org/stable/1594960. Lawrence C. Hamilton, Joel Hartter, Mary Lemcke-Stampone, David W. Moore, and Thomas G. Safford, “Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change,” Plos ONE 10, no. 10: 1-14, (2015): Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, accessed November 7, 2015. Nick M. Haddad, Lars A. Brudvig, Jean Clobert, Kendi F. Davies, Andrew Gonzalez, Robert D. Holt, Thomas E. Lovejoy, Joseph O. Sexton, Mike P. Austin, Cathy D. Collins1, William M. Cook, Ellen I. Damschen, Robert M. Ewers, Bryan L. Foster, Clinton N. Jenkins, Andrew J. King, William F. Laurance, Douglas J. Levey, Chris R. Margules, Brett A. Melbourne, A. O. Nicholls, John L. Orrock, Dan-Xia Song and John R. Townshend, “Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems,” Science Advances, Vol. 1, no. 2 (2015): American Association for the Advancement of Science. Yifan Ding, “Impact of Afluence and Overexploitation of Natural Resources,” Environment and Development, Vol. 1, (2009). Will Steffen et al, “Executive summary of the book: Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure,” Springer IGBP Synthesis, (2004): IGBP Secretariat Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

ARTICLES & ESSAYS Carlo Kino, “Maya Lin’s New Memorial Is a City“, New York Times, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/28/arts/design/ maya-lins-here-and-there-at-pace-gallery.html?_r=2. Christophe Girot, “Immanent Landscape,” Harvard Design Magazine Issue 36, 2013, http://www.harvarddesignmagazine. org/issues/36/immanent-landscape. Mark Morris, “iPastoral,” Architectural Design Vol. 83, No. 3, 2013, pp. 106-111. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/ad.1598/asset/1598_ftppdf?v=1&t=ihuu7v0o&s=11cb5bb13cfc555b381ddb 1903870bfaeb6dd790.


Michael Pollan, “Beyond Wilderness and Lawn,” Harvard Design Magazine Issue 4, 1998, http://www.harvarddesignmagazine.org/issues/4/beyond-wilderness-and-lawn. Maurice Merleau-Ponty and James M. Edie, “Eye and Mind,” in The Primacy of Perception, (Northwestern University Press, 1964). Ran Ortner, interview by Ariane Conrad, The Sun Magazine Issue 438, June 2012, http://thesunmagazine.org/issues/438/water_water_everywhere Robert Smithson, “Entropy made visible,” in Robert Smithson: The Collection of Writings, ed. Jack Flam, 2nd Edition, (University of California Press LTD, 1996). Rosalind Krauss , “Sculpture in the Expanded Field,” MIT Press Vol. 8, 1979, pp. 30-44. Susan Kandel, “The Non-Site of Theory,” Frieze Issue 22, 1995, http://www.frieze.com/issue/article/the_non_site_of_theory/. Teresita Ferdández, interview by Sara Rofino, The Brooklyn Rail, July 15th 2015, http://www.brooklynrail.org/2014/07/art/teresita-fernndez-with-sara-rofino Timothy Morton, “Introducing the idea of “hyperobjects”: A new way of understanding climate change and other phenomena,” High Country News, Issue 47, 2015, http://www.hcn.org/issues/47.1/introducing-the-idea-of-hyperobjects.

WEBSITES Black Smith Institue: http://www.blacksmithinstitute.org/artisanal-gold-mining.html Brilliant Earth: http://www.brilliantearth.com/top-ten-jewelry-issues/ Earthworks: https://www.earthworksaction.org/issues/detail/mining#.VwvuR2PRxEc Earthworks: http://nodirtygold.earthworksaction.org/impacts#.VtOi68c0pSV Earthworks: https://www.earthworksaction.org/iles/publications/Troubled-Waters_Otomina_Ajkwa_Rivers_WestPNG.pdf Report by Earthworks and Oxfam America: https://www.earthworksaction.org/iles/publications/NDG_DirtyMetalsReport_HR.pdf


“Estate of Robert Smithson, A Provisional Theory of Non-Sites:” http://www.robertsmithson.com/essays/provisional.htm Oxford Dictionaries: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/deinition/american_english/entropy Some Landscapes: http://some-landscapes.blogspot.com/2006/06/thicket-no-1.html Super Pit oficial website: http://superpit.com.au Tate Modern: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/horn-thicket-no-1-t07178

INTERVIEWS: Miller, Christina. Interviewed by Louise Hjort. Phone interview. Providence, RI, 3/19-2016.


A RT I ST STAT EMEN T Through my work, I seek to understand the reciprocal relationship between people and their environment. As a contemporary jewelry artist, I bring attention to larger concepts of anthropogenic entropy caused by the jewelry industry, and our spatial and temporal perception of these places. Spatial refers to our physical distance to something or somewhere or how we perceive voids and the absence of things. Temporal is how we understand changes through time. Perception is our “absolute proximity” to things and, at the same time, our “irremediable distance” from them. – Maurice Merleau-Ponty Perceptions of the natural environment are always set by culture and framed by humans. A phenomenological understanding of perception suggests that, while the world itself exists objectively (out there), we can know it only through personal subjective experiences (in here). The collision between these outer and inner worlds provokes feelings, sentiments, even passions and anxieties. I use scale as a strategy to capture the immensity of place and the intimacy of the human body; objects that can be held or worn are therefore juxtaposed with satellite imagery. Motivated by Robert Smithson’s theory of Non-Site, my intention is to create a connection between an environmental site and the NonSite of the human body. The wearable objects draw conceptual inluence from the medieval pilgrim badge, a form of souvenir from pilgrimages to holy sites. To use this symbolism in present time, I like to consider that natural environments can become the contemporary versions of the medieval holy shrines. The badges either reveal material, structural, or topographical representations from the site that is depicted in the accompanying imagery. My objective is to capture a phenomenon one would see and experience in nature, synthesizing it and establishing it in a different space, so that we can begin to understand the elements around us in a different way. By doing this, it is my intention to create a link between what we know from irst person experience and what we understand from third person abstractions.


C U RR I CU LUM VITAE WORK EXPERIENCE [2015 - 2016]

RISD Museum – Providence, RI Curatorial & Research Graduate Assistant in the Decorative Arts & Design Department

[2015]

Rhode Island School of Design – Providence, RI / Denmark Graduate Teaching Assistant: Fall Semester - Junior Jewelry + Metalsmithing Casting Class Summer Travel Courser - Denmark: Seminar on Scandinavian Design Spring Semester - Senior Jewelry + Metalsmithing Seminar Wintersession Semester - Ceramic Jewelry for visiting artist Peter Hoogeboom

[2014]

CHART Art Fair – Copenhagen Art Productions & Public Relations Assistant Reference: Simon Friese (Operating Manager), phone (+45) 25 62 25 61 Assisting with the arrangement of artist talks and performances during the fair, as well as developing a PR and social media strategy. Further, I was responsible for the employment and coordination of 40 volunteers.

[2013 - 2014]

m4 Arkitekter – Copenhagen Freelance Personal Assistant for the architecture studio m4 Arkitekter Reference: Morten Dalsgaard (Architect & CEO), phone (+45) 29 65 88 26

[2013]

CHART Art Fair – Copenhagen Productions Assistant – Internship I assisted in numerous projects, such as the Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) installation and various fair operations assignments.

EDUCATION [2014 - 2016]

Rhode Island School of Design – Providence, RI Master of Fine Arts, Jewelry + Metalsmithing

[2010 - 2013]

Danish School of Media & Journalism – Copenhagen BA Graduate in Media Production and Management.

PROFESSIONAL STUDIES [2012 - 2014]

FOF – Copenhagen Goldsmithing & Jewelry production courses

EXHIBITIONS [2016]

“Feast + Fathom” at the Woods-Gerry Gallery – Providence, RI Jewelry + Metalsmithing Triennial Exhibition, Feb. 2016.

[2015]

“Image Landscapes: New Readings in Art, Design, and Architecture” at the Gelman Gallery – Providence, RI Curated by: Lisa J. Maione and Elizabeth Leeper, Oct. 2015

[2014]

“Mettle” at the Sol Kofler Gallery – Providence, RI Jewelry + Metalsmithing Biennial Graduate Show, Nov. 2014.


COPYRIGHT © 2016 LOUISE HJORT ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



The Entropic Sublime