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Modern Hebrew An Essential Grammar Third Edition

This new edition of Modern Hebrew: An Essential Grammar is an up-to-date and practical reference guide to the most important aspects of modern Hebrew as used by contemporary native speakers of the language. It presents an accessible description of the language, focusing on the real patterns of use today. The Grammar aims to serve as a reference source for the learner and user of Hebrew irrespective of level, by setting out the complexities of the language in short, readable sections that are clear and free from jargon. It is ideal either for independent study or for students in schools, colleges, universities and adult classes of all types. Features of this new edition include: x x x x

Expanded coverage of nouns, verbs and adjectives A glossary of grammatical terms A full exercise key More examples throughout

Lewis Glinert is Professor of Hebrew Studies at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, USA.


Routledge Essential Grammars Essential Grammars are available for the following languages: Chinese Danish Dutch English Finnish Modern Greek Modern Hebrew Hungarian Norwegian Polish Portuguese Spanish Swedish Thai Urdu Other titles of related interest published by Routledge: Colloquial Hebrew By Zippi Lyttleton and Tamar Wang


Modern Hebrew An Essential Grammar Third Edition

Lewis Glinert

ROUTLEDGE

NEW YORK AND LONDON


To the memory of Sarah Katz A teacher of inspiration

First published 1991 by the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London) as Chik-Chak! A Gateway to Modern Hebrew Grammar Second edition published 1994 in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Reprinted 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003 Third edition published 2005 by Routledge Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group © 1991, 1994, 2005 Lewis Glinert

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.

“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Glinert, Lewis. Modern Hebrew: an essential grammar – third edition p. cm. – (Routledge essential grammars) Includes index I. Hebrew language – Grammar – Textbooks. I. Title. II. Series: Essential Grammar. PJ4567.3.G58 2004 492.4 ' 8421 – dc22 2004000795 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 0-203-32941-4 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0–415–70081–7 (hbk) ISBN 0–415–70082–5 (pbk)


Contents

Preface Glossary Hebrew grammatical terminology

xiii xvi xix

LEVEL ONE 1 The simple sentence: basic word order 2 The simplest sentences: ‘Me Tarzan, you Jane’ (a) The pattern ¬¢‹ ¢«Ž ¦±Ž Õ¢ ‘Yoram is tired’ (b) The pattern š¢šŠ Ò ¥³‹ ކ ¦±Ž Õ¢ ‘Yoram’s in Tel Aviv’ (c) The pattern ‘Yoram is a . . .’ (d) The pattern ‘I am . . ., he is . . .’ 3 The personal pronouns 4 The definite article  5 The Hebrew for ‘a’, ‘some’

6–8

3 3

5 6 7

Masculine and feminine, singular and plural 6 Masculine and feminine nouns (gender) 7 The feminine and plural of nouns (a) The endings ¦¢Š and ³Õ – the simplest noun type (b) The plural of nouns of the type ±šŽ œŽ (c) The plural of nouns of the type ¡±Œ ªŒ (segolate nouns) (d) The plural of nouns ending in ³â (e) The feminine of nouns denoting people, e.g. ±Ž Õ§ ‘teacher’ 8 The feminine and plural of adjectives (a) The simplest adjective type: ¢³Š œŽ ,šÕ¡ (b) Adjectives ending in Œ (c) Adjectives of the type ¥Õœ›Ž ‘large’, ¨¡Ž °Ž ‘small’

7 8

13

v


Contents

9 Noun + adjective phrases, e.g. ¨¡Ž °Ž œ¥Œ ¢Œ ‘small boy’ 10 Quantity phrases 11 Noun + determiner phrases (‘this . . ., the same . . ., which . . .’)

16 17 18

12–13 Agreement 12 Agreement of  (a) For noun + adjective: šÕ¡±Ž  š¥Œ çŒ  ‘the wet dog’ (b) For noun + ŸŒ : ŸŒ  š¥Œ çŒ  ‘this dog’ 13 Agreement for gender and number (a) Adjective agreement (b) Agreement of verbs (c) Agreement of ‘particles of being’ (d) Agreement of determiners: ³™ŸçŽ ,³™Ÿ, etc. (e) Agreement of quantity words

19

14 Numerals (a) The numerals 1 to 10 (b) The numerals 11 to 19 (c) The numerals 20 to 99 15 Partitives: ‘many of the . . ., all the . . .’ 16 Pronouns and words standing in for nouns (a) Definite pronouns (b) Indefinite pronouns: ‘someone, something . . .’ (c) Adjectives without their noun: °Õ±¢Ž  ‘the green one’ (d) Numerals without their noun (e) Quantity words without their noun 17 Possessives and constructs Œ ҝŽ ‘Yoram’s brother’ (a) Possessive ‘of’: ¦±Ž Õ¢ ¥Ú Œ  ÒŽ ‘my brother’ (b) Possessive ‘my, your’, etc.: ¢¥Š Ú (c) The construct: set phrases (d) Construct endings (e)  in construct phrases

23

19

26 26

29

18–23 The inflections of the verb

vi

18 Introduction 19 The past tense (a) Form of the past tense (b) Syntax of the past tense (c) Meaning of the past tense

33 34


Contents 20 The present tense (a) Form of the present tense (b) Use of the present tense 21 The future tense (a) Form of the future tense (b) Use of the future tense 22 The imperative (a) Form of the imperative (b) Use of the imperative 23 The infinitive (a) Form of the infinitive (b) Use of the infinitive 24 Root and base 25 Word patterns: binyanim and mishkalim (a) Introduction (b) Functions of the verb patterns (c) Functions of the noun and adjective patterns

26–9

39

40

41 41

45

49

Binyan PI’EL and HITPA’EL

28 PI’EL 29 HITPA’EL

30–2

36

Illustrating the four active binyanim

26 Binyan PA’AL (a) Two-syllable PA’AL (b) One-syllable PA’AL, e.g. ¦°Ž ‘get up’ 27 Binyan HIF’IL

28–9

35

51 52

The passive binyanim: NIF’AL, HUF’AL, PU’AL

30 NIF’AL 31 HUF’AL 32 PU’AL

55 56 57

33 Direct and indirect object 34 Object markers (a) The direct object marker ³™Œ (b) Indirect objects with ¥† ,ކ ,¦«Š ,§Š ,¥«

59 59

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Contents

35–6

Prepositions and other prefixes and suffixes

35 Preposition + suffix (a)

Preposition + suffix: ¢¥Š ,¢ÞŠ , etc.

(b)

Preposition + suffix: ¢³Š ՙ ,ճՙ, etc.

(c)

Preposition + suffix: ¦«Š and §Š

(d)

Preposition + suffix: ¥¢šŠ چ ފ

(e)

ˆÑ Preposition + suffix: ¥« ,¥™Œ ,¢©‹ ­† ¥Š ,¢±‹

36 Pronunciation rules

37 38

(a)

â ,ž† ,š† ,ކ and the like

(b)

Which syllable is stressed in nouns and adjectives?

Ú¢‹ ‘there is, there are’ ‘I have’: ¢¥Š Ú¢‹

39 Questions (a)

Questions of the type ?š¢šŠ Ò-¥³‹ ކ ¦±Ž Õ¢

(b)

‘What, where, when’

40 Negation or how to say ‘no’ (a)

‘I’m not . . ., he isn’t . . ., they didn’t’

(b)

¨¢™‹ as the opposite of Ú¢‹

(c)

Negative instructions

41 ‘The cake in the fridge, stamps from Israel’ 42

Degree words: ¢œ ,˂çŽ -¥çŽ ,œ™§† , etc.

43 Adverbs of time and place in the sentence

44–9

65

68 68 70

71

72 72 73

Embedded clauses

44 The pattern Ú¡‹ « ³† Š ¥† ¯Œ Õ± ¢©Š ™ ˆ : ‘I want to sneeze’

73

45 The pattern ˂¢‹¢  ¥† šÕ¡: ‘It’s good to smile’

74

46 Reported thoughts and object clauses

74

Œ 47 Relative clauses with Ú

75

Œ ¥¥ ›† ފ ,ڌ ¢±‹ ˆ Ñ, etc. 48 Adverbial clauses: ¢çŠ ,¦™Š ,Ú

76

49 Sentences without a subject

78

(a)

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61

(b)

Œ ‘Quiet, people are thinking!’ The ‘general’ plural !¦¢šŠ چ Õ ,¡°Œ Ú

±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ ,¢™œ ç† ,˂¢±Š ¯Ž without a subject


Contents

LEVEL TWO 50–9 50

Special root-types

'¥ roots (a) (b) (c) (d)

'¥ in PA’AL and PI’EL '¥ in HITPA’EL and HIF’IL '¥ in NIF’AL

51 Roots with ‘gutturals’ (a)

Introduction

(b)

When the first letter is a ‘guttural’

(c)

When the middle letter is a ‘guttural’

(d)

When the final letter is a ‘guttural’

52 Roots with ­ ,¤ ,š: ‘soft’ or ‘hard’? (a)

Usually soft

(b)

Usually hard

(c)

Always soft

53 Four-consonant roots 54

¢'­ roots (a) (b)

81

Introduction

85

90

92 93

Regular ¢"­ verbs

Deviant ¢"­ verbs

55 ‘Cross-over’: roots with initial Ÿ ,¯ ,ª ,Û ,Ú

96

56 Maverick verbs

97

(d)

©"­ roots ° ¥Ž ˂¥ Ž ¥Õ¤¢Ž and ˂¢±Š ¯Ž

(a) (b) (c) (e)

Some verbs beginning with ™

(f)

The verb ¢Ž Ž ‘be’

(g)

The verbs ¢  ‘live’ and ³§‹ ‘die’

(h)

«"« roots

57 HIF’IL verbs with two-consonant stems: ¥¢¤Š ‹ ,±¢çŠ Š (b)

±¢çŠ Š verbs ¥¢¤Š ‹ verbs

(c)

What are the roots of these verbs?

(a)

102

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Contents

58 PA’AL verbs with -i-a- in the future: ¥œ ›Ž ‘grow’ (a) ¥œ ›† ¢Š ,¥œ‹ ›Ž ,¥œ ›Ž Ž (b) šç چ ¥Š ,šç چ ¢Š ,š¤ Ú (c) Úލ ¥† ¢Š ,ښ ¥Ž (d) ™"¥ verbs: ™¯Ž §† ¢Š ,™¯Ž §Ž 59 A minor binyan: the PO’EL and HITPO’EL 60 More plurals of nouns (a) Plurals ending in ¦¢¢ (b) Duals ending in ¦¢¢ (c) Plural of segolate nouns with ³- (e.g. ³±Œ Õª§Ž ‘tradition’) (d) Plural nouns: some exceptions 61 Vowel-raising: ¦¢§Š ✙ ˆ -¦ÕœÒ ,Õ¥âç-¥çŽ 62 Generic plurals: ‘I hate cockroaches’ 63 Plural loss: Ú¢™Š ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ ‘twenty persons’

64–8

104

107 108

112 113 113

Noun types (mishkalim)

Action nouns, e.g. Ú✢ Š ‘renewal’ Nouns from adjectives, e.g. ³â¢¡¢ Š ™Š ‘slowness’ The noun patterns ¥«Ž ì and ¨¥« Ž ì Nouns with the suffix ¨Ž and ¢™ (a) The suffix ¨Ž (b) The suffix ¢™ 68 Some other noun patterns

64 65 66 67

114 115 116 117

118

69–71 Adjective types

69 Passive adjectives (ª©Ž ⤧† ,ª©Ž ¤† ⧠,ªâ©çŽ ) 70 Adjectives from nouns 71 Other meaningful adjective patterns

123 124 125

72 Present tense ‘verbs’ as nouns and adjectives

128

73–7

x

Constructs and possessives

73 The construct as a possessive 129 (a) Noun + noun, e.g. ¥Ž ç  ¢±‹ ՝ ‘the bride’s parents’ (b–c) Possessive suffixes: . . . ˃œ† ՜ ,¢œŠ ՜ (b) With singular nouns (c) With plural nouns (d) Construct adjective + noun e.g. ±«¢ Ž ۋ -¢ç‹ ⱙˆ ‘long-haired’ 74 ¥† of possession: ¦¢Š ¢© ¢«‹ ގ ᥎ ¥ç‹ ñ ª† ñŠ ‘Look into her eyes’ 134


Contents

75–6

Construct nouns – vowel changes

75 Construct segolates (a) The œ›Œ ތ / ± ìŒ type (initial Œ ) (b) The ¥« ލ type (initial  ) (c) The ª­Œ Õ¡ type (initial Õ) 76 Some other vowel changes in constructs (a) Loss of a: ¦Õ°§Ž ~¦Õ°§† (b) Inserting an -i-: ¦¢±Š šŽ œ† ,¤Ž ±Ž ކ , etc. (c) Some important oddments

134

Ž ¥ÚŒ ³¢ Ž ދ 77 Double possessives: ±Ž Û

138

78 Preposition + suffix: Õ§ç† ,¨¢Þ‹ ,¢¥Š ކ

138

136

79–81 Numerals 79 Definite numerals: ‘the three idiots’ 80 Ordinals: ‘first, second, third . . .’ 81 Hundreds and thousands

139 141 141

82 Tense (a) Past habitual tense: ‘I used to . . .’ (b) Unreal conditionals: ‘If I were . . .’ (c) Tense in reported thought Œ ç† ,¦™Š and ڌ ˂Õñ (d) Tense with Ú 83 The object suffix: Õ³Õ©š† ¥Š ‘to build it’ 84 Reflexives: ‘myself, yourself . . .’ 85 ‘One another’ 86 Experience adjectives: ¢¥Š ±° ,¢¥Š  Õ© ‘I’m comfortable, I’m cold’

142

145 145 146 146

87–90 Comparatives 87 Comparative phrases (a) §Š ±³‹ Õ¢ ‘more than’ Œ ™ˆ §‹ ‘than’ (b) ±Ú (c) ¢œ §Š ‘too’, °¢ìŠ ª† § ‘enough’ (d) ‘the more that . . ., the more . . .’ 88 ‘The most . . .’ 89 ‘As big as’: . . . Õ§ç† 90 Measurement: . . . ¥œŒ ՛ § ‘How big is . . .’

147

149 149 150

xi


Contents

91–6

Adverbials

91 Adverbs of manner: e.g. ³â±¢Š §† ފ ‘quickly’ 92 Echo phrases: e.g. ¡¥Ž † ⧠¨Õ ¯Ž ©Š  ¯¢  ©Š ‘won decisively’ 93 ކ of time, place and means Ž  ‘today, this year’ 94 ¦Õ¢ ,©Ž Ú 95 Ž of destination: e.g. ©Ž Õ­¯Ž ‘northwards’ 96 §Š of location: e.g. ¥™§Û† §Š ‘on the left’

150 152 152 153 153 154

97 The gerund: Õ«¢›Š  ކ ‘on his arrival’ 98 Where to position ¦› and °±

154 155

99–100 Negatives

xii

99 Inflexion of ¨¢™‹ 100 ‘No one, nothing, nowhere, non-, un-, neither’

155 156

101 Questions (a) Questions using ¦™Š  (b) Questions using ¦™Š ‘whether’ 102 Wishes and requests Œ ¯Œ Õ± ¢©Š ™ˆ (a) ‘I want (him) to . . .’ . . . Ú (b) Commands with Ú Œ 103 ‘Either . . . or’: ՙ . . . ՙ 104 Clauses as subject: ‘Painting is fun’ 105 Relative clauses (a) Relative clauses with a pronoun Œ ­¢™‹ ,. . . ڌ ¢§Š ,. . . ڌ § (b) . . . Ú (c) Relative clauses with  106 When the order is not subject–verb–object (a) Inverting subject and verb (b) Starting with the object (c) Presentative verbs 107 Backtracking 108 Israeli spelling

158

Exercises Vocabulary for exercises Key to exercises Index

159

159 160 160

162

164 165

167 217 261 299


Preface

Modern Hebrew: An Essential Grammar is intended as a grammar and workbook for the first two years of modern Hebrew at high school or university. The book covers the features of syntax and morphology – colloquial and more formal – that are most useful to the average student. Many other features of modern Hebrew might arguably have been included – but we wished to keep things short and sweet. For a much fuller picture of the language, teachers and advancing students are referred to our The Grammar of Modern Hebrew (Cambridge University Press, 1989). Modern Hebrew is not a graded, step-by-step coursebook. Of those there are many. It supplies what they generally lack: a simple, up-to-date outline of Hebrew structure. The grammar and exercises are arranged by topic, with several sections on the noun, several on the adverb, and so on. Using the contents or index, students will be able to home in on the points of grammar that they wish to learn, in whichever order suits them best. The exercises should provide an entertaining challenge, but a carefully managed one: the exercises for Level One require no knowledge of Level Two (and in fact little knowledge of any subsequent sections in Level One), and all vocabulary is listed in the custom-built word list. If some of this vocabulary is rather more colorful than the usual beginners’ fare, so much the better. The old ‘basic Hebrew’ word lists upon which modern Hebrew courses have rested for forty years are starting to look distinctly dated.

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Preface Thus the exercises in this book are more than just an exercise-ground for the grammar: they also introduce a colorful spectrum of vocabulary, spanning the colloquial and the elegant, current affairs, kitchens and kibbutzim, and religious and secular culture.

To the teacher The way we have divided the material between Levels One and Two may cause surprise. Some of the things traditionally fed to beginners do not appear until Level Two – and not by accident. Hebrew education has had an unhealthy tradition of fussing over inflections while ignoring syntax, and the written word, even to this day, gets more attention than the colloquial language. We have endeavored to redress the balance. At the same time, in leaving all defective verb inflections until Level Two, we have taken advantage of the fact that language teachers today no longer deal with each grammatical structure fully as soon as it crops up. Instead, a word with

³¤Œ ¥Œ ¥Ž

or

³« œ Õ¢

may be learned simply as a

vocabulary item, or even just as part of an expression, until the time is ripe for the grammatical facts of the verb

˂¥ Ž or the guttural verb to be

confronted in toto. The signal we have tried to convey in leaving all defective verbs till Level Two is that there are many more important – and above all, simpler – things to be learned systematically before these. A word on colloquial language, ‘slang’, and ‘grammatical errors’: some teachers may be surprised to see that we have given primacy to the norms of the average educated Israeli speaker rather than the traditional norms of school grammar books. For example, forms of the type throughout the verb tables, rather than the ‘classical’

¦ñŒ ª† © çŽ appear form ¦ñŒ ª† © ç† .

Similarly, our nikkud seeks to echo colloquial pronunciation rather than Biblical norms. The reason is simple: the main purpose of modern Hebrew teaching, as of modern French or Spanish teaching, is to teach students to understand and simulate an average educated speaker – not to

xiv

sound like a newsreader or funeral orator.


Preface Thanks are due to the Research and Publications Committee of the School of Oriental and African Studies for sponsoring the first, experimental edition of this book, to Simon Bell of Routledge for bringing it to full fruition, to Professor Reuven Tzur of Tel Aviv University for his wizardry with the Hebrew Mac and to my students at the universities of London and Chicago, perforce anonymous, for being such magnificent guinea-pigs in the evolution of an idea.

¦±¤² ¥« ¦¥ž¤ ž™žš¢ London 1993/5753

About the third edition This third edition is a response to the comments and suggestions of the many teachers and students who have used this book over the past ten years. Mindful in particular of the needs of intermediate students, I have introduced several new points of syntax and expanded the coverage of noun, verb, and adjective morphology and their semantics, as well as the exercises to match. Thanks are due to the reviewers for their valuable advice and criticisms, and above all to Routledge for their unstinting commitment to the teaching of the Hebrew language around the globe. Yishar kocham. Lewis Glinert Dartmouth College, USA 2003/5764

xv


Glossary

xvi

Action nouns indicate an action: destruction, dancing, development. Actives are the forms of the verbs that indicate ‘doing an action’: he grabbed. Adjectives are words that describe: a bad boy, the eggs are bad. Adverbials are any word, phrase or clause that tells us how, when, where, or why: he stopped suddenly, he stopped after the lights, he stopped to scratch his nose. Adverbs are any one-word adverbial: he sings loudly, he always knows. Agreement shows that a word hangs together with a particular noun – the word may agree in number and gender (sometimes even in person) with that noun: times are changing (not: is changing). Bases are the basic uninflected forms, before the addition of inflectional prefixes and endings. Thus the bases of kibbutzim and madricha are kibbutz and madrich. Binyan: a verb pattern. There are seven binyanim, allowing one to build a variety of verbs from a single root. Clauses are sentences nested inside the larger sentence: he thinks you’re crazy. Comparatives denote more, most, as (e.g. easy as) and the like. Construct phrases are two Hebrew words side by side (usually two nouns and usually a set phrase), much like English soccer game, apple tree. The first noun in the Hebrew is called ‘the construct noun’ and often displays a special construct ending. Definite article: the word ‘the’. Degree words are a special sort of adverb, indicating degree: very cold, somewhat strange, more slowly, I quite agree. Demonstratives single out: this tape, that disk, such ideas (demonstrative determiners), give me this, what’s that (demonstrative pronouns).


Glossary Determiners are words added to a noun to indicate its identity: which guy, any time, this tape, the same guy. Feminine. See masculine. Gender. See masculine. Generic plural: refers to ‘x in general’: I hate exams, dentists chew gum. Gerunds are a verb form that does the job of a noun: on arriving in Israel . . ., before meeting his fiancée . . . . Imperative: a verb form expressing a request: kiss me! stop! Infinitive: a special verb form that is unchanged for gender or plural, and has an abstract meaning. In English: to go, to be, to squeeze. Inflections are the variations in number, gender, tense, etc. that can be created in a word by adding prefixes, suffixes, etc.: take, takes, took, taken . . . long, longer, longest. Masculine and feminine: all Hebrew nouns have a certain ‘gender’, either masculine or feminine. This has nothing essentially to do with male or female. Mishkal: a noun or adjective pattern, with a distinctive set of vowels, prefixes or suffixes. Nouns indicate a person or thing – concrete or abstract: mat, mate, materialism. Object: the object of a verb is the person or thing undergoing the action: I got jelly. Object marker: the small word (preposition) that often introduces objects in Hebrew and English: I looked at Joel, he thought of jelly. Ordinals indicate order by number: first, third, twenty-fourth. Partitives indicate ‘part of’: some of, all of, three of, most. Passives: forms of verbs indicating ‘undergoing an action’: he was grabbed, I am asked by many people. (Compare actives.) Hebrew has special binyanim for the passive. Person: depending on whether the subject of the verb is I or we (‘first person’), you (‘second person’) or he, she, they, or any noun (‘third person’), the form of the verb may vary, even in English: I am, you are, Jane is. Personal pronouns denote I, you, he, she, it, we, they. Plural indicates ‘more than one’: dogs vs. dog. Possessive indicates to whom or what something belongs or relates: Jane’s husband, my surprise, the end of the world.

xvii


Glossary Prefixes are bits prefixed to words – future tense prefixes, noun prefixes, etc. Prepositions are short words commonly indicating an object or when, where, how, etc.: to Sara, for me, with Daniel, under, by, through, after. Pronouns stand in for a specific noun: they, them, this, someone, who, what. Quantity words indicate quantity: a lot of, some, several, most, half, seven. Reflexive verbs involve doing something to oneself: he shot himself. Relative clauses add information about some noun: the car that I bought does 30 to the gallon. Roots are ‘skeletons’ of consonants from which the typical Hebrew word is built. Singular indicates ‘one’: dog vs. dogs. Subjects of sentences are the nouns doing the action (more strictly speaking: nouns with which the verbs agree): films with subtitles annoy me. Suffixes are bits attached as word endings – dogs, confessed, scientific. Tenses are the various verb forms expressing past, present and future time. Verbs indicate actions (occasionally states): fry, enjoy, adore.

xviii


Hebrew grammatical terminology

Commonly used Hebrew equivalents for our grammatical terms: action noun active adjective adverb adverbial agreement base clause comparative conjunction construct noun construct phrase definite article degree word demonstrative determiner direct object embedded feminine gender generic plural gerund imperative indirect object

¥ž«­ ¦² ¥¢«­ ±™ž³-¦² ¥«ž­-±™ž³ ±ž™¢³ ¦™³ ª¢ªš ¡­²§ ,³¢°žª­ ™žž² ³¥§ ±²° ³¥§ £§ª© ³ž¤¢§ª ¬ž±¢¯ «žœ¢¢ ³¢žž³ ›±œ ,›±œ ³¥§ ³Ÿ§ž± ¥§ ³¢žž³ ±¢²¢ ™²ž§ «ž¡© ,œš«ž²§ š°© ¨¢§ ¢§³ª ¢žš¢± ¥«ž­-¦² ¢žž¢¯ ¬¢°« ™²ž§

xix


Hebrew grammatical terminology

infinitive inflection interrogative masculine negative negator noun object object marker ordinal particle of being partitive passive person personal pronoun phrase plural possessive prefix preposition pronoun quantity word reflexive verb relative clause root singular stress subject subordinate suffix tense verb

xx

¥«ž­-¦² + ¥ ¢¢¡© ¥™² ±¤Ÿ ¢¥¢¥² ¥¢¥² ³¥§ ¦¯«-¦² ™²ž§ ™²ž§ ¨§ª ¢±žœ¢ª ±­ª§ œ›ž™ ¢žž¢¡¢¡±­ ¥¢šª ¬ž› ¬ž› ¢ž©¢¤ ¬ž±¢¯ ¢žš¢± ¨¢¢©° ³¢¥¢ ³ ,³§žœ¢° ª ¢-³¥§ ¢ž©¢¤ ³§¤ ,³ž§¤ ³¥§ ±Ÿž  ¥«ž­ °¢Ÿ ¡­²§ ²±ž² œ¢ ¢ §«¡ ™²ž© œš«ž²§ ³¢­žª ,³§ž¢ª ¥«ž­ ¨§Ÿ ¥«ž­


Level One


1 The simple sentence: basic word order In the basic modern Hebrew sentence, the subject comes before its predicate, e.g.

The simple sentence: basic word order

Subject + verb Subject + adjective Subject + adverb Examples:

¬¯Ž ¦Ž±Õ¢

Yoram floats

¢Š©ÞŽ ¯† « ¦Ž±Õ¢

Yoram’s uptight

¦ÚŽ ¦Ž±Õ¢

Yoram’s there

Note: We will also encounter the reverse order – verb + subject etc.

2 The simplest sentences: ‘Me Tarzan, you Jane’ a The pattern ¬‹¢¢«Ž ¦Ž±Õ¢ ‘Yoram is tired’ For sentences of the type ‘Yoram is tired, the falafel is cold’, i.e. noun + ‘be’ + adjective, Hebrew commonly omits the verb:

±° ¥­Œ ¥ ­ 

The falafel [is] cold

¦¢±Š ° ¥Œ ™‹ Ž ¦¢¥Š ­Œ ¥ ­ 

These falafels [are] cold

Alternatively – especially after a longish subject like ¥Œ ™‹ Ž ¦¢¥Š ­Œ ¥ ­  ¥çŽ ‘all these falafels’ – Hebrew often inserts the ‘particles of being’ ,™¢Š ,™â ¨‹ ,¦‹ . Which one is chosen depends on whether the subject is masculine or feminine, singular or plural: Masc. sing.

¬¢‹¢«Ž ™â â©¥Ž ڌ ¦Ž±Õ¢

Our Yoram is tired

Masc. pl.

¦¢±Š ° ¦‹ ¥Œ ™‹ Ž ¦¢¥Š ­Œ ¥ ­ 

These falafels are cold

3


Level One Fem. sing.

­¢‹ Ž ¢«ˆ ™¢Š â©¥Ž ڌ Ž±ÛŽ

Our Sara is tired

Fem. pl.

³Õ±° ¨‹ ¥Œ ™‹ Ž ³Õ¯¢ìŠ 

These pizzas are cold

Note: These particles are identical with the pronouns for ‘he, she, they’, which will be dealt with in 3.

b The pattern š¢šÒ Š -¥³‹ ކ ¦Ž±Õ¢ ‘Yoram’s in Tel Aviv’ The same is true for sentences like ‘the cats are in the closet, Shmulik is over there, the letter’s from Grandma’ (i.e. sentences with an adverbial as their predicate). Either there is no word for ‘be’:

¨Õ±Òގ ¦¢¥â³ Š  

The cats [are] in the closet

§Ž ڎ °¢¥™â§ Š چ

Shmulik [is] over there

™ñŽ š† ª §Š šñŽ ¤† §Š 

The letter[‘s] from Grandma

or one uses one of the particles of being ¨‹ ,¦‹ ,™¢Š ,™â.

³¢Š©Þ Ž ±Ž ¥¢šŠ چ ފ ¨‹ ³Õ¥¢šˆ Š  The packages are for the rabbi’s wife

™ñŽ š† ª §Š ™â šñŽ ¤† §Š  The letter’s from Grandma

c The pattern ‘Yoram is a . . .’ So far, we have seen sentences of the type ‘someone is adjective’ or ‘someone is adverbial’. But for ‘someone is noun’, i.e. a noun sentence, Hebrew generally must insert the particles of being ¨‹ ,¦‹ ,™¢Š ,™â:

4

š± ™â ¦Ž±Õ¢

Yoram is a rabbi

Ž©ñŽ § ¦‹ ¦¢¥âÞ Š 

The stamps are a gift

¦¢ªŽŠ ¢¢¡ ¦‹ ᥎ ڌ ¦¢ Ñ Š Ž

Her brothers are pilots


The main exception, shown in (d), is where the subject is a pronoun:

±Ž¢¢ñ ¢Š©™ˆ ¥œ†Ž ©° ª† ŒŸ

The personal pronouns

I am a tourist This is a scandal

Another exception is where one is identifying someone or defining something. Then one normally uses ŒŸ for ‘is’:

±«ÕÚ ‹  ŒŸ ¦Ž±Õ¢ ?¦Ž±Õ¢ ŒŸ ¢§Š Who is Yoram? Yoram’s the janitor

°³Õ§ Œ ,¡Ž ªŒ ° ŒŸ ³¡Œ ¥Œ ° – ?³¡Œ ¥Œ ° ŒŸ § ,™§Ž ™Š Mommy, what’s a kaletet? – A kaletet is a cassette, darling

d The pattern ‘I am . . ., he is . . .’ Hebrew does not generally use a word for ‘am, is, are’ after a personal pronoun:

š± ¢Š©™ˆ ³«  ›âÚ§† ñÑ † ¢¥Š ڌ Ò-¨ÞŒ  ™â °ª†©¢§Š §Š ¦‹

I am a rabbi You’re nuts He’s my nephew They’re from Minsk

3 The personal pronouns The personal pronouns are: Singular

Plural

â©  † ©™ˆ ¦ñÑ Œ ¨ñÑ Œ ¦‹ ¨‹

we you you (fem.) they they (fem.)

¢Š©™ˆ ñÑ Ž ñÑ † ™â ™¢Š

I you (masc.) you (fem.) he she

5


Level One The feminine plural pronouns,

¨ñÑ Œ and ¨‹ , are rather formal and typical

of newscasters, newspapers, books and so on. In casual usage, their masculine counterparts ¦ñÑ Œ and ¦‹ are used instead, thus:

¥" ¯ ކ ¦‹ ,â© ?³Õ©ÞŽ 

The girls? Well, they’re in the Army

For ‘it’ and other pronouns, see 16. These personal pronouns are used either as the subject of a sentence or as its predicate: As subject:

?±œŒ ª‹ ކ ,Ž±ÛŽ ¦«Š â©  † ©™ˆ

We’re with Sara, OK?

As predicate:

!â©  † ©™ˆ ŒŸ ,±œŒ ª‹ ކ ,±œŒ ª‹ ކ

OK, OK, it’s us!

But as objects, e.g. as in ‘congratulate us’, or after a preposition, e.g. as in

Ž ) – see 35. ‘with us’, ‘for us’, different pronouns are used (e.g. ⩳ՙ 4 The definite article í

, pronounced ha. It is always prefixed to the noun, e.g. ±Õ™Ž ‘the light’. (So, too, are all other one-letter words, such as ކ ‘in’ and ç† ‘as’.) ‘The’ is usually

Note: Newsreaders and teachers may pronounce it as

Œ

with certain words,

but coming from an ordinary person this will sound pedantic.

When combining

ކ and ¥† with  ‘the’, one has to run them together to

make ލ and ¥ , thus

6

±°ÕÞ Œ ލ

in the morning

(not ±°ÕÞ Œ  ކ )

¬Õª¥

to the end

(not ¬Õª ¥† )

On adding



to an accompanying adjective (šÕ¡

agreement of  . On the use of ³™Œ with  , see 34(a).

œ¥Œ Œ ¢ ),

see 12 on


5 The Hebrew for ‘a’, ‘some’ Hebrew generally has no word for ‘a’, nor for ‘some’ (the plural equivalent of ‘a’):

Ž›â« °

Take a cake

³Õ›â« °

Take some cakes

³Õ™¢›Š چ ì ڋ¢

There are some mistakes here

Masculine and feminine nouns (gender)

6–8 MASCULINE AND FEMININE, SINGULAR AND PLURAL 6 Masculine and feminine nouns (gender) Every Hebrew noun is either masculine or feminine. Such gender does not have very much to do with maleness or femaleness: although most nouns denoting a male or a female are indeed masculine or feminine, respectively, nouns denoting objects are masculine or feminine without any apparent rhyme or reason. Gender shows up in two ways: (a) it commonly affects the form of the noun, and (b) it invariably affects the form of any verb or adjective relating to it: Rule (a) The vast majority of feminine nouns end in either

Ž or ³. Most

masculine nouns, by contrast, have no such ending. Examples: Feminine nouns:

¯¢ Ž ìŠ pizza

Ž©â§ñ† picture

³¢¥Š ¡ prayer-shawl

³ªŒ ìŒ ±† §Š balcony

³â­¢œˆ Š « preference Masculine nouns:

°¯‹ ގ dough «šÕç  cap

±â¢¯Š painting 7


Level One There are some exceptions: a fair number of feminine nouns have no ending, particularly names of limbs, e.g. œŽ¢ ‘hand, arm’, ¨ŒŸÕ™ ‘ear’, ¬³‹ çŽ ‘shoulder’. Some common segolate nouns (nouns like œ  ì , œ¥Œ Œ ¢ with stress on the first syllable) are feminine, e.g. ®Œ±™Œ ‘country’, ˂±Œ œŒ ‘route’, ¦« ì ‘time’, and several others, e.g.  â±  ‘wind’, ±¢«Š ‘town’, ±Õ좯Š ‘bird’. Countries and towns are feminine singular (just like the words ®Œ±™Œ , ±¢«Š ) e.g.

³ŒœŒ›© ³† §Š ³¢±Š ކ  ³Õ¯±Ñ †

The US is opposed

Ž±°†Ž ¢ š¢šÒ Š ¥ñ‹

Tel-Aviv is expensive

and a handful of masculine nouns end in  or ³, e.g. ³â±¢Ú ‹ ‘service’. Rule (b) A combination of masculine and feminine nouns is counted as masculine:

 ¦¢¯Š ­Õ° † ¢¤ œ† ±† §† Ž ž Ž±­† ڊ ˂çŽ -± Ñ Shifra and Mordechai are stopping by later ?˃¥† ¯† ™Œ ¦¢™Š ¯Ž §Š † © ³Õ­¡ˆ Ž «§ †  ž °šŒ Œ œ-±¢¢†© Are the scotch tape and envelopes with you? Rule (c) Any adjective or verb relating to the noun must take on masculine or feminine form, in agreement with that noun (on agreement, see further 13): Masculine:

ÚŒ °Ž °¯‹ ގ 

The dough is hard

Feminine:

ÚŽ °Ž ¯¢ Ž ìŠ 

The pizza is hard

7 The feminine and plural of nouns a The endings ¦¢Š and ³Õ – for the simplest noun type 8

Nouns mark their plural by the endings take ¦¢Š and nearly all feminines ³Õ.

¦¢Š and ³Õ. Nearly all masculines


Before adding ¦¢, the masculine noun first drops any Œ or ¢Š ending it has. And before adding

³Õ, the feminine noun first drops the singular feminine

ending Ž or ³. Thus: Masc.

Fem.

¥¤¢ Ž §‹

tank

¦¢¥Š ¤¢ Ž §‹

tanks

°¢ñŠ

bag

¦¢°¢ Š ñŠ

bags

Œ±Õ§

teacher

¦¢±Õ§ Š

teachers

Ûˆ Œ «§

deed

¦¢Ûˆ Š «§

deeds

¢œâ† Š ¢

Jew

¦¢œâ† Š ¢

Jews

¢™©Õñ«Š

journalist

¦¢™Ž Š ©Õñ«Š

journalists

Ž±¢‹›§†

drawer

³Õ±¢‹›§†

drawers

Ž±¢¡Š

castle

³Õ±¢¡Š

castles

³¢œŽŠ ¢

handle

³Õ¢œŽŠ ¢

handles

³¢ìŠ §

napkin

³Õ¢ìŠ §

napkins

The feminine and plural of nouns

¨ Ž ¥âÚ † ‘table’ has the † . Conversely, feminine Ž©ÚŽ ‘year’ has the plural ¦¢Š©ÚŽ . For plural ³Õ© Ž ¥âÚ

There are some exceptions, e.g. the masculine noun more about these exceptions, see 60(d).

The form that a noun happens to take in the plural has no effect on its intrinsic gender. Thus

³Õ© Ž ¥âÚ † ‘tables’ is as masculine as ¨ Ž ¥âÚ † ‘table’,

and hence the agreement ¦¢§¢ Š ªŠ °† § ³Õ© Ž ¥âÚ † ‘gorgeous tables’.

b The plural of nouns of the type ±šŽ Žœ To make the plural of a noun is often more than just a matter of adding an ending: the internal vowels may have to be changed, depending on the form of the word. Obviously, this generally affects pronunciation rather than spelling, as Hebrew is mostly written without vowels. We begin with the ‘third-from-the-end rule’:

9


Level One When the vowel a becomes third vowel from the end (thanks to the presence of an ending), many nouns omit it. Thus:

±šœ

thing

(davar)

œ°² almond (shaked) Further examples:

Plural:

¦¢±šœ

dvarim

Plural:

¦¢œ°²

shkedim (not shakedim)

¥¯Ž ގ ~¦¢¥Š ¯Ž ކ

onion

¥§Ž Ž ›~¦¢¥Š § ›†

camel

¨‹¤ÚŽ ~¦¢Š©¤‹ چ

neighbor

(not davarim)

However, many nouns do not observe this rule, e.g. ¦¤Ž Ž ~¦¢§Š ¤ˆ Ž   ‘sage’, ¨Ž©«Ž ~¦¢Š©©Ž «ˆ ‘cloud’, °¢œŠ ¯ ~¦¢°¢ Š œŠ ¯ ‘righteous man’, ¥ªŽ ì ~¦¢¥Š ªŽ ì ‘sculptor’, ¢™§ ލ ~¦¢™Š §Ž ލ ‘director’. There are two main reasons: 1 Either they begin with one of the four letters « ,  , ,™ (so-called ‘guttural’ letters), which for ancient phonetic reasons require the acoustic ‘support’ of a full vowel; 2 or the a has the vowel point  rather than Ž (which again for historical reasons could not drop). Among these are the many nouns of the kind ±Þ‹ چ § ~¦¢±Š ދ چ § ‘crisis’, ±Õñ­† ç ~¦¢±Õ Š ñ­† ç ‘button’ – here, naturally, the a does not drop as this would create a hard-to-pronounce run of three consonants in a row (imagine kftorim). To know if a noun has Ž or  is a matter of recognizing characteristic patterns – or consulting a dictionary.

c The plural of nouns of the type ¡Œ±ªŒ (segolate nouns) Most nouns are stressed on the last syllable, e.g. ¦Õ°§Ž ‘place’. But many nouns, with Œ (termed the ‘segol’ vowel) as their last vowel, are stressed on the next-to-last syllable. These are called segolate nouns. Here are some examples (we have marked the stress by ):

10

¡Œ±ªŒ film

±­Œ ª‹ book

ª­Õ¡ Œ form


Note: Some segolates actually have -a- as their last vowel or as both vowels –

« , ,, e.g.  ±ìŒ ‘flower’, š Õ±  ‘width’, ±«  © ‘lad’, œ  ì ‘fear’. But they are still segolates in every other

owing to the presence of a so-called guttural letter:

The feminine and plural of nouns

respect.

The plural of segolate nouns involves an internal change in their vowels: 1 The first vowel is usually dropped, forming a variant of the ‘thirdfrom-the-end rule’ (recall the preceding section), as the stress has now been shifted onto the plural ending. 2 The second vowel becomes a:

¦¢¡Ž Š ±ª† séret

Å Æ

¡Œ±ªŒ

¦¢ŠŸ§Ž ±†

sratim

rémez

Å Æ

Ÿ§Œ Œ± r’mazim

¦¢±Š ­Ž ª†

±­Œ ª‹

¦¢¡Š šŽ چ

¡šŒ ڋ

séfer

sfarim

shévet

shvatim

¦¢ªŠ ­Ž ¡†

ª­Õ¡ Œ

³Õ©Ž±›†

tófes

tfasim

góren

¦¢ Ž Š ±ì†

±ìŒ

¦¢«Š ¥Ž ¯†

pérach

prachim

tséla

¨Œ±Õ› granot

«¥ ¯‹ tsla’im

Further examples:

ŸŒ±ÞŒ tap

¨§Œ ڌ oil

±ŒœñŒ frequency

±¯‹ Œ ¢ drive

¥Œ¤Û‹ intelligence

³§Õ¯ Œ junction

¨­Õ¯ Œ code

«° ڌ socket

š ڌ praise As with nouns like ±šŽ œŽ in 7(b), segolates that begin with one of the four letters « ,  , ,™ (‘guttural’ letters) do not allow the first vowel to be dropped. Instead it usually becomes a:

11


Level One

šŒ±«Œ ~¦¢šŽ Š ±«ˆ

evening

°Œ¥ ‹ ~¦¢°Š ¥ˆ Ž 

part

¥šŒ Œ ~¦¢¥Š šˆ Ž 

rope

ŸŒ±™Œ ~¦¢ŠŸ±Ž ™ˆ

cedar

A small group of feminine nouns behaves rather like segolates, e.g.:

šŽ ¤† ڊ - ³Õš¤Ž چ

layer

«Ž §† œŠ - ³Õ«§Ž œ†

tear

¥Ž §† ۊ - ³Õ¥§Ž ۆ

dress

d The plural of nouns ending in ³â We have just seen that the plural of feminine ³¢Š nouns is formed by first dropping the ³ and then adding ³Õ, thus ³Õ¢ìŠ ç Å ³¢ìŠ ç . Feminine ³â nouns, too, form their plural by dropping ³Õ¢. Thus:

³Õ¢â© ˆ Å ³â©ˆ 

store

³Õ¢â©¤Õª † Å ³â©¤Õª †

³

but then add

agency

e The feminine of nouns denoting people, e.g. Ž±Õ§ ‘teacher’ Virtually all nouns denoting people have a masculine and a feminine form, e.g.

Œ±Õ§~Ž±Õ§

male teacher ~ female teacher

šŽ¤Õç~³šŒ ¤Õç Œ

male star ~ female star

The form of the feminine largely depends on the form of the masculine. As a rough rule: 1 Nouns of the Œ±Õ§ or ±šŽ œŽ or ¡Œ±ªŒ type (see 7(a–c)) take Ž:

¯Ž ±† § woman lecturer 12

œŽ ¥† ¢ little girl

Ž©¤‹ چ woman neighbor


2 Nouns for inhabitants of most major European or Near Eastern countries take Ž:

Ž¢¥Š ›†† ©Ñ Englishwoman

The feminine and plural of adjectives

Ž¢šŽ Š ±«ˆ Arab woman

Ž¢œâ† Š ¢ Jewish woman 3 Nouns of the ¥«Ž ì type (66) take ³Œ:

³¥Œ Œ ¢¢  girl soldier 4 Nouns of the countries:

³Œ©©Œ › kindergarten teacher

¨¥« Ž ì type (66) take ³¢Š, as do inhabitants of most other

¨œŽ † ì ~³¢Š©œŽ  † ì coward

¨«Ž œ† § ~³¢Š©«Ž œ† § scientist

¢Š©ì Ž ¢~³¢Š©ì Ž ¢ Japanese 5 Foreignisms take ³¢Š:

¡†©œâ¡ Œ ª† ~³¢¡†Š ©œâ¡ Œ ª† student

±™¢¢ Œ ± ­† ~³¢±Š ™¢¢ Œ ±­† fool, mug

6 Nouns shaped like present tense verbs behave like these verbs. See 72.

Ž §Š ¥† ñ ‘student’, ±ÛŽ ~Ž±ÛŽ ‘minister’, Other notable words: œ¢§Š ¥† ñ ~œ¢ ¢™©Õñ¢«Š ~³¢™Ž Š ©Õñ¢«Š ‘journalist’, ™­Õ± ‹ ~Ò­Õ± † ‘doctor’ 8 The feminine and plural of adjectives Virtually all adjectives have four forms: masculine singular and plural, and feminine singular and plural. All but the first are marked by distinctive suffixes and often by internal vowel changes as well.

a The simplest adjective type: ¢³Š œŽ , šÕ¡ 1 The simplest adjectives add the following endings, with no other changes in spelling or pronunciation*:

13


Level One

Example: šÕ¡ ‘good’ Fem. sing.

Ž

šÕ¡ Ž

Masc. pl.

¦¢Š

¦¢šÕ¡ Š

Fem. pl.

³Õ

³ÕšÕ¡

* Changes in nikkud can be ignored, except where there is also a change in pronunciation.

2 There are a vast number of adjectives with the suffix ¢Š either created out of nouns by adding ¢Š or based on some international word (with ¢Š taking the place of -ic, -ical, etc.). These, too, simply add the following endings: Examples: ¢³Š œŽ ‘religious’, ¢ŸŠ ¢­Š ‘physical’ Fem. sing.

³

³¢³Š œŽ

³¢ŠŸ¢­Š

Masc. pl.

¦¢Š

¦¢Š¢³Š œŽ

¦¢¢ŠŸ¢­Š

Fem. pl.

³Õ

³Õ¢³Š œŽ

³Õ¢ŠŸ¢­Š

Many adjectives with -¢ are foreign loans; as if to show this fact, Hebrew keeps the stress on the base of the word rather than on the ending. Hence (marking stress by ):

³Õ¢ŠŸ¢­Š ,¦¢¢ŠŸ¢­Š ,³¢ŠŸ¢­Š ,¢ŠŸ¢­Š Further examples:

14

Like šÕ¡:

™¥Ž ­† ©Š ‘wonderful’, ¨§Ž ™‡ ©Œ ‘loyal’, «± ‘bad’, °ŸŽ Ž ¦  ‘warm’, š¢¯Š ¢ ‘stable’, ¨Õڙ±Š ‘first’

Like ¢³Š œŽ :

¢§Š ¢ ‘marine’, ¢¥Š çŽ ¥† ç ¢³¢ Š ¢Ž«ˆ ލ ‘problematic’

Foreignisms:

‘economic’,

¢©Š Õڙ±Š

‘strong’,

‘preliminary’,

¢¡Š ª¢ † ©Š â§Õ° ‘communist’, ¢§¢ Š ¤Š ‘chemical’, ¢¥Š §Ž ±† Õ© ‘normal’


b Adjectives ending in Œ Like nouns (7(a)), adjectives ending in Œ drop this before adding ³Õ. (See 50 for similar behavior by '¥ verbs.)

Ž ,¦¢Š

The feminine and plural of adjectives

Example: ™Œ ©Ž ‘attractive’

Fem. sing.

Ž

ÒŽ©

Masc. pl.

¦¢Š

¦¢™Ž Š©

Fem. pl.

³Õ

³Õ™Ž©

Further examples:

­Ž Œ ¢ beautiful

Œ©ç‹ honest

Œ ç‹ dark

Œ©âÚ§† strange

c Adjectives of the type ¥Õœ›Ž ‘large’, ¨¡Ž °Ž ‘small’ In many adjectives, the first vowel is a and many of these belong to the ¨¡Ž °Ž -¥Õœ›Ž type, i.e. (like nouns of the type ±šŽ œŽ ) they drop their a when adding endings (the ‘third-from-the-end rule’): When a vowel a becomes third vowel from the end (thanks to the presence of an ending), many adjectives omit it. Thus: Examples: ¥Õœ›Ž ‘large’, ¨¡Ž °Ž ‘small’

Fem. sing.

Ž

¥Ž ՜›† (gdola)

©Ž ¡ °† (ktana)

Masc. pl.

¦¢Š

¦¢¥Š ՜›† (gdolim)

¦¢©Š ¡ °† (ktanim)

Fem. pl.

³Õ

³Õ¥Õœ›† (gdolot)

³Õ©¡ °† (ktanot)

15


Level One Further examples:

¨Õ¤©Ž right

±ÚŽ ¢Ž straight

¦¢«Š ©Ž pleasant

±Õ ڎ black

±â›ªŽ closed

±â±ÞŽ obvious

However, just as with nouns, many adjectives are exceptions to this rule

ˆ ,¦¢°Š ŸŽ ˆ ,°Ž ŸŽ  ˆ ,°ŸŽ  Ž . Examples: and belong under 8(a): ³Õ°ŽŸ  š¢œŠ Ò polite

¨â›Ž fair

°ŸŽ Ž strong

¦¤Ž Ž wise

¦â¯«Ž huge

°¢ñŠ « ancient

Just as with nouns (7(b)), there are two main reasons for this: 1 Either they begin with one of the four letters

« , , ,™

(‘guttural’

letters) which for ancient phonetic reasons do not allow the vowel to be dropped; 2 or (very occasionally) the a has the vowel point  rather than Ž. These have to be learned as you go along or you should consult a dictionary.

9 Noun + adjective phrases, e.g. öÖ ¬Öš ðÓñÓË ‘small boy’ For ‘small boy’, ‘wet dog’ and other phrases composed of adjective + noun, Hebrew put the noun first:

¨¡Ž °Ž œ¥Œ ¢Œ small boy

šâ¡±Ž š¥Œ çŒ a wet dog

To distinguish these from whole sentences (‘dogs are wet’), Hebrew tends to insert the particle of being ™â, ¦‹ etc.:

16

¦¢šŠ ⡱† ¦‹ ¦¢šŠ ¥Ž ç†

Dogs are wet


Quantity phrases

10 Quantity phrases Words for ‘a lot of, a few, more, how many, twenty, all (ice-creams etc.)’, i.e. quantity words, usually precede their noun:

³Õœ¢¥Š ›† Þ‹ ±† 

a lot of ice-creams

?³Õœ¢¥Š ›† §Ž ç

how many ice-creams?

±çŽ ⪠¡« §†

a little sugar

³ÕªÕç œÕ«

more glasses

¦¢¥Š ­Ž ª† ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ

20 cups

¦¢ªŠ ¤† §Š  ¥çŽ

all the lids

¦¢¢Š '›‹ -¢œŠ  šÕ±

most of the DJs

³Õ©â™ñ† Þ‹ ±†  ™±Ž Õ©

a great many accidents

³Õ©â™ñ† œ™§† Þ‹ ±† 

very many accidents

Generally, the same quantity word is used whether the noun is being treated as something countable (as in ‘lots of e-mails, how many letters’) or something uncountable (as in ‘lots of e-mail, how much mail’):

¦¢¥¢¢ Š §‹ -¢™Š Þ‹ ±†  lots of e-mails

¥¢¢§‹ ¢™Š Þ‹ ±†  lots of e-mail

?¦¢šŠ ñŽ ¤† §Š §Ž ç

how many letters?

?±Ñ՜ §Ž ç

how much mail?

¦¢šŠ ñŽ ¤† §Š ¡« §†

a few letters

±Ñ՜ ¡« §†

a little mail

However,

§Ž ç

in the (non-interrogative) sense of ‘a few, some’ is used

only with countable nouns, i.e. it cannot be used for English ‘a little’:

¦¢šŠ ñŽ ¤† §Š §Ž ç

a few letters, some letters

17


Level One

œ Ž ™Œ ‘one’ ¦¢œŠ  Ž ™ˆ ‘a few’,

A few quantity words follow their noun, namely the numeral and a few ‘adjectives of quantity’:

š±Ž

‘much, many’,

¦¢¡Š « §† ‘a few’: œ Ž ™Œ ¥­Œ ª‹

one cup

¦¢œŠ Ž ™ˆ ¦¢¥Š ­Ž ª†

a few cups

š±Ž œ  ì

much fear

¦¢¡Š « §† ¦¢¥Š ­Ž ª†

a few cups

Notice that

¡« §† can either precede the noun or follow it. Following it, it

denotes ‘a few’, not ‘a little’.

11 Noun + determiner phrases (‘this . . ., the same . . ., which . . .’) Determiners are words that indicate the identity of a noun, such as

ŸŒ çŽ

‘such’, ŸŒ ‘this’, ճՙ ‘that, the same’, ŸŒ ¢™‹ ‘what, which?’, ¥çŽ ‘any’.

ŸŒ çŽ , ŸŒ

and

™â

‘that’ follow the noun, whereas

ճՙ, ŸŒ ¢™‹ , ¥çŽ

other determiners must precede it:

18

ŸŒ çŽ ¡Õ¢œ¢† ™Š

such an idiot

ŸŒ ¦ÚŒ Õ±

this impression

™â «° ±† §Š 

that screen

¡Õ¢œ¢† ™Š ճՙ

the same idiot

!¦ÚŒ Õ± ŸŒ ¢™‹

what an impression!

«° ±† §Š ¥çŽ

any screen

ª¢¡Š ±† ç ŸŒ ¢™‹

some ticket

ª¢¡Š ±† ç ¬Ñ

not a single ticket

ª¢¡Š ±† ç ¦âÚ

no ticket

and


Agreement for gender and number

12–13 AGREEMENT 12 Agreement of Ô í a For noun + adjective: šâ¡±Ž  š¥Œ çŒ  ‘the wet dog’ When noun + adjective phrases like those in 9 have a definite noun (i.e. one with  , or a name), the adjective automatically takes a  prefix, too:

¨¡Ž °Ž  œ¥Œ ¢Œ

the little child

©Ž °‹ Ÿ†  Ú¡žŒ ž°† ³±Œ šŒ ›†

Old Mrs Kvetch

If the adjective does not show agreement for definiteness, we are dealing with a whole sentence, not a phrase. Contrast these: Phrase

¨¡Ž °Ž  œ¥Œ ¢Œ

the little child

Sentence

¨¡Ž °Ž œ¥Œ ¢Œ

the child is little

b For noun + ŸŒ : ŸŒ  š¥Œ çŒ  ‘this dog’

ŸŒ ‘this’ following a noun with  becomes ŸŒ  , but in fact ŸŒ š¥Œ çŒ and ŸŒ  š¥Œ çŒ  mean the same: ‘this dog’. The difference is stylistic: ŸŒ š¥Œ çŒ sounds formal or official; everyday speech prefers ŸŒ  š¥Œ çŒ  .

13 Agreement for gender and number a Adjective agreement Any adjective relating to a noun must adopt either masculine or feminine form in agreement with that noun. Similarly, it must agree in number (singular or plural). Thus:

19


Level One

°¢±‹ ¥¤¢ Ž §‹

an empty tank

°¢ Ž ±‹ ±Ž ¢›‹ §†

an empty drawer

¦¢°¢ Š ±‹ ¦¢¥Š ¤¢ Ž §‹

empty tanks

³Õ°¢±‹ ³Õ±¢›‹ §†

empty drawers

°¢±‹ ¥¤¢ Ž §‹ 

the tank is empty

¦¢°¢ Š ±‹ ¦¢¥Š ¤¢ Ž §‹ 

the tanks are empty

°¢ Ž ±‹ ±Ž ¢›‹ §† 

the drawer is empty

³Õ°¢±‹ ³Õ±¢›‹ §† 

the drawers are empty

Even if a singular noun denotes a group, such as  Ž ìŽ Ú† §Š ‘family’, ³žžŒ ¯Œ ‘team’, œ« ž ‘committee’, it is treated as singular for purposes of agreement:

¡¥Œ ڌ  ³™Œ ¨°‹ ³ ¥† ¡¢¥Š † Œ œ« ž  The committee has decided to mend the sign Pronouns require similar agreement:

±«‹ ¢©Š ™ˆ

I (masc.) am awake

±Ž «‹ ¢©Š ™ˆ

I (fem.) am awake

Most adjectives take the following agreement endings: fem .sing.  or ³

masc. pl. ¦¢

fem .pl. ³Õ

For details of these, see 8.

b Agreement of verbs Verbs agree with their subject, and not only in gender and number but also in person, as and when the verb makes such distinctions available.

20

Present tense verbs distinguish masculine from feminine, and singular from plural:


¦¢™Š ގ ¦¢ªŠ â±

Russians are coming

³Õ™ÞŽ ³Õ¢ªŠ â±

Russian women are coming

Agreement for gender and number

Past and future tense verbs additionally distinguish 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person, e.g.:

˂ÕÚ§† ™Œ ¢©Š ™ˆ

I’ll pull

˂ÕÚ§† ñŠ ñŽ Ñ

You’ll pull

˂ÕÚ§† ¢Š ™â

He’ll pull

For full details see 18 onwards.

c Agreement of ‘particles of being’ The particles expressing ‘is’ and ‘are’ (described in 2(a)) agree for gender and number with their subject noun:

masc. sing. ™â

fem. sing. ™¢Š

masc. pl. ¦‹

fem .pl. ¨‹

Thus: Masc. sing.

¬¢¢‹«Ž ™â â©¥Ž ڌ ¦±Ž Õ¢

Our Yoram is tired

Masc. pl.

¦¢±Š ° ¦‹ ¥Œ ™‹ Ž ¦¢¥Š ­Œ ¥ ­ 

These falafels are cold

d Agreement of determiners: ³™ŸçŽ , ³™Ÿ, etc. Determiners that point to someone or something, i.e. words denoting ‘this, that, the same, such, a kind of’ (demonstratives), agree for gender and number with their noun. Most other determiners (e.g.

¦âÚ ‘no’) do not agree. Taking each determiner in turn:

¥çŽ ‘any, every’,

21


Level One Masc. sing.

Fem. sing.

this

ŸŒ

³™Ÿ, ⟠or ՟

that

™â

™¢Š 

¦‹ 

¨‹ 

that, the same

ճՙ

³Ž ՙ

¦³Ž ՙ

¨³Ž ՙ

such, a kind of

ŸŒ çŽ

âŸçŽ ,³™ŸçŽ or ÕŸçŽ ¥Œ ™‹ çŽ or ⥙‹ çŽ

Masc. pl. Fem. pl.

¥Œ ™‹ or ⥙‹

Examples:

ŸŒ  šÚ‹ † § 

this computer

¥Œ ™‹ Ž ¦¢šŠ ڋ † § 

these computers

³™Ÿ ÚŽ ž† žœ 

this pedal

¥Œ ™‹ Ž ³Õڞ† žœ 

these pedals

ŸŒ çŽ ªâ±¢žŠ

a virus of sorts,

⥙‹ çŽ ¦¢ªŠ â±¢žŠ

viruses of sorts,

such a virus

³™ŸçŽ ©Ž ¢ Š ކ

a test of sorts,

such viruses

¥Œ ™‹ çŽ ³Õ©¢ Š ކ

tests of sorts,

such a test

such tests

ŸŒ ¢™‹ (in its various meanings) has a feminine form ՟¢™‹ and a plural form ⥢™‹ in formal usage. Colloquially, however, one generally meets ŸŒ ¢™‹ :

The determiner

!šŽ ŸŽ ¤† Ñ ŸŒ ¢™‹

what a disappointment!

?¦¢¤¢Š ±Š ™ˆ ñ ŸŒ ¢™‹ ކ

on which dates?

Note: Instead of

՟

and

ÕŸçŽ ,

one most often hears

âŸ

and

âŸçŽ

in colloquial

speech.

e Agreement of quantity words 22

Most quantity words generally do not agree with their noun. Thus:


Numerals

¨Õ¢ªŽ ©Š ¨Õ§Ž

lots of experience

¦¢¢Š ⪢©Š ¨Õ§Ž

lots of experiments

¦¢ªŠ âÞաՙ §Ž ç

a few buses

³Õ¢©Š Õ§ §Ž ç

a few cabs

But those that are really adjectives do agree:

¦¢ÞŠ ± ¦¢œŠ ±Ž ۆ §Š

many offices

³ÕÞ± ³ÕªìŽ œ† §

many printers

Some numerals agree, too. See 14.

14 Numerals a The numerals 1 to 10 The numerals for 1 to 10 agree for gender with their noun. But unlike adjectives, the feminine is the basic form of the numeral, whereas the masculine adds Ž (for 3 to 10) together with various other adjustments:

Feminine numerals 1–10

³Õ©©Þ Úڋ

6 bananas

³ Ñ  Ž©© ލ

1 banana

³Õ©©Þ «š ڌ

7 bananas

³Õ©©Þ ¢ñ‹ چ

2 bananas

³Õ©©Þ Œ©Õ§Ú

8 bananas

³Õ©©Þ Úեڎ

3 bananas

³Õ©©Þ «Ú ñ‹

9 bananas

³Õ©©Þ «Þ ±Ñ †

4 bananas

³Õ©©Þ ±ÛŒ «Œ

10 bananas

³Õ©©Þ Ú§‹ Ž

5 bananas

23


Level One Masculine numerals 1–10

¦¢'¯¢ Š žŠ žœ†† ©ªŒ ÚŽ ڊ

6 sandwiches

œ Ž ™Œ '®¢Šžžœ†† ©ªŒ

1 sandwich

¦¢'¯¢Š Š žžœ†† ©ªŒ «Ž š† ڊ

7 sandwiches

¦¢'¯¢Š Š žžœ†† ©ªŒ ¢‹©Ú†

2 sandwiches

¦¢'¯¢Š Š žžœ†† ©ªŒ Ž©Õ§Ú†

8 sandwiches

¦¢'¯¢Š Š žžœ†† ©ªŒ ÚÕ¥ Ž چ

3 sandwiches

¦¢'¯¢Š Š žžœ†† ©ªŒ «Ž چ ñŠ

9 sandwiches

¦¢'¯¢Š Š žžœ†† ©ªŒ «Ž ގ ±Ñ †

4 sandwiches

¦¢'¯¢Š Š žžœ†† ©ªŒ Ž±ÛŽ «

10 sandwiches

¦¢'¯¢Š Š žžœ†† ©ªŒ ÚŽ §ˆ Š

5 sandwiches

The feminine form (the basic form) is also used for performing a count, and here the word for ‘two’ will be

¦¢¢Š ñ چ

(the so-called ‘free-standing

form’) rather than ¢ñ‹ چ :

. . . Úեڎ ,¦Š¢¢ñ چ ,³ Ñ 

b The numerals 11 to 19 The numerals 11 to 19 also have masculine and feminine forms, but, colloquially, the feminine does the job for both (and, as always, is also used for counting):

24

Fem.

Masc.

16

‹±Û† «Œ -Úڋ

±ÛŽ «Ž -ÚŽ ڊ

17

‹±Û† «Œ -«š چ

18 19

Fem.

Masc.

11

±‹ ۆ «Œ -³  Ñ

±ÛŽ «Ž -œ  Ñ

±ÛŽ «Ž -«Ž š† ڊ

12

±‹ ۆ «Œ -¦¢ñ‹ چ

±ÛŽ «Ž -¦¢©‹ چ

‹±Û† «Œ -Œ©Õ§Ú†

±ÛŽ «Ž -Ž©Õ§Ú†

13

±‹ ۆ «Œ -Úեچ

±ÛŽ «Ž -ÚŽ եچ

‹±Û† «Œ -«Ú ñ†

±ÛŽ «Ž -«Ž چ ñŠ

14

±‹ ۆ «Œ -«Þ ±† Ñ

±ÛŽ «Ž -«Ž ގ ±† Ñ

15

‹±Û† «Œ -Ú§ˆ ‹

±ÛŽ «Ž -ÚŽ §ˆ Š


Numerals Examples:

³Õ±ìŽ ‹±Û† «Œ -Úեچ

¦¢±Š žŽ žÚ† ±ÛŽ «Ž -ÚÕ¥ Ž چ

vs.

13 cows

13 bulls

(but colloquially: ¦¢±Š žŽ žÚ† ±‹ ۆ «Œ -Úեچ )

¦¢±Š âœç ±ÛŽ «Ž -œ  Ñ

³Õ¥â› ±‹ ۆ «Œ -³  Ñ

vs.

11 balls

11 marbles

(colloquially: ¦¢±Š âœç ±‹ ۆ «Œ -³  Ñ)

These forms are a peculiar combination of the regular masculine or feminine 1–9 form (with a few adjustments) with a special word for ‘10’:

±ÛŽ «Ž for masculine, ±‹ ۆ «Œ for feminine. Notice that the  ending appears on only one bit of each numeral.

c The numerals 20 to 99 The numerals for the ‘tens’ (20–90) do not have separate masculine and feminine forms. They make use of the same base as the masculine numerals just listed – thus ‘30’ is ‘3’ with

¦¢ added. The exception is ‘20’,

which is based on ±Û Œ «Œ ‘10’ and not on ‘2’:

60

¦¢ÚŠ ڊ

20

¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ

70

¦¢«Š š† ڊ

30

¦¢ÚÕ¥ Š چ

80

¦¢Š©Õ§Ú†

40

¦¢«Š ގ ±Ñ †

90

¦¢«Š چ ñŠ

50

¦¢ÚŠ §ˆ Š

For 21, 34, 77, etc. the order is ten +

ž† + unit. As with numerals like ‘1,

4, 7’, the unit agrees with its noun:

³Õª­† â° Úڋ ž† ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ

26 boxes

Two details must be pointed out:

¦¢©Š Õ¡±† ° ÚŽ ڊ ž† ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ

26 cartons

25


Level One

œ Ž ™Œ or ³  Ñ ³Õª­† â° ³  ў† ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ ‘21 boxes’.

1 For ‘21, 31’, etc.

do not this time follow the noun:

2 For ‘22, 32’, etc. one always uses the ‘free-standing’ form ¦¢Š ¢© چ or ¦¢Š ¢ñ چ rather than ¢ñ‹ چ , ¢©‹ چ : ³Õª­† â° ¦¢Š ¢ñ چ ž† ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ ‘22 boxes’. For the hundreds and thousands, see 81 in Level Two.

15 Partitives: ‘many of the . . ., all the . . .’ To express ‘of’ (‘many of the . . ., some of the . . ., three of the . . .’), use §Š :

¦¢±Š ¡† Õڝ §‹ Þ‹ ±† 

many of the cops

¡±Œ ªŒ  §‹ °¥Œ ‹

part of the film

³Õ±Õ§ §‹ Úڋ

six of the teachers

?¦Œ §‹ §Ž ç

how many of them?

There are a few exceptions: ¥çŽ ‘all’, šÕ± ‘most of’, ±Òچ ‘the rest of’ and a few others require the construct (see 17(c), (d)) instead of §Š :

¦¥Ž Õ«Ž ¥çŽ

all the world

¦¢°¢ Š ñŠ  ¥çŽ

all the files

³Õ«œŽ Õ§ šÕ±

most of the notices

³Õ¥â¥›†  ±Òچ

the rest of the pills

16 Pronouns and words standing in for nouns a Definite pronouns

26

The personal pronouns have already been listed in 3. Note that when referring back to a particular noun just mentioned, where English might use ‘it’, Hebrew commonly uses ™â (for a masculine noun) or ™¢Š (for a feminine):


Pronouns and words standing in for nouns

!¢°Š ©Ž ™¥ ™â ¥šŽ ™ˆ ?ŸŒ  ±œŒ žŒ žª†  This sweater? But it isn’t clean!

¨â°¢³Š ކ ™¢Š ?±Ž Õ©§†  ­¢™‹ Where is the lamp? It’s being fixed

?™¢Š ­¢™‹ ,â© ?±Ž ¡¢ Ž ›Š ˃¥† ڋ¢ You have a guitar? So where is it then? And similarly, one uses ճՙ, ³Ž ՙ (see 35(b)):

!ճՙ ¢¥Š ¨ñ‹ ŸÒ ?¥šŒ Œ ˃¥† ڋ¢ Do you have string? Then let me have it! For a vaguer, less specific ‘it’, Hebrew uses ŸŒ :

!™±Ž Õ©ž† ¦Õ¢Ò ŸŒ ?šŽ âÚñ† ¨¢™‹ ,§ What, no answer? It’s awful!

!¥œŽ ©† ° ª† ŸŒ !¢œ Stop! It’s a scandal!

±Ž Õ Ñ§‹ աՙގ ŸŒ ?˃¥† ڌ ¨›¥ ލ  ¥çŽ All your mess? It’s in the back of the car Note: ŸŒ can also mean ‘this’ (plural: ¥Œ ™‹ ‘these’). See 11.

b Indefinite pronouns: ‘someone, something . . .’ ‘Someone’ and ‘something’ are expressed by taking question words (i.e. interrogatives, see 39(b)) and adding âÚ Œ . Note the spelling and the stress Œ § ‘something’, âÚ¢ Œ §Š ‘someone’ and, if on the first part of the word: âÚ one knows that the ‘someone’ refers to a woman: ¢Š Ú¢ Œ §Š . ‘Somewhere’ is usually time, once’ is ¦« ì :

¦Õ°§Ž âÚŒ ŸŒ ¢™‹ ކ

(i.e. ‘in some place’), and ‘some

¦Õ°§Ž âÚŒ ŸŒ ¢™‹ ކ ¡ ތ ŸŒ

It’s definitely somewhere

¦« ì ¥â¯¥† ¯Š ¨ñ‹

Give a call some time

27


Level One

c Adjectives without their noun: °Õ±¢Ž  ‘the green one’ Where English might use the pronoun ‘one, ones’ in phrases like ‘green ones, the green one, this one, which one?’, Hebrew lets the adjective or other word stand by itself with whatever agreement is needed:

³ÕÚ°Ž ³šŒ Œ ՙ °± ¢ Š©™ˆ ,Ú­Œ ©Œ -¥« ՛ ŸŒ ³Õ籍 ¦¢¯¢ Š ދ Soft eggs are gross, I only like hard ones

?°Ž â±¢†  ,¯Ž Õ± ñ† Ñ ç¢ Ž ªŠ ŸŒ ¢™‹ Which clip do you want, the green one?

³™Ÿ ³™Œ ¢ Š °† ŸÒ ,â© ?±œŒ ª‹ ކ ™¥ ³™Ÿ ¥Ž §† ۊ  That dress is no good? Then take this one For ‘the one that . . ., the ones that . . .’, Hebrew uses Ú Œ ŸŒ and ڌ ¥Œ ™‹ :

?ì¢ÞŠ ¦¢ÛŠ իڌ ¥Œ ™‹ ­¢™‹

Where are the ones that go ‘beep’?

d Numerals without their noun Numerals, like adjectives, can be used without mentioning the noun each time. They will still agree. For ‘2’, the free-standing form must be used rather than ¢©‹ چ ,¢ñ‹ چ :

¦¢Š ¢© چ ,¦¢Š ¢ñ چ

?«Ž ގ ±† Ñ ¥Þ¢ ‹ °Š ™â †ž ¦¢±Š §Ž ñ† ÚŽ եچ ¢ñŠ ¥† Þ¢  °Š §Ž ¥Ž Why did I get three dates and he got four?

¦¢¢Š ñ چ ՙ ³Õ¢±† ¡Œ ލ «Þ ±† Ñ ª¢©Š ¤†  ¥† ¦™Š ¡Þ‹ ¥ ³† §Š ¢©Š ™ˆ I’m in two minds whether to put in four batteries or two

e Quantity words without their noun Other quantity words, too, can be used without a noun:

28

³¯Ž °† œÕ« ¢¥Š ¨ñ‹ ,¨Õ§Ž ˃¥† ڋ¢

You have loads, give me a bit more


Possessives and constructs

17 Possessives and constructs a Possessive ‘of’: ¦±Ž Õ¢ ¥ÚŒ ҝŽ ‘Yoram’s brother’ Possessive ‘of’ (or ’s) is commonly ¥Ú Œ:

™¢ÛŠ ©Ž  ¥ÚŒ ¨Þ‹ 

the son of the President (the President’s son)

°¢¢§ ¥ÚŒ ¢±Š ¥Ž ⥪Œ 

Mike’s cell-phone

Notice that the word order is as with English ‘of’: the thing possessed comes first.

¢§Š ¥ÚŒ denotes ‘whose?’. For example: ?¦ÚŽ ì¢ Ž çŠ  ¢§Š ¥ÚŒ Whose is the yarmulka over there? (Of whom is the yarmulka over there?)

?š± Ž ¥ÚŒ ³Þ  ¦«Š ¨ñ‹  ³† §Š ¢§Š ¥ÚŒ ¨Þ‹  Whose son is marrying the rabbi’s daughter? (The son of whom is marrying the rabbi’s daughter?)

b Possessive ‘my, your’, etc.: ¢¥Š ڌ ҝŽ ‘my brother’ ‘My’ is commonly ¢¥Š Ú Œ:

¢¥Š ڌ š¥Œ çŒ 

my dog (lit. ‘the dog of me’)

¢¥Š ڌ is made up of ¥ÚŒ ‘of’ + an ending representing the pronoun in other words, ‘of me’. 1 These possessives follow the noun, just like President’ in 17(a). 2

™¢ÛŠ ©Ž  ¥ÚŒ

¢©Š ™ˆ ‘I’: ‘of the

 ‘the’ is added to the first noun, because ‘my dog’ means ‘the dog of mine’.

29


Level One The full list is as follows:

our

â©¥Ž ڌ

my

¢¥Š ڌ

your (masc. pl.)

¦¤Œ ¥Ž ڌ

your (masc. sing.)

˃¥† ڌ

your (fem. pl., formal)

¨¤Œ ¥Ž ڌ

your (fem. sing.)

˂¥Ž ڌ

their (masc. pl.)

¦Œ ¥Ž ڌ

his

եڌ

their (fem. pl., formal)

¨Œ ¥Ž ڌ

her

᥎ ڌ

For the possessive suffixes, commonly used in formal Hebrew, e.g. see 73.

˃ކ ¥† ç ,

c The construct: set phrases To make two nouns into a set phrase of the type ‘soccer game’, Hebrew places them side by side, but in the opposite order to English: the noun that does the qualifying comes last, just as an adjective follows its noun. The whole thing is called a construct phrase or smichut, and the first noun is called the construct noun:

¥›Œ ±Œ âœç °  ۆ §Š soccer game (lit. game soccer. Compare šÕ¡ ° Ž ۆ §Š good game) To remember the order, just imagine that there is a nouns:

¥›Œ ±Œ âœç ¥ÚŒ ° Ž ۆ §Š Further examples: « âšÚ Ž ¥™‹ ±Ž ۆ ¢Š ®±Œ ™Œ ‘Land of Israel’.

¥ÚŒ ‘of’ between the

game of soccer

¬Õª

‘week end’,

 âìñ ®«‹

‘apple tree’,

With particularly fixed set phrases, a hyphen is sometimes used:

30

¦¢Ž-œ›Œ ތ

swimsuit


As with English set phrases and ‘of’, Hebrew construct phrases and ¥Ú Œ cover a wide range of semantic relationships, particularly the following:

Possessives and constructs

1 made of, composed of, a measure of:

šŽ ŸŽ ¢©‹ ¢ÚŠ gold teeth

¦ÚŒ ›Œ ³ì¢  ¡Š rain drop

¦¢™Š ­† Õ± ³žŒ ž¯Œ team of doctors

¥ §Œ ¬ç a tablespoon of salt

2 function:

©Ž â³ ˆ ³¥ §† ۊ wedding dress

¢™± چ Ñ ª¢¡Š ±† ç credit card

±Ž âÞ † ñ  œ± ۆ §Š Ministry of Transport 3 naming and branding:

¨Õ›±Œ ՙ ³©¢œŠ §† the State of Oregon ¢Ž©† › œ† ®âÞ¢°Š kibbutz Deganya ¨Õ°±† ¢ ¥  © the River Yarkon ¢ÚŠ ¢ÚŠ -¢§‹ ¢† Fridays 2004 ³© چ the year 2004

œâ碥Š  ³›Œ ¥Œ ­† §Š the Likud party

¨±Œ ՙ ¢¯‹ «ˆ pine trees

¨Õ©° ³§ ¥‹ ¯† § a Canon camera

4 using certain nouns as the equivalent of an adjective, e.g.:

°©Ž «Ž

°©Ž «Ž ³± ¢œŠ

a giant apartment

©Œ چ §Š

©Œ چ §Š ³œ «ˆ ž

a subcommittee

¦©Ž ¢ Š

¦©Ž ¢ Š ³ ¢  ۊ

a free call

±Ž դކ

±Ž դކ ³« ­ ՝

debut

d Construct endings A construct phrase is often more than just a matter of putting two nouns together. The first noun frequently requires a special ‘construct ending’ and / or an internal change of vowel.

31


Level One For words that already have an inflectional ending, there are two construct endings: 1 The feminine ending Ž always becomes ³:

 Ž ⱙˆ

meal

~

¤Ž ±‹ ކ

pool

~

2 The plural ending unchanged:

¦¢Š

š±Œ «Œ -³  ⱙˆ ¢Ž¢ Š ۆ -³¤ ±‹ ކ

always becomes

evening meal (supper) swimming pool

¢‹. But the plural

ending

¦¢¥Š ª

baskets

~

¦ Œ ¥Œ ¢¥‹ ª

bread baskets

¦¢Šžž°

lines

~

¨Õ­¥Œ ¡Œ ¢‹žž° š±Œ «Œ -³Õ ⱙˆ

telephone lines

³Õ ⱙˆ meals

~

³Õ is

evening meals (suppers)

For words without such an inflectional ending, e.g. ®âÞ¢°Š ,ªÕ¡§Ž ,œ¥Œ ¢Œ , there is no construct ending, but there may be an internal vowel-change (as indeed there may be for other words, too), e.g. ¦¢«Š ª† Õ© ªÕ¡§† ‘passenger plane’. For details, see 73(a). When one wishes to make a construct phrase plural, it is usually the first noun that becomes plural; the second noun remains unchanged (and ˆ ‘evening meals (suppers)’. usually singular): š±Œ «Œ -³Õ ⱙ

e

 in construct phrases

To add ‘the’ to a construct phrase, formal Hebrew attaches the the second word:

š±Œ «Œ Ž ³  ⱙˆ

32

 only to

the evening meal

But colloquial Hebrew often treats set phrases such as these like a single ˆ Ž ‘the evening word, attaching  to the front: for example, š±Œ «Œ -³  ⱙ meal’, ³¢Š ލ -³Õ¢   ‘the household pets’. While common and quite acceptable in casual speech, this practice is frowned upon in written Hebrew.


The inflections of the verb

18–23 THE INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB 18 Introduction Most verbs have five major sets of inflections: Three tenses: past, present, future Imperative (i.e. request) Infinitive (i.e. ‘to . . .’) For example (referring to the verb by its simplest form, the ‘he’ form of the past tense):

‹ °Š :±¯¢ The three tenses:

±¯‹ °† ¢

±¯‹ ° §†

±¯¢ ‹ °Š

will shorten

shortens

shortened

Imperative:

!±¯‹ °

shorten!

Infinitive:

±¯‹ ° ¥†

to shorten

Most verbs also have a related ‘action noun’, e.g. ±â¯¢°Š ‘abbreviation’. We have listed it together with the inflection tables, though in fact it is not quite as regular as the inflections proper (for example, the action noun for œ° ±Ž ‘dance’ is not œ¢ Ž °Š ±† as expected but œâ°¢±Š ). For the use of the action noun, see 64. Note: Verbs also have a gerund, related to the infinitive (e.g.

±¯‹ °

‘shortening’), but it is too uncommon to be listed here. See 97 for its use.

In addition, any given verb belongs to a particular grammatical pattern (known as a binyan). There are seven binyanim (see 25). Every verb also has a root, with certain types of root being peculiar in some way, leading to significant upsets in the verb’s inflections. But whichever binyan or root-type they belong to, verbs form their tenses and other inflections in a fairly uniform way; in the next five sections, we list these shared features.

33


Level One

19 The past tense a Form of the past tense All verbs form their past tense by adding a suffix, as follows:

â©

(we)

¢ñŠ

(I)

¦ñŒ

(you, masc. pl.)

ñŽ

(you, masc. sing.)

¨ñŒ

(you, fem. pl.)

ñ†

(you, fem. sing.)

â

(they)

no suffix

(he)

Ž

(she)

Note: The suffixes in the first three lines (the 1st and 2nd person suffixes) are not stressed. Those in the last two lines are sometimes stressed, depending on the type of verb.

Using the verb ¦°Ž ‘get up’ as a model:

⩧† ° â© † © ™ˆ

we got up

¢ñŠ §† ° ¢©Š ™ˆ

I got up

¦ñŒ §† ° ¦ñŒ Ñ

you (masc. pl.) got up

ñŽ §† ° ñŽ Ñ

you (masc. sing.) got up

¨ñŒ §† ° ¨ñŒ Ñ

you (fem .pl.) got up

ñ† §† ° ñ† Ñ

you (fem. sing.) got up

⧰Ž ¦‹

they got up

¦°Ž ™â

he got up

§Ž °Ž ™¢Š

she got up

We have marked stress by on the first syllable. It is a feature of this type of verb that stress never falls on the past tense endings. The past tense inflects for person as well as for gender and number, but unlike the present tense (see 19(b), (c)) it cannot distinguish gender for ‘I’, ‘we’, and ‘they’.

34

A point to ponder: some of these suffixes bear a resemblance to the ˆ , ñ to ñŽ Ñ, etc. personal pronouns themselves: ¢ to ¢©Š ™


The present tense

b Syntax of the past tense The 1st and 2nd person forms in the past tense are often used without the pronoun, particularly in formal style:

?ñŽ §† ° ¢³ §Ž

When did you get up?

¢ñŠ ¡† ¥ † Œ

I have decided

The 3rd person forms normally require ™â or ™¢Š or ¦‹ or a noun:

?¦°Ž ™â ¢³ §Ž

When did he get up?

§Ž °Ž ™¢Š

She’s got up

§Ž °Ž ¢³Š Õ Ñ

My sister got up

⧰Ž ³Õ±ìŽ 

The cows rose

±šŽ ç† â§°Ž ¦‹

They’ve got up already

c Meaning of the past tense The meaning of the Hebrew past tense essentially covers four English past tenses: ‘I got up, I have got up, I was getting up, I had got up.’ An added ±šŽ ç† ‘already’ or °â¢œŠ ކ ‘just’ can increase precision:

± Ž ♧† ¢ñŠ §† ° ¥Õ§³† ™Œ

Yesterday I got up late

?±œŒ ª‹ ކ ,¢ñŠ §† ° ±šŽ ç†

I’ve already got up, OK?

¢ñŠ §† ° °â¢œŠ ކ ¢©Š ™ˆ ,³™ Ž ގ ñŽ Ñڌ ç†

When you came, I was just getting up

20 The present tense a Form of the present tense All verbs form their present tense with suffixes of the kind that are also used for nouns and adjectives:

masc. sing. no suffix masc. pl.

¦¢Š

fem. sing.

Ž or ³Œ

fem. pl.

³Õ

35


Level One And using the verb ¦°Ž ‘get up’ as a model:

¦°Ž

™â . . . ñŽ Ñ . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ

I (masc.) . . . you (masc.) . . . he . . . get(s) up

§Ž °Ž

™¢Š . . . ñÑ † . . . ¢Š©™ˆ

I (fem.) . . . you (fem.) . . . she . . . get(s) up

¦¢§Š °Ž

¦‹ . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ . . . â© † © ™ˆ

We . . . you (pl.) . . . they . . . get up

³Õ§°Ž

¨‹ . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ . . . â© † © ™ˆ

We (fem.) . . . you (fem. pl.) . . . they (fem.) . . . get up

b Use of the present tense The present tense verb ordinarily requires a personal pronoun (or a noun), as in the preceding table. The meaning of the Hebrew present tense basically covers the two English tenses ‘I get up’ and ‘I am getting up’ (including the meaning ‘I am due to get up’):

?³ÞŽ ڍ ކ §Ž °Ž ñ† Ñ ¢³ §Ž

When do you get up on Shabbat?

?± Ž §Ž §Ž °Ž ñ† Ñ ¢³ §Ž

When are you getting up tomorrow?

21 The future tense a Form of the future tense All verbs form their future tense by using the following prefixes plus

36

suffixes. (The reason for giving these ‘skeletal’ prefixes without vowels is that the vowels vary according to the verb pattern.)


The future tense

Singular

Plural

...©

we

...™

I

â...ñ

you

...ñ

you (masc.)

¢...ñ

you (fem.)

...¢

he

...ñ

she

â...¢

they

Using the verb ¦°Ž as a model:

¦â°©Ž â©  † ©™ˆ

we will get up

¦â°Ò ¢Š©™ˆ

I will get up

â§â°ñŽ ¨ñŒ Ñ/¦ŒñÑ you (pl.) will get up ¦â°ñŽ ŽñÑ

you (masc. sing.) will get up

¢§Š â°ñŽ ñÑ †

you (fem. sing.) will get up

¦â°¢Ž ™â

he will get up

¦â°ñŽ ™¢Š

she will get up

â§â°¢Ž ¨‹ /¦‹

they will get up

1 Notice the similarities to the personal pronouns: ™ to ¢©™, and so on for ³ ‘you’ and © ‘we’; but not for ³ ‘she’ or ¢ ‘he, they’. 2 Plural â is added to distinguish ‘you’ sing. from pl., and ‘he’ from ‘they’. For this reason it is not found with ©. Note: In elevated style, a special form may be used for the feminine 2nd and 3rd person plural (one form for both): © . . . ³, e.g. ©Ž §† Õ°ñŽ ‘they will arise’. We will disregard it here. It is listed in traditional grammars.

b Use of the future tense Future tense has two main uses: 1 It can be a prediction, equivalent to the English future; 2 in the 2nd person it can be a request.

37


Level One In practice, confusion between the two uses rarely arises. Examples of a prediction:

Examples of a request:

¦â°Ò

I’ll get up

¦â°ñŽ

you’ll get up

¦â°ñŽ ™¥

you won’t get up

â§â°ñŽ

you’ll (pl.) get up

â§â°ñŽ ™¥

you (pl.) won’t get up

¦â°ñŽ

get up!

¦â°ñŽ ¥Ñ

don’t get up

â§â°ñŽ

get up! (pl.)

â§â°ñŽ ¥Ñ

don’t get up! (pl.)

Notice that a negative prediction uses ™¥, whereas a negative request requires ¥™. For making a positive request, Hebrew also has the imperative form (see 22). Colloquial Hebrew uses the imperative with just a handful of verbs, whereas formal Hebrew uses it more extensively and tends to avoid the future tense for positive requests. In making requests the personal pronouns used at all with the future tense verb:

!¦â°ñŽ

ñŽ Ñ ,¢©Š ™ˆ , etc. tend not to be

Get up!

In predictions, colloquial Hebrew makes heavy use of them:

¦â°Ò ¢©Š ™ˆ ڌ ç†

when I get up

¦â°ñŽ ñŽ Ñڌ ç†

when you get up

By contrast, more formal Hebrew prefers not to use 1st and 2nd person pronouns with the future (like the past), since the prefixes already make it quite clear which pronoun is intended:

38

. . . ¦â°¢Ž ™âÚŒ ç† ,¦â°ñŽ ڌ ç† ,¦â°Òڌ ç†


The imperative

22 The imperative a Form of the imperative The imperative has just three forms. These involve suffixes, in fact the same suffixes as the 2nd person future tense, but without its prefixes: Example: masc. sing.

no suffix

¦â°

get up!

(to a male)

fem. sing.

¢Š

¢§â° Š

get up!

(to a female)

â§â°

get up!

(to many)

masc. and fem. pl.

â

Note: The special fem. pl. form ©Ž §† Õ° is so rare that we have omitted it.

Suffixes aside, what the imperative looks like depends on the binyan involved (see under the individual binyanim in 26–32 and 50–9). As a rule of thumb, the imperative resembles either the future or the infinitive.

b Use of the imperative The imperative (Hebrew term: ¢âž¢¯Š ) is found only in positive requests. In negative requests, it is replaced by the future tense (see 40(c)). For the most part, it is formal in tone, inhabiting fiction, documents, instruction manuals, cookbooks, speeches and the like. At the same time, a handful of verbs have an imperative in all-round everyday use. These are usually of one syllable. Notable examples:

™ÕÞ come!

ى٠move!

ç‹  wait!

˂¥‹ go!

«ª go!

šÕŸ«ˆ leave off!

™¯‹ leave!

¦â° get up!

39


Level One

° take!

œ±‹ get down!

®â± run!

šÚ‹ sit!

¦¢ÛŠ put!

¨ñ‹ give!

Note: Most such one-syllable imperatives belong to one-syllable

(ž"«)

verbs

or to verbs that drop their first consonant.

23 The infinitive a Form of the infinitive The infinitive cannot be inflected. Whether one is addressing males or females, one person or many, it is unchanged. The infinitive’s distinguishing mark is a prefixed ¥, thus ¦â°¥Ž ‘to get up’, ¬Ú‹ ­† ڍ ¥† ‘to rub’. All the rest depends on the type of binyan and root, as set out in section 25.

b Use of the infinitive The infinitive covers many of the uses of English ‘to . . .’, including ‘it’s hard to . . ., I want to . . .’ (see 44, 45). A further important use is in issuing lofty or ‘bossy’ instructions, e.g. to a child, to troops, to groups of people, thus:

40

³« œ ¥Ž ÚŒ °Ž

It’s hard to know

³«  œ¥Ž ¯Õ± Œ ¢Š©™ˆ

I want to know

¦â°¥Ž ¦¥Ž âç

Everyone get up!

¦¢œŠ ¥†Ž ¢ ,®â±¥Ž

Run, children

The fact that the infinitive does not inflect in gender or number almost seems to underline its loftiness and detachment from the addressee, by comparison with the inflecting future tense and imperative.


24 Root and base Most Hebrew words are built around a root and a base. The base is the basic form of a word after we have peeled off any meaningful endings or prefixes: Root

Base

¦-œ-°

¦œ¢ ‹ °Š

Word with prefixes or suffixes promote

¦œ‹ ° ¦-°

¦Õ°§Ž

Word patterns: binyanim and mishkalim

a place

¢ñŠ §† œ¢  °Š

I promoted

¦œ‹ ° ™ˆ

I will promote

¦Õ°§Ž 

the place

³Õ§Õ°§†

places

¢§Š Õ°§†

my place

Note that the root is just a string of consonants; in itself it has no pronunciation. Roots may have from two to five consonants. Thus the root of ¦°Ž ‘got up’ can be said to be the two consonants ¦-°. As will be seen, roots sometimes have a precise meaning. More often they do not, just like ‘-fect’ in English: ‘infect, defect, affect, confection’. Thus ¦-œ-° is the root of the verbs ¦œ °Ž ‘precede’, ¦¢œŠ °† Š ‘anticipate’ and ¦œ‹ ° ³† Š ‘move forward’ as well as of ¦œ¢ ‹ °Š ‘promote’. So it has a distinct, but not necessarily a very precise, meaning. Many roots have no obvious meaning at all. For example, ¥-š-° yields ¥Þ¢ ‹ °Š ‘receive’, ¥š °Ž ‘complain’ and ¥¢ÞŠ °† Š ‘correspond’. Many nouns and adjectives, especially foreign imports, have no obvious root at all, thus Ÿ«‹ Ž ‘sky’, ¢§¢ Š ¤Š ‘chemical’. ‘goat’, ¦¢¢Š § Ú

25 Word patterns: binyanim and mishkalim a Introduction As already noted, all verbs and very many adjectives and nouns have a recognizable root, on which are imposed various vowels and consonants.

41


Level One There is a variety of such imposed patterns. For the verb there are seven, known as binyanim. For the adjective and noun, there are scores of patterns, some common and some quite infrequent, known as mishkalim. What makes verbs particularly different from nouns or adjectives is that all verbs, without exception, must adhere to one of the seven verb patterns (thus, all verbs consist of a root skeleton on which is mounted a binyan), whereas many nouns and adjectives have no particular root or pattern, and indeed are regularly imported direct from some foreign † ™Š ‘idiot’ and °©† ލ ‘bank’ and source. Examples would be the nouns ¡Õ¢œ¢ † Õ° ‘constructive’ and ¢¥Š Ñâ¡°† Ñ ‘topical’. the adjectives ¢žŠ ž¢¡Š °† ⱡ† ª©

b Functions of the verb patterns There are seven binyanim:

1

¥« ìŽ

2

¥« ­† ©Š

3

¥¢«Š ­† Š

4

¥« ­â †

5

¥«¢ ‹ ìŠ

6

¥«âì 

7

¥«‹ ì ³† Š

These names are a graphic representation of the past tense form of each  ©Ž ‘kissed’ all belong to the first binyan. Thus ¥¤ Ò ‘ate’, ° ¥Ž ‘took’, °Ú binyan, ¥« ìŽ , while ®¢ÞŠ ±† Š ‘hit’, œ¢±Š ¡† Š ‘bothered’, ±¢çŠ Ÿ† Š ‘reminded’ all belong to the third binyan, ¥¢«Š ­† Š . (The choice of the letters ¥-«-­ for the names of verb patterns is because the verb ¥« ìŽ means ‘to act’.)

42

As the diagram suggests, the binyanim fall into three groups. These groups are basically grammatical rather than semantic: that is, the group a verb belongs to cannot tell us much about the meaning of that verb. Take, for ‹ °Š ‘receive’, example, the verbs ¥š °Ž ‘complain’, ¥¢ÞŠ °† Š ‘parallel’, ¥Þ¢ ¥Þ‹ ° ³† Š ‘be received’: the root ¥-š-° is being put through the various patterns with meanings that seem mostly arbitrary. Or take the verbs ¡ ގ ‘trust’,  ¢  ¡Š š† Š ‘assure’,   ¡¢ ‹ ފ ‘insure’: that there is a connection is obvious, but there is no ‘magic formula’ to tell one what precisely the connection will be.


However, the sets of binyanim within these groupings do tend to be related in meaning: 1 NIF’AL is often the passive of PA’AL, e.g.

š© ›Ž

steal

~

š© ›† ©Š

be stolen

¬¡ ڎ

rinse

~

¬¡ چ ©Š

be rinsed

Word patterns: binyanim and mishkalim

2 HUF’AL is the passive of HIF’IL, e.g.

±¢ÞŠ ª† Š

explain

~

±Þ ª† â

be explained

±¢ÞŠ ›† Š

step up

~

±Þ ›† â

be stepped up

3 PU’AL is the passive of PI’EL, e.g.

°¥¢ ‹ Š

hand out

~

°¥ â

be handed out

¬ñ¢ ‹ ڊ

share

~

¬ñ âÚ

be shared

4 For a PA’AL (or NIF’AL) verb denoting ‘something happens’, there is often a HIF’IL denoting ‘cause something to happen’, e.g.

¥œ ›Ž

grow

~

¥¢œŠ ›† Š

magnify

± Ÿ† ©Š

be careful

~

±¢Š Ÿ† Š

warn

And for an adjective, there is similarly often a HIF’IL denoting ‘cause something to be . . .’, e.g.

˂Õ§Ž©

low

~

˂¢§Š ©† Š

to lower

š Ž ±Ž

broad

~

š¢ Š ±† Š

to broaden

5 For PI’EL verbs denoting ‘doing something to something’, there is often an intransitive HITPA’EL denoting ‘happening by itself’, e.g.

›©† ¢œŠ âì ¢ñŠ ¥† Ú¢  ފ I cooked pudding

~ ~

¥Ú‹ ލ ³† Š ›©† ¢œŠ â읍 the pudding cooked

43


Level One 6 For an ADJECTIVE there is often a HIF’IL or HITPA’EL denoting ‘becoming . . .’:

šÕ¯Ž

yellow

~

š¢Š ¯† Š

become yellow

¨ÚŽ ¢Ž

old

~

¨Ú‹ ¢³† Š

become old-fashioned

7 For a NOUN there is often a PI’EL denoting an action typical of that noun, often equivalent to ‘-ize’, ‘-ate’:

ì¢ Ž ¥Š °†

peel

~

¬¥‹ ° ¥†

to peel

±ÚŒ ›Œ

a bridge

~

±Ú‹ › ¥†

to bridge

¢Žœ¢† ªŠ ކ âª

subsidy

~

œª‹ ކ ª ¥†

to subsidize

šÚ‹ † §

computer

~

šÚ‹ † § ¥†

to computerize

8 For PA’AL or PI’EL verbs denoting ‘doing something’, there is occasionally a HITPA’EL verb denoting ‘doing something to oneself’ (the ‘reflexive’) or ‘doing something to one another’ (the ‘reciprocal’), e.g.:

ڙ±Ž ³™Œ  ¥‹ › ¥†

~

to shave the head

¢ Š Ñ ³™Œ ¢ñŠ °† ڍ ©Ž

to shave (oneself)

~

I kissed my brother

¦¢°Š ¥Ž ˆ ¢©‹ چ ±Þ‹   ¥†

 ¥‹ › ³† Š ¥† â©°† ڍ ©Ž ³† Š we kissed (one another)

~

to join two parts

¦¢±Š ކ  ³† §Š ¦¢°Š ¥Ž  ˆ ¢©‹ چ two parts join together

There are many false beliefs about the binyanim, such as that the PI’EL is generally intensive and the HITPA’EL generally reflexive. In fact, the PI’EL is rarely the ‘intensive’ of anything. Taking 100–200 dictionary

44

verbs at random, only one in five PA’AL verbs has a causative HIF’IL or an intensive or causative PI’EL.


c Function of the noun and adjective patterns

Binyan PA’AL

The sheer number of noun and adjective patterns (mishkalim), and their openness to further additions, make it even harder to find meaning in them. The clearest and most numerous are the action noun and denominal patterns: nouns denoting action (such as ¥âڢފ ‘cooking’) and adjectives based on nouns (such as ¢§Š ¢ ‘marine’, from ¦¢Ž ‘sea’). See 64–5.

26–9 ILLUSTRATING THE FOUR ACTIVE BINYANIM The following are the chief forms for the four active binyanim, meaning that they are used in active rather than passive constructions, (that is, ‘Gil ate the yoghurt’ as against ‘the yoghurt was eaten by Gil’): PA’AL, HIF’IL, PI’EL, and HITPA’EL The remaining three binyanim, which are primarily passive, are set out in 30–2. The illustrations that follow involve the basic root-type. (Deviant roottypes will be illustrated in 50–9.)

26 Binyan PA’AL a Two-syllable PA’AL The PA’AL pattern is the only one of the seven that does not have the ‘burden’ of a present tense prefix or general binyan prefix. For this reason it is also known as KAL, the ‘light’ pattern. Using the verb ª© çŽ ‘to gather’: Past Pl.

Sing.

⩪† © çŽ ¦ñŒ ª† © çŽ ¨ñŒ ª† © çŽ âª©† çŽ

¢ñŠ ª† © çŽ ñŽ ª† © çŽ ñ† ª† © çŽ ª© çŽ ªŽ ©† çŽ

45


Level One Notes: 1 The suffixes consisting of a vowel (i.e. 3rd fem. sing.  and 3rd pl. â) take the stress. All the other suffixes are unstressed. This is true of most verb types, in all tenses. However, for the 2nd pl. forms newscasters, teachers and their like insist on stressing the suffix, in accordance with the Classical rules ¨ñŒ ª† © ç† ,¦ñŒ ª† © ç† . 2 The last vowel in the base drops when it loses its stress: not kanasa but kansa, not kanasu but kansu. 3 Notice also that in most forms in the table the base vowels are a-a. In fact, in nearly all 1st or 2nd person forms of the past tense, in all binyanim, the last base vowel is likewise a. Present

masc. fem.

Pl.

Sing.

¦¢ªŠ ©† Õç ³Õª©† Õç

ª©‹ Õç ³ªŒ ©Œ Õç

Notes: 1 The feminine singular is stressed ³ªŒ ©Œ Õç. 2 In the plural, instead of the expected konesim, konesot, we get konsim, konsot. The stressed e has lost its stress to the ending, and drops out as a result. This is a standard rule for the e vowel. Future Pl.

Sing.

ªÕ©¤† ©Š ⪩† ¤† ñŠ

ªÕ©¤† ™Œ ªÕ©¤† ñŠ ¢ªŠ ©† ¤† ñŠ ªÕ©¤† ¢Š ªÕ©¤† ñŠ

⪩† ¤† ¢Š 46


Binyan PA’AL

Notes: 1 The vowel in the 1st person (ªÕ©¤† ™Œ ) is odd one out: not i but e. (Putting it technically, ™ ‘lowers’ the vowel that goes with it.) 2 In this and other binyanim, except HIF’IL, stress is shifted onto the suffix, if any, and as a result the vowel losing the stress is relegated to a brief e or lost, thus: tichnosi Æ tichnesi,

tichnosu Æ tichnesu

3 When the first root consonant is ­ ,¤ ,š, it will be soft rather than hard, i.e. it will be ‘v, ch, f’. This is the result of a general rule: with certain exceptions ­ ,¤ ,š are soft after a vowel and otherwise hard. Infinitive

Imperative

ªÕ©¤† ¥Š

masc. sing.

ªÕ©ç†

fem. sing.

¢ªŠ ©† çŠ

pl.

⪩† çŠ

Notes: 1 The infinitive prefix ¥ here is usually ¥Š . 2 A general rule for virtually the entire verb system is that the future, the infinitive and the imperative share the same vowel pattern, thus:

!¦â° ~ ¦â°¥Ž ~ ¦â°¢Ž ,!ªÕ©ç† ~ ªÕ©¤† ¥Š ~ ªÕ©¤† ¢Š . Action noun

ª¢ Ž ©Š ç† b One-syllable PA’AL, e.g. ¦°Ž ‘get up’ Strictly speaking, ONE-SYLLABLE verbs (e.g. ¦°Ž ‘get up’) are just a variant of the PA’AL binyan, arising because they have a two-consonant root. But they are sufficiently distinct to warrant separate treatment.

47


Level One Note: The traditional name for such verbs with a two-consonant root is

ž"«

(Ayin-Vav) verbs, meaning that in place of the usual middle letter (the socalled Ayin letter) of the root these verbs sometimes feature a vav.

Past

⩧† °

¢ñŠ §† °

¦ñŒ §† °

ñŽ §† °

¨ñŒ §† °

ñ† §† °

⧰Ž

¦°Ž §Ž °Ž

For clarity, we have marked stress by on the first syllable: in one-syllable verbs, stress never falls on the past or future tense suffixes. Present Pl.

Sing.

masc.

¦¢§Š °Ž

¦°Ž

fem.

³Õ§°Ž

§Ž °Ž

Stress here is peculiar: although the suffixes look just like adjective suffixes, colloquial usage stresses the fem. sing. as §Ž °Ž instead of §Ž °Ž . The result is that ‘she got up’ and ‘she gets up’ are both §Ž °Ž ™¢Š . Future

¦â°©Ž

¦â°Ò

â§â°ñŽ

¦â°ñŽ ¢§Š â°ñŽ

â§â°¢Ž 48

¦â°¢Ž ¦â°ñŽ


Here, and on the imperative below, we have again marked stress with an accent mark to show that stress is always on the base, not on the suffix.

Binyan HIF’IL

Exception: ±Ú Ž ‘sing’, šŽ± ‘quarrel’, and ¦ÛŽ ‘put’ have the vowel ¢ rather than â in the future, imperative, and infinitive: ¦¢ÛŠ ¥Ž ,!¦¢ÛŠ ,¦¢ÛŠ Ò. Also, one important verb, ™ÞŽ ‘come’, has Õ instead: ™Õš¥Ž ,!™ÕÞ ,™ÕšÒ. Imperative masc. sing.

¦â°

fem. sing.

¢§Š â°

pl.

â§â°

Infinitive

Action noun

¦â°¥Ž

§¢ Ž °Š

27 Binyan HIF’IL All the binyanim except PA’AL and ONE-SYLLABLE verbs have a distinctive binyan prefix. Binyan HIF’IL has a distinctive binyan prefix  in its past tense, infinitive, and action noun. Notice that the present, future, infinitive, and action noun have something of their own in common: the use of -a- as the vowel in the prefix. Using the verb ª¢©Š ¤† Š ‘to insert’: Past

⩪† © ¤† Š

¢ñŠ ª† © ¤† Š

¦ñŒ ª† © ¤† Š

ñŽ ª† © ¤† Š

¨ñŒ ª† © ¤† Š

ñ† ª† © ¤† Š

⪢©Š ¤† Š

ª¢©Š ¤† Š ª¢ Ž ©Š ¤† Š

49


Level One Notes: 1 In the past tense, the base vowel is ‘stress-dominant’, like the a in the past tense of ONE-SYLLABLE VERBS (see 26(b)), hence, ,ª¢ Ž ©Š ¤† Š ⪢©Š ¤† Š . 2 The vowels are i-i (3rd person) or i-a. Similar vowel-alternation occurs in the PI’EL binyan: i-e, i-a.* *

Because wherever there is a consonantal suffix, the adjacent vowel (i.e. the last vowel in the base) will become ‘a’, ª¢ Ž Š©¤† Š instead of ¢ñŠ ª† © ¤† Š .

Present Pl.

Sing.

masc.

¦¢ª¢ Š ©Š ¤† §

ª¢©Š ¤† §

fem.

³Õª¢©Š ¤† §

ª¢ Ž ©Š ¤† §

Notes: 1 The fem. sing. ending, , is stressed, like a regular adjective or noun such as šŽ Õ¡. (The verb patterns shown so far have unstressed  or ³, and so do nearly all verb patterns.) 2 Present tense here is marked by §, as it is for all the remaining binyanim (HUF’AL, PI’EL, PU’AL and HITPA’EL). Future

ª¢©Š ¤† ©

ª¢©Š ¤† Ñ

⪢©Š ¤† ñ

ª¢©Š ¤† ñ ¢ª¢ Š ©Š ¤† ñ

⪢©Š ¤† ¢ 50

ª¢©Š ¤† ¢ ª¢©Š ¤† ñ


PI’EL Just as in the past tense, the base of the HIF’IL is stress-dominant – the endings do not get the stress. Imperative

Infinitive

⪢©Š ¤†  ,¢ª¢ Š ©Š ¤†  ,ª©‹ ¤† 

ª¢©Š ¤†  ¥†

The ‘binyan prefix’ is  (h), as in the past tense. Thus, one can view ª¢©Š ¤†  ¥† as le + ha + BASE (ª¢©Š ¤† ). Action noun

ªŽ ©Ž ¤†  28–9 BINYAN PI’EL AND HITPA’EL The family PI’EL, HITPA’EL, and the passive PU’AL (see 32) are closely related in prefixes, vowels, and, above all, in requiring that ­ ,¤ ,š as the middle root-letter be hard (with a few exceptions).

28 PI’EL PI’EL has no binyan prefix. Using the verb ª©‹ ¢çŠ ‘to convene’: Past

⩪† © ¢çŠ

¢ñŠ ª† © ¢çŠ

¦ñŒ ª† © ¢çŠ

ñŽ ª† © ¢çŠ

¨ñŒ ª† © ¢çŠ

ñ† ª† © ¢çŠ

⪩† ¢çŠ

ª©‹ ¢çŠ ªŽ ©† ¢çŠ

As with the a vowel in binyan PA’AL, the vowel e drops when it loses its stress, yielding not kinesa, kinesu but rather kinsa, kinsu.

51


Level One Present

¦¢ªŠ ©† ¤ §† ³Õª©† ¤ §† The vowel in the present tense is infinitive.

ª©‹ ¤ §† ³ªŒ ©Œ ¤ §† §† ,

and similarly for the future and

Future

ª©‹ ¤ ©† ⪩† ¤ ñ† ⪩† ¤ ¢†

ª©‹ ¤ ™ˆ ª©‹ ¤ ñ† ¢ªŠ ©† ¤ ñ† ª©‹ ¤ ¢† ª©‹ ¤ ñ†

Notes: 1 Notice that the prefix vowel becomes ˆ with the ™ prefix. 2 Be aware of the difference between the future tense of PI’EL and that of PA’AL: on paper, in unpointed Hebrew, the PI’EL future forms žª©¤¢ ,žª©¤³ ,¢ª©¤³ are liable to be confused with the PA’AL future. Imperative

Infinitive

⪩† ç ,¢ªŠ ©† ç ,ª©‹ ç

ª©‹ ¤ ¥†

Action noun

ªâ©¢çŠ 29 HITPA’EL

52

Binyan HITPA’EL uses a distinctive binyan prefix. In the past tense, infinitive, and action noun, it shows up as ³Š . In the present and future tense, the additional prefixes ³ ,™ ,§, etc. swallow up the  and the ³. Using the verb ª©‹ ç ³† Š ‘to assemble’:


HITPA’EL Past

⩪† © ç ³† Š ¦ñŒ ª† © ç ³† Š ¨ñŒ ª† © ç ³† Š ⪩† ç ³† Š

¢ñŠ ª† © ç ³† Š ñŽ ª† © ç ³† Š ñ† ª† © ç ³† Š ª©‹ ç ³† Š ªŽ ©† ç ³† Š

Unlike the binyan PI’EL, the base vowels are a-e (3rd person) or a-a – not i-e, i-a. Note: The reason: where there is a prefix, the adjacent vowel (i.e. the first vowel in the base) will become ‘a’. Here, in the HITPA’EL, there is such a prefix, ³. But in the PI’EL, the past tense has no prefix, hence ‘i’. Similarly, wherever there is a suffix, the adjacent (preceding) vowel will become ‘a’, hence: ª©‹ ¢çŠ ~ ñŽ ª† © ¢çŠ and ª©‹ ç ³† Š ~ ¢ñŠ ª† © ç ³† Š .

Present

¦¢ªŠ ©† ç ³† §Š ³Õª©† ç ³† §Š

ª©‹ ç ³† §Š ³ªŒ ©Œ ç ³† §Š

Future

ª‹©ç ³† ©Š ⪆©ç ³† ñŠ ⪆©ç ³† ¢Š

ª‹©ç ³† ™Œ ª‹©ç ³† ñŠ ¢ª†Š ©ç ³† ñŠ ª‹©ç ³† ¢Š ª‹©ç ³† ñŠ

Imperative

Infinitive

⪩† ç ³† Š ,¢ªŠ ©† ç ³† Š ,ª©‹ ç ³† Š

ª©‹ ç ³† Š ¥†

Action noun

³âª©† ç ³† Š

53


Level One

30–2 THE PASSIVE BINYANIM: NIF’AL, HUF’AL, PU’AL ‘The rabbi found it’ is an active sentence. ‘It was found by the rabbi’ is a passive sentence, saying essentially the same thing as the active sentence but with a different perspective on the action – and with the subject switched around and the verb form changed. Hebrew has three passive binyanim: NIF’AL, HUF’AL, and PU’AL. Examples:

š© ›† ©Š ŸŒ

it was stolen

¢ñŠ ­† ¥ † â

I was replaced

⥡† âÞ ¦‹

they were cancelled

NIF’AL is used commonly, though by no means always, as the passive of PA’AL. It has several other important functions. HUF’AL and PU’AL are used exclusively as the passive of HIF’IL and PI’EL respectively, and are distinguished by a u–a vowel pattern throughout. In colloquial usage, all these passives are somewhat less common: the active binyanim are preferred.

ŒŸ ³™Œ ⚆©›Ž

It was stolen

¢³Õ™ Š â­¢¥Š † Œ

I was replaced

However, NIF’AL is also commonly employed for several non-passive

ª© ¤† ©Š ‘to enter’, ¥° ³† ©Š ‘to trip’, ¦  ¥Š† © ‘to fight’, ¡§ ڊ † © ‘to slip off’, «©§Š † © ‘to abstain’, and ¦œ ±† ©Š ‘to fall asleep’. It also sometimes denotes verbs, such as

‘happening by itself’, e.g.

54

°¥ œŠ† © ™¥ ±Õ™Ž

The light didn’t turn on

³  ñ ­Š† © ³¢Š©¤Õñ † 

The program is opening


NIF’AL

30 NIF’AL NIF’AL, unlike the other binyanim, switches between two binyan prefixes: ¢Š in the infinitive and imperative; ©Š in the present and past. We illustrate NIF’AL with the verb ª© ¤† ©Š ‘to enter’: Past and Present Present

Past

⩪† © ¤† ©Š ¦ñŒ ª† © ¤† ©Š ¨ñŒ ª† © ¤† ©Š ⪩† ¤† ©Š

¢ñŠ ª† © ¤† ©Š ñŽ ª† © ¤† ©Š ñ† ª† © ¤† ©Š ª© ¤† ©Š ªŽ ©† ¤† ©Š

¦¢ªŠ ©Ž ¤† ©Š ³Õª©Ž ¤† ©Š

ª©Ž ¤† ©Š ³ªŒ ©Œ ¤† ©Š

Notes: 1 NIF’AL’s binyan prefix in the present and past tense is ©Š . 2 Notice that the vowel a does not drop out in the present plural: ³Õª©Ž ¤† ©Š ,¦¢ªŠ ©Ž ¤† ©Š . The dropping of a as seen, for example, in PA’AL (⪆©çŽ ) never affects present tense verbs. 3 In the past tense, however, a drops: ⪩† ¤† ©Š ,ªŽ ©† ¤† ©Š . Future

ª©‹ ç¢ Ž ©Š ⪩† ç¢ Ž ñŠ ⪩† çŽ ¢Š ¢

ª©‹ çŽ ™Œ ª©‹ ç¢ Ž ñŠ ¢ªŠ ©† ç¢ Ž ñŠ ª©‹ çŽ ¢Š ¢ ª©‹ ç¢ Ž ñŠ

55


Level One Notes: 1 Some omit the letter without vowel points,

¢ in the prefix, for example ª©‹ çŽ ñŠ . Written ª©¤³, this is liable to be confused with PI’EL

future tense (28). 2 Observe the hard ¤. It is a peculiarity of the NIF’AL future, infinitive, and action noun that ­ ,¤ ,š as the first letters of the base are hard.

3 Be aware of the difference between the future tense of PI’EL and that of NIF’AL: (a) The PI’EL future as a whole can be confused on paper with the NIF’AL future. (b) The PI’EL prefix has the vowel † while the NIF’AL prefix has Š . Imperative

Infinitive

!⪩† ç¢ Ž Š ,!¢ªŠ ©† ç¢ Ž Š ,!ª©‹ ç¢ Ž Š

ª©‹ ç¢ Ž Š ¥†

As with ONE–SYLLABLE and PA’AL verbs, the NIF’AL imperative and infinitive are like the future. However, the binyan prefix

¢ is added, one

of the many ways in which NIF’AL is the odd-man-out. Many people spell this as  rather than ¢. Action noun

³âª©† ç¢ Ž Š

31 HUF’AL The HUF’AL has the same prefixes and vowels as its active counterpart,

56

the HIF’IL, except that u-a replaces i-i, i-a, and a-i throughout. Using the verb ª© ¤† ❠‘to be inserted’:


PU’AL Past

Present

⩪† © ¤† â

¢ñŠ ª† © ¤† â

¦¢ªŠ ©Ž ¤† â§

ª©Ž ¤† â§

¦ñŒ ª† © ¤† â

ñŽ ª† © ¤† â

³Õª©Ž ¤† â§

³ªŒ Œ ©¤â§ †

¨ñŒ ª† © ¤† â

ñ† ª† © ¤† â

⪩† ¤† â

ª© ¤† ❠ªŽ ©† ¤† â

Future

ª© ¤† â©

ª© ¤† â™

⪩† ¤† âñ

ª© ¤† âñ ¢ªŠ ©† ¤† âñ

⪩† ¤† â¢

ª© ¤† ⢠ª© ¤† âñ

Infinitive

ª©Ž ¤† ⧠³Õ¢† ¥Š Neither HUF’AL nor PU’AL has a simple infinitive. Instead, they use the infinitive of

¢ŽŽ ‘be’ + the ‘passive adjective’ (set out in 69). There is no

imperative, either.

32 PU’AL As already noted, the binyanim PI’EL, PU’AL, and HITPA’EL form a family. They have similar prefixes and vowels and, above all, they all require that

­ ,¤ ,š

as the middle root-letter be hard (with a few

exceptions). Observe in particular that PI’EL and PU’AL have the vowel in their various prefixes.

†

57


Level One PU’AL, like the other passive binyan, HUF’AL, has the vowels u-a throughout. It has no binyan prefix. Using the verb ª© âç ‘to be convened’: Past

⩪† © âç

¢ñŠ ª† © âç

¦ñŒ ª† © âç

ñŽ ª† © âç

¨ñŒ ª† © âç

ñ† ª† © âç

⪩† âç

ª© âç ªŽ ©† âç

As with the a vowel in binyan PA’AL and e in PI’EL, the vowel a drops when it loses its stress, hence not kunasa, kunasu but rather kunsa, kunsu. Present

¦¢ªŠ ©Ž ⤧†

ª©Ž ⤧†

³Õª©Ž ⤧†

³ªŒ ©Œ ⤧†

Notice that the a vowel is kept even when there is a suffix; this is characteristic of the present tense of NIF’AL and HUF’AL, too. Future

ª© ⤩†

ª© ⤙ˆ

⪩† â¤ñ†

ª© â¤ñ† ¢ªŠ ©† â¤ñ†

⪩† ⤢†

ª© ⤢† ª© â¤ñ†

Infinitive

58

ª©Ž ⤧† ³Õ¢† ¥Š


Object markers

33 Direct and indirect object In English, some verbs take a direct object (‘Eat meat’) and some an indirect object, introduced by a preposition (‘Opt for octopus, look at the leopard’). Such prepositions are ‘empty’ and have no meaning of their own (contrast ‘for’ or ‘at’ in ‘This is for you’, ‘I’m at the party’). The same is true of Hebrew: some Hebrew verbs take a direct object, whereas others take an indirect object introduced by a preposition. Which verbs take which type of object is somewhat arbitrary, in both

Ûì¢ ‹ Š ‘look for’ (indirect object in English) takes a direct object in Hebrew, and conversely Ú§‹ ñ چ Š ‘use’ (direct object in English) requires an indirect object with ކ :

languages. Thus

±¡¢ Œ ª¢ Š Þ¢¢ Š ދ Ûì‹  §† ¢©Š ™ˆ

I’m looking for a baby-sitter

¨Õ±ìŽ «Š ކ Ú§‹ ñ چ ñŠ

Use a pencil

For more on indirect objects and their prepositions, see 34(b).

34 Object markers a The direct object marker ³™Œ The Hebrew direct object is only strictly direct when it is indefinite, as in:

±ÛŽ ގ °

Take meat

™ª¢ ‹ çŠ °

Take a chair

±ÛŽ ގ  ‘the meat’), it is generally introduced by the ³™Œ . This is known as the direct object marker. By mean (a) a noun with  , or (b) a name, or (c) a definite

When definite (e.g. special preposition ‘definite’, we pronoun.

59


Level One

±ÛŽ ގ  ³™Œ °

Take the meat

™ª¢ ‹ çŠ  ³™Œ °

Take the chair

¡±Œ ªŒ ¥† ¢Ž¥† œ ³™Œ °

Take Dalya to a film

ŸŒ ³™Œ °

Take it

ñŽ † ° ¥Ž ¢§Š ³™Œ

Who did you take?

Thus, direct objects are sometimes introduced by an object marker. As will presently be seen, indirect objects nearly always are. Note: ?¢§Š ‘who?’ is considered definite, but not ?§ ‘what?’. Thus ?ñŽ † ° ¥Ž §

‘What did you take?’, rather than ?ñŽ † ° ¥Ž § ³™Œ . The reasons are too complex to be set out here.

b Indirect objects with ¥† ,ކ ,¦«Š ,§Š ,¥« An indirect object is generally introduced by (governed by) one of five prepositions: ¥† ,ކ ,¦«Š ,§Š ,¥« , which are used not in their regular sense of ‘to, in, with, from, on’, but in an abstract sense. Such prepositions are called indirect object markers. Examples:

60

¥ ¨¢ñŠ §† Š

wait for

Þ ¡ ގ

trust in

¥ š¢ÚŠ °† Š

listen to

Þ «› ©Ž

touch

¥ ¨¢§Š ™‡ Œ

believe

Þ ™¯‹ § ³† Š

be familiar with

¦«Š ¨ñ‹  ³† Š

marry

§ ¤ ڎ

forget about

¦«Š ±Þ¢ ‹ œŠ

speak to

§ ³§‹

die of

¦«Š š±Ž

quarrel with

§ œ  ìŽ

be afraid of

¥« ˂§ ªŽ

rely on

¥« ±Ÿ Ž

repeat

¥« ±§ ڎ

look after


With these object markers, unlike

³™Œ , it makes no difference whether the

Preposition + suffix

object is definite or indefinite:

›Ž ©Œ ¦«Š ¢ñŠ š† ±

I quarreled with a driver

›Ž ©Œ  ¦«Š ¢ñŠ š† ±

I quarreled with the driver

Many adjectives, too, take an object, in which case there is almost always a preposition. For example:

. . . ¥† ˂¢Ž¢Ú

belonging to

. . . ކ ™Œ ›‹

proud of

. . . §Š ¡âªÞ† §

pleased with

Which preposition goes with which verb or adjective is not completely arbitrary. Thus verbs of fear and distancing take and communicating usually take

¥.

§,

and verbs of giving

But the only way to be sure is to

consult a good dictionary, for example the Even-Shoshan Hebrew– Hebrew dictionary.

35–6 PREPOSITIONS AND OTHER PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 35 Preposition + suffix When the prepositions

ކ

and

¥†

or, indeed, any of the prepositions

introduce a personal pronoun (‘me, you, him, her, it, us, them’), this has to be in the form of a suffix. In other words, Hebrew does not allow

¦‹ ކ ,ñŽ Ñ¥† for such forms as ‘to you’ or ‘in them’; instead of ñŽ Ñ there will be the suffix ˃ and so on. An exception is ŸŒ ‘it’, which does not change its form. Thus one has:

ŸŒ ¥† to it

ŸŒ §Š from it

61


Level One

a Preposition + suffix: ¢¥Š ,¢ÞŠ , etc.

Œ (see 17(b)): In the case of ކ and ¥† , the suffix is the same as with ¥Ú 1st

â©ÞŽ

¢ÞŠ

â©¥Ž

¢¥Š

2nd masc.

¦¤Œ ގ

˃ކ

¦¤Œ ¥Ž

˃¥†

2nd fem.

¨¤Œ ގ

˂ގ

¨¤Œ ¥Ž

˂¥Ž

3rd masc.

¦Œ ގ

ÕÞ

¦Œ ¥Ž

Õ¥

3rd fem.

¨Œ ގ

áގ

¨Œ ¥Ž

᥎

Notice that the stress for the ‘we’ form, â©ÞŽ and â©¥Ž , is never on the Hardly surprisingly, the same is true of â© in verbs, and of â© † © ™ ˆ.

â©.

The suffixed form of ¥† is ˃¢Œ¥™‹ ,¢¥ ™‹ etc. (as in 35e) when using verbs of motion or connection, such as ™ÞŽ ‘come’, ¬±‹ ¡Ž ¯† Š ‘join’, ¥¯‹ ¥† ¯Š ‘phone’, ±Þ¢ ‹ œŠ ‘speak’, ª ‹ ¢¢³† Š ‘relate to, treat, refer to’:

?â©¢¥‹ ™‹ ³¯Œ ­Õ° Œ ñÑ † ¢³ §Ž

When are you popping over to us?

b Preposition + suffix: ¢³Š ՙ ,ճՙ, etc. To express the direct object ‘me, him’, etc., the direct object marker ³™Œ is used with a suffix. But ³™Œ becomes . . . ³Õ™ (except for 2nd person pl.*). Suffixes are the same as in 35(a), except that ‘they’ is ¦Ž and ¨Ž, not ¦Œ Ž and ¨Œ Ž.

62

1st

⩳Ž ՙ

¢³Š ՙ

2nd masc.

¦¤Œ ³† ™Œ

† ˃³Õ™

2nd fem.

¨¤Œ ³† ™Œ

˂³Ž ՙ

3rd masc.

¦³Ž ՙ

ճՙ

3rd fem.

¨³Ž ՙ

᳎ ՙ


Preposition + suffix

Examples:

*

ճՙ ¢ñŠ °† ¥¢  ªŠ

I threw him out

⩳Ž ՙ °

Take us!

Colloquial speech often sidesteps the anomaly by using ¦¤Œ ³† ՙ.

c Preposition + suffix: ¦«Š and §Š

¦«Š

and

§Š ,

whether meaning ‘with’ and ‘from’ or merely functioning as

indirect object markers, have the following suffixed forms:

1st

â©ñŽ ™Š

¢ñŠ ™Š

⩧Œ §Š /â©ñŽ ™Š §‹ ¢©Š §Œ §Š

2nd masc.

¦¤Œ ñ† ™Š

˃ñ† ™Š

¦çŒ §Š

˃§† §Š

2nd fem.

¨¤Œ ñ† ™Š

˂ñŽ ™Š

¨çŒ §Š

˂§‹ §Š

3rd masc.

¦ñŽ ™Š

Õñ™Š

¦Œ §‹

⩧Œ §Š

3rd fem.

¨ñŽ ™Š

áñŽ ™Š

¨Œ §‹

ᩎ §Œ §Š

¦«Š and §Š are both irregular, each in its own way: 1

¦«Š takes on an entirely new base, ³™Š (no connection with ³™Œ ). Only in formal style are ¢§Š «Š ,˃§† «Š , etc. sometimes found.

2 Notice, though, that the endings in

¢ñŠ ™Š ,˃ñ† ™Š , etc. are the same as for

¢³Š ՙ etc. (see 35(b)). 3 The inflection of §Š is so odd as to defy simple explanation. Of the two forms for ‘from us’, the ‘him’ form.

⩧Œ §Š is more colloquial. It is in fact identical with

63


Level One

d Preposition + suffix: ¥¢šŠ چ ފ The endings for the preposition ¥¢šŠ چ ފ ‘for’ are rather different from those shown so far (which all involve prepositions that have the extra function of indirect object marker): the 2nd fem. sing. and 1st pl. endings, though spelled the same way, are pronounced -ech, -enu, not -aH, -anu except in colloquial speech. This type of ending is used by most Hebrew prepositions, though not by several of the most common. It is also used by nouns (see 73).

1st

â©¥¢ ‹ šŠ چ ފ

¢¥¢Š šŠ چ ފ

2nd masc.

¦¤Œ ¥¢† šŠ چ ފ

˃¥¢† šŠ چ ފ

2nd fem.

¨¤Œ ¥¢† šŠ چ ފ

‹ šŠ چ ފ ˂¥¢

3rd masc.

¦¥¢ Ž šŠ چ ފ

Õ¥¢šŠ چ ފ

3rd fem.

¨¥¢ Ž šŠ چ ފ

ᥢ Ž šŠ چ ފ

e Preposition + suffix: ¥« ,¥™Œ ,¢©‹ ­† ¥Š ,¢±‹ ˆ Ñ The prepositions introduced so far take light suffixes. But a dozen or so prepositions take heavy suffixes, notably ¥« ‘on’, ¥™Œ ‘to’, ¢©‹ ­† ¥Š ‘before, in front of’, ¢±‹   ˆ Ñ ‘after’: 1st

â©¢¥‹ ™‹

¢¥ ™‹

â©¢¥‹ «Ž

¢¥ «Ž

2nd masc.

¦¤¢ Œ ¥‹ ™‹ *

˃¢¥Œ ™‹

¦¤¢ Œ ¥‹ «ˆ

˃¢¥Œ «Ž

2nd fem.

¨¤¢ Œ ¥‹ ™‹

˂¢Š ¥ ™‹

¨¤¢ Œ ¥‹ «ˆ

˂¢Š ¥ «Ž

3rd masc.

¦¢ Œ ¥‹ ™‹

ž¢¥Ž ™‹

¦¢ Œ ¥‹ «ˆ

ž¢¥Ž «Ž

3rd fem.

¨¢ Œ ¥‹ ™‹

¢ Ž ¥Œ ™‹

¨¢ Œ ¥‹ «ˆ

¢ Ž ¥Œ «Ž

Note the stress on the last-but-one syllable in the â©¢‹ ,¢ Ž ,˂¢Š  ,˃¢Œ forms.

64

*

Purists insist on pronouncing the 2nd and 3rd pl. ¦¤¢ Œ ¥‹ ™ˆ ,¨¤¢ Œ ¥‹ ™ˆ etc.


1st

â©¢±‹ ˆ Ñ

¢±‹ ˆ Ñ

â©¢©‹ ­Ž ¥†

¢© ­Ž ¥†

2nd masc.

¦¤¢ Œ ±‹ ˆ Ñ

˃¢±Œ ˆ Ñ

¦¤¢ Œ ©‹ ­† ¥Š

˃¢©Œ ­Ž ¥†

2nd fem.

¨¤¢ Œ ±‹ ˆ Ñ

˂¢Š ± ˆ Ñ

¨¤¢ Œ ©‹ ­† ¥Š

˂¢Š © ­Ž ¥†

3rd masc.

¦¢ Œ ±‹ ˆ Ñ

ž¢±Ž ˆ Ñ

¦¢ Œ ©‹ ­† ¥Š

ž¢©Ž ­Ž ¥†

3rd fem.

¨¢ Œ ±‹ ˆ Ñ

¢ Ž ±Œ ˆ Ñ

¨¢ Œ ©‹ ­† ¥Š

¢ Ž ©Œ ­Ž ¥†

Pronunciation rules

Notice, first, that all these suffixes have an extra letter ¢, except the 1st person pl.: hence the term heavy suffixes. However, its effect on actual pronunciation is quite irregular. The only regular feature is that the suffixes (and the stressed syllable) are the same for all these prepositions. Second, the base of ¢©‹ ­† ¥Š changes to -©­Ž ¥† for all but the 2nd and 3rd pl. Finally, as we shall see in 73, the heavy suffixes happen to be identical to the possessive suffixes (‘my, your’, etc.) attached to plural nouns. Thus we have ž¢œŽ ՜ ‘his uncles’. But regard this as a coincidence: there is nothing plural about the meaning of ¥« ,¢©‹ ­† ¥Š , etc.

36 Pronunciation rules a

â ,ž† ,š† ,ކ and the like

The Hebrew of broadcasters, teachers and their ilk makes certain rather complicated adjustments in pronouncing words beginning with a prefixed ¥† ,ç† ,ކ and ž† . Colloquial Hebrew generally does not bother. (None of these adjustments ever apply to ¥ ,ç ,ލ .) Adjustment (a) If the next letter is written with the vowel † the prefix is pronounced

¥Š and â. Examples: ¦¢ÞŠ ¥ چ ފ in stages §¢ Ž Š ¥† â and combat

,çŠ ,ފ

¥‹ © §† çŠ as a manager 65


Level One Adjustment (b) If the next letter is ¤ ,š or ­, it will be soft. Examples:

œ  ­ ކ in fear

¦Õ¢ ¥¤Ž ކ every day

³±Œ Õ°¢šŠ ç† as criticism

¨‹ Õ¤¥† to a priest

Adjustment (c) If the next letter is one of the four ‘lip letters’ – pronounced â. Examples:

­ ,§ ,ž ,š – the prefix ž is

Ⱌ† šŽ â and examined

¥â¥ª† § â and a runway

ⱡ¢ † ­Š â and dismissed

â±ñ¢ † žŠ â and gave in

In colloquial usage, by contrast:

¦¢ÞŠ ¥ چ ކ in stages

œ  ì Þ† in fear

Ⱌ† ގ ž† and examined

¥â¥ª† § ž† and a runway

b Which syllable is stressed in nouns and adjectives? Most nouns are stressed on the final syllable, including when this is a plural or other inflectional ending, thus šñŽ ¤† §Š ‘letter’ ~ ¦¢šŠ ñŽ ¤† §Š . One major exception among nouns are the segolates (see 7(c) and 60(c)), such Œ ‘form’, œ  ì ‘fear’, ³Œ±ÞŒ  † § ‘notebook’, ³  ¥ °† §Š as ¡Œ±ªŒ ‘film’, ª­Õ¡ ‘shower’, but note that even here the stress will fall on any plural or other inflectional ending, thus ³Õ±ÞŽ  † § ,¦¢¡Š ±Ž ª† , etc. Another kind of exception are foreign words. They fall into two types: 1 Those with a ‘heavy’ Latin suffix (ending in a double consonant, such as ‘-ent’, ‘-ism’) stress the final syllable:

¡†©œâ¡ Œ ª† ‘student’, ¡ª¢ † ªŠ ç† ±† § ‘Marxist’, ¡°Œ† ¢Õ±ì† ‘project’ 2 Most others stress the syllable before last:

66

¥¢¢§‹ -¢™Š ‘e-mail’, ŽŸ¢Šž ‘visa’, ±Õ¡¥ ¡ ª†† ©¢™Š ‘plumber’


Pronunciation rules

3 Some exceptions:

¡¢ Ž ªŠ ±† š¢Š Œ ©â™ ‘university’, ¡Œ©±† ¡† Œ ©¢™Š ¨Õ­Õ±°¢ † §Š ‘microphone’

‘internet’,

¨Õ­Œ¥¡Œ

‘telephone’,

In any event, the stress in foreign words rarely falls on a plural or other inflectional ending, hence:

¦¢¥¢¢ Š §‹ -¢™Š ,³ÕŸ¢žŠ ,¦¢±Š Õ¡¥ ¡ ª† ©† ¢™Š ,³Õ¡¢ªŠ ±† š¢ Œ ©Š ♠,¦¢¡Š ©† œŒ ⡪† ,¦¢¡Š °† ¢ŒÕ±ì† Stress tends to fall on the syllable before last in children’s words, as well as in many given names and old-time Israeli localities:

³Õ¥â› marbles

³Ž š† ª grandmother (pl.: ³Õ³š† ª )

ÚŒ § Moshe

°Ž š† ±Š Rivka

­Ž ¢Ž Yafa

³ÕšÕ ±† Rehovot

¥Œ §† ± Ramle

¨Õ±¤† ŸŠ Zichron

Most adjectives, too, are stressed on the final syllable. The major exception: when a foreign-sourced adjective ends in -i, this -i is not stressed, thus:

¢¥ Š ±Þ¢ Œ ¥Š

‘liberal’, ¢¡Š ° † ±ì† ‘practical’, ¢¡ Š ±°Õ§ † œŒ ‘democratic’, ‘naive’, ¢Š©ì Ž ¢ ‘Japanese’, ¢°Š ±Õ¢ † -⢆© ‘New Yorker’

¢š¢ Š ™Ž Š©

The same happens when -i is added to most names of towns in Israel and the region:

¢œŠ œŽ ›† ލ ,¢³Š ±Ž œ‹ ˆ ,¢³Š ՚ՠ±† ,¢§Š ¥† ڍ â±¢† ,¢š¢ Š šŠ ™ˆ -¥ñ‹ But note that for these purposes, the names of most major foreign nationalities that were on the Jewish ‘Radar screen’ in the early twentieth century do stress a final -i, e.g.

¢Š©§ ±Œ† › ‘German’, ¢¥Š ›†† ©Ñ ‘English’, ¢³Š ­Ž ±† ¯ ‘French’, ¢ªâ± Š ‘Russian’, ¢±Š ¯† §Š ‘Egyptian’, ¢šŽ Š ±«ˆ ‘Arab’

67


Level One

37 LÑË ‘there is, there are’ For ‘there is . . ., there are . . .’ (i.e. ‘there exists’), Hebrew uses the verbal particle Ú¢‹ . It generally precedes its noun, like English ‘there is’, and is unchanged for feminine or plural:

¢Ž«Ž ކ Ú¢‹

There’s a problem

³Õ¢«Ž ކ Ú¢‹

There are problems

For ‘there isn’t . . ., there aren’t . . .’, one uses the verbal particle positioned and inflected just like Ú¢‹ :

¨¢™‹ . It is

ՙœ¢ž ‹ žŠ ¨¢™‹

There isn’t a video

³Õ±Ÿ† Õ« ¨¢™‹

There aren’t any cleaning ladies

For other tenses, Hebrew simply uses the verb and generally agreeing with it:

¢ŽŽ , preceding the noun

°°Ž ì† ¢ŽŽ

There was a jam

©Ž â™ñ† ³Ž ¢† Ž

There was an accident

ՙœ¢ž ‹ žŠ ¢Œ† ¢Š ™¥

There won’t be a video

³Õ±Ÿ† Õ« ⢝† ¢Š ™¥

There won’t be any cleaners

Similar to Ú¢‹ is the particle ©‹ Š ‘here is, here are’:

±Õñ­† ç  ©‹ Š

Here’s the switch

!™â ©‹ Š

Here he is!

¦‹ ©‹ Š

Here they are

38 ‘I have’: ËÌ ñ LÑË For ‘have’ (present tense), Hebrew again makes use of the verb Ú¢‹ (see 37). The construction Ú¢‹ . . . ¥† (‘to x there is . . .’) denotes ‘x has . . .’:

68

³±Œ ŸŒÕ« Ú¢‹ °Ž š† ±Š ¥†

Rivka has a cleaning lady


‘I have’: Notice that, as in English, the possessor (Rivka) comes before the verb,

¢¥Š Ú¢‹

and the possessed (a cleaning lady) comes after. Ú¢‹ itself does not inflect. For ‘I have, you have’, etc., one uses

¢¥Š ,˃¥† , etc., generally placed after

Ú¢‹, but always preceding the possessed: ³±Œ ŸŒ Õ« ¢¥Š Ú¢‹

I have a cleaning lady

ìŽ ¯† ⠝¥Ž Ú¢‹

She has nerve!

³±Œ ŸŒ Õ« â©¥Ž Ú¢‹

We have a cleaning lady

ìŽ ¯† â ¦Œ ¥Ž Ú¢‹

They have nerve!

For ‘don’t have’, one uses . . . ¨¢™‹

. . . ¥† , thus:

ՙœ¢ž ‹ žŠ ¨¢™‹ ¦¢©Š ¤‹ چ ¥

The neighbors don’t have a video

³±Œ ŸŒ Õ« ¢¥Š ¨¢™‹

I don’t have a cleaning lady

Colloquial Hebrew treats the possessed as a sort of direct object (rather than as a subject), hence the use of ³™Œ when the possessed is definite:

?¦³Ž ՙ ˃¥† ڋ¢

Do you have them?

±ìŽ ª† §Š  ³™Œ ¢¥Š ¨¢™‹

I don’t have the number

For ‘have’ in other tenses, Hebrew simply uses the verb

¢ŽŽ in place of

Ú¢‹, keeping the word order and everything else the same. Notice that the verb agrees with the thing possessed, literally ‘to me were pains’:

ՙ¢œ¢ž ‹ Šž ¢Œ† ¢Š ¦¢©Š ¤‹ چ ¥

The neighbors will have a video

³±Œ ŸŒ Õ« ¢¥Š ³Ž ¢† Ž

I had a cleaning lady

¦¢šŠ ™‹ ç† ¢¥Š ⢝Ž

I had pains

69


Level One

39 Questions a Questions of the type ?š¢šŠ Ò-¥³‹ ކ ¦±Ž Õ¢ For questions that expect the answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ (as against ‘what, when, where’ questions), everyday spoken Hebrew simply uses tone of voice to distinguish the question from a statement. Word order is unchanged:

?š¢šŠ Ò-¥³‹ ކ ¦±Ž Õ¢

Is Yoram in Tel Aviv?

In writing, it is important to remember the question mark. In formal usage, one can also start a question with the particle

¦™Š  .

See 101 for

details.

b ‘What, where, when’ In questions of the ‘what, where, when, how?’ sort, the ‘question word’ (­¢™‹

,¢§Š ,§ , etc.) usually comes first, as in English. But, unlike English,

the rest of the sentence can remain unchanged: the verb need not leapfrog over the subject:

?°«‹ Õ¯ ¢§Š

Who’s shouting?

?±§‹ ՙ ªÕޝ §

What does the boss say?

?±›Ž ™â ­¢™‹

Where is he living?

?¥â«©Ž Ÿ›Ž ±† ѝŽ §Ž ¥Ž

Why is the trunk locked?

But observe that if there is a preposition (as in ¨¢çŠ ª ¦«Š ‘with a knife’, ¢ Š©œ ¥† ‘for Danny’), it must remain in front of its noun; it cannot go to the end of the question as in English.

70

?ñŽ ¥† « ©Ž § ¦«Š

What did you lock up with?

?⥤† Ò ¦‹ ¢§Š ¥¯Œ ™‹

Whose place did they eat at?

?ñ† ±† ± ¢ÞŠ ¢§Š ¥¢šŠ چ ފ

Who were you checking for?


Negation or how to say ‘no’

40 Negation or how to say ‘no’ a ‘I’m not . . ., he isn’t . . ., they didn’t’ To negate most types of sentence, colloquial Hebrew simply inserts after the subject (or, more accurately, in front of the predicate):

™¥

°¢±‹ ™¥ ¥¤Ž ¢§‹ 

The tank isn’t empty

ì ™¥ ™â

He’s not here

?±Õ™Ž ³™Œ °¢¥Š œ† § ™¥ ñŽ Ñ

You aren’t turning on the light?

¢ñŠ ¥† Ñڎ ™¥

I didn’t ask

Formal Hebrew, as we shall see in 99, sometimes uses ¨¢™‹ instead of ™¥.

b

¨¢™‹ as the opposite of Ú¢‹

For ‘there isn’t . . ., there aren’t . . .’, ‘I haven’t . . .’, Hebrew uses the verbal particle ¨¢™‹ . This word is the opposite of Ú¢‹ . See 37, 38, e.g.:

¨§Ž Ÿ† ¨¢™‹

There isn’t time

c Negative instructions When using the infinitive to issue an instruction (in ‘lofty’ requests), use ™¥ in the normal way to make it negative:

ŸâŸ¥Ž ™¥

No moving, Don’t move!

However, the commonest form of negative request is to use ¥Ñ (not ™¥) plus the future tense. (The imperative form of the verb is not used in the negative.)

ŸâŸñŽ ¥Ñ

Don’t move

¢¤Š ì† Ú† ñŠ ¥Ñ

Don’t spill

71


Level One By contrast,

ŸâŸñŽ ™¥

would mean ‘you won’t move’, i.e. a prediction

rather than a request.

41 ‘The cake in the fridge, stamps from Israel’ For phrases such as ‘the cake in the fridge, some stamps from Israel’, Hebrew closely resembles English:

³ÞŽ ڍ ¥† ™¢Š ±‹±° §† ލ Ž›â«Ž The cake in the fridge is for Shabbat

?¥™Ž ‹ ±ÛŠ† ¢§Š ¦¢¥â Š Þ ˃¥† ڋ¢ Do you have some stamps from Israel?

?¥§¢¢ Œ ±¡† چ  ¦«Š ¨ÕœÒŽ ­¢™‹ Where’s the gentleman in the shtreimel? Elegant Hebrew often prefers to insert Ú Œ , thus:

³¢Š©¤Õñ † ލ ڌ ¦Ž›ì† 

the flaw (lit. that is) in the plan

42 Degree words: ËÔ ð ,˂Ök-ñÖk ,ðÒêÐô, etc. Degree words (‘very, a bit, quite, so, more’) usually come before their adjective in colloquial usage:

72

ÚŒ °Ž œ™§†

very hard

­Œ ¢Ž ¢œ

quite nice

ÚŒ °Ž ³¯Ž °†

a bit hard

­Œ ¢Ž ˂ç -¥çŽ

so nice

ÚŒ °Ž ±³‹ Õ¢

harder

­Œ ¢Ž ™±Ž Õ©

real nice

œ™§†

‘very’ equally well follows its adjective:

‘too’:

¢œ §Š ­Œ ¢ ‘too nice’. In formal Hebrew, most degree words tend to

follow the adjective, e.g. ±³‹ Õ¢ Ú Œ °Ž ‘harder’.

œ™§† ­Œ ¢Ž.

Similarly,

¢œ §Š


The pattern

¯Õ± Œ ¢©Š ™ˆ Ú¡‹ « ³† Š ¥† :

Degree words also go with verbs:

±«‹ ¡ ¯† §Š œ™§† ¢©Š ™ˆ

I very much regret it

¢¥Š «¢  ±Š ­† § ³¯Ž °† ŸŒ

It bothers me a little

¢œ §Š ±³‹ Õ¢ ˂ç‹  ³† §Š ŒŸ

It’s rubbing too much

‘I want to sneeze’

43 Adverbs of time and place in the sentence Adverbs of time and place can safely be placed in the same position as in English: first, last or (for some time adverbs) right after the subject. The only difference this usually makes to the meaning is a nuance in emphasis.

¨Ú‹ ¢Ž ™â ž¢ÚŽ ¤† «

Now he’s asleep

¨Ú‹ ¢Ž ž¢ÚŽ ¤† « ™â

He’s now asleep

ž¢ÚŽ ¤† « ¨Ú‹ ¢Ž ™â

He’s asleep now

œÞ ©Ž Õ° ¢©Š ™ˆ ¦ÚŽ

There I buy cloth

¦ÚŽ œÞ ©Ž Õ° ¢©Š ™ˆ

I buy cloth there

Unlike English, Hebrew adverbs can also come between verb and object:

œÞ ¦ÚŽ ©Ž Õ° ¢©Š ™ˆ

(lit. ‘I buy there cloth’)

44–9 EMBEDDED CLAUSES 44 The pattern LÑ ¬Ô¼Ð³ÌíÐñ íÓ®îÒþ ËÌòÎê: ‘I want to sneeze’ Many Hebrew verbs take an infinitive, just like English ‘want to’ – for

Œ ‘want’, š‹±ªŽ §† ‘refuse’, ª Œ ©§† ‘try’: example, ¯Õ± Ú¡‹ « ³† Š ¥† ¯Õ± Œ ¢Š©™ˆ

I want to sneeze

73


Level One In fact, Hebrew commonly has an infinitive even where English has -ing:

°‹¥  ¥† ¦¢ª Š ©§† ¦‹ ¦¢§Š «Ž ­† ¥Š Sometimes they try sharing

°Õ±Ú† ¥Š Ú°‹ « ³† §Š ™â He insists on whistling

›âœ¥Ž °¢ªŠ ­† Š ™â ŸÒ ªâ¡¥Ž šÕ™ ‹ ™â He loves flying so he’s stopped fishing

¥"â ¥† « Õª©† ¥Š ¦¢ÞŠ ±† § ¦¢¥Š ™‹ ±Ž ۆ ¢Š Israelis do a lot of traveling overseas

¦¢œŠ œŽ ¯† ¥ ¡¢ÞŠ  ¥† ¦¢¡Š «ˆ § §† ¦¢›Š Ž ©Œ Drivers look very little to the sides

45 The pattern ˂ÑËËÔ ìÐñ ëÒî¬: ‘It’s good to smile’ Where English has ‘it is good [or other adj.] to . . .’, Hebrew often leaves out ‘it is’:

ÚÕ¥›† ¥Š ¨ç⪠Ž §†

It is dangerous to ski

â©  ¥Ž ÚŒ °Ž

It’s hard to rest

Similarly for the construction ‘it’s good that . . .’:

³™ Ž ގ ڌ šÕ¡

It’s good you’ve come

Õ¥ ¨¢™‹ ڌ ±ŽŸâ§

It’s weird that he doesn’t have

46 Reported thoughts and object clauses To lead into reported statements, beliefs, feelings, etc., one generally inserts Ú Œ , which is equivalent to ‘that’. (For the tense, see 82(c).)

74

¨§Ž Ÿ† œÕ« Ú¢‹ÚŒ ±§ Ò ™â

He said that there’s still time

±œŒ ª‹ ކ ŸŒ ڌ šÚ‹ Õ ¢©Š ™ˆ

I think it’s O.K.


With a verb or adjective that would normally require an indirect object

§Š œ  ìŽ or ކ   â¡ÞŽ (see 34(b)), the object marker is normally Œ or ¥† is going to follow: omitted when a Ú marker, e.g.

± š† ¢Š ™âÚŒ œ ‹ ­ §† ¢©Š ™ˆ

I’m afraid he might run away

¢  ¥Š ¯† ¢ ŸŒ ڌ   â¡ÞŽ ¢©Š ™ˆ

I’m certain it’ll work out

Some verbs and prepositions cannot take a clause beginning with

Relative clauses with

ڌ

ڌ .

Instead, one has to use Ú Œ ˂ç or ڌ ŸŒ , thus:

³¤Œ ڌ §† ©Š §¢ Ž Š ¥†  ڌ ˂çŽ ¥« ⩱† ލ œŠ We talked about the fact that the fighting is going on

¦¢ Š ¡Ž چ  ¥çŽ §Š ›Õª¢©Š ڌ ŸŒ œ« ކ ¥™§Û†  The Left is in favor of us withdrawing from all the territories

ŸŒ çŽ ®©â° ⥢ Š ³† ¢ÚŒ ˂¤Ž ¥† œ‹›© ³† §Š ¢‹±§ † ›¥† ¢Š©™ˆ I’m totally against them starting such a gimmick In journalistic or formal Hebrew,

¢çŠ is sometimes used in place of ڌ . This

¢çŠ does not mean ‘because’: œ¥­Œ ©† ¢¢ª ¢š‹ ¤† Õç ¢©‹ چ ®±Œ Òގ ♱† ©Š ©Ž Õ± ˆ Ñގ ¢çŠ   ž‹ žœ §† ¨Õñ«Š Ž The paper reports that the two Seinfeld stars were recently sighted in Israel

47 Relative clauses with L Ó Relative clauses (‘the guy who called, the room that I painted’) are

ڌ . It is always prefixed to the ڌ as the equivalent of ‘who, which,

commonly introduced by the conjunction next word. For the moment, regard that’:

¥¢›Š ¥† « ª‹ թڌ ªâÞաՙŽ ©‹ Š

Here’s the bus that goes to Gilo

?¢ñŠ ¥† ¤ Òڌ ¢Ž©Š §Ž † ¥  ­¢™‹

Where’s the roll I was eating?

?¦œŒ Õ° ñŽ چ › ìŽ ÚŒ ³±Œ šŒ ›†  ¢§Š

Who’s the lady whom you met earlier?

75


Level One

48 Adverbial clauses: ËÌ k ,óÌê ,L Ó ñÔñÐèÌa ,L Ó ËÑþÎìÔê, etc. Adverbial clauses – clauses expressing time, cause, purpose, etc. – Œ: generally require the insertion of a conjunction Ú

°¢ ‹ ìŠ ™â ,¥¤ Ò ¢çŠ âñ ڌ ¢±‹ ˆ Ñ After the parrot ate, it yawned

?¨™¤Ž ¥† ³™ † ގ ڌ ¢©‹ ­† ¥Š ñ† ±† › ñ† Ñ ­¢™‹ Where did you live before you came here?

‹ ¢Š©™ˆ ˂¥‹ ՝ ™â ¦› ڌ ³Õ±§† ¥ ˂¥Õ I’m going despite the fact that he’s also going

!˃¥† ³ìŽ ¤† ™Š ™¥ÚŒ ¥¥ ›† ފ ˂±Œ œŒ ލ ˃¥† °­ œŠ† © ŒŸ It got ruined on the way because you just don’t care However, ¢çŠ , a common word for ‘because’, has no Ú Œ . Nor does ¦™Š ‘if’:

¥Ž °Ž ñ Ú¢‹ ¢çŠ ¥¯‹ ¥† ¯ §† ¢©Š ™ˆ I’m calling because there’s a hitch

°â­œŽ ŸŒ ŸÒ ,™¯‹ Õ¢ ™¥ ±¢Ž¢©†  ¦™Š If the paper won’t come out, it’s broken A quite distinct, two-word conjunction is ¢çŠ ¦™Š , which has nothing to do with either ¦™Š or ¢çŠ . It means ‘although’ in the sense of ‘though admittedly’:

Ÿ¢±Š ì Þ† Õ§ç† ™¥ ¢çŠ ¦™Š ,³Õ±œŽ ‡ ©Œ ³Õ¢â© ˆ â©¥Ž Ú¢‹ We have great stores, though not like in Paris As for Ú Œ ç† , the usual word for ‘when, while’, treat it as one word (not as ڌ + ç† ):

°¥ œ† ©Š ™¥ ¢¥™ Š §Ž ۆ  ±Õ™Ž ,¢ñŠ ±† ¯ «Ž ڌ ç† When I stopped, the left-hand light didn’t come on

76

Even for English ‘after eating . . .’, ‘while watching . . .’, Hebrew regularly uses a whole clause (or an ‘action noun’, see 64):


Adverbial clauses:

¥¤‹ ՙ ™âÚŒ ¢±‹ ˆ Ñ ¨Ú‹ ¢Ž ™â He sleeps after eating

±Ž ڎ ­† ¥Š ⩱† ³ Ž â© † ¯¢  ©Š ڌ ³Õ±§† ¥ Despite winning, we worked for a compromise

,ڌ ¢±‹ ˆ Ñ ,¦™Š ,ڌ ¥¥ ›† ފ ¢çŠ , etc.

¢ŽŸ† ¢žŠ ¥Œ ¡Œ ލ Ò±† ©Š ™¥ ճⱡ† ì ³† Š ŸÒ§‹ Since resigning he hasn’t been seen on TV

³Õ°¢œŠ ކ œÕ« ⩱† š «Ž ,ªÕ¡§Ž ¥ ⩳‹ ¢Ž¢¥Š « ¢©‹ ­† ¥Š Before boarding the plane, we went through more checks There are several other prepositions that take use -ing, thus:

ڌ or ¥† where English might

šÕÚ ˆ ¥ ¢¥Š ކ ŸŒ ³™Œ ⩢ۊ «Ž

We did it without thinking

¢ÞŠ â©¢ Š š† Š ڌ ¢¥Š ކ ¢ñŠ ª† © ¤† ©Š

I went in without them spotting me

¬Õ¡ ˆ ¥ ¦Õ°§† ފ ¢Ž©Š چ ç‹  

Wait a second instead of grabbing

and in colloquial Hebrew:

'ŸŽ ©† Õ쪆 ³ÕÛ«ˆ ¥ ކ °âª«Ž ¢³¢ Š ¢Š Ž

I was busy (with) mopping

Contrast the use of Ú Œ to denote ‘so’ in the sense of ‘in order that’ with the use of Ú Œ ˂çŽ meaning ‘so’ in the sense of ‘and as a result’:

°¢ Ž ©Š ™ì ¢Œ† ñŠ ™¥ÚŒ ,œÕªÞ† ŸŒ ³™Œ ¦¢±Š §† ÕÚ They’re keeping it secret so there won’t be a panic

 ¢ Ž ۊ ލ ¢Œ† ™Œ ™¥ÚŒ ˂çŽ ,짌 † ±¡†  ³™Œ ¢ñŠ ª† ­ ª† ­Š I missed the lift, so I won’t be at the talk The counterpart of an English equivalence clause with ‘as’ or ‘like’ generally employs Ú Œ Õ§ç† or ڌ ¢­Š ç† :

¦Õ¢ ¦¢›Š Ҝ† ⧠¦¥Ž âçڌ ¢­Š ç† ,›Òœ† ⧠¢©Š ™ˆ I’m worried, like everyone’s worried today

« œ‹ Õ¢ ñŽ Ñڌ Õ§ç ,ÚŽ °Ž ³¢ Ž çŠ ³™Ÿ This is a difficult class, as you know

œžŠ œŽ ¥ÚŒ ©Ž Õڙ±Š Ž Õ³±Ž ¢ÞŠ ³Ž ¢† Ž ¨Õ±š† Œ ,¢ñŠ ©† ¢¢¯Š ڌ ¢­Š ç† As I noted, Hebron was David’s first capital

77


Level One

For hypothetical ‘like’ and ‘as if’, use ⥙Š ç† :

°ÕÚ ­Ž ¡† Ž ⥙Š ç† ³œŒ «Œ Õ± ™¢Š She’s shaking as if she had a shock Note that Ú Œ is the same conjunction as that used in relative clauses and reported thoughts (46, 47). It has the very broad task of marking where a subordinate (i.e. embedded) clause begins.

49 Sentences without a subject a The ‘general’ plural: !¦¢šŠ چ Õ ,¡°Œ ڌ ‘Quiet, people are thinking!’ To express ‘one forgets, people forget, you forget’ – that is, an openended, non-specific subject – Hebrew has a special construction: the verb (or adjective) is used in the masculine plural, without a subject:

b

?¦¢¤Š ¥† ՝ ˂¢™‹

How does one go?

¥"çŽ ¡† § ± Ž ³™Œ â­¢¥Š † Œ

They’ve changed the Chief of Staff

±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ ,¢™œ ç† ,˂¢±Š ¯Ž without a subject

Several adjectives, verbs and other words need not (and some even cannot) have a subject, including ¢™œ ç† ‘you’d better’, ˂¢±Š ¯Ž ‘it’s necessary’, ±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ ‘you may, it’s possible’, ¥šŽ ˆ ‘it’s a pity’, ¦  ‘it’s hot’, ±° ‘it’s cold’.

78

±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ ڌ šÚ‹ Õ ¢©Š ™ˆ ±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ -¢™Š ±šŽ ç† ž¢ÚŽ ¤† «

By now it’s impossible

Úâ ¡âÚìŽ ˂¢±Š ¯Ž

One just needs an instinct

!˂¢±Š ¯Ž ڌ ¡ ތ

Sure one must!

!¥šŽ ˆ ڌ ±â±ÞŽ

It’s obvious that it’s a shame!

?®â ލ ±° ڌ ÒÕ± ™¥ ñ† Ñ

Can’t you see that it’s cold outside?

I think you can


Level Two


'¥ roots 50–9 SPECIAL ROOT-TYPES Many roots contain a weak letter which sometimes mutates or simply drops out. They are thus ‘problem roots’. The two-consonant verb has already been introduced (26(b)). At this level, we now introduce the other main types of problem root (traditionally known as the ‘weak gezarot’).

50 í’ñ roots a Introduction Roots ending in the letter  are a problem: the  can mutate or just vanish. There are many common roots of this type. Verbs built out of such roots are pronounced kana, hikna, gila and so on; that is, orally, they lack a third consonant and just end in a vowel. In writing, however,  or ¢ generally serve to mark where the ‘missing consonant’ should have been. Examples of verbs affected:

©Ž ގ build

³Ž ڎ drink

žŽ žÚ† Š compare

©Ž ­† Š refer

ç¢ Ž Š wait

§¢ Ž ±Š cheat

©Ž § ³† Š be appointed

 Ž § ³† Š specialize

Note: We shall call these root-types by the traditional name: '¥ roots – ‘roots whose final consonant is (often) ’. Such terminology sets up an abstract root

¥.«.­ and refers to any first consonant as ­, any second consonant as « and any third consonant as ¥. So '¥ means ‘whose third consonant is ’. b

'¥ in PA’AL and PI’EL

We first give verb tables, using the root explanations for these forms.

.¥.›.

Following this, we offer

81


Level Two

PA’AL: ¥Ž ›Ž ‘go into exile’ Past

Present Future

³Ž ¥† ›Ž ,¥Ž ›Ž ,³¢¥Š ›Ž ,³¢ Ž ¥Š ›Ž ,¢³¢ Š ¥Š ›Ž ⥛Ž ,¨³¢ Œ ¥Š ›Ž ,¦³¢ Œ ¥Š ›Ž ,â©¢¥Š ›Ž ³Õ¥Õ› ,¦¢¥Š ՛ ,¥Ž ՛ ,¥Œ ՛ ¥Œ ›† ñŠ ,¥Œ ›† ¢Š ,¢¥Š ›† ñŠ ,¥Œ ›† ñŠ ,¥Œ ›† ™Œ ⥛† ¢Š ,⥛† ñŠ ,¥Œ ›† ©Š

Imperative

¥‹ ›†

Action noun

¢Ž¢¥Š ›†

³Õ¥›† ¥Š

Infinitive

PI’EL: ¥¢ Ž ›Š ‘to discover’ Past

Present Future

³Ž ¥¢† ›Š ,¥¢ Ž ›Š ,³¢¥¢Š ›Š ,³¢ Ž ¥¢Š ›Š ,¢³¢ Š ¥¢Š ›Š ⥢›Š ,¨³¢ Œ ¥¢Š ›Š ,¦³¢ Œ ¥¢Š ›Š ,â©¢¥¢Š ›Š ³Õ¥› §† ,¦¢¥Š › §† ,¥Ž › §† ,¥Œ › §† ¥Œ › ñ† ,¥Œ › ¢† ,¢¥Š › ñ† ,¥Œ › ñ† ,¥Œ › ™ˆ ⥛ ¢† ,⥛ ñ† ,¥Œ › ©†

Imperative

¥‹ ›

Action noun

¢â¥¢›Š

³Õ¥› ¥†

Infinitive

The system behind these verb tables is as follows: 1 To form the present fem. sing. and the past 3rd fem. sing. from the corresponding masc. sing., the rule is -e Æ -a and -a Æ -ta, thus present ¥Ž ՛, past ³Ž ¥† ›Ž . Compare this tricky state of affairs with a normal verb:

82

PA’AL

PI’EL

Present fem. sing.

³¥Œ šŒ Õ°

³¥Œ ތ ° §†

Past

¥Ž š† °Ž

¥Ž Þ¢ † °Š


2 In most cases where there is no suffix, the vowel -e (written -), for example:

'¥

'¥ roots verb will end in the

Present PA’AL

¥Œ ՛

Present PI’EL

¥Œ › §†

1st Future PA’AL

¥Œ ›† ™Œ

2nd Future PI’EL

¥Œ › ñ†

Exceptions: (1) 3rd masc. sing. past will end in -a (still written  ); and (2) the infinitive will end in ³Õ, thus: 1

¥Ž › ³† Š ,¥¢ Ž ›Š ,¥Ž ›† ©Š

2

³Õ¥› ³† Š ¥† ,³Õ¥›†  ¥† ,³Õ¥›† ¥Š

3 In the past 1st and 2nd sing. and pl. these verbs will end in -i (written

¢ ), for example: PA’AL

c

³¢ Ž ¥¢Š ›Ž ,¢³¢ Š ¥Š ›Ž

PI’EL

¦³¢ Œ ¥¢Š ›Š ,â©¢¥¢Š ›Š

'¥ in HITPA’EL and HIF’IL

We again give verb tables, using the root .¥.›. HITPA’EL: ¥Ž › ³† Š ‘be discovered’ Past

Present Future

³Ž ¥† › ³† Š ,¥ Ž ›³† Š ,³¢¥‹ › ³† Š ,³¢ Ž ¥‹ › ³† Š ,¢³¢ Š ¥‹ › ³† Š ⥛ ³† Š ,¨³¢ Œ ¥‹ › ³† Š ,¦³¢ Œ ¥‹ › ³† Š ,â©¢¥‹ › ³† Š ³Õ¥› ³† §Š ,¦¢¥Š › ³† §Š ,¥Ž › ³† §Š ,¥Œ › ³† §Š ¥Œ › ³† ñŠ ,¥Œ › ³† ¢Š ,¢¥Š › ³† ñŠ ,¥Œ › ³† ñŠ ,¥Œ › ³† ™Œ ⥛ ³† ¢Š ,⥛ ³† ñŠ ,¥Œ › ³† ©Š

Imperative

¥‹ › ³† Š

Action noun

³â¥› ³† Š

Infinitive

³Õ¥› ³† Š ¥† 83


Level Two

HIF’IL: ¥Ž ›† Š ‘banish’ Past

Present Future

³Ž ¥† ›† Š ,¥Ž ›† Š ,³¢¥‹ ›† Š ,³¢ Ž ¥‹ ›† Š ,¢³¢ Š ¥‹ ›† Š ⥛† Š ,¨³¢ Œ ¥‹ ›† Š ,¦³¢ Œ ¥‹ ›† Š ,â©¢¥‹ ›† Š ³Õ¥›† § ,¦¢¥Š ›† § ,¥Ž ›† § ,¥Œ ›† § ¥Œ ›† ñ ,¥Œ ›† ¢ ,¢¥Š ›† ñ ,¥Œ ›† ñ ,¥Œ ›† Ñ â¥›† ¢ ,⥛† ñ ,¥Œ ›† ©

Imperative

¥‹ ›† 

Action noun

¢Ž¢¥Ž ›† 

Infinitive

³Õ¥›†  ¥†

The system behind these verb tables is as follows: 1 The feminine is identical to PA’AL and PI’EL in 50(b)(1) above. 2 Where there is no suffix, the rule is identical to 50(b)(2) above. 3 In the PAST 1st and 2nd sing. and pl. these verbs will end in -e, not -i (still written ¢ ). HUF’AL and PU’AL '¥ verbs belong to this group, too. Examples:

d

HITPA’EL

¦³¢ Œ ¥‹ › ³† Š

you were discovered

HIF’IL

¢³¢ Š ¥‹ ›† Š

I have banished

PU’AL

¦³¢ Œ ¥‹ â›

you were discovered

HUF’AL

¢³¢ Š ¥‹ ›† â

I was banished

'¥ in NIF’AL

¥Ž ›† ©Š ‘be revealed’ Past

84

Present

³Ž ¥† ›† ©Š ,¥Ž ›† ©Š ,³¢¥‹ ›† ©Š ,³¢ Ž ¥‹ ›† ©Š ,¢³¢ Š ¥‹ ›† ©Š ⥛† ©Š ,¨³¢ Œ ¥‹ ›† ©Š ,¦³¢ Œ ¥‹ ›† ©Š ,â©¢¥‹ ›† ©Š ³Õ¥›† ©Š ,¦¢¥Š ›† ©Š ,³¢¥‹ ›† ©Š ,¥Œ ›† ©Š


Future

Roots with ‘gutturals’

¥Œ ›Ž ¢ñŠ ,¥Œ ›Ž ¢¢Š ,¢¥Š ›Ž ¢ñŠ ,¥Œ ›Ž ¢ñŠ ,¥Œ ›Ž ™Œ ⥛Ž ¢¢Š ,⥛Ž ¢ñŠ ,¥Œ ›Ž ¢©Š

Imperative

¥‹ ›Ž ¢Š

Action noun

³â¥›Ž ¢Š

Infinitive

³Õ¥›Ž ¢Š ¥†

The system behind this verb table is as for the other binyanim, except that: 1 The fem. sing. in the present is not the expected ¥Ž ›† ©Š but ³¢¥‹ ›† ©Š . 2 Where there is no suffix, the rule is as in the other binyanim – except that colloquially one tends to say ¥Ž ›† ©Š rather than ¥Œ ›† ©Š in the present masc. sing., in keeping with the vowels in the regular NIF’AL (30). For this reason, everyday usage has šÕ¡ Ò±† ©Š ŸŒ ‘It looks good’ rather than . . . ™Œ ±† ©Š . . . .

51 Roots with ‘gutturals’ a Introduction ‘Gutturals’ are the letters  , ,«. These were all once pronounced throatily and involved such an effort that they affected the form of neighboring vowels, giving them the quality of an a (the most ‘throaty’ of vowels). Nowadays, in the dominant (‘Europeanized’) Israeli accent, « is usually pronounced like ™, i.e. with a quick catch in the throat rather than with guttural friction. In the same way,  is commonly pronounced like ™: it is not usually heard as ‘h’. As for  , it is usually simply like ¤. Yet  ,  ,« still cause neighboring vowels to vary their form, a kind of historical echo that still causes considerable complications for modern Hebrew grammar. So we are entitled to talk of abstract ‘gutturals’, in inverted commas. Two other letters, very occasionally.

™

and ±, have ‘guttural’ effects sometimes, the latter

85


Level Two The overall effect of ‘gutturals’ is on pronunciation, involving scores of common verbs. The written text itself is unaffected.

b When the first letter is a ‘guttural’ When a root has an initial guttural, i.e. a ‘guttural’ as first root letter, this affects the pronunciation of particular forms of the verb: for example, particular binyanim or tenses. Examples of verbs affected:

Ÿ± Ò pack

¨¢§Š ™‡ Œ believe

ª± Ž destroy

šÚ Ž think

¡¢¥Š † Œ decide

±¢šŠ «‡ Œ transfer

±Ÿ «Ž help

±œ «‡ ©Œ be absent

¦¥ «‡ ©Œ vanish 1 ‘Gutturals’ cannot tolerate a preceding i vowel in their verbal prefix. They lower it to a (in binyan PA’AL) or to e (in HIF’IL and NIF’AL). Taking the root š.². :

PA’AL

. . . šÕÚ † ¢ ,¢šŠ چ  † ñ ,šÕÚ † ñ ,*šÕÚ † ™Œ

Future:

etc.

Infinitive:

šÕÚ † ¥

HIF’IL etc.

. . . š¢ÚŠ † Œ ,ñ† š† ڍ  † Œ ,ñŽ š† ڍ  † Œ ,¢ñŠ š† ڍ  † Œ

Past**:

etc.

. . . šÚ † ©Œ ,ñ† š† ڍ  † ©Œ ,ñŽ š† ڍ  † ©Œ ,¢ñŠ š† ڍ  † ©Œ

Future:

etc.

. . . šÚ‹ ¢ Ž ñ‹ ,šÚ‹  ¢ Ž ¢‹ ,¢šŠ چ  ¢ Ž ñ‹ ,šÚ‹  ¢ Ž ñ‹ ,šÚ‹  Ž ™‹

Infinitive:

šÚ‹ ¢ Ž ‹ ¥†

Past: NIF’AL

86


* This particular form needs no adjustment, as the regular 1st person form would in any case be

Roots with ‘gutturals’

¦ÕÚ±† ™Œ with an -e- vowel. But colloquially one often

hears šÕÚ † Ñ.

** An important exception in the NIF’AL is the verb

ÛŽ «ˆ ©

‘become’

Ž «‡ ©Œ ). (rather than Û 2 A further adjustment is made to strengthen an initial

« and  (but not

): a second a or e vowel is inserted between them and the following consonant (in slow, deliberate speech). For example: PA’AL

˂Õ±ˆ«ñ ,ªÕ±ˆñ

HIF’IL

Š «ñ ,¢ñŠ ¤ † ±«‡ Œ ,¢ñŠ ±† œ‡  Œ ˂¢±ˆ

NIF’AL

˂± «‡ ©Œ ,ª±‡ ©Œ

3 As for

™,

it behaves like

«

and

,

except that in careful speech it

‡ ñŒ ,ⱛ† ™‡ ¢Œ. converts i in the PA’AL to e rather than to a, e.g. ŸÕ±™ None of the other binyanim or tenses needs to be adjusted for ‘initial gutturals’.

c When the middle letter is a ‘guttural’ Examples of verbs affected:

¦ÑñŽ be compatible

±Ñچ ©Š remain

®¢ ‹ ›Š iron

± Ÿ† ©Š be careful

¨  ގ test

±« ގ burn

±«¢ ‹ ڊ assess

±«‹ © ³† Š shake oneself off

˂±‹ ¢Þ‹ congratulate

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Level Two

1 Where « , ,™ are middle letters, Hebrew bolsters them by giving them ‘more breathing space’, that is, by preventing another consonant from following immediately. The problem arises mainly in verbs with a stressed ending, e.g. ¦¢Š ,Ž ,â. The remedy is to insert a ‘helping’ a vowel:

PA’AL

NIF’AL

HUF’AL

PI’EL

PU’AL

Past

Present

Future

ⱝˆ ŸŽ ,±Ž ˆ ŸŽ

³Õ±ˆ ՟ ,¦¢±Š ˆ ՟

ⱝˆ Ÿ† ñŠ ,¢±Š ˆ Ÿ† ñŠ

ⱝˆ Ÿ† ©Š ,±Ž ˆ Ÿ† ©Š

ⱝˆ ŸŽ ¢ñŠ ,¢±Š ˆ ŸŽ ¢ñŠ

ⱝˆ Ÿ† ❠,±Ž ˆ Ÿ† â

ⱝˆ Ÿ† âñ ,¢±Š ˆ Ÿ† âñ

⥝ˆ ¢©Š ,¥Ž ˆ ¢©Š

³Õ¥ˆ © §† ,¦¢¥Š ˆ © §†

⥝ˆ © ñ† ,¢¥Š ˆ © ñ†

⥝ â© ,¥Ž ˆ â©

³Õ¥ˆ ⩧† ,¦¢¥Š ˆ ⩧†

⥝ˆ â©ñ† ,¢¥Š ˆ â©ñ†

³Õ¥ˆ © ³† §Š ,¦¢¥Š ˆ © ³† §Š

⥝ˆ © ³† ñŠ ,¢¥Š ˆ © ³† ñŠ

HITPA’EL

. . . ¥Ž ˆ © ³† Š

However, the letter is somewhat anomalous (recall 51(b)(2)) and tends not to require a ‘helping -a-’, particularly in casual speech. † ۊ ,â° ¢ † ۊ ‘play’. Hence °Ž  ¢ 2 In the PA’AL future of some middle guttural verbs, -o- becomes -a-, e.g. ±  š† ñŠ ,±  š† ™Œ ‘choose’ etc. and ¥Ñچ ñŠ ,¥Ñچ ™Œ ‘ask’ etc. – whereas in some other verbs -o- holds its ground: ªÕ œ† ñŠ ,ªÕ œ† ™Œ ‘squeeze’ etc. There is no simple rule. Consult a major dictionary or ask an Israeli. 3 Where the PI’EL has a middle ™ or ±, the vowels in the respective action noun will commonly be e-u, not i-u. Thus:

88

±â™¢ñ‹ description

¡â±¢ì‹ detail

Úâ±¢›‹ expulsion

Ú♢‹ despair


4 A peculiar adjustment, more commonly found in formal than in

Roots with ‘gutturals’

colloquial Hebrew, involves PI’EL past and PU’AL: when there is a middle

™ or ±, any preceding -i- is lowered to -e- and any preceding -

u- is lowered to -o-. Thus:

±™¢ ‹ ñ‹

described

±ÑÕ³¢† ,±ÒÕ³§† ,±ÑÕñ

was, is, will be described

Ú±‹ ¢›‹

divorced

Ú± ՛¢† ,Ú± ՛§† ,Ú± ՛

was, is, will be divorced

d When the final letter is a ‘guttural’ Examples of verbs affected:

ᢠ ފ ›† Š raise

± ¯Ž yell

ñ ­† ©Š open

 ¯¢ ‹ ©Š defeat

 ¥‹ ° ³† Š take a shower

«œ ¢Ž know

«§ چ ©Š sound

«¢  ñŠ ­† Š surprise

1 Whenever a verb, or any other word, ends in is a rarity by comparison with suffixed

or « (or root á, which

 ), the last vowel must be -a.

This is an invariable rule of Hebrew. To achieve this, verb patterns whose last vowel would ordinarily be, say, -e- or -i- add a helping -a-. This happens in nearly all binyanim and tenses. Examples from selected binyanim and tenses:

PA’AL

Present

 ¥‹ Õª ,« §‹ ÕÚ

Infinitive

 Õ¥ª† ¥Š ,« էچ ¥Š

PI’EL

Infinitive

 ދ ڍ ¥† ,« ž‹ žÚ ¥†

Future

 ދ ڍ ¢† ,« ž‹ žÚ ¢†

HIF’IL

Past

¢  ¡Š š† Š ,«¢  §Š چ Š

Present

¢  ¡Š š† § ,«¢  §Š چ §

NIF’AL

Future

 ¥‹ ª¢ Ž ¢Š ,« §‹ Ú¢ Ž ¢Š

Infinitive

 ¥‹ ª¢ Ž Š ¥† ,« §‹ Ú¢ Ž Š ¥†

1-SYLLABLE

Future

 â©Ò ,« â©Ò

Infinitive

 â©¥Ž ,« â©¥Ž

89


Level Two The one major exception is the PA’AL Future. Here, -a- is not added but substituted. Thus: Not Õ¥ª† ¢Š or   Õ¥ª† ¢Š

. . . but rather ¥ ª† ¢Š

Not «Õ§Ú† ¢Š or « էچ ¢Š

. . . but rather «§ چ ¢Š

A similar but minor exception: particularly in formal style, the future of PI’EL and NIF’AL is sometimes

ލ ڍ ¢† ,«ž žÚ ¢† , ¥ ª¢ Ž ¢Š , etc., i.e. -a- is

again substituted rather than added. 2 Once a feminine suffix has been added, the ‘final guttural’ is, of course, no longer final. Yet the vowels are still affected provided the

feminine suffix is -³, i.e. in all but HIF’IL and ONE-SYLLABLE verbs. The guttural gives rise to the endings ³«  or ³  . For example:

³  ¥ Õª ,³« § ÕÚ

³  ¯ ±† ©Š ,³« § چ ©Š

³  ¡ š† ⧠,³« § چ â§

³  ލ ڍ §† ,³« ž žÚ §†

52 Roots with õ ,× ,ë: ‘soft’ or ‘hard’? Virtually without exception, š ,¤ or ­ as the first letter of a verb will have a hard pronunciation (b, k, p), i.e. pointed texts would insert a ‘dagesh’:

Þ ,ç ,ì. Conversely, as the last letter of a verb they nearly always receive a soft pronunciation (v, ch, f): š ,¤ ,­. Thus: First letter

Ú°¢ ‹ ފ

asked

š³ çŽ

wrote

±¡ ìŽ

exempted

Last letter

šÚ¢ ‹ Š

calculated

˂­ ڎ

spilled

¬± ێ

burned

But when the very same verbs take on prefixes, so that the longer the first letter, or when

90

š ,¤ ,­

š ,¤ ,­ are no

are from the outset the middle

consonants of the root, there are various rules affecting whether the

­ are hard or soft. These are given in 52(a), (b) and (c).

,¤ ,š


Roots with ­ ,¤ ,š: ‘soft or hard’?

a Usually soft

š ,¤ ,­ directly following the verbal prefix are usually soft, thus: ,°Õœš† ™Œ . . . °Õœš† ñŠ

PA’AL

Future

NIF’AL

Present

°œŽ š† ©Š

PI’EL

Present

±¡‹ ­ §†

Future

PU’AL

Present

±¡Ž â­§†

Future

HIF’IL

Present

ª¢©Š ¤† §

Future

HUF’AL

Present

,ª¢©Š ¤† ™ˆ . . . ª¢©Š ¤† ñ ª© ¤† â§

Infinitive

°œ š† ©Š

Past

Past

,±¡‹ ­ ™ˆ . . . ±¡‹ ­ ñ†

Infinitive

±¡‹ ­ ¥†

,±¡ ⭙ˆ . . . ±¡ â­ñ† ,¢ñŠ ª† © ¤† Š . . . ñŽ ª† © ¤† Š

Infinitive

Past

°Õœš† ¥Š

ª¢©Š ¤†  ¥†

,¢ñŠ ª† © ¤† ❠. . . ñŽ ª† © ¤† â

Future

,ª© ¤† ♠ª© ¤† âñ

The only major exceptions are that after the HITPA’EL prefixes (³§Š , ³¢Š , etc.), š ,¤ ,­ are hard, thus ª©‹ ç ³† §Š , and similarly after the NIF’AL future and infinitive prefixes, e.g. °œ‹ Þ¢ Ž ñŠ ,°œ‹ ގ ™Œ and °œ‹ Þ¢ Ž Š ¥† .

b Usually hard

š ,¤ ,­ as the middle root consonant are mostly hard. This nearly always holds for the entire set of HIF’IL, HUF’AL, PI’EL, PU’AL and HITPA’EL forms, hence the hard ç in: PI’EL

to delay

. . . šç‹ « ¥† ,šç‹ « ¢† ,šç‹ « §† ,šç¢ ‹ «Š

HIF’IL

to put to bed

. . . š¢çŠ چ  ¥† ,š¢çŠ چ ¢ ,š¢çŠ چ § ,š¢çŠ چ Š

91


Level Two But there are two kinds of exception: 1 In PA’AL present and past, middle

š ,¤ ,­ are soft, while in the future

and infinitive they are best classified as hard, though colloquially in many verbs middle š and ­ are kept soft throughout:

PA’AL

Present

±š‹ ÕÚ

Past

±š ڎ

Future

±ÕÞچ ¢Š but ªÕ­³† ¢Š

Infinitive

±ÕÞچ ¥Š but ªÕ­³† ¥Š

2 In NIF’AL present and past, middle

š ,¤ ,­

are hard, while in the

future and infinitive they are soft:

NIF’AL

Present

±ÞŽ چ ©Š

Past

±Þ چ ©Š

Future

±š‹ Ú¢ Ž ¢Š

Infinitive

±š‹ Ú¢ Ž Š ¥†

c Always soft When a suffix is added to a verb, it does not affect final

remain soft. For example, ˂¥ Ž ‘go’: ¦¢¤Š ¥† ՝ ,⤥† Ž ,¢ñŠ ¤† ¥ Ž .

š ,¤ ,­.

They

53 Four-consonant roots Many verbs and their corresponding action nouns are formed with roots of four or even five consonants, but only in three (related) binyanim: PI’EL, PU’AL and HITPA’EL. Examples:

92

¬Ú‹ ­† ڊ rub

ŸÞ‹ Ÿ† ފ waste

ª­‹ ª† ­Š miss

¥ì‹ ¤† ڊ duplicate

¥Þ‹ ¥† ލ ³† Š get confused

ª©‹ ±† ì ³† Š earn a living

¥§‹ چ  ³† Š get electrocuted


¢'­ roots Most such roots repeat the same two consonants (reduplicative roots), e.g.

¥-°-¥-°,

šÚ‹ † § ‹  † §Š ‘computerize’. Hebrew ‘computer’ Æ š Ú   §, yielding the verb šÚ or are based on nouns that have four consonants, e.g.

finds it particularly convenient to turn foreign nouns into verbs in this way, thus:

ÕœìŒ ±† Õ¡ torpedo Æ œì‹ ±† ¡Š torpedoed, œì ±† â¡ was torpedoed Such verbs and action nouns have the same vowel pattern as if they had three consonants. Using the verbs

¥°‹ ¥† °Š

‘ruined’,

¥° ¥† â°

‘was ruined’,

¥°‹ ¥† ° ³† Š ‘became ruined’: PI’EL:

PU’AL:

HITPA’EL:

Action nouns:

,¥°‹ ¥† ° ™ˆ ,. . . ¦¢¥Š °† ¥† ° §† ,¥°‹ ¥† ° §† ,. . . ¢ñŠ ¥† ° ¥† °Š ,¥°‹ ¥† °Š ¥°‹ ¥† ° ¥† ,. . . ¢¥Š °† ¥† ° ñ† ,. . . ¦¢¥Š °Ž ¥† â°§† ,¥°¥ Ž â°§† ,. . . ⥰† ¥† â° ,¢ñŠ ¥† ° ¥† â° ,¥° ¥† â° . . . ¢¥Š °† ¥â° † ñ† ,¥° ¥â°ˆ † ™ ,. . . ¦¢¥Š °† ¥† ° ³† §Š ,¥°‹ ¥† ° ³† §Š ,. . . ¢ñŠ ¥† ° ¥† ° ³† Š ,¥°‹ ¥† ° ³† Š ¥°‹ ¥† ° ³† Š ¥† ,. . . ¢¥Š °† ¥† ° ³† ñŠ ,¥°‹ ¥† ° ³† ™Œ ¥â°¥† °Š , ³â¥°† ¥† ° ³† Š ruination

Note: Where the middle letters (root consonant 2 and 3) involve

š ,¤ ,­,

‘schoolbook Hebrew’ usually requires consonant 2 to be soft and consonant 3 to be hard. But there are numerous exceptions, particularly in foreign-origin words like ¨­‹ ¥† ¡Š ‘telephoned’, œª‹ ކ ªŠ ‘subsidized’.

54 Ë’õ roots

¢ are called ¢"ì roots (ì standing for the first consonant of any root). Examples of verbs with ¢"­ roots: Roots whose first consonant is

93


Level Two

šÚ ¢Ž sit

œ± ¢Ž go down

œ¥ ¢Ž give birth

¨Ú ¢Ž sleep

œ« Õ© (root œ.«.¢) hold a meeting ±³ Õ© remain ™¢¯Š ՝ (root ™.¯.¢) bring out

¥¢šŠ ՝ transport

™¯¢ ‹ ¢Š export

šÚ‹ ¢³† Š settle

a Regular ¢"­ verbs

¢"­ roots are perfectly regular in PI’EL, PU’AL and HITPA’EL, thus ‘to export’ and šÚ ‹ ¢³† Š ‘to settle’: ™â¯¢¢Š

. . . ™¯‹ ¢¢¥†

. . . ™¯‹ ¢¢†

. . . ™¯‹ ¢¢§†

šÚ‹ ¢³† Š ¥†

. . . šÚ‹ ¢³† ¢Š

. . . šÚ‹ ¢³† §Š . . . šÚ‹ ¢³† Š

™¯¢ ‹ ¢Š

. . . ™¯¢ ‹ ¢Š

As for PA’AL, some ¢"­ roots are anomalous (see 54(b)), while others are quite regular except for slight adjustment in 1st sing. future, e.g. ¦Ÿ ¢Ž ‘initiate’, ±¯ ¢Ž ‘form’:

Past

. . . ¢ñŠ §† Ÿ ¢Ž

Present

. . . ¦Ÿ‹ Õ¢

Future

. . . ¦ÕŸ¢ñŠ ,¦ÕŸ¢™Š

Infinitive

¦ÕŸ¢¥Š

b Deviant ¢"­ verbs In some PA’AL verbs, and wherever there is a NIF’AL, HIF’IL or HUF’AL available, ¢"­ roots upset the normal pattern: 1 Several verbs, some very common, lose their ¢ in the PA’AL future, infinitive and imperative. Moreover, as if to compensate for their missing ¢: (a) they adopt the vowel -e-; and

94

(b) rather like "¥ verbs (50), they add a suffix ³Œ in the infinitive.


¢'­ roots

For example, šÚ  ¢Ž ‘sit’:

. . . ¢ñŠ š† ڍ ¢Ž

Past

Present

. . . šÚ‹ Õ¢

Imperative

âšÚ† ¢šŠ چ ,šÚ‹

,šÚ‹ ¢‹ ,¢šŠ چ ñ‹ ,šÚ‹ ñ‹ ,šÚ‹ ™‹ âšÚ† ¢‹ ,âšÚ† ñ‹ ,šÚ‹ ©‹ ,šÚ‹ ñ‹

Future

³šŒ ڌ ¥Ž

Infinitive

2 In HIF’IL the root letter ¢ is eliminated and in compensation the prefix is given the vowel Õ throughout, thus š¢ÚŠ ՝ ‘sit (someone) down’: Past

. . . š¢ÚŠ ՝ ,ñŽ š† ڍ ՝ ,¢ñŠ š† ڍ ՝

Present

. . . š¢ Ž ڊ Õ§ ,š¢ÚŠ Õ§

Future

. . . ¢š¢ Š ڊ Õñ ,š¢ÚŠ Õñ ,š¢ÚŠ ՙ

Infinitive

š¢ÚŠ ՝¥†

3 A few ¢"­ roots also yield a peculiar NIF’AL, again with Õ in place of ¢. Thus the NIF’AL counterpart of ±¯ ¢Ž ‘created’ is ±¯ Õ© ‘was created’: Present

±¯Ž Õ©

Future

±¯‹ žŽ ž¢¢Š

Infinitive

±¯‹ žŽ ž¢Š ¥†

Infinitive

œ«‹ žŽ ž¢Š ¥†

Similarly œ« Õ© ‘met’: Present

œ«Ž Õ©

Future

œ«‹ žŽ ž¢¢Š

Other common verbs of the anomalous down’: Future

. . . ¢œŠ ±† ñ‹ ,œ±‹ ñ‹ ,œ±‹ ™‹

Infinitive

³œŒ ±Œ ¥Ž

¢"­

type include

Imperative

✱† ,¢œŠ ±† ,œ±‹

Imperative

⫝̸† ,¢«Š œ† ,«œ

œ± ¢Ž

‘go

The guttural «œ ¢Ž ‘know’: Future

. . . ¢«Š œ† ñ‹ ,«œ ñ‹ ,«œ ™‹

Infinitive

³« œ ¥Ž

95


Level Two

And a verb with a final ™ (see 58(d)), ™¯Ž ¢Ž ‘go out’: Future

. . . ¢™Š ¯† ñ‹ ,™¯‹ ñ‹ ,™¯‹ ™‹

Infinitive

³™¯‹ ¥Ž

Imperative

These roots also yield œ¢±Š ՝ ‘take down’, known’ and ™¢¯Š ՝ ‘take out’.

♯† ,¢™Š ¯† ,™¯‹

«¢  œŠ ՝ ‘let know’, «œ Õ© ‘be

55 ‘Cross-over’: roots with initial ï ,½ ,® ,N ,L Sibilants are the consonants that ‘hiss’: Ÿ ,ª ,¯ ,Û ,Ú. Where a root begins with a sibilant (e.g. «-›-Ú), Hebrew does not allow the binyan HITPA’EL to create forms like « ›‹ Ú  ³† Š . Instead, to make the ³ prefix more distinct phonetically from the Ú of the root, the Ú crosses in front of the ³ of the prefix: « ›‹ ñ چ Š ‘go crazy’. Similarly for ª and Û: ROOT: ¨-¤-ª HITPA’EL:

not ¨ç‹ ª ³† Š

. . . but ¨ç‹ ñ ª† Š endanger oneself

 ³† Š not ¡±‹ Û

. . . but ¡±‹ ñ ۆ Š scratch oneself

ROOT: ¡-±-Û HITPA’EL:

This phenomenon, called ‘sibilant cross-over’, similarly affects fourconsonant roots: ROOT: ¦-§-«-Ú HITPA’EL:

not ¦§« ‹ ڍ ³† Š . . . but ¦§« ‹ ñ چ Š get bored

Cross-over applies to all forms, thus:

« ›‹ ñ چ Š ¥† . . . ¢«Š ›† ñ چ ñŠ ,« ›‹ ñ چ ™Œ . . . « ›‹ ñ چ §Š . . . ,« ›‹ ñ چ Š ,ñ« Ž › ñ چ Š ,¢ñ« Š › ñ چ Š and the corresponding action nouns:

96

³â©ç† ñ ª† Š

endangering oneself


Maverick verbs

Further examples:

¬ñ‹ ñ چ Š participate

¥«‹ ñ چ Š cough

« ©‹ ¤† ñ چ Š be convinced

¥ç‹ ñ ª† Š look

±ž‹ ž©† ñ ª† Š be blinded

« ±‹ ñŽ ۆ Š stretch

Ÿ or ¯, additional adjustments are made. With prefix is spelled ¡, though with no effect on

Where the initial sibilant is

¯

the -t- of the

pronunciation: ROOT: ±-«-¯ HITPA’EL:

not ±«‹ ¯Ž ³† Š

but ±«‹ ¡Ž ¯† Š

be sorry

Further examples:

¦¥‹ ¡ ¯† Š be photographed

¨¢¢‹¡ ¯† Š excel

¦¯‹ §† ¡ ¯† Š diminish With Ÿ there is an adjustment to pronunciation. ³ is replaced by œ, thus: ROOT: ¨-°-Ÿ HITPA’EL:

not ¨°‹ Ÿ ³† Š

. . . but ¨°‹ œ Ÿ† Š grow old

Further examples:

Ž œ Ÿ† Š identify oneself

Ÿ±‹ œ Ÿ† Š hurry

¨§‹ œ Ÿ† Š happen to come 56 Maverick verbs Several common verbs belong to particularly small groups; and some are a law unto themselves.

97


Level Two

a

©"­ roots

A few verbs lose an initial ©. The commonest are: 1

2

¥­Ž ©Ž ‘fall’, which loses © in the future and infinitive: Future

. . . ¥Õ좊 ,¢¥Š ì† ñŠ ,¥ÕìñŠ ,¥Õ왌

Infinitive

¥Õ좥Š

«ª ©Ž ‘travel’ and «› ©Ž ‘touch’, which lose © in the future and imperative (notice also that their last letter is a guttural, hence «ª ™Œ just like «§ چ ™Œ ): Future

⫪† ¢Š ,⫪† ñŠ ,«ª ©Š ,«ª ñŠ ,«ª ¢Š ,¢«Š ª† ñŠ ,«ª ñŠ ,«ª ™Œ ⫛† ¢Š ,⫛† ñŠ ,«› Š© ,«› ñŠ ,«› ¢Š ,¢«Š ›† ñŠ ,«› ñŠ ,«› ™Œ

Imperative

⫪† ,¢«Š ª† ,«ª ⫛† ,¢«Š ›† ,«›

Notice the ‘nun’ in the infinitive: 3

4

98

« ՛©† ¥Š ,« Õª©† ¥Š

™ÛŽ ©Ž ‘bear’, which loses © in the future, infinitive and imperative. (Notice that its last letter is ™, hence ™Û Ž ™Œ just like ™±Ž °† ™Œ in 58(d) below. Notice also the ³ in the infinitive just like ³™¯‹ ¥Ž .) Future

. . . ™ÛŽ ¢Š ,¢™Š ۆ ñŠ ,™ÛŽ ñŠ ,™ÛŽ ™Œ

Infinitive

³™Û‹ ¥Ž

Imperative

â™Û† ,¢™Š ۆ ,™ÛŽ

¨³ ©Ž ‘give’, which is altogether odd: besides losing its first © in the future, infinitive and imperative, it also loses its second © in part of the past tense: Past

⩳† ©Ž ,¨ñŒ ³ ©Ž ,¦ñŒ ³ ©Ž ,⩳ ©Ž ,©Ž ³† ©Ž ,¨³ ©Ž ,ñ† ³ ©Ž ,ñŽ ³ ©Ž ,¢ñŠ ³ ©Ž

Present normal

³Õ©³† Õ© ,¦¢©Š ³† Õ© ,³©Œ ³Œ Õ© ,¨³‹ Õ©

Future

. . . ¨ñ‹ ¢Š ,¢ Š©ñ† ñŠ ,¨ñ‹ ñŠ ,¨ñ‹ ™Œ

Infinitive

³³‹ ¥Ž

Imperative

â©ñ† ,¢©Š ñ† ,¨ñ‹


5

ڛ ©Š ‘walk up to’, another law unto itself: the past and present belong to binyan NIF’AL (the root is ²-›-©, but instead of ڛ ©† ©Š we get ڛ ©Š ), while the future and infinitive belong to PA’AL (and again the ©

Maverick verbs

drops). Past

,ÚŽ ›† ©Š ,ڛ ©Š ,ñ† چ › Š© ,ñŽ چ › ©Š ,¢ñŠ چ › ©Š âڛ† ©Š ,¨ñŒ چ › ©Š ,¦ñŒ چ › ©Š ,â©Ú† › ©Š

Present

³ÕڛŽ ©Š ,¦¢ÚŠ ›Ž ©Š ,³ÚŒ ›Œ ©Š ,ڛŽ ©Š

Future

âڛ† ¢Š ,âڛ† ñŠ ,ڛ ©Š ,ڛ ¢Š ,ڛ ñŠ ,¢ÚŠ ›† ñŠ ,ڛ ñŠ ,ڛ ™Œ

Infinitive

³ÚŒ ›Œ ¥Ž

° ¥Ž

b

° ¥Ž ‘take’ is the only verb to lose a ¥. It loses it in the future, infinitive and imperative: Future

â °† ¢Š ,â °† ñŠ , ° ©Š , ° ñŠ , ° ¢Š ,¢ Š °† ñŠ , ° ñŠ , ° ™Œ

Infinitive

³  ° ¥Ž

Imperative

â °† ,¢ Š °† , °

c ˂¥ Ž

˂¥ Ž

. It loses it in the future, šÚ ¢Ž in 54 will show that ˂¥ Ž

‘go’ is the only verb to lose an initial

infinitive and imperative. Comparison with is behaving as if it were a ¢"­ verb: Future

⤥† ¢‹ ,⤥† ñ‹ ,˂¥‹ ‹ © ,˂¥‹ ñ‹ ,˂¥‹ ‹ ¢ ,¢¤Š ¥† ñ‹ ,˂¥‹ ñ‹ ,˂¥‹ ™‹

Infinitive

³¤Œ ¥Œ ¥Ž

Imperative

⤥† ,¢¤Š ¥† ,˂¥‹

99


Level Two

¥Õ¤¢Ž and ˂¢±Š ¯Ž

d

¥Õ¤¢Ž

‘can’ and

˂¢±Š ¯Ž

‘must’ not only look unlike any other verb to start

with but even switch binyanim in some tenses, and worse. Here are the basic forms (other alternatives exist):

¥Õ¤¢Ž Present Past

³Õ¥Õ¤¢† ,¦¢¥Š Õ¤¢† ,¥Ž Õ¤¢† ,¥Õ¤¢Ž ,¥Ž ¤† ¢Ž ,¥Õ¤¢Ž ¢ŽŽ ,ñ† ¥† Õ¤¢Ž ,ñŽ ¥† Õ¤¢Ž ,¢ñŠ ¥† Õ¤¢Ž ⥤† ¢Ž ,¨ñŒ ¥† Õ¤¢Ž ,¦ñŒ ¥† Õ¤¢Ž ,â©¥† Õ¤¢Ž

Future

⥤† ⢠,⥤† âñ ,¥¤ â© ,¥¤ âñ ,¥¤ ⢠,¢¥Š ¤† âñ ,¥¤ âñ ,¥¤ â™

Infinitive

None

˂¢±Š ¯Ž Present

³Õ¤¢±Š ¯† ,¦¢¤¢Š ±Š ¯† ,¤¢ Ž ±Š ¯† ,˂¢±Š ¯Ž

Past

. . . ¤¢ Ž ±Š ¯† ³¢¢Š Ž ,˂¢±Š ¯Ž ³¢Š Ž ¢Ž ,˂¢±Š ¯Ž ¢³¢Š Š ¢Ž

Future

Infinitive

,˂±‹ ¡Ž ¯† ñŠ ,˂±‹ ¡Ž ¯Š† ¢ ,¢¤Š ±† ¡Ž ¯† ñŠ ,˂±‹ ¡Ž ¯† ñŠ ,˂±‹ ¡Ž ¯† ™Œ ⤱† ¡Ž ¯† ¢Š ,⤱† ¡Ž ¯† ñŠ ,˂±‹ ¡Ž ¯Š† © ˂±‹ ¡Ž ¯† Š ¥†

e Some verbs beginning with ™

±§ Ò ‘say, tell’, ¥¤ Ò ‘eat’ and š Ò ‘like’ have a strange future tense. ±§ Ò is peculiar in other ways, too: Future

,±§™  ñ ,±§™  ¢ ,¢±Š §™ † ñ ,±§™  ñ ,±§ ՙ Ⱨ™ † ¢ ,Ⱨ™ † ñ ,±§™  © ,¥¤™  ñ ,¥¤™  ¢ ,¢¥Š ¤™ † ñ ,¥¤™  ñ ,¥¤ ՙ ⥤™ † ¢ ,⥤™ † ñ ,¥¤™  ©

100

,š™  ñ ,š™  ¢ ,¢šŠ ˆ ™ñ ,š™  ñ ,š ™ ⚝ˆ ™¢ ,⚝ˆ ™ñ ,š™  ©


±§ Ò has the infinitive ±§ Õ¥ but, in fact, in colloquial usage the future and infinitive for ±§ Ò are borrowed from another verb entirely, œ¢›Š Š : Past

±§ Ò

Present

±§‹ ՙ

Future

. . . ,¢œ¢Š ›Š ñ ,œ¢›Š ñ ,œ¢›Š Ñ

Infinitive

œ¢›Š  ¥†

Note: šž™ ,¥¤ž™ ,±§ž™ could thus be read as present or as future tense:

Maverick verbs

±§‹ ՙ

or ±§ ՙ etc.

f The verb ¢Ž Ž ‘be’ The verb ¢Ž Ž ‘be’ has no present tense. So in ‘Yoram is tough, Yoram is a he-man’ etc., Hebrew either drops the verb or inserts ™¢Š ,™â, etc. (particles of being). See 2.

g The verbs ¢  ‘live’ and ³§‹ ‘die’

¢  ‘live’ and ³§‹ ‘die’ are maverick two-consonant verbs. Unlike ¦°Ž ‘get up’ (26(b)), in the present tense:

³§‹ has the vowel ‹ in the past 3rd person and

Past

⳧‹ ,³Ž §‹ ,³§‹

Present

³Õ³§‹ ,¦¢³Š §‹ ,³Ž §‹ ,³§‹

Future

. . . ³â§ñŽ ,³â§Ò

Infinitive

³â§¥Ž

is even odder. It is basically a "¥ verb (recall 50), but in the 3rd person past and in the present tense it becomes a two-consonant (ž"«) verb:

¢ 

101


Level Two

h

Past

⢠ ,¨³¢ Œ ¢Š  Ž ,¦³¢ Œ ¢Š  Ž ,â©¢¢Š  Ž ,¢Ž  ,¢  ,³¢¢Š  Ž ,³¢ Ž ¢Š  Ž ,¢³¢ Š ¢Š  Ž

Present

³Õ¢  ,¦¢¢Š   ,¢Ž  ,¢ 

Future

. . . ¢Œ † ¢Š ,¢¢Š  † ñŠ ,¢Œ † ñŠ ,¢Œ † ™Œ

Infinitive

³Õ¢ † ¥Š

«"« roots

Roots whose second and third consonants are identical are traditionally called «"« (ayin-ayin) roots, since the middle letter (represented by ‘ayin’) is repeated as the third letter. These roots can on occasion cause special difficulties: one of the repeated consonants can drop, triggering changes from the normal verb and noun patterns. The HIF’IL of a few «"« roots favors the vowel -e-. It has -e-e- (not -i-i-) in both the present and past tense; and -a-e- (not -a-i-) in the future and infinitive:

¨›‹ ‹ ‘defend’ Past

¨›‹ ‹

Present

¨›‹ §‹

Future

¨›‹ ¢Ž

Infinitive

¨›‹ Ž ¥†

and likewise ¥°‹ ‹ ‘alleviate’, Ÿ«‹ ‹ ‘dare’, ¥ ‹ ‹ ‘commence’. In place of the normal PI’EL, PU’AL and HITPA’EL, these roots sometimes use the forms PO’EL, PO’AL and HITPO’EL. See 59.

57 HIF’IL verbs with two-consonant stems: ñËÌ ×Ñí ,þËÌkÌí

102

Several HIF’IL verbs have two consonants showing in their base rather than three. They are of two types, the ±¢çŠ Š ‘recognize’ type and the ¥¢¤Š ‹ ‘contain’ type. Disregarding the HIF’IL prefix , we have here the consonants ±-¤ and ¥-¤.


a

±¢çŠ Š verbs

±¢çŠ Š verbs behave just like other HIF’IL verbs in ­ ,¤ ,š behavior: there is just a missing consonant: Past

terms of vowels and

Hif’il verbs with twoconsonant stems:

¥¢¤Š ‹ ,±¢çŠ Š

,±Ž ¢çŠ Š ,±¢çŠ Š ,ñ† ±† ç Š ,ñŽ ±† ç Š ,¢ñŠ ±† ç Š â±¢çŠ Š ,¨ñŒ ±† ç Š ,¦ñŒ ±† ç Š ,⩱† ç Š

Present

³Õ±¢çŠ § ,¦¢±¢Š çŠ § ,±Ž ¢çŠ § ,±¢çŠ §

Future

â±¢çŠ ¢ ,â±¢çŠ ñ ,±¢çŠ © ,±¢çŠ ñ ,±¢çŠ ¢ ,¢±¢Š çŠ ñ ,±¢çŠ ñ ,±¢çŠ Ñ

Infinitive

±¢çŠ  ¥†

More examples:

b

œ¢›Š Š say, tell

›¢¯Š Š present

¥¢ìŠ Š drop

¡¢ÞŠ Š look

«¢  ¯Š Š suggest

¥¢¯Š Š rescue

±¢ñŠ Š undo

°¢ŸŠ Š harm

¥¢¤Š ‹ verbs

¥¢¤Š ‹ verbs behave quite differently, with -e- in the past and present tense prefix rather than -ia-, and with a soft š ,¤ ,­ (if any): Past

,¥¢ Ž ¤Š ‹ ,¥¢¤Š ‹ ,ñ† ¥† ¤ ‹ ,ñŽ ¥† ¤ ‹ ,¢ñŠ ¥† ¤ ‹ ⥢¤Š ‹ ,¨ñŒ ¥† ¤ ‹ ,¦ñŒ ¥† ¤ ‹ ,â©¥† ¤ ‹

Present

³Õ¥¢¤Š §† ,¦¢¥¢Š ¤Š §† ,¥¢ Ž ¤Š §† ,¥¢¤Š §‹

Future

⥢¤Š ¢Ž ,⥢¤Š ñŽ ,¥¢¤Š ©Ž ,¥¢¤Š ñŽ ,¥¢¤Š ¢Ž ,¢¥¢Š ¤Š ñŽ ,¥¢¤Š ñŽ ,¥¢¤Š Ò

Infinitive

¥¢¤Š Ž ¥†

103


Level Two More examples:

¨¢šŠ ‹ understand

¨¢¤Š ‹ prepare

š¢›Š ‹ react

®¢¯Š ‹ peep

¦¢±Š ‹ lift

™¢šŠ ‹ bring

š¢ÚŠ ‹ reply

±¢«Š ‹ awaken

Ÿ¢ŸŠ ‹ shift Similarly for related nouns: type a: ‘preparation’.

±Ž çŽ 

‘recognition’; type b:

©Ž ¤Ž 

c What are the roots of these verbs? Although most modern dictionaries list such verbs under , traditional grammars insist that type a are from roots with initial © (thus ±-¤-© Æ ±¢¤), while type b are from one-syllable roots (thus ¥-¤ Æ ¥¢¤). However, it is simplest to regard both as having one-syllable roots*. *

In fact, the only notable connection between type a and initial

¥¢ìŠ Š ‘drop’ ~ ¥­ ©Ž ‘fall’ and «¢  ªŠ Š ‘give a lift’ ~ «ª ©Ž ‘travel’.

© verbs is

58 PA’AL verbs with -i-a- in the future: ‘grow’ A few PA’AL verbs do not have -i-o- in the future but -i-a- without any guttural being to blame. There are three types:

a

¥œ †›¢Š ,¥œ‹ ›Ž ,¥œ ›Ž

A small group of intransitive verbs have -i-a- in the future (and imperative) and -a-e- in the present, e.g.:

¥œ ›Ž ‘grow’ 104

Past

. . . ¥œ ›Ž

Present

³Õ¥œ‹ ›† ,¦¢¥Š œ‹ ›† ,¥Ž œ‹ ›† ,¥œ‹ ›Ž


Future

⥜† ›† ¢Š ,⥜† ›† ñŠ ,¥œ ›† ©Š ,¥œ ›† ñŠ ,¥œ ›† ¢Š ,¢¥Š œ† ›† ñŠ ,¥œ ›† ñŠ ,¥œ ›† ™Œ

Infinitive

¥Õœ›† ¥Š

PA’AL verbs with -i-a- in the future: ‘grow’

More examples:

¨Ú ¢Ž sleep

¥œ Ž cease

±ª Ž be absent

§ ێ be glad

᧍ ñŽ wonder Traditionally these have been called stative verbs, but this is not an accurate label.

b

šç چ ¥Š ,šç چ ¢Š ,š¤ ڎ

Two verbs have -i-a- in the future (and imperative) and in the infinitive too, but a regular present: š¤ Ú Ž ‘lie down’ and š¤ ±Ž ‘ride’:

š¤ ڎ ‘lie down’ Past

. . . š¤ ڎ

Present

. . . š¤‹ ÕÚ

Future

Infinitive

c

,šç چ ñŠ ,šç چ ¢Š ,¢šŠ ç† Ú† ñŠ ,šç چ ñŠ ,šç چ ™Œ âšç† چ ¢Š ,âšç† چ ñŠ ,šç چ ©Š šç چ ¥Š

Úލ ¥† ¢Š ,ښ ¥Ž

A handful have -i-a- in the future (and imperative) and are otherwise regular:

ښ ¥Ž ‘wear’ Past

. . . ښ ¥Ž

Present

. . . ښ‹ Õ¥

105


Level Two Future

. . . Úލ ¥† ¢Š ,¢ÚŠ ކ ¥† ñŠ ,Úލ ¥† ñŠ ,Úލ ¥† ™Œ

Infinitive

ÚÕÞ¥† ¥Š

Ž ‘ask’. and likewise œ§ ¥Ž ‘study’ and ¥ÑÚ

d

™"¥ verbs: ™¯Ž §† ¢Š ,™¯Ž §Ž

A few verbs have a final ™ and are termed ™"¥ verbs. Notably: ™¯Ž §Ž ‘find’,

™¯Ž ¢Ž ‘leave’, ™±Ž °Ž ‘read, call’, ™©Ž ێ ‘hate’. Although this

™ is not usually sounded, it does (like the other gutturals)

create -i-a- in the future and imperative, though not in the infinitive. Notice also the present fem. sing.: Past

. . . ™¯Ž §Ž

Present

³Õ™¯† Õ§ ,¦¢™Š ¯† Õ§ ,³™¯‹ Õ§ ,™¯‹ Õ§

Future

Infinitive Observe that

,™¯Ž §† ñŠ ,™¯Ž §† ¢Š ,¢™Š ¯† §† ñŠ ,™¯Ž §† ñŠ ,™¯Ž §† ™Œ ♯† §† ¢Š ,♯† §† ñŠ ,™¯Ž §† ©Š ™Õ¯§† ¥Š ™¯Ž ¢Ž ‘leave’ acts in the future and infinitive like a ¢"­ verb

(54):

³™¯‹ ¥Ž

. . . ™¯‹ ñ‹ ,™¯‹ ™‹

It has a related HIF’IL,

™¢¯Š ՝

‘take out’, which has past tense vowels

slightly different from the regular HIF’IL:

♢¯Š ՝ ,¦³™ Œ ¯‹ ՝ ,⩙¯‹ ՝ ,Ò¢¯Š ՝ ,™¢¯Š ՝ ,³™¯‹ ՝ ,³™ Ž ¯‹ ՝ ,¢³™ Š ¯‹ ՝ Similarly, ™¢šŠ ‹ ‘bring’ has the vowel e in the past tense:

106

♢šŠ ‹ ,¦³™ Œ š‹ ‹ ,⩙š‹ ‹ ,Ò¢šŠ ‹ ,™¢šŠ ‹ ,³™š‹ ‹ ,³™ Ž š‹ ‹ ,¢³™ Š š‹ ‹


59 A minor binyan: the PO’EL and HITPO’EL We have described the one-syllable verb, e.g. consonant root:

¦-°.

¦°Ž ,

as having a two-

A minor Level Two the binyan: PO’EL and HITPO’EL

We have shown such roots in two binyanim: the

PA’AL (26(b)) and HIF’IL, e.g. ¦¢°Š ‹ (57(b)). These roots frequently also have a PI’EL, PU’AL and HITPA’EL form, but a special variety thereof, namely the PO’EL, PO’AL and HITPO’EL. This involves: 1 adding the letter ž; and 2 creating a third consonant. This is done by repeating the second. Moreover, middle š ,¤ ,­ are soft. Take for example, ¦§‹ Õ° ‘arouse’: Past

Present Future

Infinitive

,§Ž §† Õ° ,¦§‹ Õ° ,ñ† §† § Õ° ,ñŽ §† § Õ° ,¢ñŠ §† § Õ° ⧧† Õ° ,¨ñŒ §† § Õ° ,¦ñŒ §† § Õ° ,⩧† § Õ° ³Õ§§† Õ°§† ,¦¢§Š §† Õ°§† ,³§Œ §Œ Õ°§† ,¦§‹ Õ°§† ,¦§‹ Õ°¢† ,¦§‹ Õ°ñ† ,¢§Š §† Õ°ñ† ,¦§‹ Õ°ñ† ,¦§‹ Õ°™ˆ ⧧† Õ°¢† ,⧧† Õ°ñ† ,¦§‹ Õ°©† ¦§‹ Õ°¥†

The PO’AL is like the PU’AL except that instead of -u-a- the vowels are -o-a-:

. . . ¦§Õ°  ¢† . . . ¦§Õ° Ž §† . . . ¦§Õ°  The HITPO’EL is like HITPA’EL except (as in PO’EL) for the

ž and the

repeated third consonant:

³â§§† Õ°³† Š . . . ¦§‹ Õ°³† Š ¥† . . . ¦§‹ Õ°³† ¢Š . . . ¦§‹ Õ°³† §Š . . . ¦§‹ Õ°³† Š

97 107


Level Two Further examples of such verbs corresponding to two-consonant PA’AL:

®±Ž

run

~

®¯‹ Õ±³† Š

run about

ێ

say

~

  ‹ ÕÛ

chat

±›Ž

live

~

±±‹ ՛³† Š

stay

¨¢¤Š ‹

make ready

~

¨©‹ Õ糆 Š

get oneself ready

¨¢šŠ ‹

understand

~

¨©‹ ÕÞ³† Š

contemplate

A further source of PO’EL and HITPO’EL: some three-consonant roots with an identical second and third consonant have a regular PI’EL and HITPA’EL, whereas others (for no obvious reason) instead have a PO’EL and HITPO’EL:

®¯‹ Õì blow up (transitive)

®¯‹ Õ쳆 Š blow up (intransitive)

šš‹ Õª turn (transitive)

šš‹ Õñª† Š turn (intransitive)

¥¥‹ Õñچ Š run wild

¨©‹ Õ¥³† Š complain

¡¡‹ ÕÚ roam

œœ‹ Õ§³† Š confront

!šÕ¡ šš‹ Õñª† §Š ™¥ ŸŒ ¥šŽ ™ˆ ŸŒ ³™Œ šš‹ Õª§† ¢©Š ™ˆ I’m turning it but it isn’t turning properly!

60 More plurals of nouns a Plurals ending in ¦¢¢ While most nouns form their plural with ¦¢ or ³Õ, a few (including some very common nouns) use ¦¢¢ (stress -ayim). These are of two types: 1 Many nouns for objects that typically involve a pair of things, notably parts of the body. Note, however, that this ¦¢¢ denotes the plural, not necessarily two of something, thus:

108

¦¢¢Š ¥ ›† ± «Þ ±† Ñ

four legs


More plurals of nouns

Examples:

¦¢¢Š © Ÿ† ՙ ears

¦¢¢Š © ¢ÚŠ teeth

¦¢¢Š © ³† Õ§ hips

¦¢¢Š ­ °Ž چ §Š spectacles

¦¢¢Š © ­ ՙ bicycle

¦¢¢Š ލ ±† › socks

¦¢¢Š ± ¢çŠ cooking range 2 A few miscellaneous nouns include:

¦¢¢Š § ڎ sky

¦¢¢Š § water

¦¢¢Š ¥ âÚ margin

¦¢¢Š ± ‰ Õ¯ lunchtime

The construct form is simply ¢‹, as with ordinary plurals:

ìŽ ª  ¢¥‹ ›† ± the legs of the couch ¨Õ¥¢¢© ¢Þ‹ ±† › nylon socks b Duals ending in ¦¢¢ A handful of time units and numerals form a dual form by adding namely:

¦¢¢Š ³ « چ two hours

¦¢¢Š § Õ¢ two days

¦¢¢Š « âšÚ† two weeks

¦¢¢Š ڍ œ† Õ two months

¦¢¢Š ³ ©Ž چ two years

¦¢¢Š § « ì twice

¦¢¢Š ³™  §Ž 200

¦¢¢Š ì ¥† Ñ 2000

¦¢¢,

c Plural of segolate nouns with ³- (e.g. ³±Œ Õª§Ž ‘tradition’) Typical segolate nouns and their plural, œ›Œ ތ :¦¢œŠ ›Ž ކ , were introduced in 7(c). But special note should be taken of segolates ending in feminine ³. These usually have three syllables, and all form their plural by essentially the same method. Notice that the stress in the plural falls on the plural ending:

109


Level Two Type 1:

-e-et or a-at

Type 2:

-a-ót

Æ Æ

³Õ¯¥Ž ­† §Š ,³Õ ¥Ž °† §Š

-o-et

Æ

-o-ót

³œŒ Õ祆 §

Æ

³ÕœÕ祆 §

³¯Œ ¥Œ ­† §Š or ³  ¥ °† §Š

Examples: Type 1:

Type 2:

³¥¢ Œ ¢Œœ air-hostess

³±Œ žžŒ ç bee-hive

³±Œ ތ † § exercise-book

³  ¥ چ §Š delegation

³« ލ ›† §Š hat

³« ލ ¡ ring

³±Œ Õ쪆 ñŠ hair-do

³±Œ Õª§Ž tradition

³°Œ Õ¥ † § dispute Note: Many ‘segolate’ nouns ending in

³

belong in fact to a different

category: nouns based on present tense verbs. For example:

³¥Œ ìŒ ¡ §†

‘child-

minder’, ³±Œ ŸŒ Õ« ‘cleaning lady’. See 72.

d Plural nouns: some exceptions Numerous masculine nouns form their plural with nouns already have -o- as their last vowel; adding

³Õ.

Many of these

³Õ rather than ¦¢ thus

creates a vowel harmony. Examples:

110

³Õ±ÕÞ:±ÕÞ

pit

³Õ¥Õ :¥Õ 

sand(s)

³Õ§Õ°§† :¦Õ°§Ž

place

³Õ©Õ¥§† :¨Õ¥§Ž

hotel

³Õ©Õ±³† ¢Š :¨Õ±³Ž ¢Š

advantage

³Õ§Õ¥ ˆ :¦Õ¥ Ž

dream

³Õ© Ž ¥† âÚ:¨ Ž ¥† âÚ

table

³Õ±¢°Š :±¢°Š

wall

³ÕšŽ± ˆ :šŒ± Œ

sword

³Õ§Ú‹ :¦Ú‹

name

³ÕšÒ:šÒ

father


More plurals of nouns

Many nouns ending in Œ take the ending ³Õ, e.g.

³ÕŸ ˆ § :ŸŒ  ˆ §

play

³Õ© ˆ § :©Œ  ˆ §

Conversely, some thirty feminine nouns take

camp

¦¢, including about half of

the feminine nouns that have no feminine ending in their singular – and several words for flora and fauna. (Consult a good dictionary.)

¦¢©Š šŽ ™ˆ :¨šŒ ™Œ

stone

¦¢¤Ž Š ±œ† :˂±Œ œŒ

route

¦¢Š©â­ˆ™:Ž©â­ˆ™

pea

¦¢Š©Õ¢:Ž©Õ¢

pigeon

¦¢Š©ÚÕÚ  :Ž©ÚÕÚ 

lily

¦¢¥Š §†  ©:¥Ž §† Ž©

ant

And there are plurals that are unique, or nearly so, such as:

¦¢©Š ڎ :©Ž ڎ

year

¦¢ÚŠ ©Ž :Ú¢ Ž ™Š

woman

¦¢ÚŠ ©Ž ™ˆ :Ú¢™Š

person

³Õ¢Ûˆ Š «§ :Ûˆ Œ «§

tale

¦¢ñŠ ގ :³¢Š ލ

house

¦¢±Š «Ž :±¢«Š

city

¦¢©Š ގ :¨Þ‹

son

³Õ©ÞŽ :³Þ

daughter

³Õ§Ž ™Š :¦™‹

mother

³Õ¢ Ž Ñ:³Õ Ò

sister

¦¢©Š ގ ± :š±

rabbi

³Õ¥¢¥‹ :¥¢ Ž ¥

night

/³Õª­† â°:ªŽ ­† â° ³Õ™ªŽ ­â° †

can

/³Õ§›† âœ:§Ž ›† ✠³Õ™§Ž ›âœ †

pattern

¦¢§Š ¢Ž:¦Õ¢

day

³Õ©Õ±­† «Œ :¨Õ±ìŽ «Š

pencil

³Õ©Õ¤ª† Œ :¨Õ¤ªŽ  Š

saving

¦¢±ž Š žŽ چ :±ÕÚ

bull

¦¢°ž Š žŽ Ú:°âÚ

market

³Õ™±† § :¢™Š ±†

mirror

³Õ¢³Š ՙ:³Õ™

letter

¦¢Ú™ Š ±Ž :ڙ±

head

¦¢œŠ œŽ ¯† :œ¯

side

¦¢¥Š ¥Ž ¯† :¥¯‹

shadow

111


Level Two

61 Vowel raising: óËÌ ôeðÎê-óÒîðÖê ,Òîñek-ñÖk A few important words, when given an inflectional suffix, ‘raise’ their vowels: they change -o- to -u- and -e- to -i- (if they have such a vowel) and sometimes even -a- to -i-. In addition, they ‘harden’ their last letter if it is š ,¤ ,­. 1 o to u

³Õ§âœ™ˆ ,¦¢§Š ✙ˆ ,§Ž ✙ˆ Å ¦ÕœÒ

red

¦ÞŽ â± . . . ,ÞŽ â± ,ÕÞâ±

šÕ±

most: most of it . . . most of them

. . . ˃¢Œ¯¢ Š ,¢¯¢ Š . . . ¦¢¯¢Š  Š Å ® ‹

arrow: arrows ~ my, your . . . arrows

Å

2 e to i

3 a to i

. . . ˃¢Œª¢§Š ,¢ª¢§Š . . . ¦¢ª¢Š §Š Å ª§

tax: taxes ~ my, your . . . taxes

4 A few harden the last letter without raising the vowel, thus:

. . . ˃ލ † › ,¢Þ Š › :¦¢Þ Š›

Å

š›

back: backs ~ my, your . . . back

and similarly:

¬œ page

¬ç spoon

š¥ چ stage

˂± soft

˂Ÿ pure

š± much, many

o Æ u applies (a) to most color adjectives; (b) to a few other adjectives and one-syllable nouns; and

112

(c) to the quantifiers ¥çŽ ‘all’ and šÕ± ‘most’


Plural loss: e Æ i and a Æ i apply to some twenty one-syllable nouns. Examples:

œÕ±žŽ pink

¥Õ çŽ dark blue

°Õ±¢Ž green

šÕ¯Ž yellow

°Õ³§Ž sweet

¥Õ›«Ž round

¦Õ¢Ò awful

¬Õñ drum

°Õ law

¨Ú‹ tooth

Ú¢™Š ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ ’twenty persons’

Ÿ«‹ goat 62 Generic plurals: ‘I hate cockroaches’ To express the generic (i.e. something in general), one simply uses the plural of the noun:

¦¢°â Š '› ™‹©ÕÛ ¢Š©™ˆ

I hate cockroaches

¦¢¥Š °† ¥† ° ³† §Š œ¢§Š ñŽ °šÒ Ž -¢šˆ ‹ ™ÕÚ

Vacuum-cleaners always go wrong

63 Plural loss: LËÌ ê óËÌþN ÐÓ¼ ‘twenty persons’ Instead of ¦¢§Š ¢Ž ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ , Hebrew requires ¦Õ¢ ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ ‘twenty days’. Such loss of the plural ending occurs with certain units of time and with most units of quantity. The following may be taken as rules of thumb: 1 Where the numeral itself ends in a plural ending, e.g. ¦¢ÚŠ եچ ‘30’, ³Õ™§‹ «Þ ±† Ñ ‘400’, ¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ ³ÚŒ ڋ ‘6000’, any unit of time that would ordinarily have ¦¢ in the plural has to lose this ¦¢Š. Thus:

©Ž ڎ ¦¢ÚŠ եچ ,ڜŒ Õ ¦¢ÚŠ եچ ,¦Õ¢ ¦¢ÚŠ եچ 30 days, 30 months, 30 years By contrast, ³Õ«âšÚ Ž ¦¢ÚŠ եچ (the unit of time ends in ³Õ).

,³Õ°œ ¦¢ÚŠ եچ ‘30 minutes, 30 weeks’

113


Level Two

2 Most other types of unit of quantity lose their ¦¢Š when combined with any numeral (except in pedantic style), thus:

,Õ¥¢°Š ÚŽ եچ ,±¡Œ §Œ ÚŽ եچ ,±¥Ž ՜ ÚŽ եچ Ÿâ Ò ²Ž եچ ,¨Õ¢¥† §Š ÚŽ եچ ,¥¢¢§ ÚŽ եچ three dollars, meters, kilos, miles, million, percent

Ž եچ ‘three The word Ú¢™Š ‘person’ is treated in the same way: Ú¢™Š Ú Œ is heard in both the masculine plural and the persons’. However, ¥°Œ Ú feminine singular: ¥°Œ ڌ Úեڎ ,¦¢¥Š °Ž چ ÚŽ եچ

three shekels

64–8 NOUN TYPES (MISHKALIM) 64 Action nouns, e.g. LeðËÌ ì ‘renewal’ To form nouns denoting actions (‘destruction, confinement, playing . . .’), Hebrew is generally able to use five fixed noun patterns, corresponding closely and fairly systematically to five of the seven binyanim. These action nouns have already been listed in the verb inflection tables:

Noun pattern

Example

PE’ILA

±Ž ¢šŠ چ

HIPA’ALUT

HAF’ALA

PI’UL

HITPA’ALUT

114

Corresponding verb (and binyan) Å

±š ڎ

(PA’AL)

a breakage

break

³â¥œ† Þ¢ Ž Š segregation

¥œ š† ©Š (NIF’AL) become segregated

¥Ž œŽ š† 

¥¢œŠ š† Š

distinction

distinguish

šâ碫Š

šç¢ ‹ «Š

a delay

delay

³â¥œ† ލ ³† Š

¥œ‹ ލ ³† Š (HITPA’EL) segregate oneself

self-segregation

(HIF’IL)

(PI’EL)


Note that "¥ action nouns (recall 50) insert ¢ for their ‘missing letter’, except for the two ³â- patterns (HIPA’ALUT and HITPA’ALUT):

©Ž ގ

Æ

¢Ž¢©Š ކ

building

©Ž چ ©Š

Æ

³â©Ú¢ Ž Š

repetition

ª¢ Ž çŠ

Æ

¢âª¢çŠ

cover

ªŽ ç ³† Š

Æ

³âªç ³† Š

covering oneself

¥Ž ­† Š

Æ

¢Ž¥Ž ­† 

discrimination

Nouns from adjectives, Š ™Š e.g. ³â¢¡¢ ‘slowness’

Sometimes, nouns of these patterns have further or simply other meanings. Thus:

¤¢ Ž ±Š ç†

(action of) binding

or

(physical) binding of a book

®âÞ¢°Š

(action of) gathering

or

a kibbutz

Sometimes an unexpected pattern is used, e.g.:

œ° ±Ž

Æ

œâ°¢±Š

dancing

¨ñ‹  ³† Š

Æ

©Ž â³ ˆ

wedding

°¥¢ ‹ Š

Æ

°Ž ⥠ˆ

distribution

¥Þ¢ ‹ °Š

Æ

¥Ž ގ °

acceptance

¦  ¥† ©Š

Æ

§¢ Ž Š ¥†

fighting

Unfortunately, few dictionaries list the action noun under the verb.

65 Nouns from adjectives, e.g. ³eËÌ ¬ËÌê ‘slowness’ Abstract nouns can often be formed from adjectives, just like English ‘vast Æ vastness’. For adjectives with the suffix ¢ (8(a), 69), simply add ³â:

¢¡¢ Š ™Š

slow

Æ

³â¢¡¢ Š ™Š

slowness

¢¥Š §Ž ±† Õ©

normal

Æ

³â¢¥Š §Ž ±† Õ©

normality

115


Level Two For most other adjectives, take the plural stem. This is often different Ž ‘fat’ is ¨§‹ چ (recall 8(c): from the singular, thus the plural stem of ¨§‹ Ú ¨§‹ ڎ vs. ¦¢©Š §‹ چ ). Then add ³â:

¨§‹ ڎ

fat

Æ

³â©§‹ چ

fatness

±¢Š §Ž

quick

Æ

³â±¢Š §†

speed

¥¢«Š ¢Ž

efficient

Æ

³â¥¢«Š ¢†

efficiency

And where the adjective has instead:

â

for its last vowel, the noun will have

šâ¡±Ž

wet

Æ

³âš¢¡Š ±†

wetness

¨â³§Ž

moderate

Æ

³â©¢³Š §†

moderation

¢

A few adjectives require other patterns. One important one is the segolate pattern for measurement nouns:

¥Õœ›Ž

big

Æ

¥œŒ ՛

Similarly °§Œ Õ« ‘depth’, ˂±Œ ՙ ‘length’, ‘thickness’, ¢žŠ ÕÚ ‘worth’, ª§Œ Õ« ‘load’.

size

š  Õ±

‘width’,

ᚍ ՛

‘height’,

¢šŠ Õ«

66 The noun patterns ñÖ ¼Ôt and öÖñ¼Ôt The noun pattern PA’AL (¥«Ž ì ), with a hard middle š ,¤ ,­, commonly denotes someone doing a particular job. It is often based on verbs and sometimes even on nouns:

116

šñŽ ç

reporter

(š³ çŽ write)

ª¢Ž¢¡

pilot

(ª¡Ž

ގ ¡

cook

( š ¡Ž slaughter)

¡¢Ž¢ 

tailor

(¡â thread)

¥¢Ž¢ 

soldier

(¥¢Š ¢  corps)

fly)


The noun pattern PA’ALAN (¨¥« Ž ì ) has several functions, again based on verbs or nouns:

Nouns with the suffix ¨Ž and ¢™

1 someone doing a job, e.g. ¨ Ž ©† ¯ ‘paratrooper’ ( ¢  ©Š ¯† Š ‘to parachute’), ¨¥Ž ކ   ‘saboteur’ (¥Þ¢ ‹  Š ‘to damage’), ¨±Ž ¯† ¢ ‘manufacturer’ (±¯¢ ‹ ¢Š ‘to manufacture’). 2 someone engaged in some voluntary activity, e.g. Ž ‘swim’), ¨­Ž ¥† ° ‘card-player’ (¬¥Ž °† ‘card’). ( Ž Û 3 a device, e.g. ‘accompany’).

¨ÚŽ «ˆ ±

‘rattle’ (Ú« ± ‘noise’),

¨¢Ž¢ž† ž¥

¨¢Ž¢ † ۍ

‘swimmer’

‘satellite’ (žŽ ž¢¥Š

4 a personality type, e.g. ¨­Ž ©†  ‘flatterer’ (¬¢©Š  † Œ ‘flatter’), ¨¯Ž §† ° ‘miser’ (®§ °Ž ‘close’), ¨°Ž ¢† ¢œ ‘punctual person’ (°¢‹ ¢œŠ ‘to be punctual’). The Hebrew noun and adjective – unlike the Hebrew verb – have a multitude of patterns, many of which have no clear-cut meaning. So it is difficult to say, on the basis of its pattern, what a noun or adjective means. Conversely, it is just as difficult to anticipate which pattern to use for expressing a given concept.

67 Nouns with the suffix öÖ and ËêÔ a The suffix ¨Ž The suffix ¨Ž is often added to an existing word to denote an activity, a personality, or even an object: 1

¨ Ž ³† Õñ ‘gunner’ ( ³Ž Õñ ‘big gun’), ¨Ò⚢† ‘importer’ (™âš¢† ‘imports’), ¨¥Ž ç† ¥† ç ‘economist’ (¥Ž çŽ ¥† ç ‘economics’), ¨¥Ž Õª ‘soloist’ (Õ¥Õª ‘solo’), ¨¥Ž ⥠‘poultry-keeper’ (¥â¥ ‘hen-house’)

2

¨ìŽ ¯† â ‘cheeky person’ (ìŽ ¯† â  ‘cheek’), ¨«Ž Ÿ† ›Š ‘racist’ («Ÿ ›Œ ‘race’), ¨°Ž ³† ì ±†  ‘adventurer’ (°Ž ³† ì ±†  ‘adventure’), ¨­Ž °† Õñ ‘aggressor’ (¬°‹ Õñ ‘attacking’)

3

¨§Ž Õ¢

‘diary’ (¦Õ¢ ‘day’), ‘hydrogen’ (¦¢Š § ‘water’)

¨ Ž ³† Õì

‘can-opener’ (  ³‹ Õì ‘opens’),

¨§¢ Ž §‹

117


Level Two

b The suffix ¢™ The suffix ¢™ is often added to an existing word to denote someone engaged in an activity, especially to words ending in Ž. Purists insist that it be pronounced ¢™ (as one syllable) but it is often pronounced ¢™Š Ž (two syllables), thus ¢™Š ìŽ â°. Examples:

¢™© Õñ«Š journalist

¢™ì â° cashier

¢™ª¢  ©Š ¡Œ tennis-player

¢™¡ §Ž † ڍ chess-player

¢™§ ¢ seaman 68 Some other noun patterns Here are some more common noun patterns that tend to have a characteristic meaning or meanings. In some cases, they are based on another noun or a verb. 1

2

¥«‹ ­† § : usually a device of some kind: ®‹ ›† § iron

šÚ‹ † § computer

 œ‹ °† § drill

 ñ‹ ­† § key

›¥‹ Ÿ† § fork

˂ì‹ Ú† § funnel

¥Ž «‹ ­† § : usually a device – or the location on an activity: §Ž ¥‹ ¯† § camera

ÚŽ ±‹ ˆ § plough

±Ž ¡‹ §† § sprinkler

ªŽ ދ ¤† § laundry

šŽ ¥‹ † § dairy 3

118

¥«Ž ­† §Š : commonly denotes an action or its product, or a location: œ«Ž ¯† §Š parade

±œŽ چ §Š broadcast

¨ Ž š† §Š exam

œ±Ž ۆ §Š office

ڜŽ °† §Š temple

¨›Ž «ˆ §

anchorage (notice the -a-avowels caused by the ‘guttural’ «)


4

¥Ž «Ž ­† §Š : commonly denotes a location or an organization: ¤Ž ±Ž œ† §Š sidewalk

œŽ °Ž ­† §Š headquarters

œŽ «Ž ª† §Š restaurant

œŽ ގ «ˆ § lab (notice the -a-a- vowels caused by the ‘guttural’ «)

±Ž ¡Ž چ §Š police

¥Ž ¥Ž ¤† §Š college

Some other noun patterns

§Ž ¯Ž «ˆ § a power 5

6

³¥Œ «Œ ì : usually an illness – or a grouped object: ³°Œ ¥Œ œ inflammation

³šŒ Œ ¯ jaundice

³ªŒ ¢Œ¢¡ squadron

³œŒ ¢Œ¢© patrol

¥¢«Š ­† ñ : usually the outcome or physical product of an action: ‹ ªŠ complicate) ˂¢ÞŠ ª† ñ a (psychological) complex (˂Þ¢ ¦¢œŠ °† ñ precedent (¦¢œŠ °† Š precede) ¡¢¥Š °† ñ disc (¡¢¥Š °† Š record) ³¢±Š °† ñ ‘incident’ (±Ž °Ž happen; notice the ³ in lieu of the root-letter )

7

³¥Œ Õ«­† ñŠ : usually the outcome or physical product of an action, typically something elaborate: ³°Œ Õ±ª† ñŠ hair-do (°±‹ ¢ªŠ comb) ³ÚŒ ÕÞ¥† ñŠ costume (ښ ¥Ž wear) ³©Œ Õ§ª† ñŠ syndrome (¨§¢ ‹ ªŠ signify) ³šŒ եچ ñ† a complex (š¥¢ ‹ ڊ integrate) ³±Œ ÕÚ°† ñŠ communications (±Ú‹ ° ³† Š communicate)

8

¥« ¥† « ì† : commonly a diminutive. The final syllable in the source noun is reduplicated, while itself changing its vowel to -a-: š¥ š† ¥ ç† puppy (š¥Œ çŒ ) ¨° ©† ° Ÿ† small beard (¨°Ž ŸŽ beard)

¥âñ¥† ³  kitten (¥â³ Ž ) 119


Level Two 9 The suffix

¨Õ

has a variety of meanings: often ‘a place for’, ‘a

publication for’, ‘a mini-something’:

¨Õ¡Õ«ìŽ crèche

¨Õ«âšÚ† weekly magazine

¨Õ³©Ž چ yearbook

¨Õ±¢ Š §† pricelist

¨Õ¡¢¥Š °† ñ computer diskette

¨Õ¡±† ªŠ short film

¨Õ¥›† œŠ small flag

¨ÕÚì† ¡Š little fool

10 The suffix

¡ª¢ † Š: added to words ending in a vowel or in –n: someone

belonging to a group or engaged in an activity:

¡ª¢ † ©Š Õ¤¢ñŠ high school student

¡ª¢ † ©Š ¢§Š چ eighth-grader

¡ª¢† ©Š ճގ ڍ person on sabbatical

¡ª¢ † ©Š ›Ž ¥ ލ messy person

¡ª¢ † ڊ ­ Fascist

¡ª¢ † ¥Š Ñ¢¯Š Õª Socialist

11 The suffix

°¢©Š : similar function to ¡ª¢† Š , but attached to words ending

in a consonant:

°¢©Š š† ڍ Õ§ moshav member

°¢©Š ¯† âÞ¢°Š kibbutz member

°¢©Š œ† â碥Š Likud member

°¢©Š ކ Õ'› shirker

12 The suffix

³¢Š:

a mini-something, or simply an object related to

something, particularly a vehicle or a brand-name (and of course the regular feminine of nouns like

¢™Š °¢ Ž ±Š §Œ Ñ

‘American’). It also denotes

languages, basing itself on the feminine of nationality adjectives, e.g.

³¢¥Š ›† ©† Ñ ‘English’, ³¢©Š ¢ªŠ ‘Chinese’:

120

³¢ìŠ ç teaspoon

³¢ªŠ Õç small glass

³¢°Š ۍ bag

³¢©Š Õ¤§† car

³¢©Š Õ§ cab

³¢¥Š ¥Ž ˆ space-ship

³¢ŸŠ ì Pazit (a brand of cookie)

³¢ŸŠ ± ç† âª Sucrazit (a brand of sweetener)


13 The suffix

¢Ž Š:

simply an object related to something, particularly

apparel, plants, stores and workshops, collections and ensembles:

¢Ž­Š ñ‹ ç† cape

¢Ž­Š ⛠undershirt

¢ŽŸŠ Ž bra

¢ŽœŠ °‹ چ almond-tree

¢Ž°¢ Š ¡‹ ª† steak-house

¢Ž©Š œŽ ›† §Š patisserie

¢Ž±Š ›‹ ª† § metal workshop

¢ŽÚ¢ Š ¥Š چ trio

¢Ž±Š ­† ªŠ library

¢Žª¢ Š ¡Š ±† ç season-ticket

Some other noun patterns

¢Ž Š §† ¯Š vegetation 14 Compounds: Hebrew likes to compound two words together to create a new word, sometimes with a little trimming of unwanted letters. Compounds are treated as a single word in terms of plural endings etc.

¥›Œ ±Œ + ±âœç ball + foot

Æ

¥›Œ ±Œ âœç soccer

±Õ™ + ¡¢¥Š °† ñ disc + light

Æ

±Õ¡¢¥Š °† ñ CD

šÕ ±† + ¤Ž ±Ž œ† §Š sidewalk + street

Æ

šÕ ±Ž œ† §Š pedestrian-only street

¢Ž¢ Š© ˆ + œœ §Ž to measure + parking

Æ

¨  œ† § parking meter

¥Õ° + ¦±Ž loud + sound

Æ

¥Õ°§† ± loudspeaker (pl.: ¦¢¥Š Õ°§† ± )

Acronyms: rather like ‘NATO’ and ‘AIDS’ in English, Hebrew often creates new words out of initials or abbreviations. The vowels are generally -a-a- or, if the middle letter is vav, -o-. A double apostrophe

 ±† ›‹ ) is placed before the last letter: (Hebrew: ¦¢¢Š Ú ¦¢šŠ â³ç† ¦¢™¢ Š šŠ ©† ±Ž Õñ

Æ

˂"© ñ

Bible

¥™‹ ±Ž ۆ ¢Š ¥† ©Ž ›Ž ˆ ™šŽ ¯†

Æ

¥" ¯

Israeli Defense Forces

¢¥Š ¥Ž ç† ¡Œ § ڙ±

Æ

¥çŽ ¡† § ±

Chief of Staff

¨ÕÞچ Œ ž† ¨¢œŠ

Æ

"՜

report

ڜŽ Ž ¥°Œ ڌ

Æ

"ڍ

New Sheqel

121


Level Two 15 Nouns from problem roots: even where a noun pattern gives no clear indication of a word’s meaning, to connect the noun with some root may give useful clues as to the meaning – or at least help with memorization. But where the root is a ‘problem root’ (see 50–9) with weak letters, making the connection can be difficult. The pattern

¥Ž â­ñ†

is commonly based on Ayin-Vav verbs (recall

26(b)):

~

š.Ú

(cf. š¢ÚŠ ‹ respond)

Òâšñ† (farm) produce ~

™.š

(cf. ™¢šŠ ‹ bring)

œŽ â«ñ† certificate

~

œ.«

(cf. œ«‹ a witness)

©Ž â¥ñ† complaint

~

¨.¥

(cf. ¨©‹ Õ¥³† Š complain)

šŽ âÚñ† response

Roots with an initial

© (©"­ roots, see 56) often drop the © in nouns,

e.g.:

š›Ž § windshield wiper and ³šŒ ›Œ § towel from š.›.© (cf. š›‹ ¢©Š wipe) ¦¢Š § -¥ì § waterfall and ³¥Œ Õ짍 landslide from ¥.­.© (cf. ¥­ ©Ž fall) «ª § campaign from «.ª.© (cf. «ª ©Ž travel) Roots with an initial ¢ (¢"­ roots, see 54) often provide nouns with the letter ž instead of ¢, thus:

³œŒ ¥Œ Õ§ homeland and ³œŒ ¥Œ ❠¦Õ¢ birthday from œ.¥.¢ (cf. œ¥ ¢Ž give birth) šÚŽ Õ§ seat and šÚŽ Õñ inhabitant from š.Ú.¢ (cf. šÚ ¢Ž sit) «Ž œŽ Õ§ notification and «Ž œŽ Õñ consciousness from «.œ.¢ (cf. «œ ¢Ž know) 122

Roots with an identical second and third letter («"« roots, see 56) often drop one of these letters:


Passive adjectives:

°Õ law (cf. °°  Ž legislate)

,ª©Ž ¤† ⧠,ªâ©çŽ ) (ª©Ž ⤧†

¨› garden (cf. ¨©Ž › gardener) ±ÛŽ minister (cf. ±± ێ rule) ¦Õœ stand to attention (cf. ¦§‹ ՜ inanimate) ¨ ‹ grace (cf. ¨©  Ž to pardon) ¥çŽ all (cf. ¥¥ çŽ include) ¦¢¥Š ¥Ž ¯† ~ ¥¯‹ shadow, ¦¢œŠ œŽ ¯† ~ œ¯ side ¥¢ Ž ­Š ñ† prayer (cf. ¥¥‹ ì ³† Š pray) ¥¢ Ž ªŠ §† track (cf. ¥¥ ªŽ pave) ¯¢ Ž  Š §† partition (cf. ®¯  Ž to come between) 69–71 ADJECTIVE TYPES 69 Passive adjectives (½Öòe×Ð ô ,½ÖòÐ×eô ,½eòÖk) Three of the verb patterns (binyanim) are capable of a direct object: PA’AL, HIF’IL and PI’EL. And each usually has a corresponding passive adjective, expressing a ‘state of having been done’ (also known as the passive participle). Example:

³¥Œ œŒ  ³™Œ ¢ñŠ † ³ ìŽ

 Ž â³ì† ³¥Œ œŒ 

Æ

I opened the door Verb

The door is open Passive adj.

Using our model root ª-©-¤: 1 Corresponding to PA’AL

ª© çŽ

‘to draw in’: ªâ©çŽ ‘drawn in’*

³Õªâ©ç† ,¦¢ªŠ â©ç† ,ªŽ â©ç† ,ªâ©çŽ 2 Corresponding to HIF’IL

ª¢©Š ¤† Š

‘to insert’: ª©Ž ¤† ⧠‘inserted’

³Õª©Ž ¤† ⧠,¦¢ªŠ ©Ž ¤† ⧠,³ªŒ ©Œ ¤† ⧠,ª©Ž ¤† â§

123


Level Two

ª©‹ ¢çŠ

3 Corresponding to PI’EL

‘to convene’: ª©Ž ⤧† ‘convened’

³Õª©Ž ⤧† ,¦¢ªŠ ©Ž ⤧† ,³ªŒ ©Œ ⤧† ,ª©Ž ⤧† * For "¥ verbs, the letter yod is added for the ‘missing’ final consonant; for example:

­Ž Ò bake

¢â­Ò ›œŽ baked fish

Æ

Examples: 1

±âšÚŽ ŸŒ it’s broken

šâ©›Ž Ú⤱† stolen property

±â¤§Ž ª©† ¢'›Š  the jeans are sold 2

³¡Œ ¥Œ °† ⧠ ¢ Ž ۊ a recorded talk

© Ÿ† ⧠ ¡ ڌ a neglected area

¨¤Ž ⧠ŸŒ it’s ready 3

ì â°§† ™â he’s deprived

¨›Ž ±† ♧† ¥â¢¡Š an organized trip

Ú° ⚧† œ™§† in big demand The PI’EL and HIF’IL passive adjectives are identical with the present tense forms of the passive binyanim, PU’AL and HUF’AL. The PA’AL passive adjective, on the other hand, is to be distinguished (usually) from the present tense NIF’AL, which does the job of a verb:

±ÞŽ چ ©Š ŸŒ

It’s breaking, it breaks

(verb)

±âšÚŽ ŸŒ

It’s broken

(passive adjective)

70 Adjectives from nouns Many adjectives are created from nouns, by adding the suffix ¢Š:

124

¦¢Ž

sea

Æ

¢§Š ¢

marine

˂â©¢ Š

education

Æ

¢¤Š â©¢ Š

educational


Where the noun ends in , this may often first be removed:

¥Ž çŽ ¥† ç

economics

Æ

¢¥Š çŽ ¥† ç

economic

ªŽ œŽ ©† 

engineering Æ

¢ªŠ œŽ ©† 

engineering

But, particularly where the ending is

Other meaningful adjective patterns

¢ŽŠ Š , the  will often convert to ³.

This is none other than the construct ending (recall 17(d)):

¢Ž«Ž ކ

problem

Æ

¢³Š ¢Ž¢«ˆ ލ

problematic

¢Ž¢ÛŠ «ˆ ñ

industry

Æ

¢³Š ¢Ž¢ÛŠ «ˆ ñ

industrial

©Ž ­† ՙ

fashion

Æ

¢³Š ©Ž ­† ՙ

fashionable

«Ž žŽ žŸ†

horror

Æ

¢³Š «Ž žŽ žŸ†

hideous

The adjective will often appear at first sight to be a noun + possessive suffix ¢-, e.g. ¢§Š ¢ ‘my sea’. But true ambiguity is unlikely.

Note: Sometimes adjustments have to be made to the vowels of the noun, e.g.

¨ÕÚ¥Ž

‘language’ Æ

¢ Š©ÕÚ¥†

‘linguistic’,

³¢Š ލ

‘house’ Æ

¢³¢ Š ދ

‘domestic’. Similar

vowel adjustments are made to construct nouns (see 76); they can be learned together.

71 Other meaningful adjective patterns 1

¨¥Ž «ˆ ì Using the noun pattern PA’ALAN (66) denoting personality types, Hebrew creates many adjectives of personality:

¨¢Ž¢¤† ލ ¡Õ«ìŽ

a crybabyish infant

¨œŽ ­† ° ±Œ Õ§

a fussy teacher

¨¡Ž ì† ¡† ì ±Õ¡¥Ž ¡ ª† ©† ¢™Š

a talkative plumber

¨¤Ž ¢†  œ¥Œ ¢Œ

a smiling child

125


Level Two 2

¢©Š ¥Ž «ˆ ì Some adjectives have the pattern PA’ALANI, mostly based on verbs and denoting personality or emotion:

¢©Š ¥Ž š† ª

patient

¢©Š ގ ¯† «

uptight

¢©Š ¥Ž ¡† °

murderous

¢©Š œŽ چ 

suspicious

¢©Š œŽ §† ¥

scholarly

3 The suffix ¢©Š Often, the adjectival suffix

¢©Š Ž

is just added to a noun or verb as it

stands, without changing the vowels to -a-a-, thus:

¢©Š ¥Ž Õ°

vociferous

(¥Õ°

voice)

¢©Š §Ž ¥† Õ

dreamy

(¦¥‹ Õ

dreaming)

¢©Š ìŽ ¯† â

cheeky

(ìŽ ¯† â

cheek)

¢©Š ¯Ž °† Õ«

stinging

(®°‹ Õ«

sting)

Besides personality and emotion, it can also denote ideology:

4

¢©Š ¥™ Ž §Û†

leftist

(¥™§Û†

left)

¢©Š §Ž ♥†

nationalistic

(¦Õ™¥†

nation)

¢©Š ¤Ž ì†  §

revolutionary

(¤Ž ì‹  ˆ §

revolution)

¥¢«Š ìŽ The pattern PA’IL has two characteristic meanings: often (a) ‘capable of being (washed, fixed, believed, etc.)’ and sometimes (b) ‘tending to

126

do something’. In many cases, however, there is no predictable meaning (c):


(a)

™¢±Š °Ž ‘legible’ (™±Ž °Ž ‘read’), ±¢œŠ Ž ‘permeable’ (±œ  Ž ‘permeate’), ª¢šŠ çŽ ‘washable’ (ªÞ¢ ‹ çŠ ‘wash’), ¨¢§Š Ò ‘credible’ (¨¢§Š ™‡ Œ ‘believe’)

(b)

¥¢šŠ ªŽ

‘passive’ (¥š ªŽ ‘suffer’),

¥¢«Š ìŽ

‘active’ (¥« ìŽ ‘act’),

Other meaningful adjective patterns

Ú¢›Š ±Ž

‘sensitive’ (Ú¢›Š ±† Š ‘feel’), ±¢Š ŸŽ ‘careful’ (± Ÿ† ©Š ‘take care’) (c) 5

Ú¢§Š ›Ž ‘flexible’, ±¢œŠ ªŽ ‘regular’, ™¢±Š ގ ‘healthy’, ¥¢«Š ¢Ž ‘efficient’

¥Õ«ìŽ The pattern PA’OL is used for most colors and a few other adjectives. NB: When there is a feminine or plural ending, the -o- vowel usually changes to -u-, and

šÕ¯Ž

acquires a ‘hard’ final consonant:

,ÞŽ ❯†

¦¢ÞŠ ❯† (see 61): ¦ÕœÒ red

šÕ¯Ž yellow

°Õ±¢Ž green

¥Õ çŽ dark blue

œÕ±žŽ pink

±Õ ڎ black

±Õ­Ò gray

°Õ³§Ž sweet

¦Õ¢Ò terrible

¥Õ›«Ž round

±ž Ú and ±ž­™ do not change their -o- to -u-. Colors that do not use this pattern include ¨šŽ ¥Ž ‘white’, ³¥Œ ¤‹ ñ† ‘light blue’, ¦â  ‘brown’. 6

¥« ¥† « ì† The pattern PE’AL’AL supplies several diminutives for adjectives (cf. English‘ish’), as it does for nouns – recall 68(8). It normally works by reduplicating a ‘base’ adjective. The vowels will always be -a-a-. Notice the ‘hard’ fourth letter in ¨š©š¥ and £­¤­. Examples: greenish

°±°† ± ¢† Å °Õ±¢Ž

pinkish

œ±œ† ± ž† Å œÕ±žŽ

whitish

¨Þ† ©š ¥† Å ¨šŽ ¥Ž

flighty

  Å ˂­ Ž ˂ì ¤† ­ˆ

plumpish

¨§†  ©§ چ Å ¨§‹ ڎ

slightly sour ®§ ¯† § ˆ Å ®â§ Ž

127


Level Two 7

¢§Š ¢-³ñ ,¢¥Š Õ°-¥« etc. Hebrew has some twenty short prefixes which can be hyphenated to a noun, after which the noun is given the suffix

¢Š ,

creating a phrasal

adjective. The whole phenomenon is reminiscent of European terminology like ‘supersonic’, ‘subterranean’, and is much used in technical Hebrew. Examples:

¢¥Š Õ°-¥«

supersonic (¥Õ° sound)

¢§Š ¢-³ñ

submarine

¢ñŠ §†  ¥† §Š -¢¡Š ©† Ñ

anti-war

¢§Š ♥† -¨¢Þ‹

international

¢±Š ¡† ªŠ -œ 

one-way, unidirectional

¢©Š ÕÚ¥† -âœ

bilingual

¢³¢ Š ¥Š ¤† ñ -š±

multi-purpose

72 Present tense ‘verbs’ as nouns and adjectives Many nouns corresponding to the ‘seller’, ‘runner’, ‘inspector’, ‘consultant’ type (agent nouns) are simply formed by utilizing present tense verbs.

128

¡­‹ ÕÚ judge

³±Œ ¤Œ Õ§ salesgirl

³±Œ ­Œ Õñ seamstress

©Œ Õ° customer

©Œ ÕÞ builder

¥¢ Š ³† § beginner

«¢  °Š چ § investor

±°‹ š §† visitor

±›‹  §† migrant

¥ ‹ © ³† §Š settler

There are, however, several other patterns for agent nouns (see 66–7).


Similarly, many adjectives of the ‘frightening’, ‘refreshing’, ‘shining’ type utilize present tense verbs. Among them are many that have a NIF’AL or

The construct as a possessive

PU’AL passive present tense form (recall 69) without being passive at all:

±‹ ՟ shining

¡‹ Õ¥ ardent

ڛŽ ±† ©Š emotional

¦«Ž Ÿ† ©Š furious

±œŽ ‡ ©Œ gorgeous

¨¢§Š چ § fattening

¥¢«Š ›† § revolting

°ñ‹ ± §† exciting

¥ñ‹ ì ³† §Š twisting

œ Ž ⢧† special

©Œ âÚ§† strange

¥ÞŽ ±† ⪧† clumsy

Nearly all* such nouns and adjectives form their feminine and plural as if they were verbs, thus:

³Õ±¤† Õ§ ,¦¢±Š ¤† Õ§ ,³±Œ ¤Œ Õ§ ,±¤‹ Õ§ ³Õ©¢§Š چ § ,¦¢©Š ¢§Š چ § ,©Ž ¢§Š چ § ,¨¢§Š چ § ³Õœ Ž ⢧† ,¦¢œŠ  Ž ⢧† ,³œŒ  Œ ⢧† ,œ Ž ⢧† *

Notable exceptions:

™¥Ž ­† Š© ‘wonderful’, ™±Ž Õ© ‘frightful’, œ§Ž † ©Œ ‘nice’ add Ž

in the feminine.

73–7 CONSTRUCTS AND POSSESSIVES 73 The construct as a possessive In 17 we introduced possessive of Ronit’,

¥ÚŒ ‘of’, as in ³¢©Š Õ± ¥ÚŒ ҝŽ ‘the brother

¢¥Š ڌ ҝŽ ‘my brother’. Hebrew can also use the construct for

the possessive, particularly in formal style. And here we are talking not only about placing two nouns side by side, as in

‹ ˂¥Œ §Œ  ¢ Ñ

‘the king’s

brothers’, but also about combining a noun with a possessive suffix, as in

¢ Š Ò ‘my brother’. In both cases,  Ò is construct.

129


Level Two

a Noun + noun, e.g. ¥Ž ç  ¢±‹ ՝ ‘the bride’s parents’ Formal Hebrew often uses possessive construct phrases such as:

±â좪Š  ¬Õª

the end of the story

œŽ «ˆ žž  ³¡ ¥Ž † 

the committee’s decision

³¢©Š ¤† Õñ ™Û‹ Õ©

the subject of the program

°â° š± Ž ³Õ±›¢† ™Š

the letters of Rav Kook

¥Ž ç  ¢±‹ ՝

the bride’s parents

For possessives – as against set expressions – there is nothing wrong with using

¥ÚŒ ‘of’; the use of the construct just tends to be more succinct and

elegant. Similarly, for phrases equivalent to ‘the closing of the gate, rearing turkeys’ with an action noun, formal Hebrew tends to use a construct,

Œ , thus: while colloquial style uses ¥Ú ±« ڍ  ³± ¢›Š ª†

or

±« ڍ  ¥ÚŒ ±Ž ¢›Š ª†

the closing of the gate

âœÕ  â좡Š

or

âœÕ ¥ÚŒ  â좡Š

rearing of turkeys

b–c Possessive suffixes: . . . ˃œÕœ † ,¢œÕœ Š Possessive suffixes are generally favored in – and limited to – formal style: literature, lectures, officialese, journalese and the like. Thus

⩳‹ âÞ±† ñ ‘our

culture’, ¦±Ž âÚ¢™Š ‘their approval’. However, even colloquial Hebrew may often use possessive suffixes with

Ò ‘brother’, ¦™‹ ‘mother’, ¦¢±Š ՝ ‘parents’; indeed, there is a general preference for . . . ˂¥‹ « ލ ,¢¥Š « ލ ‘my, your . . . husband’ and . . . ˃ñ† چ ™Š ,¢ñŠ چ ™Š ‘my, Œ ÚŽ ™Š Ž ,¢¥Š ڌ ¥« ލ  and so on). your . . . wife’ (rather than ¢¥Š Ú certain words, notably kinship terms such as

and

130


The construct as a possessive

b With singular nouns We first illustrate the suffixes with singular nouns. Notice that they are identical to the light suffixes used with the preposition ¥¢šŠ چ ފ ‘for’ (35(d)) and that there is no difference in spelling between ‘your’ (masc. sing.) and ‘your’ (fem. sing.) except for the nikkud. Notice too that the feminine noun has the ³ ending associated with the construct form (recall 17(d)); it is advisable, in fact, to regard noun + possessive suffix as a kind of construct phrase, amounting to: dod + o ‘uncle-of-him’, dodat + o ‘aunt-of-him’.

œÕœ uncle ⩜‹ ՜ ¦¤Œ œ† ՜ ¨¤Œ œ† ՜ ¦œŽ ՜ ¨œŽ ՜

our uncle your (masc. pl.) uncle your (fem. pl.) uncle their (masc. pl.) uncle their (fem. pl.) uncle

œŽ ՜ aunt ⩳‹ œŽ ՜ our aunt ¦¤Œ ³† œ ՜ your (masc. pl.) aunt ¨¤Œ ³† œ ՜ your (fem. pl.) aunt ¦³Ž œŽ ՜ their (masc. pl.) aunt ¨³Ž œŽ ՜ their (fem. pl.) aunt

¢œŠ ՜ † ˃œÕœ ‹ ˂œÕœ ՜՜ ᜎ ՜

¢³Š œŽ ՜ Ž ˃³† œÕœ Ž ˂³‹ œÕœ Õ³œŽ ՜ ᳎ œŽ ՜

my uncle your (masc. sing.) uncle your (fem. sing.) uncle his uncle her uncle

my aunt your (masc. sing.) aunt your (fem. sing.) aunt his aunt her aunt

c With plural nouns Plural nouns take a slightly different set of suffixes, identical to the heavy suffixes used with the preposition ¥« ‘on’ (recall 35(e)). The important point is that the extra letter yod in all these suffixes can be explained as a plural ending of the noun – the construct ending (17(d)). Thus, ž¢œŽ ՜ really amounts to a construct phrase: dodey + o ‘uncles-of-him’.

131


Level Two Observe, however, that this yod also shows up with feminine plural Œ ³‹ ՜՜ ‘their aunts (aunts-of-them)’, i.e. dodot + ey + nouns, as in ¦¢ hem ‘aunts + PL + them’, even though their ‘plural-hood’ is already marked by their ending ³Õ. Purists insist on distinguishing the pronunciation of éynu, but both are commonly pronounced -éynu.

â© and â©¢ as -énu vs. -

¦¢œŠ ՜ uncles â©¢œ‹ ՜

our uncles

¢œ ՜

my uncles

¦¤Œ ¢œ‹ ՜

your (masc. pl.) uncles

your (masc. sing.) uncles

¨¤Œ ¢œ‹ ՜

your (fem. pl.) uncles

Œ ˃¢œÕœ  ˂¢Š œÕœ

your (fem. sing.) uncles

¦¢ Œ œ‹ ՜

their (masc. pl.) uncles

ž¢œŽ ՜

his uncles

¨¢ Œ œ‹ ՜

their (fem. pl.) uncles

Ž ¢œŒ ՜

her uncles

³ÕœÕœ aunts â©¢³‹ ՜՜

our aunts

¢³ ՜՜

my aunts

¦¤¢ Œ ³‹ ՜՜

your (masc. pl.) aunts

your (masc. sing.) aunts

¨¤¢ Œ ³‹ ՜՜

your (fem. pl.) aunts

¦¢ Œ ³‹ ՜՜

their (masc. pl.) aunts

Œ ˃¢³ÕœÕœ  ՜ ˂¢Š ³Õœ ž¢³Ž ՜՜

his aunts

¨¢ Œ ³‹ ՜՜

their (fem. pl.) aunts

¢ Ž ³Œ ՜՜

her aunts

your (fem. sing.) aunts

Note the stress: dodáy, dodécha, dodáyich, dodáv, dodéha, dodéynu, dodeychém, dodeychén, dodeyhém, dodeyhén.

d Construct adjective + noun, e.g. ±«¢ Ž ۋ -¢ç‹ ⱙˆ ‘long-haired’

132

Hebrew makes adjectival phrases from a construct adjective and a noun. The construct form of adjective functions rather like the -ed in English ‘long-haired’. (Note that the construct form of an adjective is sometimes indistinguishable from the absolute form.) These constructs denote a specially close kind of (1) possession or (2) make-up:


1 To describe someone’s or something’s appearance or clothing or nature, by a kind of transfer of the adjective to the person themselves.

The construct as a possessive

The phrase is hyphenated. Some of them are rather bookish. Examples:

¦¢¢Š ­ ³‹ ç† -¢š‹ ˆ ± ¦¢±Š â Þ

broad-shouldered fellows

Ú­Œ ©Œ -¢­‹ ¢† ¦¢™Š °¢ Ž ¡¢ Š ¥Š Õì

high-minded politicians

ž ž¡† -³ç ⱙˆ ³¢©Š ¤† Õñ

a long-term program

2 To describe the make-up of something, certain adjectives such as

™¥‹ §Ž

‘full’ can be used in the construct:

¨ÚŽ «Ž ™¥‹ §Ž ±œŒ Œ

a smoke-filled room

¨ÚŽ «Ž ¢™‹ ¥‹ §† ¦¢±Š œŽ ˆ

smoke-filled rooms

°šŽ Ò ¢ª‹ ⤧† ¦¢ ¢ Š ¡Š چ

dust-covered carpets

¡­† ©‹ ³± ¢ÚŠ «ˆ ©Ž ¢œŠ §†

an oil-rich country

¨§Ž âÚ ³¥ œ ©Ž ¢±Š ›Ž ±† §

low-fat margarine

Making a whole sentence (as against a phrase), use

ކ rather than the

construct:

¨ÚŽ «Ž ކ ¦¢™Š ¥‹ §† ¦¢±Š œŽ ˆ  3 In addition, formal Hebrew uses

¥« ލ

and

±ª ˆ

in the construct for

describing the appearance or characteristics of someone or something:

¥ñŽ ¥† ⳧† â ˂Õ±Ò ±«¢ Ž ۋ ¢¥ˆ ‹ «Þ ¦¢œŠ ¥†Ž ¢ children with long, curly hair

³œŒ Œ ⢧† ³âš¢ÚŠ  ˆ ³¥ «ˆ ލ ³™Ÿ ³¢©Š ¤† Õñ this program is of particular importance

³¢©Š ³† ™Œ ³âŸ‹ ³± ª†  ¯Ž ⚰† a group lacking an ethnic identity

133


Level Two

74 Ð ñ of possession: óÌËËÔòËѼÖa dÖñ ËÌzÐñÔkÔzнÌí ‘I looked into her eyes’ When referring to a part of the body, colloquial Hebrew tends to use and even ¥† rather than ¥Ú Œ:

±«¢ Ž ۋ  ³™Œ °±‹ ¢ªŠ ¦±Ž Õ¢

Yoram combed his hair (combed the hair)

¦¢Š ¢© ¢«‹ Ž ³™Œ ¢ñŠ ±† › ªŽ

I closed my eyes (closed the eyes)

±«¢ Ž ۋ  ³™Œ ³±Ž ­† ™Œ ¥† °±‹ ¢ªŠ ¦±Ž Õ¢

Yoram combed Efrat’s hair (combed to Efrat the hair)

¦¢Š ¢© ¢«‹ ގ ᥎ ¢ñŠ ¥† ç ñ ª† Š

I looked into her eyes (I looked to her into the eyes)

!¨¡Œ ތ ލ Õ¥ ®¢ÞŠ ±† § ñŽ Ñ §



Why are you hitting him in the stomach!

Study the construction just illustrated: instead of a possessive with the body part, one simply uses  . If it is a person other than the subject that is being affected, that person becomes a kind of indirect object, requiring -¥† , and is mentioned before the part of the body. More formal Hebrew, however, prefers:

³±Ž ­† ™Œ ¥ÚŒ ±«¢ Ž ۋ  ³™Œ °±‹ ¢ªŠ ¦±Ž Õ¢ Ž ¢©Œ¢«‹ ކ ¢ñŠ ¥† ç ñ ª† Š 75–6 CONSTRUCT NOUNS – VOWEL CHANGES 75 Construct segolates Apart from the possibility of a construct suffix (17(d)), construct nouns are sometimes distinguished by internal vowel changes, depending largely on the noun pattern involved.

134

A notable case is the construct plural of segolate nouns; segolates were introduced in 7(c). (The singular itself does not have a distinct construct form, hence œ›Œ ތ ‘garment’: ¦¢Ž -œ›Œ ތ ‘swimsuit’.) There are three main types:


Construct segolates

a The œ›Œ ތ / ± ìŒ type (initial Œ )

¦¢œŠ ›Ž ކ

¦¢ Š ±Ž ì†

garments Æ

flowers

Æ

¢œ‹ ›† ފ

¢ ‹ ±† ìŠ

¦¢Ž-¢œ‹ ›† ފ

swimsuits

³ §Œ -¢¡‹ ±† ªŠ

thrillers

±ÞŽ -¢ ‹ ±† ­Š

wild flowers

³ÚŒ °Œ  -¢«‹ š† ¯Š

colors of the rainbow

š¤Œ ±Œ -¢¥‹ «ˆ ލ

vehicle owners

¥"°° ³Õ±«ˆ ¢

JNF forests

b The ¥« ލ type (initial  )

¦¢¥Š «Ž ކ

owners

Æ

¢¥‹ «ˆ ލ

c The ª­Œ Õ¡ type (initial Õ)

¦¢ªŠ ­Ž ¡† forms

Æ

¢ª‹ ­† Õ¡

œŽ °Ž ­†  ¢ª‹ ­† Õ¡ deposit forms ©ŽÚŽ  ¢Ú‹ œ† Õ

months of the year

Observe that in each case the construct plural is reminiscent of the singular. There are three groups of exceptions to 75(a): 1 Some nouns have  in the construct plural, e.g.

†ç ‘king’ ~ ¢‹¤¥† § , šŒ¥Œç ‘dog’ ~ ¢Þ‹ ¥

œŒ¥Œ¢ ‘child’ ~ ¢‹œ¥† ¢, ˂¥Œ §Œ

2 Nouns with an initial ‘guttural’ similarly have  , e.g.

¢š‹ ±† « , œªŒ Œ ‘kindness’ ~ ¢œ‹ ª†  

šŒ±«Œ ‘evening’ ~

3 A sub-exception to 2: several common nouns keep their e (in terms of nikkud, ‹ changes to Œ ): ‘side’ ~ ¢‹±š† «Œ

°Œ¥ ‹ ‘part’ ~ ¢°‹ ¥†  Œ , ®­Œ  ‹ ‘article’ ~ ¢¯‹ ­†  Œ , ±šŒ «‹

135


Level Two

76 Some other vowel changes in constructs a Loss of a: ¦Õ°§Ž ~¦Õ°§† A vowel a in the last-but-one syllable commonly drops in the construct of masculine singular nouns, thus:

~

¦¢±Š ⛧† -¦Õ°§† ©Ž ¢œŠ §†  -¦Õ¥Ú†

peace of the realm

~

°™± ¢«Š ™šŽ ¯†

the army of Iraq

¦Õ°§Ž

place

~

¦Õ¥ÚŽ

peace

™šŽ ¯Ž

army

place of residence

This ‘second-from-the-end rule’ has much in common with the ‘thirdfrom-the-end rule’, which removes the vowel a where an ending has been added (compare 7(b)). In both rules, the exceptions are the same: 1 a does not drop if this would produce a run of three consonants, hence:

±¢ÚŠ ¤† §

~

ՙœ¢ ‹ žŠ ±¢ÚŠ ¤† §

video set

œ¢§Š ¥† ñ

~

šŽ ¢ÚŠ ¢† œ¢§Š ¥† ñ

Yeshiva student

2 a does not drop in words where the dictionary spells it with than Ž :

 rather

ª¢Ž¢¡

~

¥« -¥™Œ ª¢¢¡

El Al pilot

šñŽ ç

~

¡±† Õ쪆 šñ ç

sports correspondent

b Inserting an -i-: ¦¢±Š šŽ œ† ,¤Ž ±Ž ކ , etc.

136

We just saw (in 75(a)) that the construct of ¦¢œŠ ›Ž ކ is ¢œ‹ ›† ފ , with an -iinserted and the loss of the -a-. The same thing occurs in the construct of two other, less numerous types of noun that happen to have a similar vowel pattern: (1) feminines of the type ¤Ž ±Ž ކ ~ ³Õ¤±Ž ކ or ¥Ž §† ۊ ~ ³Õ¥§Ž ۆ , and (2) masculine plurals of the type ¦¢±Š šŽ œ† or ¦¢©Š °‹ Ÿ† .


1 Construct of

Some other vowel changes in constructs

¤Ž ±Ž ކ : ³ç ±† ފ (notice also the hardened ç) ³Õ¤±Ž ކ : ³Õ¤±† ފ

ˆ ~ ³œ ±† Œ Similarly: ¥Ž ¥Ž °† ~ ³¥ ¥† °Š ‘curse’, §Ž °Ž ©† ~ ³§ °† ©Š ‘revenge’, œŽ ±Ž   ˆ ~ ³Õ¤¥† Š ‘regulations’, ~ ³Õ¥§† ۊ ‘fear’ (the -e- is due to the  ), ³Õ¤¥Ž  ³Õ¥§Ž ۆ ‘dresses’. 2 Construct of

¦¢±Š šŽ œ† : ¢±‹ š† œŠ ¦¢©Š °‹ Ÿ† : ¢©‹ °† ŸŠ ¦¢šŠ ³Ž ç† : ¢š‹ ³† çŠ

Similarly: Examples:

¦¢¥Š ڎ §† ~ ¢¥‹ چ §Š

‘proverbs’,

³Õ™šŽ ¯† ~ ³Õ™š† ¯Š

‘armies’.

¨¢™Š âÛ¢©Š ³ç ±† ފ wedding greeting

±ÛŽ  ¢±‹ š† œŠ the minister’s speech

¦¢©Š ñ ³¥ ¥† ¢Š howling of jackals ³«‹ -¢š‹ ³† çŠ periodicals

ª¢ Ž ¡Š ³œ ±† Œ fear of flying

c Some important oddments Other notable construct forms, found in common phrases, are:

³¢Š ލ ~ ³¢Þ‹ (¦¢¥Š Õ ³¢Þ‹ hospital) ¥¢Š ¢  ~ ¥¢ ‹ (¨Õ¢±† ڊ -¥¢ ‹ armored corps)  Ž ìŽ Ú† §Š ~ ³  ì Ú† §Š (note ¢žŠ ¥‹ ³  ì Ú† §Š the Levy family)

the stress on the last-but-one vowel:

¥Ž ڎ §† §Œ ~ ³¥Œ ڌ §† §Œ (¨œ‹ ±† ¢ ³¥Œ ڌ §† §Œ the government of Jordan) ›Ž ¥Ž ­† §Š ~ ³›Œ ¥Œ ­† §Š (ª"ڍ ³›Œ ¥Œ ­† §Š the Shass party) ¦¢¯Š «‹ ~ ¢¯‹ «ˆ (³¢Š ¢Ÿ -¢¯‹ «ˆ olive trees) ©Ž ڎ ~ ³© چ (¦¢œŠ ⧢¥Š ³© چ academic year) ³Õ§Ú‹ ~³Õ§Ú† ( Ž ìŽ Ú† §Š -³Õ§Ú† last names) Any good dictionary lists the construct forms of a noun.

137


Level Two

77 Double possessives: íÖ þN Ö ñL Ó dÖ³ËÑa In addition to the two possessive constructions already introduced – using

¥ÚŒ (17(a)) and the construct (73(a)) – a third construction is employed in formal Hebrew: the double possessive. This is the ¥Ú Œ construction with the addition of a possessive suffix on the first noun, referring ahead to (anticipating) the second noun. Thus compare:

¥ÚŒ possessive:

double possessive:

±¢™Š ¢Ž ¥ÚŒ šŽ âÚñ† 

Yair’s reply

±Ž ێ ¥ÚŒ šŽ âÚñ† 

Sara’s reply

±Ž ێ ¥ÚŒ ᳎ šŽ âÚñ†

Sara’s reply (lit. her reply of Sara)

±¢™Š ¢Ž ¥ÚŒ Õ³šŽ âÚñ†

Yair’s reply (lit. his reply of Yair)

Either noun may be singular or plural, thus:

±ç¢ Ž ™Š ¥ÚŒ ž¢³Ž Õ±ìŽ

the cows of a farmer

¦¢±Š š‹ ˆ ¥ÚŒ ¦¢ Œ ³‹ ՚âÚñ†

the replies of friends

There is no semantic difference between the two possessives. Sometimes the double possessive is preferred for reasons of rhythm or elegance and occasionally for grammatical reasons: even in colloquial usage, the double construction

. . . ¥ÚŒ Õñچ ™Š is preferred to the single construction Ú¢ Ž ™Š Ž

. . . ¥ÚŒ for saying ‘the wife of . . .’.

78 Preposition + suffix: ÒîôÐ k ,öËÑa ,ËÌñÐa 138

The suffixed forms of follows:

Õ§ç† ‘like’, ¨¢Þ‹ ‘between’ and ¢¥Š ކ ‘without’ are as


,Ž Õ§çŽ ,âÕ§çŽ ,˂Õ§çŽ ,˃Õ§çŽ ,¢Š©Õ§çŽ ¨Œ Õ§ç† ,¦Œ Õ§ç† ,¨¤Œ Õ§ç† ,¦¤Œ Õ§ç† ,â©Õ§çŽ

Definite numerals: ‘the three idiots’

,ᩎ ¢Þ‹ ,Õ©¢Þ‹ ,˂©‹ ¢Þ‹ ,˃ †©¢Þ‹ ,¢Š©¢Þ‹ ¨¢ Œ ©‹ ¢Þ‹ ,¦¢ Œ ©‹ ¢Þ‹ ,¨¤¢ Œ ©‹ ¢Þ‹ ,¦¤¢ Œ ©‹ ¢Þ‹ ,â©¢©‹ ¢Þ‹ ,¢ Ž œŒ «Ž ¥† ފ ,ž¢œŽ «Ž ¥† ފ ,˂¢Š œ «Ž ¥† ފ ,˃¢Œœ«Ž ¥† ފ ,¢œ «Ž ¥† ފ ¨¢ Œ œ‹ «ˆ ¥† ފ ,¦¢ Œ œ‹ «ˆ ¥† ފ ,¨¤¢ Œ œ‹ «ˆ ¥† ފ ,¦¤¢ Œ œ‹ «ˆ ¥Ž ފ ,â©¢œ‹ «Ž ¥† ފ All three are irregular in their own way: 1

Õ§ç† changes its vowels to Õ§çŽ , with stress on -ž§-, except in 2nd and 3rd plural.

2 For its plural suffixes,

¨¢Þ‹ switches to the ‘heavy’ (plural-like) endings

just like ¥« and ¥™Œ in 35(e). 3

¢¥Š ކ has the special stem œ«¥† ފ throughout, taking ‘heavy’ endings.

79–81 NUMERALS 79 Definite numerals: ‘the three idiots’ Besides the numerals for 2–10 (listed in (14(a)), Hebrew has some special numerals for use with definite nouns. Contrast:

¦¢¡Š Õ¢œ¢† ™Š ÚŽ եچ

three idiots

~

¦¢¡Š Õ¢œ¢† ™Š Ž ³ÚŒ եچ the three idiots

³Õ±Õ§ Úեڎ

three teachers

~

³Õ±Õ§ Úեچ the three teachers

 ‘the’ follows the numeral, as with construct nouns: recall š±Œ «Œ Ž -³  ⱙˆ ‘the supper’ in 17(e). (In casual speech,  precedes the

Notice that

numeral on occasion.)

139


Level Two Such numerals are traditionally called construct numerals because of their similarity in form and syntax to construct nouns, but it is better to call them definite numerals. The full set of definite numerals is as follows. Observe that in the feminine only ‘3’ has a special ‘definite’ form in actual pronunciation. We give two forms for feminine 3, 5, 6 and 10: here colloquial speech tends to prefer the masculine form, e.g.

³Õ±Õ§ ³ÚŒ եچ

rather than

Úեچ

³Õ±Õ§ . Notice also the place of stress for 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10: Masc.

Fem.

2

¢©‹ چ

¢ñ‹ چ

3

³ÚŒ եچ

Úեچ /³ÚŒ եچ

4

³« ލ ±† Ñ

«Þ ±† Ñ

5

³ÚŒ §‹ ˆ

Ú§‹ Ž /³ÚŒ §‹  ˆ

6

³ÚŒ ڋ

Úڋ /³ÚŒ ڋ

7

³« š† ڊ

«š ڌ

8

³© էچ

©Œ էچ

9

³« چ ñŠ

«Ú ñ‹

10

³±Œ ی «ˆ

±ÛŒ «Œ /³±Œ ی «ˆ

Beyond ten, Hebrew just uses the regular numbers, e.g.

¦¢ÞŠ ¥ چ  ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ

‘the twenty stages’. Construct suffixes, too, are possible, for 2, 3, 4 as with nouns, thus:

140

¦¢ Œ ©‹ چ ,¦¤¢ Œ ©‹ چ ,â©¢©‹ چ

the two of us, of you, of them

â©ñ‹ چ եچ . . .

the three of us

⩳‹ «ˆ ލ ±† ™ˆ . . .

the four of us


Hundreds and thousands

80 Ordinals: ‘first, second, third . . .’ The words for ‘first, second, third . . .’ up to ‘tenth’ are regular adjectives. Notice that from ‘third’ to ‘tenth’ they share the same vowel pattern:

Masc.

Fem.

1st

¨Õڙ±Š

©Ž Õڙ±Š

2nd

¢©Š ڋ

¢Ž©Š چ

3rd

¢Ú¢ Š ¥Š چ

³¢Ú¢ Š ¥Š چ

4th

¢«¢ Š šŠ ±†

³¢«¢ Š šŠ ±†

5th

¢Ú¢ Š §Š ˆ

³¢Ú¢ Š §Š ˆ

6th

¢Ú¢ Š ڊ

³¢Ú¢ Š ڊ

7th

¢«¢ Š šŠ چ

³¢«¢ Š šŠ چ

8th

¢©Š ¢§Š چ

³¢©Š ¢§Š چ

9th

¢«¢ Š ڊ ñ†

³¢«¢ Š ڊ ñ†

10th

¢±¢Š ۊ «ˆ

³¢±¢Š ۊ «ˆ

From ‘eleventh’ on, Hebrew uses the regular numerals, which agree for gender where appropriate, e.g.

¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ Ž ©Ž â¥ñ† 

the twentieth complaint

³  ў† ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ Ž ©Ž â¥ñ† 

the twenty-first complaint

¦¢¢Š ñ چ â ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ Ž ©Ž â¥ñ† 

the twenty-second complaint

81 Hundreds and thousands Hundreds have the following forms, for both masculine and feminine nouns:

141


Level Two 100

Ò§‹

600

200

¦¢¢Š ³™  §Ž ³Õ™§‹ -Úեچ

700

300 400 500

³Õ™§‹ -«Þ ±† Ñ ³Õ™§‹ -Ú§‹ ˆ

800 900

³Õ™§‹ -Úڋ ³Õ™§‹ -«š چ ³Õ™§‹ -©Œ էچ ³Õ™§‹ -«Ú ñ†

Stress is on the first word, as marked. The form of the first word is the same as for ‘13–19’ (recall 14(b)). The second word is reduced to mot in fast speech, e.g. tsha-mot ‘900’. Thousands are as follows. They, too, are neutral in gender:

1,000

¬¥Œ ™Œ

6,000

2,000

¦¢¢Š ì ¥† Ñ ¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ -³ÚŒ եچ

7,000

3,000 4,000 5,000

¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ -³« ލ ±† Ñ ¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ -³ÚŒ §‹ ˆ

¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ -³ÚŒ ڋ ¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ -³« š† ڊ

9,000

¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ -³© էچ ¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ -³« چ ñŠ

10,000

¦¢­Š ¥Ž ™ˆ -³±Œ ی «ˆ

8,000

Again, stress is on the first word, which is the same as the construct masculine form (79), although it is casually pronounced shlosht, chamesht, etc. rather than shloshet, chameshet, etc., thus shlosht-alafim.

82 Tense a Past habitual tense: ‘I used to . . .’ One way of expressing ‘used to’ (i.e. ‘to have been in the habit of doing something’) is to add the past tense of ¢ ‘be’ to the present tense of the verb in question. This is the compound past tense:

142

©Œ էچ ކ ¦°Ž ¢³¢ Š ¢Š Ž ³ÞŽ ڍ ކ On Shabbat I was in the habit of getting up at eight


¦°Ž ¢³¢ Š ¢Š Ž does not mean ‘I was getting up (when, e.g., the alarm rang)’.

Tense

For this, Hebrew uses the simple past tense, perhaps with the addition of °â¢œŠ ކ ‘just’. See 19(c).

b Unreal conditionals: ‘If I were . . .’ A second use of the compound past is in the unreal conditional. The English ‘unreal conditional’ generally involves two clauses, the ‘if’ clause and the ‘would’ clause: ‘If we knew, we would say’. In English, the ‘if’ clause has the simple past tense and the ‘would’ clause has the conditional tense. Hebrew, by contrast, likes to use the compound past in both the ‘if’ clause and the ‘would’ clause:

¦¢±Š §† ՙ â©¢¢Š Ž ,¦¢«Š œ† Õ¢ â©¢¢Š Ž ¦™Š If we knew, we would say

ճՙ ±Ž ¢çŠ § ¢³¢ Š ¢Š Ž ¦™Š ž¢¥Ž «Ž ³¤Œ §Œ Õª ¢³¢ Š ¢Š Ž ™¥ I wouldn’t have relied on him if I’d known him

?¢§Š Õ°§† ފ ³±Œ §Œ ՙ ³¢¢Š Ž § What would you say in my place? The only exception is when ‘if’ is ⥠or ⥙Š . (Formal or elegant Hebrew disapproves of ¦™Š in unreal conditionals.) Then, instead of compound past, the ‘if’ clause can be in the simple past:

¦¢±Š §† ՙ â©¢¢Š Ž ,â©«œ ¢Ž ⥙Š

If we knew, we would say

Note that such sentences can signify two unreal tenses: ‘If we’d gone, we would have said’, ‘If we went, we’d say’. Hebrew has no simple way of making such distinctions. For the conditional of the verb ¢ (‘would be’), one simply uses the simple past of ¢: there is no such thing as ¢Œ ՝ ¢Ž Ž :

?¨¢Ž¢©† ⫧† ³¢ Ž ¢Š Ž ¦™Š  ,¢ÛŠ «ˆ § ¢ŽŽ ŸŒ ¦™Š If it were feasible, would you be interested?

143


Level Two

c Tense in reported thought The tense of reported speech or thought is as if one were transported to the moment of reporting: it is thus quite unlike English:

â«¡Ž ¦‹ ˂Ñ ,³â§Ž¢ ™âÚŒ ⫚† °Ž ¦¢™Š ­Õ± † Ž The doctors stated that he would die (lit. that he will die . . .), but they were wrong

« ›‹ ñ چ §Š ¢©Š ™ˆ ڌ ¢ñŠ š† ڍ Ž I thought I was (lit. I am . . .) going crazy

d Tense with ڌ ç† ,¦™Š and ڌ ˂Õñ

¦™Š ‘if’, ڌ ç† ‘when’ and a future event:

ڌ ˂Õñ ‘while’ commonly take the future tense for

?¢¢°‹ -ՙ ,¢³Š ՙ ±¢«Š ñŽ ,¦œ‹ ±Ž ™‹ ¦™Š

If I fall asleep, wake me, OK?

™¯‹ ™‹ ¢©Š ™ˆ ڌ ç† ÞŒ ¤ ™ˆ ¢©Š ™ˆ

I’ll turn off when I go out

A quite distinct use of Ú Œ ç† and ±ÚŒ ™ˆ ç is for ‘while’. Here, formal Hebrew commonly uses the present tense even when the whole setting is the past or future:

¦¢©Š Õ¥›† œŠ ކ ³Õ­­† Õ©§† ⠳ձڎ ¨‹ ڌ ç† ,¦¢­Š Õ¯ ¢©‹ ì† -¥« ✫¯Ž ³Õ¯âš°†  The teams marched past the spectators, while singing and waving flags

¢‹©Õ§ˆ ž¢Ž±Õ ˆ™§‹ ±¢³Õ§ Š ™âÚŒ ˂Õñ ,¦Š¢¥ Úâ±¢ Ž ¥Š šÕ±°Ž ކ ±ÕŸˆ ¢ ¥âª†©Õ° ¦¢±Š š‹  ˆ ž† ¦¢±Š çŽ § The consul will soon return to Jerusalem, leaving behind him hosts of acquaintances and friends Note that English often simply uses a participle (a verb ending in ‘-ing’) to denote ‘while’. In Hebrew, this is often just rendered by ž† , thus:

144

³ÚŒ °Œ چ ° §† ⠝±Ž Õ ™ˆ §‹ ³šŒ ڌ Õ¢ œ¢§Š ñŽ ™¢Š She always sits in the back scribbling


Reflexives: ‘myself, yourself . . .’

83 The object suffix: Òî³ÒîòÐ ëÌñ ‘to build it’ A fairly common mark of official and literary Hebrew is the suffix to the verb, denoting an object pronoun ‘it, them, us’, etc. meaning exactly the same as ¢³Š ՙ ,ճՙ, etc. Here are two examples: Suffixed infinitive:

˂çŽ ¦¤†Ž ©  ¥† ¢™œ ç† ¦™Š  ? Is it worthwhile to educate them thus? Suffixed past tense:

. . . ¯Ž ⠝ ՙ¢¯Š ՝ڌ ±  Ñ¥† After he brought him outside . . . The infinitive is the most commonly suffixed form of the verb. (Many other forms of the verb cannot be suffixed in this way; consult a traditional grammar.)

84 Reflexives: ‘myself, yourself . . .’ ‘Myself, yourself’ and so on are usually rendered by the pronoun

-§¯† «

with a suffix:

,᧎ ¯† « ,Õ§¯† « ,˂§‹ ¯† « ,˃§† ¯† « ,¢§Š ¯† « ¨§Ž ¯† « ,¦§Ž ¯† « ,¨¤Œ §† ¯† « ,¦¤Œ §† ¯† « ,⩧‹ ¯† « Thus:

¢§Š ¯† « ¥† ¢ñŠ † ¡ š† Š

I promised myself

˃§† ¯† « ³™Œ œ§‹ ¥

teach yourself

The use of ³™Œ is optional, hence also: ˃§† ¯† « œ§‹ ¥ ‘teach yourself’.

145


Level Two However, many HITPA’EL and NIF’AL verbs of physical action are reflexive in themselves and do not use ¢§Š ¯† « etc.:

Úދ ¥ ³† Š dress oneself

¡Ú‹ ì ³† Š get undressed

°±‹ ñ ª† Š comb one’s hair

¥‹ ° ³† Š take a shower

±«‹ © ³† Š shake oneself off

† © cut oneself ˂ñ Œ

¡± ۆ ©Š scratch oneself 85 ‘One another’ ‘One another’ is usually expressed by a pair of pronouns:

ŸŒ . . . ŸŒ

or (more colloquially)

¢©Š ڋ  . . . œ Ž ™Œ

The word order is slightly different from English:

ŸŒ ¦«Š ŸŒ ⩱† Þ¢  œŠ

We spoke with one another (one with another)

¢©Š ڋ  ³™Œ œ Ž ™Œ ⚝ˆ Ò ¦‹

They loved one another

Thus the first pronoun stands separate from the second, the preposition coming between them. If the subject noun is feminine, the pronouns will be feminine:

¢Ž©Š چ ¥ ³  Ñ ³Õ§¢™Š ³† § ™¥ ³¢™Š ¯Ž    ž† ¯Ž ¥† ⠝ The blouse and skirt don’t match

՟ގ ՟ ³Õ±¢çŠ § ³Õ¥ÚŽ §† §Œ  ¢ñ‹ چ ¨¢™‹ The two governments do not recognize one another

86 Experience adjectives: ËÌ ñ þÔš ,ËÌñ ÔìÒîò ‘I’m comfortable, I’m cold’

146

In 45 we met the constructions . . . ¥† šÕ¡ ‘It’s good to . . .’ and . . . ڌ šÕ¡ ‘It’s good that . . .’ without ŸŒ , and in 49(b) we saw predicates Ž ­† ™Œ ‘it’s possible’. that can stand completely alone, such as ±Ú


A third phenomenon, involving many though not all of the same words, is the use of an adjective with an ‘experiencer phrase’, introduced by ¥† . Here, too, no word for ‘it’ is normally used, thus:

³¥Œ ¢Œ¢  ¥ ±°

The soldier’s cold (cold to the soldier)

¢¥Š šÕ¡

I feel fine

¢¥Š ¦¢«Š ©Ž ™¥

I feel uncomfortable

(±Ž °Ž ³¥Œ ¢Œ ¢   might signify ‘cold to the touch’, and ‘I’m good’.)

Comparative phrases

šÕ¡ ¢©Š ™ˆ would mean

87–90 COMPARATIVES 87 Comparative phrases a

§Š ±³‹ Õ¢ ‘more than’

‘More successful, more quickly, taller, kinder’ and so on are usually rendered by ±³‹ Õ¢, either before or after the adjective. (After the adjective sounds somewhat more elegant.)

±³‹ Õ¢ ¦çŽ ž³ † §† or ¦çŽ  ž³ † §† ±³‹ Õ¢

more sophisticated

±³‹ Õ¢ ¦  or ¦  ±³‹ Õ¢

warmer

Similarly, ‘more (dollars)’ is ±³‹ Õ¢ before the noun: ¦¢±Š ¥Ž ՜ ±³‹ Õ¢. ‘Than’ in such phrases is usually §Š . ‘Than me, you’ and so on is ˃§† §Š ,¢©Š §Œ §Š , etc., using the normal suffixes set out in 35(c):

¥™‹ ±Ž ۆ ¢Š §Š ›œŽ ±³‹ Õ¢ ³¤Œ ±Œ Õ¯ ¨ìŽ ¢ Japan consumes more fish than Israel

¢©Š §Œ §Š šÕ¡ ±³‹ Õ¢ ™â He’s better than me

™ÞŽ ѧŠ ³Õ ìŽ  ¢  žŠ ž±† § ™â He earns less than Daddy

147


Level Two In elegant Hebrew, ‘more [adjective] than’ is sometimes expressed without

±³‹ Õ¢, by relying just on §Š : ž¢ Ž ™Œ ±Òچ §Š ፠՚›Ž ¢Œ† ¢Š ™â He will be taller than the rest of his brothers

b

±ÚŒ ™ˆ §‹ ‘than’

For introducing a whole clause or a heavy phrase, one generally uses

±ÚŒ ™ˆ §‹ (or more stylishly: ڌ §Š ), thus: â©¢ì¢ Š ¯Š ±ÚŒ ѧ‹ ±³‹ Õ¢ ፠՚›Ž ±¢ Š §†  The price is higher than we anticipated

³§Œ œŒ Õ° ¦« ì Þ ڌ §Š ±³‹ Õ¢ ¢  ¥Š ¯† Š ŸŒ It was more successful than last time

c

¢œ §Š ‘too’, °¢ìŠ ª† § ‘enough’

¢œ §Š and ¢œ §Š ±³‹ Õ¢, introduce a clause with ‘to’, Hebrew uses ¥† . Sometimes the ¥† is reinforced by ¥¢šŠ چ ފ or ¢œ‹ ¤† §Š , thus: When the words for ‘too’,

« էچ ¥Š ¢œ §Š ¬¢‹¢«Ž ¢©Š ™ˆ I’m too tired to listen

³™¯‹ ¥Ž (¢œ‹ ¤† §Š or) ¥¢šŠ چ ފ œÕšˆ Ž « ¢œ §Š ±³Õ¢ ‹ ¢¥Š ڋ¢ I’ve got too much work to go out Much the same happens when °¢ìŠ ª† § is followed by a clause. Use

,¥¢šŠ چ ފ

¥† or ¢œ‹ ç† . 148

±Õñލ ¦¢œŠ §† Õ«¥Ž ™ª‹ ç‹ ³Õ©­ ¥† ¢œ‹ ç† š¢œŠ Ò °¢ìŠ ª† § ™¥ ™â He isn’t polite enough to vacate a seat to people standing in line


‘As big as’:

. . . Õ§ç†

d ‘the more that . . ., the more . . .’ Hebrew uses

ڌ ¥¤ç†

or

ڌ §Ž ç ¥çŽ

to denote ‘the more that . . .’. The

ensuing clause may be introduced by ˂çŽ or (colloquially) by ŸÒ:

±°Œ բކ ±šŽ œŽ  Õ¥ ¥Œ «ˆ ¢ ˂çŽ ,±³Õ¢ ‹ šç‹ « ³† §Š ™âÚŒ §Ž ç ¥çŽ The more he delays, the more it will cost him

88 ‘The most . . .’ For ‘the most successful, the tallest’, colloquial Hebrew uses

¢¤ˆ Š  in front

of the adjective:

¦çŽ † ⳧† ¢¤Š ˆ ¥¢¡Š 

the most sophisticated missile

¦  ¢¤Š ˆ ¦Õ¢

the warmest day

šÕ¡ ¢¤Š ˆ ™â

he is the best

Formal Hebrew prefers ±³‹ բކ , following the adjective:

±³‹ բކ ªŽ ⩧†  ³¢©Š ±Ž œ† ڍ  the most experienced woman broadcaster To express ‘the most money’ etc., one uses

Þ‹ ±†  ¢¤Š ˆ , as in ¢¤Š ˆ Ú¢‹ ¢¥Š

¨Õ¢ªŽ ©Š Þ‹ ±†  ‘I have the most experience’.

89 ‘As big as’: . . . ÒîôÐ k For ‘as big as, as clumsy as’, Hebrew uses the single word Õ§ç† :

!˂Õ§çŽ ¥Õœ Ž ›† ±šŽ ç† ™¢Š

She’s already as big as you (big like you)

±Õ« Õ§ç† ™¢±Š ގ Õ©¢™‹ ¨Õ¥¢¢©

Nylon is not as healthy as leather

149


Level Two

90 Measurement: . . . ñÓ ðÒîè íÔô ‘How big is . . .’ ‘How high is it?’, ‘it’s two meters high’ and similar measurements are generally rendered in Hebrew not by an adjective but by the abstract noun derived from it, using a construct phrase or suffix:

?±œŒ Œ  ᚍ ՛ §

How high is the room? (what’s the height of the room)

±¡Œ §Œ ¢©‹Ú† ±œŒ Œ  ᚍ ՛

The room’s 2 meters high (the height of the room is 2 meters)

Similarly for ˂±Œ ՙ ‘length’, š  Õ± ‘width’, ¢žŠ ÕÚ ‘worth’ and the like. But when the measurement qualifies the noun, one uses

. . . ¥ÚŒ ᚍ ՛ކ

and so on:

±¡Œ §Œ ¢©‹Ú† ¥ÚŒ ᚍ ՛ކ ±œŒ Œ ކ œ§‹ Õ« ŸŒ

It stands in a room 2 meters high

±¥Ž ՜ œ±™ † ¢¥¢† §Š ¥ÚŒ ¢žŠ ÕÚކ ¦¢§Š ª

drugs worth a billion dollars

For comparative measurement, use ކ . Word order is flexible:

¢©Š ڋ  ±œŒ Œ  §‹ ˂Õ±Ò ±³Õ¢ ‹ ±¡Œ §Œ «Ž š† ڊ ކ ŒŸ ±œŒ  Œ  This room’s 7 meters longer than the other room

!Ÿâ Ò ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ ކ ±³‹ Õ¢ ¦¢¥Š ՟ ¦¢œŠ ›Ž ކ  §Ž ڎ There the clothes are 20 percent cheaper!

91–6 ADVERBIALS 91 Adverbs of manner: e.g. ³eþËÌ íÐôÌa ‘quickly’ Hebrew has no automatic way of converting adjectives into adverbs of

150

manner, like ‘quick Æ quickly’. Most commonly, it uses phrases of various types:


(1a) (1b)

Adverbs of manner: e.g.

¢¡Š § աՙ ¨­Œ ՙކ

³â±¢Š §† ފ ‘quickly’

³¢¡Š § աՙ ±Ž â¯Þ† automatically (in an automatic way)

(2)

³â±¢Š Ÿ† ފ cautiously (with caution)

Type (1) is based directly on the adjective, type (2) on the adjectival noun introduced in 65. Generally speaking, type (1) relates to the action itself and type (2) to the person acting (thus, people are cautious but actions are automatic). As for

¨­Œ ՙ

and

±Ž â¯,

there is no significant difference

between them. Further examples:

!³â©¢œŠ «ˆ ކ ±Õ›ª†

Close gently

« ⚰Ž ¨­Œ ՙކ ¥°Ž ¥† â°§† ™¥ ŸŒ

It isn’t permanently out of order

A few common adverbs are simply adjectives, used in their masc. sing. form without agreement:

šÕ¡ ª¢ Ž ìŠ œ† § ™¢Š

She types well

­Œ ¢Ž ⛝ˆ © ³† Š ¦‹

They behaved nicely

°ŸŽ Ž ˂ÕÚ§† ñŠ

Pull hard

ÚŒ °Ž œÕš«ˆ ñ

Work hard

±ÚŽ ¢Ž «ª

Go straight

And also (colloquially)

šÕ¡ ™¥ or « ⱛŽ badly

™±Ž Õ© awfully

¨¢Ž¢â¯§† excellently A few other common adverbs of manner are special one-word forms: ±‹ § ‘fast’, š¡¢ ‹ ‹ ‘well’, ¡Ñ¥† ‘slowly’. These cannot be used as adjectives.

151


Level Two

92 Echo phrases: e.g. ¬Ö ñìÐeô öÒîìÖ®Ìò ìÔ®ËÌò ‘won decisively’ Where English would use a ‘manner adverb’, elegant Hebrew sometimes uses an ‘echo phrase’, i.e. an abstract noun echoing the verb, to which is added an adjective of manner:

³¢Š©§† Ÿ Ž±âš°† ¦ÚŽ â±Þ† °Š† © ³Õ­â› The bodies were buried there temporarily

³Õçⱈ™ ³Õ Ž©™ˆ Úեڎ ¢ñŠ   † ©™‡ ©Œ I sighed three long sighs

93 Рa of time, place and means Location in time and space is nearly always denoted by ކ , thus:

Úڋ «Ž ڎ ކ

at 6 o’clock

¢©Š ڋ ¢§¢ ‹ ފ Òގ ™¥ ™¢Š

She doesn’t come Mondays

?±Ž š† «Ž ڌ ©Ž ڎ ލ ³¢¢Š Ž ­¢™‹

Where were you last year?

Similarly:

±­Œ ª‹  -³¢š‹ ކ ŸŒ

It’s at the school

¢ŽœŠ ⫪ ކ ŸŒ

It’s in Saudi Arabia

The chief exceptions are the with ¥çŽ ‘every’:

 expressions in 94 below, and time phrases

¦Õ¢ ¥çŽ ¢³¢ Š Š ێ

I swam every day

. . . ڌ ¦« ì ¥çŽ

every time that . . .

‘With’ (i.e. by means of) is commonly ކ , but spoken Hebrew also uses ¦«Š :

152

¢œŠ žŒ žÚ† ކ ªŒ © ñ†

Try with a spanner

›¥‹ †Ÿ§ ¦«Š ¥¤™  ñ

Eat with a fork


94 óÒîËÔ í ,íÖòL ÖÔí ‘today, this year’

 denotes not only ‘the’ but also ‘this’, with most units of time: ¦Õ¢

today

±°Œ Õޝ

this morning

š±Œ «Œ Ž

this evening

¦« ì 

this time

« âšÚŽ 

this week

ڜŒ Õ 

this month

®¢Š ¢° 

this summer

?±°Œ Õޝ ³¢ Ž ¢Š Ž ­¢™‹

Ž of destination: e.g. ©Ž Õ­¯Ž ‘northwards’

Where were you this morning?

95 íÖ of destination: e.g. íÖòÒîõÖ ® ‘northwards’ The normal marker of movement is ¥† or suffixed ¥™Œ (e.g. . . . ˃¢¥Œ ™‹ ,¢¥ ™‹ ) for saying ‘to me, to him’ etc. (see 35(a) for details). ¥™Œ with no suffix can be found in higher styles, particularly with other positional prepositions, e.g. ±šŒ «‹ §‹ ¥™Œ ,³  ñ §Š ¥™Œ ,˂Õñ ¥™Œ . Instead of using ¥† for ‘to’, a handful of words can take the suffix Ž: ©Ž Õ­¯Ž ‘northwards’. Notice our stress-mark; this Ž is unstressed, and thus distinct from feminine Ž. And similarly:

§Ž Õ±œŽ

southwards (and the other points of the compass)

©Ž ¢§Š ¢Ž

rightwards

œ¢ Ž ¯Š 

to the side

§¢ Ž œŠ °Ž

¥™ Ž §Û†

leftwards

forwards

±Ž Õ Ñ

backwards

§¢Š Ž ©ì†

inside

¯Ž ⠝

out

³†Ž ¢Þ 

home

±Ž ¢«Š Ž

to town

¯Ž ±Ñ †

to Israel

The suffix  can also colloquially denote position rather than motion: §Ž ڎ ‘there’, §¢ Ž œŠ °Ž ‘in front’, §Õ± Ž œŽ ³¯Ž °† ‘a little to the South’.

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Level Two

96 Ì ô of location: e.g. ñêôÒ N Ð Ìô ‘on the left’

§Š

ordinarily means ‘from’. However, with various prepositions and

adverbs of place it means ‘at’, notably:

¨¢§Š ¢Ž§Š ,¥™§Û† §Š ,š¢šŠ ªŽ §Š ⩜† § «Ž We stood round about, on the left, on the right

³¢Š ލ ¥ ¨¢§Š ¢Ž§Š ,³¢Š ލ ¥ ¥™§Û† §Š on the right of, on the left of the house

³¢Š ލ ¥ š¢šŠ ªŽ §Š

around the house

³¢Š ލ ¥ ±šŒ «‹ §‹

on the other side of the house

³¢Š ލ ¥ ³  ñ §Š

under the house

³¢Š ލ ¥ ¥« §‹

above the house

97 The gerund: Òî¼ËÌèÔ íÌa ‘on his arrival’ For forming adverbial clauses, particularly ‘when’ clauses, official or literary Hebrew sometimes uses the gerund. This is generally simply the infinitive without

¥† .

Instead of

¥†

comes

ކ

denoting ‘when’ or ‘while’.

 ›Š  ¥† ‘to arrive’: Notice the word order. Using the verb «¢ . . . ¬Õª§Ž ¥ ¦¢«Š ª† Õ© «¢  ›Š  ކ When the passengers arrived at the terminal . . . (on arrival of the passengers at the terminal . . .) Most often, the gerund takes a suffixed pronoun:

³ŒœŒ±¥Ž ˃¢¥Œ «Ž ,¬Õª§Ž ¥ ˃«¢  ›Š  ކ On arriving at the terminal, one must alight

154

¨Õ³ÞŽ ڍ ކ Õ³Õ¢† ފ š¡¢ ‹ ‹ ճՙ ¢ñŠ ±† ç Š I got to know him well when he was on sabbatical


Inflexion of

¨¢™‹

98 Where to position óÔè and šÔ þ

¦› ‘also, even’ and °± ‘only’ are ‘focus words’: they serve to put the focus on a particular noun or phrase. They usually precede the focused word(s):

³œŒ ›Œ © ³† §Š ³¢±Š ކ  -³Õ¯±† Ñ ¦›

The USA objects, too (also the USA objects)

¦¢¢Š ñ چ °± ¢¥Š ¨ñ‹

Just give me two (give me just two)

A colloquial alternative to ¦› is ¨ç‹ -¦› , at the end of the sentence:

¨ç‹ -¦› ³œŒ ›Œ © ³† §Š ³¢±Š ކ  -³Õ¯±† Ñ

The USA objects, too

99–100 NEGATIVES 99 Inflexion of öËÑ ê Besides its use as the negative of

Ú¢‹

(i.e. ‘there aren’t’),

¨¢™‹

can mean

‘not’: in present tense sentences it is a more formal or ‘correct’ equivalent to ™¥. In this role, ¨¢™‹ usually has to agree with the subject, by means of a suffix:

š±‹ « ³† §Š Õ©¢™‹ ¥ÚŽ §† §Š 

The regime does not intervene

¦¢šŠ ±† « ³† §Š ¦©Ž ¢™‹ ³Õ©Õ¡¥† ڊ 

The authorities do not intervene

 Œ §† ⧠¢©Š ©Œ ¢™‹ ¢©Š ™ˆ

I am not an expert

Where the subject is a personal pronoun (. . . and

ñŽ Ñ ,¢©Š ™ˆ ), it can be omitted , etc. by themselves can represent ‘I do not, I am not’ and © † ¢ ™ ‹ , ¢Š © © Œ ¢ ™ ‹ ˃

so on:

 Œ §† ⧠¢©Š ©Œ ¢™‹

I am not an expert

¦¢§Š ڋ ™ˆ ¦¤Œ ©† ¢™‹

You are not at fault

155


Level Two

The suffixes of ¨¢™‹ are generally as follows:

,ᩎ ¢™‹ ,Õ©¢™‹ ,˂©‹ ¢™‹ ,˃ †©¢™‹ ,¢Š©©Œ ¢™‹ ¨Ž©¢™‹ ,¦Ž©¢™‹ ,¨¤†Œ ©¢™‹ ,¦¤†Œ ©¢™‹ ,⩌©¢™‹ An alternative to ¢©Š ©Œ ¢™‹ is ¢©Š ¢™‹ . Do not confuse this ¢©Š ¢™‹ with ¢©Š ™ ˆ. Note: In elevated style, ¨¢™‹ can stand in front of the subject rather than after it. In such cases it never inflects:

¦¢šŠ ±† « ³† §Š ³Õ©Õ¡¥† ڊ  ¨¢™‹

The authorities do not intervene

100 ‘No one, nothing, nowhere, non-, un-, neither’ No one

œ Ž ™Œ ¬Ñ (colloquial) or Ú¢™Š (formal)

Nothing

±šŽ œŽ ¦âÚ (colloquial), ±šŽ œŽ (formal) or ¦â¥ç† (general)

Never

¦« ì ¬Ñ (colloquial) or formally ¦¥Ž Õ«§‹ , ¦¥Ž Õ«¥† , for present and future

Nowhere

¦Õ°§Ž ¦âÚކ

for past, and

When these negative words are part of a sentence, there also has to be a negator, i.e. ™¥ ,¨¢™‹ or similar:

¦¥¢ ‹ ڊ ™¥ œ Ž ™Œ ¬Ñ

No one paid (no one didn’t pay)

ճՙ ¢ñŠ ±† ç Š ™¥ ¦¥Ž Õ«§‹

I never got to know him

ճՙ ±¢çŠ Ñ ™¥ ¦¥Ž Õ«¥†

I’ll never get to know him

¦â¥ç† ¦ñŒ ª† ­ ª¢ † ­Š ™¥

You didn’t miss anything

The same goes for ¬Ñ ‘a single’ and ¦âÚ ‘no’:

156

³â«¡Ž ¬Ñ ¢³™ Š ¯Ž §Ž ™¥

I didn’t find a single mistake


But used by themselves, the negative words are intrinsically negative and do not need a ™¥:

¦â¥ç† – ?§Ž ڎ Ú¢‹ §

What’s over there? – Nothing

œ Ž ™Œ ¬Ñ – ?¥¯‹ ¥¢† ¯Š ¢§Š

Who called? – No one

‘No one, nothing, nowhere, non-, un-, neither’

To make an adjective negative, one can place ™¥ directly in front of it:

¦¢«Š ©Ž ™¥ ³¯Ž °† ¢ŽŽ ™â

He was a bit unpleasant

±â±ÞŽ ™¥ œ™§† ŸŒ

It’s very unclear

With adjectives formed from verbs or nouns, Hebrew often uses the negative prefix ¢ñŠ ¥† ފ :

¢°Š â -¢ñŠ ¥† ފ illegal

¥ÞŽ â°§† -¢ñŠ ¥† ފ unacceptable

¢¥Š ©Ž Õ¢¯Š ©† šŒ ©† Õ°-¢ñŠ ¥† ފ unconventional With action nouns, use the negative prefix -¢™Š :

©Ž šŽ ˆ -¢™Š ³Ž ¢† Ž

There was a misunderstanding

³Õ¥¢šŠ ˆ ³± ¢ªŠ §† -¢™Š

non-delivery of packages

but with nouns denoting a state, the negative prefix is usually

±ªŒ Õ and

sometimes ¢™Š :

¨¢šŠ Ž ¥† ³¥Œ Õ¤¢† -±ªŒ Õ

inability to understand

³â¢±Ž  ™ˆ -±ªŒ Õ  or ³â¢±Ž   ™ˆ -¢™Š

irresponsibility

To express ‘neither . . . nor’, one may use a double ™¥:

ŸŒ ކ ™¥ž† ŸŒ ކ ™¥ â± ˆ š† ¢Š ™¥ÚŒ ±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ It may be that they’ll choose neither the one nor the other

157


Level Two

101 Questions a Questions using ¦™Š  Questions expecting a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ can simply be signaled by tone of voice or question mark (see 39(a)). Alternatively, one can begin with the particle ¦™Š  , which is particularly common in formal or elegant usage:

?¦¢œŠ ±† Õ¥ Ú¢‹ ¦™Š 

Are there any felt-tip pens?

?³™Ÿ «œ ¢Ž ¥¯Œ ±† Œ ¦™Š 

Did Herzl know this?

Note also that negative questions of the type ‘didn’t he . . ., aren’t you . . .’ are simply rendered by adding ™¥ (or ¨¢™‹ ) to the Hebrew question:

?¦¢œŠ ±† Õ¥ ¨¢™‹ ¦™Š  or ?¦¢œŠ ±† Õ¥ ¨¢™‹ Aren’t there any felt-tips? ?³™Ÿ «œ ¢Ž ™¥ ¥¯Œ ±† Œ ¦™Š  or ?³™Ÿ «œ ¢Ž ™¥ ¥¯Œ ±† Œ Didn’t Herzl know this? But the equivalent of tags, such as ‘didn’t he?, aren’t you?’ is simply ?¨Õ¤©Ž .

?¨Õ¤©Ž ,³Õ¥™‹ چ Ú¢‹ There are questions, aren’t there?

?¨Õ¤©Ž ,³Õ¥™‹ چ ¨¢™‹ There aren’t any questions, are there?

b Questions using ¦™Š ‘whether’ By contrast, indirect questions – that is, questions embedded in the overall sentence – start with an ¦™Š , corresponding to ‘whether’:

çŒ  §† ¦±Ž Õ¢ ¦™Š   â¡ÞŽ ™¥ ¢©Š ™ˆ I’m not sure whether Yoram’s waiting

158

Although ¦™Š also means ‘if’ (i.e. ‘in the event that . . .’), the two kinds of ¦™Š will rarely be confused.


‘Either . . . or’:

ՙ . . . ՙ

102 Wishes and requests a ‘I want (him) to . . .’ . . . ڌ ¯Œ Õ± ¢©Š ™ˆ While verbs of wishing such as take

¯Ž ±Ž ‘want’, ¬¢œŠ «‡ Œ ‘prefer’, žŽ ž¢°Š ‘hope’

. . . ¥† ‘to . . .’ just as in English, this does not work when one wishes ڌ is used + future tense, even

someone else to do something. In that case, if the action is in the past:

?°¢ªŠ ­† Ñڌ ³¢ Ž ¯Š ±Ž ñŽ Ñ

Did you want me to stop?

ŸŒ §Š ç Ú† ñŠ ڌ ­¢ Ž œŠ «ˆ § ¢©Š ™ˆ

I prefer you to forget about it

b Commands with ڌ Related to the preceding construction is the colloquial use of bare

ڌ to

express ‘you must . . .’ or ‘he, she must’ (a kind of forceful urging):

ç Ú† ñŠ ™¥ÚŒ

Don’t you forget!

±šŽ ç† â¥¢ Š ³† ¢ÚŒ

Let them begin already!

¥Œ ™‹ çŽ ³Õ±¯Ž §Š «œ ©‹ ™¥ÚŒ

I hope we never know such troubles

103 ‘Either . . . or’: Òîê . . . Òîê ‘Either . . . or’ with nouns is usually ՙ

. . . ՙ, thus:

¦â ކ ՙ ±Õ­Òކ ՙ Ú§‹ ñ چ Š ¥† ±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ You can use either gray or brown When introducing a whole clause, Hebrew prefers

ž¢³Ž ª†  œ« çŒ  ñ† ڌ ՙ â©ñŽ ™Š ªâ¡ñŽ چ ՙ Either fly with us or wait till autumn

. . . ڌ ՙ . . . ڌ ՙ: 159


Level Two In fact, a single Ú Œ ՙ is common for ‘or’ when there is no ‘either’:

?ñ† ±† § ›Ž ™¥ œÕ« ñ† Ñڌ ՙ ,œÕ« Ú¢‹ Is there more, or haven’t you finished yet?

³¢©Š Õ§  °‹ Õ¥ ¢ Š©™ˆ ڌ ՙ ,¥›Œ ±Œ ގ ˂¥Õ ‹ ¢Š©™ˆ I walk, or I take a cab

104 Clauses as subject: ‘Painting is fun’ The Hebrew equivalent of the English verbal noun in ‘-ing’ is either the action noun, e.g.

«¢ Ž šŠ ¯† ‘painting’, or else the infinitive, e.g. « ÕÞ¯† ¥Š . For

‘-ing’ as subject of a clause, particularly in speech, one usually finds an infinitive, something like:

¬¢¢ç‹ ŸŒ « ÕÞ¯† ¥Š

Painting is fun

˃¥† °¢ŠŸ¢ ™¥ ŒŸ ³¯Ž °† ±ÕŸˆ«¥

Helping a bit isn’t going to hurt you

¦â¢ŸŠ ³§Œ ±Œ ՛ ¥šŒ ŸŒ ³± « š† 

Burning garbage causes pollution

Notice

ŸŒ

serving as the verb ‘be’ here – this often happens after an

infinitive in constructions of this kind.

105 Relative clauses a Relative clauses with a pronoun The basic relative clause with

ڌ for ‘who, which’ was introduced in 47.

But to render ‘with whom, with which, for whom, for which’ and the like, one must insert an extra pronoun:

160

Õñ™Š ¢ñŠ ±† Þ¢  œŠ چ ±â ގ 

the guy I was speaking with

³Õ±ì‹ ÕÞ ¢³¢ Š ©Š °Ž ڌ ¨¤Ž ✝

the stall at which I bought fruit


This amounts to saying ‘the man that I was speaking with him’ and ‘the

Relative clauses

stall that I bought fruit at it’: Hebrew’s Ú Œ is in fact the equivalent of ‘that’. Formal Hebrew may also insert a pronoun

³Ž ՙ ,ճՙ to do the work of

‘whom, which’:

¦œ‹ Õ° ¥ÚŽ §† §Š  ›¢Š ©† Š ¨³Ž ՙڌ ,³Õ§Ÿ† Õ¢ ¢ñ‹ چ ¥¡¢ ‹ ފ ¥ÚŽ §† §Š  The administration has canceled two initiatives which the previous administration introduced and this pronoun can even be used without a Ú Œ:

¦œ‹ Õ° ¥ÚŽ §† §Š  ›¢Š ©† Š ¨³Ž ՙ ,³Õ§Ÿ† Õ¢ ¢ñ‹ چ ¥¡¢ ‹ ފ ¥ÚŽ §† §Š  Note in particular how to render ‘whose’:

¢©Š §¢ Ž ñ‹ ™â եڌ ±Þ‹  §†  چ ±­Œ ª‹

a book whose author is a Yemenite (a book that the author of it is a Yemenite)

Similarly, ‘where’ is ¦Ú Ž

. . . ڌ or simply ÕÞ . . . ڌ , thus:

¦ÚŽ ⩢碊 Š ڌ ©Ž  Ž ñ 

the stop where we waited (. . . that we waited there)

b

. . . ڌ ­¢™‹ ,. . . ڌ ¢§Š ,. . . ڌ §

To express ‘what I did, where I was, the person who rang’, Hebrew employs a special type of relative clause. It makes use of the question words § ,¢§Š ,­¢™‹ – but not, of course, as a question:

¢ñŠ ª† ì œ† Š ڌ § ¢ñŠ °†  §Ž

I erased what I typed

Ž œ Ÿ† Š ™¥ ¥¯‹ ¥† ¯Š ڌ ¢§Š

The person who called didn’t identify himself

³Õœ§† Õ« ³Õ¢©Š Õ§ ڌ ­¢™‹ çŒ  ñ†

Wait where the taxis are standing

161


Level Two To express ‘whatever, whoever, wherever . . .’, one often uses . . . ڌ ¦Õ°§Ž ¥¤Ž ކ ,¢§Š ¥çŽ :

,§ ¥çŽ

ª¢ìŠ œ† § ¢©Š ™ˆ ڌ § ¥çŽ ³°Œ Œ Õ§ ™¢Š

She erases whatever I type

ª±Ž ì† Þ† çŒ Ÿ† ¢Š ¨Õ¤©Ž Ú ‹ © ¢† ڌ ¢§Š ¥ç

Whoever guesses right will win a prize

c Relative clauses with  The relative clauses introduced thus far have the conjunction Ú Œ . Formal Œ in relative clauses like the Hebrew has an alternative, using  instead of Ú following:

¢Ž›† ±† ©Œ ™Œ ކ ³Õ¤ª† Õ  ³Õ©Õ¤§†

machines that save energy

 is permissible here because: 1 the subject of ³Õ¤ª† Õ is understood to be none other than the ‘antecedent noun’, ³Õ©Õ¤§† , i.e. the machines are saving energy; 2 the verb ³Õ¤ª† Õ  is in the present tense. By contrast, the following relative clauses cannot have , because the ˆ , not ³Õ©Õ¤§† (i.e. we did the subject of â©Ú† ¤ ±Ž is understood to be â© † © ™ acquiring, not the machines):

ñŽ « â©Ú† ¤ ±Ž ڌ ³Õ©Õ¤§†

machines that we just acquired

or because the verb is not in the present tense:

¢Ž›† ±† ©Œ ™Œ ކ ⤪† Ž ڌ ³Õ©Õ¤§†

machines that saved energy

A final point: do not confuse this  with  meaning ‘the’.

106 When the order is not subject–verb–object 162

The basic word order, subject–verb–object, is frequently overturned, with confusing results.


a Inverting subject and verb 1 Where the sentence begins not with the subject but with an adverb, an adverbial clause or the like, Hebrew often puts the verb ahead of the subject, making things ‘lighter’ and more ‘balanced’:

¦¢ Œ ©‹ چ ⧥† «‡ ©Œ ž¢ÚŽ ¤† «

Now both have vanished (now have vanished both)

¯Ž ±† Ñ ¢± ՝ âšÚŽ ¢ñŠ œ† ¥ թڌ ±  Ñ¥†

After I was born my parents returned to Israel (. . . returned my parents to Israel)

When the order is not subject– verb–object

This also happens inside adverbial clauses and relative clauses. Observe what happens to subject + verb after ¦™Š and ±  Ñ¥† , for instance:

. . . ¢  Ñ ¢©‹ چ ⥜† ›Ž ڌ ±  Ñ¥†

After my two brothers grew up, . . .

. . . ž¢±Ž šŽ œ† ⳧† ѳ† ¢Š ¦™Š

If his words come true, . . .

and within the relative clause following Ú Œ:

© Ÿ† â§â šâ¥«Ž ¢ŽŽ ¢© ¢«‹ ♱Ž ڌ § ¥çŽ All that my eyes saw was miserable and neglected A similar situation arises when the sentence begins with an interrogative:

?¯Ž ±† Ñ ˃¢Œ±Õ ⱆŸ Ž ¢³ §Ž

When did your parents return to Israel?

?¦¢¥¢Š ¯Š   ¦¢¥Š Õ« §Ž ç

How much do the eggplants cost?

However, where the subject is a pronoun, inversion of subject and verb is generally avoided:

?ⱟ† Ž ¦‹ ¢³ §Ž

When did they return?

?¥Œ Õ« ŸŒ §Ž ç

How much does it cost?

2 As in English, a direct quotation is followed by an inversion:

¢³Š Õ Ñ ±Ž §† Ò ,"¢œ "

‘Stop it,’ said my sister

163


Level Two

b Starting with the object Whereas English tends to use tone of voice for marking the focus and nonfocus of a sentence, Hebrew tends to use word order. Thus, to indicate that a noun is already the topic of conversation or already in the hearer’s mind, Hebrew likes to have it first in the sentence, even if it is the object:

³  ° ¥Ž ¥Õ¤¢Ž ñŽ Ñ Õ¢œ† ± Ž ³™Œ You can take the radio (implying: ‘I know you’re thinking about it already . . .’ or ‘by contrast with the other things . . .’) Similarly, to highlight a contrast or to stress a word, Hebrew likes to change the normal word order:

¢ñŠ † ¤ ڎ ¢©Š ™ˆ ¦¢¥Š ­Œ ž ¥šŽ ™ˆ ,¢³¢ Š ©Š °Ž ¢ Š©™ˆ ¦¢±Š °Œ ± °† ,¢³¢ Š ©Š °Ž ¢©Š ™ˆ ³Õ¢›Š â« I bought cookies, I bought crackers, but I forgot wafers

?±Õ秆 ¥Š ¯Œ Õ± ñŽ ™ˆ â±Þ ⪠!¥Œ ™‹ Ž ¦¢™Š ©Ž Õñ¢«Š Ž ¥çŽ ³Õ¥š‹ ©†

You want to sell a Subaru? All these journalists are scum!

Such effects can be subtle in the extreme, and hard to define; but speakers of any language will know them when they hear them.

c Presentative verbs When a subject noun is being presented or introduced, it is commonly held back for effect – with the ‘presentative’ verb coming first:

±Ú ♢† ™¥ ¡°¢Œ¢Õ±ì†  ڌ Úڎ ˆ ¦¢¢Ž° A risk exists that the project will not be approved

¥Õ«­† ¥Š ¨§Ž Ÿ†  «¢  ›Š Š ¦¢œŠ §Ž «ˆ ⧠ÚŽ եچ â©¢¥‹ ™‹ â©ìŽ ¦ÚŒ ›Œ œ±‹ Õ¢

The time has come to act Three candidates have applied to us It’s raining (lit. descends rain)

107 Backtracking 164

Hebrew, both colloquial and formal, sometimes begins sentences with the topic under discussion and then backtracks to the subject. (This is known as œž ¢¢.)


?³Ž ՙ ¨¢§Š Ÿ† Š ¢§Š ,³™Ÿ ³¢©Š Õ§

Israeli spelling

This cab, who ordered it?

† ±œ¢ ‹ ªŠ ™âÚŒ ™Õ± Œ ¢Š©™ˆ ,ŒŸ ¨¥Ž ކ °  ŸÒ ˃³Õ™ So this builder, I see that he ripped you off This is particularly common in sentences of ‘having’ and ‘containing’: besides:

¦¢šŠ ¢† ՙ Þ‹ ±†  Ú¢‹ °ÚŒ §Œ  Ÿç‹ ± §† ¥Š The farm manager has many enemies it is equally common to say or write:

¦¢šŠ ¢† ՙ Þ‹ ±†  Õ¥ Ú¢‹ °ÚŒ §Œ  Ÿç‹ ± §† The farm manager has (lit. he has) many enemies Similarly:

¦¢­¢ Š «Š ª† ±Ž ێ «ˆ ÕÞ Ú¢‹ ŸŒ °±Œ ìŒ This chapter has (lit. there are in it) ten sections

108 Israeli spelling For students writing Hebrew or using any kind of dictionary, the habits of Israeli spelling are a severe headache. In a nutshell, Hebrew writers followed two separate spelling standards until the nineteenth century. Biblical Hebrew had been sparing in its use ‹  more commonly than ˂¥Õ ‹ , ¨ Ž ¥† ڐ of vowel letters, hence it has ˂¥ rather than ¨ Ž ¥† âÚ and so on, though there were no hard and fast rules. This was the ongoing practice of Hebrew poets. By contrast, post-Biblical Hebrew made very full use of vowel letters, and this practice was followed by most prose writers and copyists through the ages. Came the nineteenth century, and many Maskilim (‘modern-minded’ intellectuals) insisted on reverting to Biblical spelling, especially teachers. And when the quasi-official Vaad Halashon determined the spelling rules for schools in Eretz Yisrael early in the twentieth century, it actually insisted on Biblical spelling even where no nikkud was being used: £±™ rather than £ž±™, ª©¤ rather than ª©¤ž, ±šœ rather than ±š¢œ.

165


Level Two This is still the practice of many dictionaries. But the adult public, and many publishers and newspapers, went on spelling with full vowel letters as they always had. There were thus two spelling systems in simultaneous use. After the State was established, the Hebrew Language Academy in Jerusalem tried to simplify things, but no one paid much attention. Finally in 1970, its journal Leshonenu La’am published the Academy’s full official rules for spelling native Hebrew words (without nikkud). These rules have some official force, and some newer dictionaries have adopted them, but the public and press still cling to old habits. These rules are worth knowing, as a firm basis. They are rather complex, and are best explained by an experienced teacher. Here they are in a nutshell: 1 All ‘u’ sounds are to be written as ž, thus:

¦¥ž¤ ,¥­ž ,¨ ¥ž² ,™§ž¡ 2 The ‘cholam’ is to be written as ž, thus:

¥ž¤ ,±ž§²¥ ,¢­ž¢ ,²œž° ,±°žš Exceptions:

¥¤ (construct) ,±§™³ ,œš™¢ ,­¢™ ,­ ,¤ ,¥™§² ,²™± ,¨™¯ ,™¥ 3 Most ‘i’ sounds in an open syllable are to be written with ¢, thus:

,(©§¢Ÿ+) ¨§¢Ÿ ,¥¢›§ ,¡¢ ,(¦¢±ž¢« +) ±ž¢« ,²¢§  ,šž²¢¢ ,±žš¢œ ¢¢©² ,±§²¢³ ,¨³¢© Do not use ¢ for ‘i’ in a closed syllable:

³²š¥ ,(ž±§† ²Š ) ž±§² ,±ž§²³ ,¨ž¢§œ ,š³¤§ , §² 4 When ¢ is ‘y’, it is best written as a single ¢ at the beginning of the word: œ¥¢ ,œ¥¢, and as a double ¢ elsewhere: ³žš²¢¢³ ,±¢¢¯ ,¢¢ªžª. Exceptions:

166

Use a single ¢ next to another vowel letter (as in of the pattern ³¢š ,®¢°.

¦¢žª§) and in nouns


Exercises


Exercises The following exercise numbers correspond to the grammar section of the same number in Level 1 or Level 2.

2 ‘Me Tarzan, you Jane’ 2a ` Translate 2a through to 5: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Noam’s clever, in fact all the family’s clever. The dog’s filthy, absolutely filthy! Ronit and Chagit are happy now. The camera’s wonderful. The cat’s so soft. Now the dog’s clean. The dog and the cat are so clever.

2b ` 1 2 3 4 5

The radio is from Uncle Zvi. The video is under the TV. Dov’s already in Israel. This is probably for Grandpa or Grandma. Chana’s always with Shula and the kids.

2c ` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

The neighbor is a lawyer. The tape-recorder is a present for Mommy. The computer is a bit of a problem. Sometimes Jackie is really a pain-in-the-neck. Daddy is a lawyer, too. Rachel is a nurse. Rachel is the nurse from Hadassa. Chaim is the lawyer from New Jersey.

3 The personal pronouns 1 2 3 4 5

You’re hungry, Moshe and Chaim? And Yafa and Shoshana? They’re also busy? You’re first, Tirtza. She and I are still very busy. Hey, Benny, is that you? It’s me again.

169


Exercises

4 The definite article 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The blanket’s in the drier. I’m going back to the store. Something’s burning in the kitchen. I put food from the micro-wave straight on the table. What? You throw bottles right away into the garbage? It’s either in the oven or on the gas. The sheet’s in the closet. So you’re going to the mountains? No, the opposite, I’m going to the sea. Maybe the blanket’s on the line on the balcony.

5 ‘a, some’ 1 2 3 4 5

Some friends came from the Galilee. I’m buying some postcards with views of Jerusalem and Hebron. Dudu is visiting in Haifa with some relatives. In Beer-Sheva there’s usually some time for some Coca-Cola. There are some yoghurts in the fridge, darling.

6 Masculine and feminine nouns Depending on whether the noun is masculine or feminine, add ­Œ ¢Ž or ­Ž ¢Ž ‘beautiful’:

,¨Õ¥ª ,¢Ž¡† ލ §† Ñ ,³¥Œ œŒ ,¥Õ ,³¢Š ލ ,¨Õ¥  ,³ªŒ ­Œ ±† §Š ,±¢°Š ,±Ž ¢œŠ ,©Ž ¢›Š ,±œŒ  Œ ¡¥Ž °† §Š ,­Ž ¯† ±Š , Þ ¡† §Š ,¥¢ Ž žŠ And for these, add ¦¢­Š ¢Ž or ³Õ­¢Ž :

,¨Õ¥  ž† ³¥Œ œŒ ,±Õ¢çŠ ž† ¢Ž¡† ލ §† Ñ ,ª¢ Ž ©Š ç† ž† ¥Õ ,±Ž °† ñŠ ž† ìŽ ¯† ±Š , Þ ¡† §Š ž† ¨Õ¥ª ³Õ¥¢žŠ ž† ³Õ±¢œŠ ,©Ž ¢›Š ž† ³ªŒ ìŒ ±† §Š 7 The feminine and plural of nouns 7a

¦¢ and ³Õ

Give the plural of:

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,«š Õç ,ì¢ Ž çŠ ,¨ÕÞ✠,¥¢«Š §† ,¢Ž­Š ⛠,¥âž±† ڍ ,±Ž ՛ ˆ ,³¢™Š ¯Ž  ˆ ,¯Ž ¥† â  ,±œŒ žŒ žª† ¥œŽ ©† ª ,š¢ Ž ©Š «ˆ


Exercises 1 The family spent five hard years in camps for immigrants. 2 The soldiers came in trucks, buses, cars, and even in cabs. 3 They haven’t put handles on all the drawers. 4 In the apartment there are a few beds. 5 There are also some dirty tables. 6 Customers rarely keep till-receipts. 7 There are many cases of unemployment. 8 These structures are dangerous. 9 Tenured teachers will receive compensation.

7b The type ±šŽ œŽ Give the plural of:

,¡¢Ž¢  ,±ìŽ ª ,¥§‹ ©Ž ,¨­Ž ڎ ,±ìŽ ±† ì ,°Õª§Ž ,šÚ‹  † § ,§Ž ¥‹ ¯† § ,±Õœ§Ž ,ªÕ¡§Ž ,°±Ž ގ Ú¥Ž ލ ,¨³Ž  Ž ,±š‹  Ž ,œš‹ çŽ and of:

,±âœç ,¨Õ«ÚŽ ,¬¢«Š ¯Ž ,š¢šŠ Ò ,š¯Ž ° ,Ú Ž ©Ž , ÞŽ ¡ ,š°‹ «Ž ,œšŽ ±† § ,¥ ‹ ±Ž ,ª¢Ž¢¡ ,¥«‹ ¢Ž ±ÞŽ ¤† « 7c The type ¡±Œ ªŒ Give the plural of:

,®  ¥ ,±« ڍ ,«¥ ªŒ ,¦¥Œ ތ ,¥³Œ Õç ,«± ŸŒ ,ª©Œ çŒ ,«š ¯Œ ,˂¥Œ §Œ ,›±Œ ÕÞ ,±³Œ çŒ ,Ÿ±Œ ތ ±°Œ ڌ ,±ÑÕñ ,¥  © ,›¥Œ ڌ ,±šŒ °Œ and of:

,Ú±Œ °Œ ,œšŒ «Œ ,±¯Œ °Œ ,®§Œ Õ° ,¨šŒ ™Œ ,ª­Œ ™Œ ,¡¥Œ ڌ ,¦ÚŒ ›Œ ,°§Œ «‹ ,œªŒ Œ ,®­Œ  ‹ ,±œŒ «‹ ¬¥Œ ™Œ ,¨  ÕÞ ,œ« ¢ ,±šŒ «‹ ,±œŒ  Œ 7d Plural of ³â 1 2 3 4 5 6

Take advantage of all the opportunities. Embassies make lots of mistakes. All his priorities are wrong. Because of the heat they’ve cancelled some activities. New developments in the Middle East? Commitments about rights of immigrants? Nonsense.

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Exercises

7e Feminine denoting people 1 This is a photo of the Queen as a little girl. 2 Ofra Haza is even a star in the USA. 3 Our neighbor, Ofra, is a teacher in some high school. 4 He’s marrying a French woman apparently. 5 Like the other Russian woman in the building, she’s a doctor. 6 You’re looking for a good typist? 7 Well, there’s Natasha – she’s a student from the USSR. 8 She’s an artist, I think, or maybe an actress. 9 Naava is a lawyer in Ramle.

8 The feminine and plural of adjectives 8a The simplest adjective type Give the plural of these adjectives:

,³¢¡¢ Š ™Š ,¢³Š «Ž žŽ žŸ† ,Ò¥Ž ­† ©Š ,±° ,œ§Ž † ©Œ ,©Ž Õ±  Ñ ,«± ,¢¡Š ± °† Õ§œŒ ,³¢¡Š ª¢ † ©Š â§Õ° ³¢™Š °¢ Ž ±Š §Œ Ñ ,¢¥Š ›† ©† Ñ 8b Adjectives ending in Ž Put anything singular into the plural:

Ò©Ž ±Ž ¢œŠ ކ ±Ž ›Ž ™¢Š 3 Œ ç‹ «š ¯Œ °± Ú¢‹ 2 ­Œ ¢Ž ˂çŽ -¥çŽ ¦ÚŽ ± ìŒ  1 šŽ «Ž ±Ž °† ñŠ ¯Œ Õ± ¢©Š ™ˆ 4 8c The type ¥Õœ›Ž Give the masculine plural of these adjectives:

,¨Õš©Ž ,¥¢«Š ¢Ž ,š¢¯Š ¢ ,š«‹ ±Ž ,ڜŽ Ž ,™§‹ ¯Ž ,¦¢§Š ñŽ ,±¢ÞŠ ç ,±â›ªŽ ,±¢œŠ Ò ,±¢šŠ ªŽ š Ž ±Ž ,±¯Ž °Ž ,±¢ÚŠ «Ž ,°¢ Š ¯† § 9 öÖ ¬Öš ðÓñÓË 1 I need a cheap lamp – which lamp is cheap? 2 We want good pillows – a good pillow is important.

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3 Chests of drawers are so expensive. Is this a strong chest of drawers? 4 You like a warm duvet? Great, every duvet here is warm.


Exercises

10 Quantity phrases 1 A lot of tax 2 All the bargains 3 A few sales 4 Most prices 5 A little discount 6 More bills 7 Several receipts 8 A hundred customers 9 In twenty installments 10 How much Value Added Tax? 11 Sixty percent 12 One supermarket 13 A few shops

11 ‘This . . ., the same . . ., which . . .’ 1 Which pajamas? 2 Any suit 3 A coat like this (=such a coat) 4 The same bathrobe 5 What blouse, the blouse over there? 6 This coat 7 That jacket 8 Such a zipper 9 Any skirt is OK. 10 It’s a sort of belt. 11 Which outfit is good for Rosh Hashanah? 12 She’s wearing a sort of Arab dress. 13 I need the same button, of course. 14 What pants do you have? 15 Which hanger is good for that sweater?

12 Agreement of Ô í 12a Noun + adjective 1 The next festival 2 The great day 3 The special celebration 4 On the first day 5 Till the big fast 6 In the last heatwave 7 The long summer 8 For the coming spring 9 The beautiful autumns 10 The second winter 11 Silly Danny 12 Stupid Dr Frankenstein 13 Dr Frankenstein’s brilliant. 14 Where’s the new booklet from the Hebrew University? 15 Who wrote the long article on it for the religious newspaper? 16 The other book’s on the small bookcase.

12b Noun + ŸŒ 1 2 3 4 5

Who is this author, anyway? This form is compulsory. This circular is the final warning. I was coming back from this meeting . . . . . . And this guy suddenly shouts.

13 Agreement for gender and number 13a Adjectives 1 2 3 4 5

The pictures are gorgeous. The old mirror’s worth a lot. Yuk, the stairs are still dirty. There are some colored rugs. Where, in the big bathroom upstairs?

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Exercises

13c Particles of being 1 2 3 4

Rachel is a kindergarten teacher. Dov and Ya’ir are engineers. Dov is also a lecturer in Bar-Ilan. Her friends are either secretaries or clerks.

13d Determiners 1 That suggestion 2 Such ideas 3 The same agreements 4 Which complaints? 5 That nonsense 6 Such pleasure 7 This baby girl 8 These brainwaves 9 Any problems 10 Such a blessing

13e Quantity words 1 How many combs? 2 More soap and water 3 Less dirt 4 Several Italian films 5 Lots of tables and chairs 6 How much furniture? 7 Too much furniture 8 Enough armchairs 9 Many perfumes 10 Fewer baths 11 Few Israelis take a bath. 12 Most Israelis take showers. 13 You didn’t find a toilet? But there are loads of toilets here!

14 Numerals 14a ` 1 Three bottles 2 Six cups and six glasses 3 Two trays 4 Five knives 5 One kettle 6 We need two menus. 7 Three saucepans 8 Four teaspoons 9 There are only three restaurants. 10 Eight waiters and ten waitresses 11 Four wine-glasses 12 Nine napkins 13 Nine bowls for cereal 14 Two can-openers, one meaty and one dairy 15 Two forks and two spoons

14b ` 1 Twelve stamps 2 Sixteen air-letters 3 Eleven postcards 4 Nineteen letters to Israel and fourteen to overseas 5 Thirteen small packages 6 Eighteen telegrams 7 Twelve official letters 8 Fifteen forms 9 Nineteen calls today 10 There are seventeen mail-boxes at the entrance.

14c `

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1 Ninety kibbutzim 2 Thirty-three moshavs 3 Eighty-seven villages 4 Twenty-two vineyards 5 Sixty orchards along the highway 6 Fortynine trees 7 Seventy-five fields 8 About fifty or sixty tracks 9 Over eighty farms


Exercises

15 Partitives: ‘many of the . . ., all of the . . .’ 1 Most of the eggs are off! 2 The rest of the butter is on the plate. 3 On some of the sandwiches there’s margarine and on some there’s mayonnaise. 4 Three of the challahs are no good – they fell on the ground. 5 How much of the milk is left? 6 The kids have finished nearly all of the jelly! 7 How many of the guys want hummus and pitta? 8 Many of the products aren’t kosher. 9 I’ve put juice in four of the glasses.

16 Pronouns etc. 16a Definite pronouns 1 Your passport, honey? It’s in the small bag. 2 Here’s a trolley, thank heavens. Oh no, it’s broken. 3 Come over to this line, it’s moving. 4 The plane’s late again, it’s a disgrace! 5 I have two suitcases – is that OK? 6 Four plastic bags and a shoulder bag! It’s a cheek.

16b Indefinite pronouns 1 Someone’s pushing. Hey, what’s happening here? 2 Hang on, I’m asking something at the counter. 3 We’re landing at an airport somewhere in Europe. 4 Come to visit some time. 5 Is someone checking the tickets? 6 Once they did a check in customs, do you remember? 7 Is something wrong? 8 There’s a message for someone called Gila.

16c Adjectives without their noun 1 This plum’s no good? Then here’s another one. 2 I don’t like those apples. Do you have a red one? 3 What, you’re not eating this one? I don’t have any more fruit! 4 Those grapes are the black ones – they’re sour.

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Exercises

16d Numerals without their noun 1 How many mistakes did you find? I found five. 2 One moment, does this word have one meaning or two? 3 You only speak one language? In Israel many people speak six or seven.

17 Possessives and constructs 17a Possessive ‘of’ 1 Ben-Gurion’s influence

2 Whose promise?

3 Britain’s promise

4 Egypt’s aims 5 Begin’s concessions 6 Hussein’s plans 7 Whose brother are you?

8 Whose are those sandals on the floor? Menachem’s or

Shimon’s?

17b ‘My, your’ 1 Her Fiat 2 Your Peugeot 3 My Volvo 4 Their stupidity 5 Your sense 6 Our experience 7 His sister 8 My girl-friend 9 I love your wig, Chava. 10 I like your shtreimel, Gershon.

17c The construct: set phrases 1 A pear tree 2 An olive tree 3 A tennis match 4 A soccer pitch 5 A summer camp 6 A camp director 7 Apple juice 8 Orange juice 9 A juice carton 10 An orange grove 11 Chicken meat 12 Life insurance

17d Construct endings 1 Mitzi the cat wants breakfast. 2 My sister-in-law is a beauty queen. 3 Natan has written to an insurance company. 4 There are at least three insurance companies on this street. 5 Good TV programs! 6 TV sets are expensive. 7 Video sets are just as expensive. 8 I got a video camera.

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9 How much did you pay for wedding photos? 10 I hate receptions.


17e

 in construct phrases

Exercises

1 The school 2 The hospital 3 The lunches 4 The synagogue 5 The circumcision 6 The swimsuit 7 The barmitzvah 8 The barmitzvah suit 9 The video set 10 The video camera 11 How much does the swimsuit cost? 12 The school costs a lot of money. 13 The treatment at this hospital is free. 14 When is the service at the synagogue on Friday night? 15 Is the circumcision at the synagogue or at home?

19 The past tense 19a Form of the past tense Using the verb ŸŸŽ ‘move’, give the appropriate past tense forms:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ¥â¥Þ† ڍ  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . ±Õñ 12 Ž ‘sing’: and now using the verb ±Ú . . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ¨ŸŽ    14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š±‹ Õ«Ž 12 19b Syntax of the past tense 1 I’ve moved. 2 The cow’s moved. 3 The cockroach has moved. 4 The sheep have moved. 5 The baby’s moved. 6 She’s just moved. 7 You’ve moved, dope! 8 We moved slightly. 9 The lizard’s moved. 10 Have the flies moved? 11 He moved. 12 Immediately, she moved.

19c Meaning of the past tense 1 When did he last rest? 2 She was resting a moment ago! 3 It’s all right, I’ve already rested. 4 We rested all the evening. 5 Devorah was just resting. 6 Sorry, Esther, were you resting?

20 The present tense 1 2 3 4 5 6

OK, OK, we’re moving soon. The old man moves very slowly. Why are Esther and Yehudit moving all the time? It’s moving. Well done! You’re moving slightly, Yael. The car’s moving! Quick, third gear!

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Exercises

21 The future tense 21a Form of the future tense Using the verb ŸŸŽ ‘move’, give the appropriate future tense forms:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ¥â¥Þ† ڍ  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . ±Õñ 12 and now using the verb ±Ú Ž ‘sing’:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ¨ŸŽ    14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š±‹ Õ«Ž 12 21b Use of the future tense 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Rest a few minutes, David. Chana, rest a while, too. I’ll rest half an hour and that’s enough. Children, move right away! If you’ll move, buddy, I’ll move. But will they really rest? Don’t move, guys! Chava, please don’t rest now. A scorpion, Yosef – don’t move at all! He’ll rest afterwards.

22 Form and use of the imperative

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Go to another till. Come after the lunch-hour. Put these checks into the account. Get down from there, sweetheart. Leave off, I’m busy. Temporary fault. Please wait. In event of fire, leave through the emergency exit. Take the money and the receipt. Give more to charity. Sit and wait. Do not run. The engine’s running, so go! Put the checkbook into the folder.


Exercises

24 Root and base Write separately (without nikkud) the root, base, and prefix or suffix of any of these verbs:

âšâÚ¢Ž 7 â§â°ñŽ 6 ¦â°Ò 5 â±Þ¢ † œŠ 4 ¢ñŠ ¥† Þ¢  °Š 3 ¢ñŠ ¤† ¥ Ž 2 ¢ñŠ ±† ­¢  ڊ 1 ¥ì¢ ‹ ¡Š 8 Identify the meanings of these groups of words, and debate whether they are semantically related by virtue of sharing the same root letters: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

±.­.ª: ±­ ªŽ ,±ì¢ ‹ ªŠ ,±­Œ ª‹ ,±ì‹ ñ ª† Š ,±ìŽ ª† §Š ,±ìŽ ª ,±Ž ­† ªŠ ,±¢ìŠ ª £.§.ª: ˂§ ª† ⧠,˂¢§Š ªŽ ,¥« ˂§ ªŽ ,³â¤§† ª ,˂§‹ ñ ª† Š ±.¤.Ÿ: ³â±¢çŠ Ÿ† § ,³±Œ çŒ Ÿ† § ,±¤Ž ŸŽ ,±¢çŠ Ÿ† Š ,±¤ ŸŽ ±.š.œ: ±šŽ œŽ ,³â±Þ† œ Š ,¨±Ž ކ œ ,±ÞŽ œ† §Š ,±šŒ œŒ ,±Ž ՚œ† ,±¢ÞŠ œ† Š ,±Þ¢ ‹ œŠ ¦.¥.Ú: âÚŒ § ¦«Š ¦¢¥Š چ Š ,¦¥Ž چ ⧠,¦¥‹ ڎ ,¦â¥Ú† ñ ,¦¥ چ ©Š ,¦Õ¥ÚŽ °.­.ª: °ì¢ ‹ ªŠ ,³â©°Ž ­† ª ,°Ž ìŽ ª† Ñ ,(³ÕÛ«ˆ ¥ ) °¢ìŠ ª† Š ,°­‹ ªŽ ,°¢ìŠ ª† § .©.«: ¨« § ,¢©Š «Ž ,³¢ Š©«ˆ ñ ,©Ž ¢«Š ,©Ž «Ž

25 Word patterns: binyanim and mishkalim 25b Functions of the verb patterns Which binyanim do these verbs belong to? (They are all in the past tense.)

¬ñ âÚ 7 ¬  œŽ 6 ™¯‹ § ³† Š 5 ¥ì ¤† ❠4 ¥ì â¡ 3 ®š °Ž 2 ±Þ چ ©Š 1 œ§ ¥† ©Š 13 ± Ÿ† ❠12 Ú¢›Š ±† Š 11 ¦° ⧠10 ¡Þ‹ ¥ ³† Š 9 ¬œ ±† ©Š 8 ڛ ±† ❠16 ±³ ìŽ 15 ˂© â  14 Form the passives of:

±¢çŠ Ÿ† Š 8 °¥¢ ‹ ªŠ 7 œ¢±Š ¡† Š 6 ±  ގ 5 °ñ¢ ‹ Š© 4  ° ¥Ž 3 ¥Ÿ ›Ž 2 ª¢©Š ¤† Š 1 ¥¡¢ ‹ ފ 10 ±§ ڎ 9 On the basis of probability, and given the meaning of the first word, what might the second word mean?

Ž ‘lie down’: š¢çŠ چ Š 3 œ  ìŽ ‘be afraid’: œ¢ Š ­† Š 1 šÕ¡±Ž ‘wet’: š¢¡Š ±† Š 2 š¤ Ú 4 ፠՚›Ž ‘high’: ᢠ ފ †›Š 5 ±¯¢ ‹ °Š ‘shorten’: ±¯‹ ° ³† Š 6   ñ¢ ‹ ìŠ ‘develop’:   ñ‹ ì ³† Š Ž ‘fat’: ¨¢§Š چ Š 7 ¨°‹ Õ± ‘to empty’: ¨°‹ Õ±³† Š 8 ±Ÿ‹ ¢ìŠ ‘disperse’: ±Ÿ‹ ì ³† Š 9 ¨§‹ Ú  ©Š ¤† Š 12 ¥­‹ ڎ ‘lowly’: ¥¢ìŠ چ Š 10 ¨šŽ ¥Ž ‘white’: ¨¢ÞŠ ¥† Š 11 «© ¤† ©Š ‘surrender’: «¢ ‹ ڊ ‘renovate’: ®ì âÚ 15 ¨¢¡Š °† Š ‘reduce’: ¨¡ °† ❠13 °± ŸŽ ‘throw’: °± Ÿ† ©Š 14 ®ì¢ ‹ ©Š ‘sever’: °ñ‹ ©³† Š 17 ³¢±Š š† «Š ‘Hebrew’: ³±‹ š† «Š 18 ¨Õ­¥Œ ¡Œ ‘telephone’: ¨­‹ ¥¢† ¡Š 16 °ñ¢ ‹  Š ‘hug (someone)’: °Þ‹   ³† Š 20 ¥¢¥Š §† ñ ‘script’: ¥¥‹ §¢† ñŠ 21 ª©¤† ©Š ‘enter’: ª¢©Š ¤† Š 19 °Þ¢

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Exercises

26 Two-syllable and one-syllable PA’AL

¬¡ ڎ ‘to rinse’, °± ŸŽ ‘to throw’, ±§ ڎ ‘to keep’, ª¡Ž ‘to fly’, ®±Ž ‘to run’, ¦ÛŽ ‘to put’, ™ÞŽ ‘to come’ into the appropriate past tense forms:

Put

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢Ž§ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ±ìŽ ª  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . ¥§Ž ª  12 and into the appropriate future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¥§Ž ª  4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ±ìŽ ª  6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 Turn into the singular or into the plural:

¦¢±Š ­† Õñ 7 ±Ú‹ Õ° 6 ³Õ›±† ՙ 5 ŸŸ‹ ՛ 4 ³©Œ Œ Õ¡ 3 ¦¢±Š ¯† Õ° 2 ³ÕÚ±† Õ  1 ­Ž ¯Ž 14 ³Õ­¯Ž 13 ±›Ž 12 ³Õ™ÞŽ 11 ±Ž ›Ž 10 ¦¢™Š ގ 9 ³±Œ ³Œ Õª 8 ¦¢±Š ›Ž 15 Give the infinitive and the action noun for:

˂ڍ §Ž 8 ®  ±Ž 7 ŸŸ ›Ž 6 ¨  ¡Ž 5 ±¯ °Ž 4 ±§ ێ 3 °± ŸŽ 2 ¬¡ ڎ 1 ±ÚŽ 14 ¨¥Ž 13 šÚŽ 12 ®±Ž 11 ± œŽ 10 ˂ۍ ©Ž 9 27 Binyan HIF’IL Put ¡¢¥Š °† Š ‘to record’, ®¢ÞŠ ±† Š ‘to hit’, ±¢œŠ ›† Š ‘to define’,  ¢  ©Š Ÿ† Š ‘to neglect’,

«¢  ìŠ Ú† Š ‘to influence’ into the appropriate past tense forms: . . . ñ† Ñ 6 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 5 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 4 . . . ¦‹ 3 . . . ñŽ Ñ 2 . . . â© † © Ñ 1 . . . ¢§Š 11 . . . ¢šŠ ¯† ž† ¢ªŠ Õ¢ 10 . . . ™â 9 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 8 . . . ¨‹ 7 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ ž† Ò¥‹ ž† ±Ž ێ 15 . . . '±Œ š†  Œ  14 . . . ³Õ ÒŽ 13 . . . ™¢Š 12 and into the appropriate future tense:

180

. . . ñ† Ñ 6 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 5 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 4 . . . ¦‹ 3 . . . ñŽ Ñ 2 . . . â© † © Ñ 1 . . . ¢§Š 11 . . . ¢šŠ ¯† ž† ¢ªŠ Õ¢ 10 . . . ™â 9 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 8 . . . ¨‹ 7 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ ž† Ò¥‹ ž† ±Ž ێ 15 . . . '±Œ š†  Œ  14 . . . ³Õ ÒŽ 13 . . . ™¢Š 12


Exercises Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

We’re recording soon. Mommy, she’s hitting. Sara and Rivka promise to come. I always explain. The girls want to explain, but they don’t explain. It’s hard to define commitment. These sweaters won’t fit you. The forecast doesn’t frighten me. I got them out at the last moment. When will you make up your mind, guys? Or have you already? We ordered the other newspaper. Sit him down here, Shoshana.

Give the infinitive and the action noun for:

¨¢§Š Ÿ† Š ,¡¢¥Š š† Š ,š¢¡Š ±† Š ,˂¢§Š ©† Š ,¡¢¥Š °† Š ,®¢ÞŠ ±† Š ,±¢œŠ ›† Š ,±¢ÞŠ ª† Š ,±¢ÞŠ œ† Š 28 Binyan PI’EL

±œ¢ ‹ ڊ ‘to broadcast’, ¥¥¢ ‹ °Š ‘to curse’, ¦¥¢ ‹ ڊ ‘to pay’, ±§¢ ‹ Š ‘to bet’, ±œ¢ ‹ ªŠ ‘to tidy up’, ›žž‹ ¢ªŠ ‘to sort’, ¬¢¢‹ŸŠ ‘to sing out of tune’ into the

Put

appropriate past tense forms:

. . . ñ† Ñ 6 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 5 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 4 . . . ¦‹ 3 . . . ñŽ Ñ 2 . . . â© † © Ñ 1 . . . ¢§Š 11 . . . ¢šŠ ¯† ž† ¢ªŠ Õ¢ 10 . . . ™â 9 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 8 . . . ¨‹ 7 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ ž† Ò¥‹ ž† ±Ž ێ 15 . . . '±Œ š†  Œ  14 . . . ³Õ ÒŽ 13 . . . ™¢Š 12 and into the appropriate future tense:

. . . ñ† Ñ 6 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 5 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 4 . . . ¦‹ 3 . . . ñŽ Ñ 2 . . . â© † © Ñ 1 . . . ¢§Š 11 . . . ¢šŠ ¯† ž† ¢ªŠ Õ¢ 10 . . . ™â 9 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 8 . . . ¨‹ 7 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ ž† Ò¥‹ ž† ±Ž ێ 15 . . . '±Œ š†  Œ  14 . . . ³Õ ÒŽ 13 . . . ™¢Š 12 Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6

We’re late. Mommy, she’s lying. Sara and Rivka are asking to come. I always tidy up. The girls also get payment. She’s canceled the class again!

181


Exercises 7 Ariela, ask to hear the beginning. 8 We’ve distributed loads of matzot but we’re distributing more. 9 Pay if you want, Yael, but I won’t pay. 10 They’re visiting their mother. 11 Have you spoken with the director yourselves? 12 She’ll speak with the embassy and explain. Give the infinitive and the action noun for:

°¢ ‹ ڊ ,¥ç¢ ‹ «Š ,±ì¢ ‹ ڊ ,œì¢ ‹ ±Š ,›Ÿ‹ ¢§Š ,± ¢ ‹ ™Š ,°ñ¢ ‹ ©Š ,¬¡¢ ‹ ¥Š ,±œ¢ ‹ ªŠ ,Ûì¢ ‹  Š 29 Binyan HITPA’EL

±¡‹ ì ³† Š ‘to resign’, ¥Þ‹ ° ³† Š ‘to be accepted’, ¡Þ‹ ¥ ³† Š ‘to be in two minds’, ±Þ‹ › ³† Š ‘to overcome’, ¨§‹ ѳ† Š ‘to train’, ® ‹ ± ³† Š ‘to bathe’, Úދ ¥ ³† Š Put

‘to get dressed’ into the appropriate past tense forms:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢Ž§ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ±ìŽ ª  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . ¥§Ž ª  12 and into the appropriate future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¥§Ž ª  4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ±ìŽ ª  6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 Turn into the singular or into the plural:

³Õ©§† ѳ† §Š 5 ±Þ‹ › ³† §Š 4 ³¡Œ ތ ¥ ³† §Š 3 ³Õ¥Þ† ° ³† §Š 2 ¦¢±Š ¡† ì ³† §Š 1 š±‹ « ³† §Š 10 ¦¢¡Š چ ì ³† §Š 9 ³±Œ ¡Œ ì ³† §Š 8 ¦¢ÚŠ ކ ¥ ³† §Š 7 ® ‹ ± ³† §Š 6 1 I wasn’t so impressed with it. 2 Were you impressed, Yehudit? 3 When are you marrying, Miriam? 4 They say they’ll marry in the spring. 5 Has she used this cup?

182

6 She’s not really sorry. 7 I’ll shave and run to the store.


Exercises

30 Binyan NIF’AL 1 Using the verb

¡± ª† ©Š

‘was scratched’, give the appropriate past tense

forms:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ³Õ«ÞŽ ¡  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š¤Œ ±Œ  12 and the appropriate future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¥§Ž ª  4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ±ìŽ ª  6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 2 Give the four present tense forms of:

¡¥‹ §¢ Ž Š ¥† ‘to flee’, ¨«‹ ڍ Š ¥† ‘to lean’, °œ‹ Þ¢ Ž Š ¥† ‘to be inspected’, ¡¥‹ °Ž Š ¥† ‘to be absorbed’ 3 Give the infinitive of:

±§ ›† ©Š ‘to be finished’, ¥° ³† ©Š ‘to run into’, ±ª §† ©Š ‘to be handed’, ª© °† ©Š ‘to be fined’, ¬œ ±† ©Š ‘to be persecuted’ Translate: 1 Messages were sent to various governments. 2 Different solutions were examined. 3 A peace conference was held. 4 The negotiations were ended. 5 A peace agreement was signed. 6 You’ll be examined in the small room. 7 They’ve already calmed down. 8 There’s such a tension that I can’t calm down. 9 This shirt’s been stretched. 10 The tickets are selling very quickly. 11 Run, the door’s closing! 12 Why are they getting into his car?

183


Exercises

31 Binyan HUF’AL 1 Using the verb ¡¥ °† ❠‘be recorded’, give the past tense forms:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¢ñŠ چ ™Š 4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ±ìŽ ª  6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 and the future tense:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ³Õ±§Ž Ÿ  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š± Ž 12 2 Give the four present tense forms of:

±Ÿ † ❠‘was returned’,  © Ÿ† ❠‘was neglected’, ®¥ §† ❠recommended’, œ° ­† ❠‘was deposited’, ¥Þ ›† ❠‘was restricted’

‘was

Translate: 1 2 3 4 5

The ports of the enemy have been bombed. Many factories have been destroyed. Missile launchpads have also been attacked. Chemical weapons have not been employed. Paratroopers have been parachuted behind the front.

32 Binyan PU’AL Put these PI’EL forms into the corresponding PU’AL:

,⧥¢† ¯Š ,¦ñŒ ©† §¢  ªŠ ,§Ž ¥¢† ¯Š ,ñ† °† ñ¢  ©Š ,¢ñŠ ¥† ¯¢  ©Š ,¦°‹ § ™ˆ ,¥¯‹ © ñ† ,¨°‹ ñ ©† ,⥯† © ¢† ñŽ °† ¥¢  ªŠ ,â°¥† ª ¢† ,⩧† ª ñ† Convert into the plural:

³¤Œ ©Œ â §† ,±ŸŽ â­§† ,Ú§Ž âÚ§† ,³¥Œ ތ â°§† ,¨§Ž ⪧†

184

1 2 3 4 5

The situation was gradually improved. The Negev was suddenly cut off. Rifles were distributed to civilians. Several villages in the Jezreel Valley were also cut off. The Jordan Valley was cut off from the rest of the country.


Exercises

34 Object markers 34a The object marker ³™Œ 1 I’m looking for the brush. 2 She’s wiping the sink. 3 Take the rag. 4 Take the soap and a towel. 5 Who is he looking for? 6 I hate it! 7 Who are you inviting? 8 What were you cooking? 9 Go on, take it! 10 No, I’m reading it! 11 Rinse the toothbrush or take another toothbrush. 12 The cleaning-lady’s wiping the toilet-bowl. 13 Chana, who do you want here? Benny or Kobi?

34b Indirect objects Using a good dictionary, give the prepositions governed by:

ª« çŽ 7 šÚ‹  ³† Š 6 ®¢¥Š §† Š 5 š‹ ѳ† Š 4 œ›‹ © ³† Š 3 ç¢ Ž  Š 2 ¥ì¢ ‹ ¡Š 1 Ú§‹ ñ چ Š 10 ™± ¢Ž 9 ±ñ¢ ‹ žŠ 8 Translate: 1 This belongs to the woman downstairs. 2 We’re very proud of the door actually. 3 I’m quite satisfied with the paint. 4 But I’m not so pleased with the whitewash. 5 They’re aware of the dangers. 6 Why did you touch the window? 7 But meanwhile, who’ll look after the wood outside in the yard? 8 Don’t listen to the carpenter – the closet’s fantastic. 9 I’m not an expert in kitchen cabinets. 10 I meant the dining corner, not the living room!

185


Exercises

35 Preposition + suffix 35a Preposition + suffix: ¥† ,ކ Add the appropriate suffixes:

ކ :

Us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her, us, me, him

¥† :

Him, me, us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her

And now translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Judaism? I’m very interested in it. Everyone is jealous of them. Her parents are proud of her. Do you trust me? What beautiful customs! I fell in love with them. Hi, guys – is someone dealing with you? Yes, sure, they’re already dealing with us. The secular parties scarcely trust them. I don’t suspect you, Chaim, heaven forbid! I’m gradually falling in love with you, Golda. He’s helping us. Everyone’s listening to you, Devora. I’m giving them a lot of advice and help. But what do they give me? You’re always bothering her.

35b Preposition + suffix: . . . ճՙ Add the appropriate suffixes: Us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her, us, me, him And now translate:

186

1 2 3 4 5

You surprised me. Sonny and Cher? I remember them. The atmosphere here annoys us. It kind of amuses me. The threat still worries him.


Exercises 6 7 8 9 10

Films like this frighten you? I’m taking a photo of you next to the map. The worry is killing us. He’s finally fired her. She’s finally divorced him.

35c Preposition + suffix: ¦«Š ,§Š Add the appropriate suffixes:

§Š :

Us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her, us, me, him

¦«Š :

Him, me, us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her

And now translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

My mother-in-law always quarrels with her. My fiancee is cross with me at the moment. Are you afraid of him? My cousin Shlomo is very impressed with you, Zeev. His mother and father are coming with us. Why is he starting with her suddenly? Yafa, do you really care about him? I’m fed up with them already. You recently received a reminder from us. I have received a notification from you.

35d Preposition + suffix: ¥¢šŠ چ ފ etc. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

The mezuzah is for you, auntie. The candies are for them, for the festival. Because of me, he forgot the prayer-book. We sat in the sukkah, with loads of bees and flies around us. There are always so many friends around her. What, the celebration’s because of you? It’s quite obvious – there’s a cemetery opposite us. He’s crazy – opposite them there’s a cinema! Near him there’s a big yeshivah. There’s a bookcase near you, with a Bible, I think. What’s all the noise near me! I’m cooking something for you for Passover! Another prayer-shawl for him? But now he has five!

187


Exercises

35e Preposition + suffix: ¥« ,¥™ ,¢©­¥ ,¢± ™ Add the appropriate suffixes:

¥™:

Us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her, us, me, him

¥«:

Him, me, us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her

¢©­¥:

Us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her, us, me, him

¢± ™:

Him, me, us, him, them, you (masc. sing.), me, you (masc. pl.), them (fem.), her

37 LÑË 1 There’s a bus at the bus-stop. 2 Careful, there aren’t traffic-lights at this intersection. 3 There’ll be lanes just for buses! 4 Maybe there’s a parking lot in a side-street. 5 There’s no sidewalk on this side of the street! 6 So walk on the other side, there’s a sidewalk there. 7 There were huge jams. 8 But there wasn’t an Ayalon Highway then.

38 ‘I have’ 1 Israel had large forces along the southern border. 2 The air force has mainly American planes. 3 So you’ll have a lift to the base after Shabbat? 4 We have two sons in the Golani brigade. 5 Aharon has another year in the Israeli Army. 6 Perhaps they have the nuclear bomb. 7 I don’t have a rifle here.

188

8 Miki doesn’t have reserve duty till Chanukah. 9 In the War of Independence they barely had a navy.


Exercises

39 Questions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Is there a post office here? Does the butcher sell turkey, too, or just meat? When does the bank close? How did you find the bakery? What do you pay with, cash or credit card? Or a check? She’s shopping? Who with? He’s gone to the food store. You know who for? What time does the laundry open?

40 Negation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Yossi, don’t order the soup, it’s salty. Kids, don’t finish all the salad. I’m not cutting more lettuce. There isn’t any coffee in the house? Why didn’t you boil some water, Rina? You won’t put in sugar, I hope. Don’t put in any Sucrazit, please.

41 ‘The cake in the fridge’ 1 2 3 4 5

The bus to Jericho. The season ticket in your wallet. The stop at the corner. The number on the front of the bus. The cab from Nesher.

42 Degree words 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Their new show’s rather boring. The second film was so dumb! She’s particularly interested in Israeli art. There’s a very good play at Habima. I quite like that Naomi Shemer record. A bit louder please. Ah, that’s better. Chaim Topol as director is extremely successful. The late show doesn’t end so late. I’m so sorry, sir. This seat is taken. I liked the acting a lot.

189


Exercises

43 Adverbs of time and place 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sometimes I fix it myself. We usually keep the brooms on the balcony. First I’m turning off the washing machine. I always leave the laundry here. Put all the second-hand furniture in the storeroom. Iddo often does the ironing downstairs in the basement. We’re sleeping in the shelter tonight. Yesterday we ate in the courtyard – what fun!

44 ‘I want to sneeze’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

The bus driver began shouting. Then my mother started screaming. All the passengers went on laughing a long time. We’re hoping to go to Switzerland or France. Egged has stopped picking up by the gas station. Your brother wants to learn to drive? He’s only 17! I expected to be back by midnight. I hate catching a lift. Try to smile instead.

45 ‘It’s good to smile’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

It’s so easy to write with this pen. It’s good that the teacher’s sick today. It’s hard to get into this course in the first semester. Actually it’s surprising that we don’t have a paper – or at least an exercise. What, the class has been cancelled again? It’s weird that it happens. It’s better to talk to them in the cafeteria. It’s obvious that you passed. You have to do three subjects for the Master’s.

46 Reported thoughts

190

1 2 3 4 5

I told him I’m leaving. I think it’s too cold. She said there was something about it on the news. I’m afraid I threw away the Shabbat supplement. I knew I was right!


Exercises

47 Relative clauses with L Ó 1 2 3 4 5 6

Where’s the whatchumacallit that locks the windows? Oh darn, this is the key that doesn’t work. The policeman I asked didn’t know. They’ve found the things that the burglars took. This parking ticket you got – is it a lot of money? Is that the person who went to the police?

48 Adverbial clauses 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

When we left, it was already snowing. If the weather’s nice, can we go back to the pool? In the end we didn’t go to Eilat, because there was a hamsin. What if the forecast says that it will be hot and dry? There’s always a strong wind before it rains. Although it was wet, it was fun. When the temperature’s over forty, they tell the soldiers to drink and drink. While we were on vacation on the Hermon, there was a huge storm. Thunder’s really great, especially when there’s lots of lightning. Dry your hands before turning on the light. After packing, we grabbed some sleep. While sleeping in the sun, the counselor got a bad headache. Watch out instead of whispering all the time. How can you buy without using a credit card? They opened my bag without me seeing. You’re holding the steering wheel like you’ve never driven. As I said, we have to keep the stairway clean. Zelda makes chicken like her mother made it. The police are talking as if I ran someone over. I’m in charge, although I don’t understand much. Shoshana took a lot of things, though not everything. I asked him, so I know already. We left early so as to see the first movie. I’m telling her so that she won’t use it.

49 Sentences without a subject 1 How do they choose the prime minister? 2 You vote once in four years in Israel, it’s fixed. 3 A pity the Foreign Minister didn’t come to the shiva.

191


Exercises 4 5 6 7

It is possible that they will put together a now coalition. Lucky there were enough MKs for a debate. Another political crisis? It’s impossible. Can I turn off the air conditioning? – It’s not so hot.

50 í’ñ roots 1 Using the verbs forms:

 Ž ێ ‘swim’, ©Ž °Ž ‘buy’, ¤Ž ŸŽ ‘win’, give the past tense

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¢ñŠ چ ™Š 4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . š¥Œ çŒ  6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 and the future tense:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ¦¢¥Š § ›†  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š± Ž 12 2 Using the verbs ç¢ Ž  Š ‘wait’, °¢ Ž ©Š ‘clean’, ª¢ Ž ©Š ‘try’, give the past tense forms:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ­Ž ¢Žž† ±Ž ­† Õ« 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ³Õ¥¢Ž¢   14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š± Ž 12 and the future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¢ñŠ چ ™Š 4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . .  ¢  ڊ §Ž  6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 3 Turn into the infinitive:

©Ž ¢§Š

‘appointed’, žŽ ž¢°Š ‘hoped’, «Ž ¡Ž ‘made a mistake’, ‘accompanied’, ³Ž Ú Ž ‘drank’,  Ž ێ ‘swam’, ©Ž °Ž ‘bought’, ‘exhausted’, ©Ž ¢ÚŠ ‘altered’, ¥Ž ñŽ ‘hung’

4 Using the verbs °Ž چ Š ‘irrigate’, supply the present tense for:

192

žŽ žÚ† Š

‘compare’,

«Ž ¡† Š

žŽ ž¢¥Š ¯¢ Ž §Š

‘mislead’,

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ™§Ž ™Š 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ±Ž «ˆ ©  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . ¢™¥ °†    12


5 Using the verbs ©Ž ­ ³† Š ‘become free’, ¥Ž › ³† Š ‘were discovered’, œŽ ѳ† Š ‘evaporate’, give the past tense forms:

Exercises

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ­Ž ¢Žž† ±Ž ­† Õ« 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ¦¢Š §  14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š± Ž 12 and the future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¢ñŠ چ ™Š 4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ¤Ž ±‹ ކ  6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 6 Give the full past and present tense of and future of ©Ž §† ©Š ‘count’.

Ò±† ©Š ‘seem’ and the full present

7 Use a NIF’AL verb: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

She enjoyed the film. You seem tired, Yafa. Chagit seems happy. I won’t enjoy this book. Where were the tomatoes bought? Tomatoes are usually bought in the market. We really enjoyed the meal on Shabbat. Are cars made in Israel? The situation was gradually being made more comfortable. Our payments were made every month.

51 Roots with ‘gutturals’ 51b When the first letter is a ‘guttural’ 1 Pronounce the following:

±Õ° ³ ‘investigate’, £Õª ³ ‘save’, šÕ³¤³ ‘write’, ±ÕŸ ¢ ‘he’ll return’, ²ÕÞ¤¢ ‘he’ll capture’, šÕÚ © ‘we’ll think’, ±Õ° ™ ‘I’ll investigate’, ⱟ ³ ‘return’, ›Õ±¢ ‘he’ll kill’, œÕš«¢ ‘he’ll work’, šÕŸ«³ ‘leave’, ±ÕŸ«© ‘we’ll help’, œÕš«™ ‘I’ll work’, œÕ§«™ ‘I’ll stand’, œÕ§«¢ ‘he’ll stand’, ±Õ¯«³ ‘stop’, ›Õ±™© ‘we’ll weave’, ŸÕ±™³ ‘pack’, ¬Õª™³ ‘gather’

193


Exercises 2 and:

¡¢¥  ‘he decided’, ±¢³¤ ‘he crowned’, ®¢§  ‘he missed’, ±¢š« ‘he transferred’, °¢ª« ‘he employed’, £¢§© ‘he lowered’, ±¢§  ‘he was stringent’, œ¢§« ‘he placed’, ±¢š«³ ‘transfer’, ¥¢¤™ ‘he fed’, ¥¢¤™³ ‘feed’, ±¢šª³ ‘explain’, ¬¢¥ ³ ‘switch’, ¬¢¥  ‘he switched’ 3 and finally:

±° ¢¢ ‘will be investigated’, ©¢¢ ‘will enjoy’, Û«¢¢ ‘will become’, šŸ«© ‘was abandoned’, ±œ«© ‘was missing’, ±§Ú© ‘was kept’, ¦³ © ‘was signed’, ¦³ ¢¢ ‘will be signed’, Û«© ‘became’, ±¯«© ‘was arrested’, ±¯«¢¢ ‘will be arrested’, ±§›¢¢ ‘will end’ 4 Form the infinitive of:

¡¢¥  ‘decided’, œ¢§« ‘placed’, ¨¢Ÿ™ ‘listened’, °¢ª« ‘employed’, ±Ÿ  ‘returned’, œš« ‘worked’, ›± ‘killed’, ¬ª™ ‘gathered’, ±¯« ‘arrested’, ¥¤™ ‘ate’, œœ© ‘wandered’, š°« ‘followed’, œ§«© ‘rose’, ±œ«© ‘was missing’, š¯  ‘excavated’, š¥«© ‘was offended’ 51c When the middle letter is a ‘guttural’ 1 Pronounce the following:

¦¢±«žÞ ‘burning’, ¦¢©«ž¡ ‘loading’, ³ž§™ž³ ‘matching’, ž¥«­ ‘acted’, ž± š ‘chose’, ž±«š ‘burned’, ¨ž«¡¥ ‘to load’, ±ž š¥ ‘to choose’, ± š¢ ‘he’ll choose’, ¨ š¢ ‘he’ll test’, ¬ž œ³ ‘push’, ° ¯¢ ‘he’ll laugh’, ž° ¯¢ ‘they’ll laugh’, ¦¢° ž¯ ‘laughing’ 2 and:

ž¥«©© ‘were locked’, ž¥«©¢¢ ‘will be locked’, ž±Ÿ© ‘were careful’, ž±¤Ÿ© ‘were mentioned’, ž¥«­ž ‘were activated’, ž¯¯­ž ‘were bombed’, ±šž ‘was clarified’, ¥«±ž ‘was poisoned’, ±™š³  ‘elucidate’, ¢±¡³  ‘purify’, ¢° ²³  ‘play’, ž±™³³  ‘describe’, žªì¡³  ‘climb’, ž±™š¢  ‘they’ll elucidate’, ž±§¢  ‘they’ll rush’, ±™ž³ ‘was described’, £±¢š ‘congratulated’, ±«©³ ‘shook herself’, §°©³ ‘took revenge’, ž±™­³¢ ‘they’ll boast’, ž¥«­³ ‘they were impressed’ 3 and:

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«ž±¢™ ‘event’, ±ž«¢Ú ‘lesson’, ¡ž«¢§ ‘minority’, ³ž±¢Ú ‘service’, ¦ž™¢³ ‘coordination’, ®ž¢› ‘ironing’, ¬ž±¢¡ ‘insanity’, ¡ž¢± ‘furniture’, ¬ž±¢¯ ‘phrase’


Exercises

51d When the final letter is a ‘guttural’ 1 Form the infinitive and future 3rd masc. sing. of:

«§Ú

‘heard’,

«§Ú©

‘sounded’,

Ú

‘spoke’,

¡š

‘trusted’,

­¢°

‘deprived’, «¥š ‘swallowed’ 2 What is the future of:

«¯¢š ‘carried out’, «±° ‘tore’, ¢©Ÿ ‘neglected’, «©§© ‘refrained’, «©¤© ‘surrendered’,  ¥›³ ‘shaved himself’,  ¥¢› ‘shaved’,  ±¡ ‘bothered’,  ¯¢© ‘won’,  ³­© ‘was opened’ 3 What is the feminine of:

¯ž± ‘murdering’,  ¥°³§ ‘taking a shower’, «¯š§ ‘carrying out’,  ¯­§ ‘cracking’, ²›±ž§ ‘felt’, «¥šž§ ‘swallowed’, «¢š¯§ ‘pointing’, «›ž© ‘touching’,  Þž²§ ‘praised’,  ­©³§ ‘swelling’ 52 Roots with õ ,× ,ë 1 Pronounce the following:

±¡¢­

¥¡¢š ‘cancelled’, ©¢¤ ‘named’, «¯­  ‘will sack’, ±¡­³ ‘resigned’, ±¡ž­§ ‘is sacked’, œ›š© ‘injured’, ±¡­¢ ‘is betrayed’, œ›š¢¢ ‘will be betrayed’, œž›š¢ ‘will betray’, «¯­© ‘was injured’, «¯­³ ‘she’ll injure’, «¯­¢³ ‘she’ll be injured’, ¡¥š ‘stood out’, ¡ž¥š¥ ‘to stand out’, ¡¢¥š ‘highlighted’, ž¡¥šž ‘were highlighted’, ³šžÚ ‘striking’, ³¢šÚ ‘brought to a standstill’, ³šÚž¢ ‘will be brought to a standstill’, ±¢š›§ ‘increasing’, ±š›³© ‘we shall overcome’, ±š› ‘prevailed’, ښ¢› ‘crystallize’, ښž›§ ‘crystallized’ ‘sacked’,

š«¢³

‘detested’,

2 Form the infinitive from:

¨ š

°­œ ‘knocked’, ¥š¡ ‘dipped’, ª­³ ‘caught’, ¥ª­© ‘was ¦¢¢š ‘staged’, ¥¡¢š ‘cancelled’, ©š© ‘was built’, °¢­ ‘yawned’, ¥¡š³ ‘was cancelled’, «¥š© ‘was swallowed’, š³¤© ‘was written’, œ­¢± ‘upholstered’, ¡¥­© ‘was emitted’, £­Ú© ‘was spilled’, ª­³© ‘was caught’, ¥¤¢« ‘digested’, ±¤§© ‘was sold’ ‘tested’,

disqualified’,

195


Exercises

53 Four-consonant roots Using the verbs ¥¯‹ ¥¢ † ¯Š ‘ring’, ¦ª‹ ±¢† ìŠ ‘publish’, and embittered’, give the appropriate past tense forms:

±§‹ ±† § ³† Š

‘become

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¦¢¯Š ±† §  11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ³Õ¥¢Ž¢   14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š± Ž 12 and the future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¢ñŠ چ ™Š 4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ˃¥† ڌ ªÕޝ 6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 54 Ë’õ verbs 54a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

¢'­ roots

If he won’t get down, get him down, Chaim. You must sit down, kids. Perhaps I’ll initiate a pressure group. For heaven’s sake, you can’t get ’em out and sit ’em down? Pnina, come out of there and sit down immediately. Let me know tomorrow or the day after, I need to know. Call Magen David Adom, my wife’s about to give birth! When will the office know? An international crisis is likely to be created. How about going out together some time?

55 ‘Cross-over’ roots Create HITPA’EL verbs (in the past tense 3 masc. sing.) from these roots:

,°-œ-¯ ,--Ÿ ,°-°-Ÿ ,¨-§-ª ,«-±-Û ,±-«-ª ,-©-Ú ,±-­-ª ,¦-¥-¯ ±-­-Ú and in the future 3 masc. sing. from these:

196

,£-š-ª ,«-§-Ú ,£-±-Û ,¥-¥-¤-Ú ,¬-±-¯ ,¨-©-ª ,±-±- -Ú ,¬-Ÿ-Ú ¨-§-Ÿ


Exercises

56 Maverick verbs 56a

¨'­ roots

Using the verbs ¨³ ©Ž ‘give’, ڛ ©Š ‘walk up to’, and appropriate past tense forms:

«ª ©Ž

‘travel’, give the

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¦¢¯Š ±† §  11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ³Õ¥¢Ž¢   14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š± Ž 12 and the future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¢ñŠ چ ™Š 4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ˃¥† ڌ ªÕޝ 6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I’m afraid to go up to him. I prefer to give bills, not coins. Give me, Yafa. Watch out, Nechama, you’ll fall. It’s not allowed to touch the wire. I said ‘Don’t touch’! The institute will bear the names of Zionist leaders.

56b 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

° ¥Ž

Don’t take all the cookies, Uncle Efrayim. I’ve decided to take my husband. Take a flashlight, Naomi. I’ll take the old jeans. It’ll take a few seconds. It takes three weeks to get an answer. It’s better to take an ID with you.

56c ˂¥ Ž 1 2 3 4 5

We’re going to the zoo. You can go too. ‘Go to hell,’ he said to me! I’ll go to the cash-dispenser first of all. Then we’ll go to the beach at Bat-Yam.

197


Exercises

56d ˂¢±Š ¯Ž ,¥Õ¤¢Ž 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

He had to go to an ulpan. Poor thing, did he have to spend a long time there? Miss Berkovitz, you’ll have to do a preparatory course in Hebrew. What, I won’t be able to get an exemption? You can try to pass the Hebrew test, OK? These foreign students will have to do four hours of Social Science. They got bad grades in Hebrew – they couldn’t even read the questions. I couldn’t get a room in the dorms. So I had to rent in the center of town. Gee, it must have been a drag.

56e Some verbs beginning with ™ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Don’t worry, Naama, one day you’ll love him. I’d like to tell Mr Yehoshua something, please. Say that Mr Oz is asking to see him. I’ll tell him you’re here. Those ants will eat all your vegetables. They’ll love the bread – and the matza. I’ll eat in the corridor – it’s just a pitta. Eat, eat, Irving, it’s healthy.

56g 1 2 3 4 5 6

³§‹ ,¢ 

I’m dying to meet her. I’m terribly sorry, she died yesterday. She lived for five years in Haifa Bay. Jackals still live in the desert. Bears and lions once lived in the mountains of Lebanon. She can live in Ramot – that’s close to Jerusalem.

57 ñËÌ ×Ñí ,þËÌkÌí etc. Using the verbs ¨¢¤Š ‹ ‘prepare’, «¢  ›Š Š ‘arrive’, ‘gaze’, give the appropriate past tense forms:

198

¨¢šŠ ‹ ‘understand’, and ¡¢ÞŠ Š

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¦¢¯Š ±† §  11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ³Õ¥¢Ž¢   14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š± Ž 12


Exercises and the future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¢ñŠ چ ™Š 4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ˃¥† ڌ ªÕޝ 6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 and the present tense, too:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 What verb are these action nouns related to? Pay special attention to the second letter. Does it have a dagesh? If it is not a ­ ,¤ ,š, you’ll have to check its nikkud in a dictionary.

«š ,©š ,œ› ,¥¯ , © ,«¯ ,ŸŸ ,¥­ ,¯­ ,§° 58 PA’AL verbs with -i-a- in the future 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Binyamin wants to ride the bicycle on the road. Our little son will grow up and be an Egged driver. During the sermon half of them were asleep. I’m glad you aren’t absent again, Orit. Why was she absent from the lesson? Lie down on the couch, it’s more comfortable. She reads Psalms while she waits for a bus. Patience, we’ll find it. Read as far as page four. Wear a tie, Mottele, it looks better. He refused to wear a tie. Ask your father how to put on a tie. I’ll lie down and sleep for a few minutes. Devorah always finds mistakes in the Torah Reading. If you’re fasting, perhaps you want to lie down. No, I’d rather study a chapter of something. I’ve brought a Hagada of my own. Did you bring tefillin and a prayer-book, Itzi?

59 PO’EL and HITPO’EL Using the verbs   ‹ ÕÛ ‘chat’, ¨©‹ Õ¥³† Š ‘complain’, the appropriate past tense forms:

®¯‹ Õ±³† Š ‘run about’, give

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ¦¢±Š §† Õڝ 11 . . . ™¢Š 10 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 9 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 . . . ™¢Š 15 . . . ³Õ¥¢Ž¢   14 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 13 . . . š± Ž 12

199


Exercises and the future tense:

. . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 5 . . . ¢ñŠ چ ™Š 4 . . . ¢©Š ތ ž† ¢©Š œ 3 . . . ™¢Š 2 . . . ¨ñŒ Ñ 1 . . . ¢ Š©™ˆ 10 . . . â© † © Ñ 9 . . . ñŽ Ñ 8 . . . ™¢Š 7 . . . ˃¥† ڌ œÕœ-¨ÞŒ  6 . . . ™â 15 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 14 . . . ¨‹ 13 . . . ñ† Ñ 12 . . . ¦‹ 11 and the present tense, too:

. . . ¨‹ 6 . . . ñ† Ñ 5 . . . ¦‹ 4 . . . ¢©Š ™ˆ 3 . . . â© † © Ñ 2 . . . ñŽ Ñ 1 . . . ™â 8 . . . ¦ñŒ Ñ 7 60 More plurals of nouns 60a Plurals ending in ¦¢¢ 1 A sparkling bicycle 2 Dark glasses 3 Sharp scissors 4 Sun glasses 5 Two ears 6 Five teeth 7 Iron teeth 8 Two arms 9 Brown eyes 10 Sport shoes 11 Wool socks 12 Warm water 13 A bright sky 14 Salt water 15 A wide margin

60b Duals ending in ¦¢¢ 1 2 3 4 5

He’s two years old. It will take two days at a minimum. The curfew lasted two weeks. They lost 2000 tanks and 200 planes. Two months of tension passed.

60c Plural of ³±Œ Õª§Ž etc. Give the plural of:

³©Œ Õ§ª† ñŠ ‘syndrome’, ³¥¢ Œ ¢Œ  ‘girl-soldier’, ³±Œ §Œ چ §Š ‘shift’, ³  ¥ ¯ ‘plate’, ³±Œ ÕÞ«ˆ § ‘ferry’, ³±Œ ތ  † § ‘exercise book’, ³©Œ ©Œ › ‘kindergarten teacher’, ³šŒ çŒ ± ‘train’, ³ªŒ ìŒ ±† §Š ‘balcony’, ³šŒ ›Œ § ‘towel’ 60d Exceptions

200

1 Three days 2 Five nights 3 Many bulls 4 Ten heads 5 Two markets 6 A brother and two sisters 7 Some houses 8 Four towns 9 Six names 10 Two walls 11 A thousand swords 12 Heavy tables 13 Important places 14 Ultraorthodox women 15 Tall hotels 16 Young rabbis 17 Empty pits 18 Cans of coke 19 Beautiful daughters 20 Certain advantages


Exercises

61 ñÖ k ,óÒîðÖê 1 Most of them 2 All of us 3 All of you 4 Green men 5 Green women 6 Sweet challahs 7 Red rugs 8 Round spoons 9 New laws 10 Yellow submarines 11 Yellow pages 12 A pink face 13 A red eye 14 A darkblue dress 15 Smelly goats 16 Fierce bears 17 Wonderful views 18 Nice monkeys

62 Generic plurals 1 Snails eat leaves. 2 Birds catch snails. 3 Snakes hunt birds.

63 Plural loss: LËÌ ê óËÌþN ÐÓ¼ 1 Fifty kilometers 2 Two centimeters 3 Four kilometers 4 Ten days 5 In sixty days 6 It lasted 170 years 7 Five liters 8 Eight persons 9 Four million 10 A hundred watts 11 Seventy pounds sterling 12 Seventy kilos 13 Twenty years 14 Twelve years 15 7% 16 Two and a half pounds 17 Twenty minutes 18 40% 19 Twelve days 20 100%

64 Action nouns Form action nouns from these verbs:

±­ª ‘count’, ¥­¢¡ ‘treat’, ™¯§³ ‘be familiar with’, Ú¢›± ‘feel’, ¨©¡¯ ‘catch cold’, ±­¢Ú ‘improve’, ±Ú¢™ ‘approve’, ¨žž©³ ‘decay’, ›± ‘kill’, ©­ ‘refer’, ¬³¢Ú ‘share’, ¥°³© ‘encounter’, ©¢§ ‘appoint’, ©° ‘buy’, ¡¥° ‘absorb’, ©³Ú ‘change’, ¬¢°³ ‘attack’ These action nouns do not follow the normal pattern. What verb do they belong to and what do they mean?

 եچ §Š ,œ  ì ,ª¢ Ž ©Š ç† ,Òâ­±† ,¨ñŽ § ,šŽ ˆ Ñ ,Ò©Ž ˆ ,œŽ ՚«ˆ ,œâ§¢¥Š What are the action nouns for these verbs? You probably won’t find them listed as such with their verb in a dictionary, so you may have to ask a Hebrew speaker:

±Ÿ Ž ,¬¢ªŠ ՝ ,¦ ¢ ‹ ±Š ,°« ¯Ž ,žŽ žÚ† Š ,±›Ž , ©Ž ,Ú±‹ ›Ž ³† Š ,°  ¯Ž

201


Exercises

65 Nouns from adjectives Form abstract nouns from these adjectives – and give the appropriate English translation:

¥â­çŽ ‘double’, ¦â¡Ò ‘transparent’, ¢§Š §Ž « ‘popular’, œš‹ çŽ ‘heavy’, « ⩯Ž ‘modest’, ±¢šŠ Ú Ž ‘fragile’, ¢³Š ✥† ¢ ‘childish’, Ú¢§Š ›Ž ‘flexible’, ¬¢¢‹«Ž ‘tired’, « ⚰Ž ‘permanent’, š¢šŠ Ž ‘lovable’, ¢³Š œŽ ‘religious’, ™¢±Š ގ ‘healthy’, ¨¢œŠ «Ž ‘gentle’, ¢«Š œŽ § ‘scientific’,   ⳧Ž ‘tense’ 66 ñÖ ¼Ôt and öÖñμÔt 1 From these words, form ‘job words’ in the PA’AL pattern and suggest what they mean:

±¢¢‹ªŠ ‘to scout’, ª¢çŠ ‘pocket’, «š ¯Ž ‘to paint’, ±Õ©¢çŠ ‘violin’, ±¢¢‹¯Š ‘to draw’, Ú¥ ގ ‘to search’, ±Õ§  ‘donkey’, ¥ªŒ ìŒ ‘statue’, ¡žž‹ ¢©Š ‘to navigate’, ±Þ¢ ‹ œŠ ‘to speak’ 2 Form words in the PA’ALAN pattern. (Where a verb ends in  change it to ¢.) What might they mean? Remember, it might be an activity, a personality, or an object of some kind:

š¥Ž ¯† ‘cross’, œ° ±Ž ‘to dance’, ¥¡‹ ގ ‘idle’, ¬¢¥Š † Œ ‘to exchange’, ±œ¢ ‹ ފ ‘to entertain’, š¥Ž  Ž ‘milk’, ±° ªŽ ‘to scan’, ±­Œ ª‹ ‘book’, ±¯¢ ‹ ¢Š ‘to manufacture’, œÚ   Ž ‘to suspect’, ±°Ž ¢Ž ‘expensive’, °¢ Ž  Š ‘to imitate’, °±Œ ¢Œ ‘vegetables’, ˂œ¢ ‹ ڊ ‘to marry off’ 67 Nouns with the suffix öÖ and ËêÔ 1 Use these words to form activity words with the translation:

¨ suffix and suggest a

¥ª ±† âœç ‘basketball’, ª¢¡Š ±† ç ‘ticket’, ¢Ž¢ÛŠ «ˆ ñ ‘industry’, ™â¯¢† ‘exports’, ¦Õ¥ˆ ¢ ‘diamond’ 2 And the same with ¢™:

202

°¢ Ž ª¢ Š ­Š ‘physics’, ©Ž Õ¤§† ‘machine’, °¢ Ž ¡Š ©Œ Õ­ ‘phonetics’, °¢ Ž ¡Š §¢ Ž ³‹ §Ž ‘mathematics’, ¦âª±† ìŠ ‘publicity’, ¨Õ¢±¢ † ڊ ‘armored corps’, ¥§Ž چ  ‘electricity’


Exercises

68 Some other noun patterns 1 Use these words to form ‘device words’ in the MAF’EL pattern and guess at the meaning:

±œ¢ ‹ ڊ

‘to transmit’,

strengthen’,

¨Õ­¯Ž

¬¥ŸŽ

‘to spray’,

‘North’,

°©‹ ¢ÚŠ

±š ¯Ž

±¢ÞŠ ›† Š comb’, ¡¥ °Ž

‘to accumulate’,

‘to choke’,

°±‹ ¢ªŠ

‘to

‘to ‘to

pick up (broadcasts)’ 2 Use these words to form ‘device words’ in the MAF’ELA pattern and again guess at the meaning:

¨  ގ ‘to test’, ¬± ›Ž ‘to rake’, ±§ ŸŽ ‘to prune’, ±­Œ ™‹ ‘ash’, Ú¥ ›Ž ‘to ski’ 3 Use these words to form location or action/product words in the MIF’AL pattern:

š³ çŽ ‘write’, ¬œ ±Ž ‘chase’, ¥Õœ›Ž ‘big’, ¡­ ڎ ‘to judge’, ±§ ڎ ‘to guard’, ±š «Ž ‘to make a transition’ 4 Use these words to form location or organization words in the MIF’ALA pattern:

ªÞ¢ ‹ çŠ ‘launder’, ¥šŒ ŸŒ ‘garbage’, °¥Œ ‹ ‘part’, ±š «Ž ‘to make a transition’, ©Ž ¢­Š ª† ‘a ship’, ™ì¢ ‹ ±Š ‘heal’ 5 Use these words to form ‘illness words’ in the PA’ELET pattern:

š¥Œ çŒ ‘dog’, «­ ڎ ‘to flow’, ¦ÕœÒ ‘red’, ¥Ÿ ©Ž ‘to drip’, ±¯Ž °Ž ‘short’ 6 Use these words to form outcome or product words in the TAF’IL pattern:

œ› Ò ‘combine’, ¥¥¢ ‹ §Š ‘to utter’, ±¯¢ ‹ °Š ‘to shorten’, ¥¢›Š ±† Š ‘to accustom’, š¢ñŠ ¤† Š ‘dictate’, ©Ž ìŽ ‘turn’ (instead of , use ³), ¥¢ Ž ›Š ‘discover’ 8 Use these words to form diminutive nouns in the PE’AL’AL pattern:

¨­Ž ڎ ‘rabbit’, ¥¯Ž ގ ‘onion’, ±¢ŸŠ  ‘pig’

203


Exercises 9 On what words are the following based:

¨ÕÞ✠‘teddy-bear’, ¨Õªâª ‘foal’, ¨Õ ±† ¢ ‘monthly’, ¨Õ¥¢§Š ‘dictionary’, ¨Õñ«Š ‘newspaper’, ¨Õ籆 ފ ‘Grace After Meals booklet’, ¨Õœ¢ Š ‘quiz’, ¨Õ©°Ž ñ ‘rule-book’, ¨Õ±¢ŸŠ  ˆ ‘piglet’, ¨Õ§Õ°§† ‘local newspaper’, ¨Õ¤±† «ˆ § ‘skit’, ¦¢©Š ÕÞ±† › ‘tights’ 14 What words are the basis for these compounds?

°œ¢  

‘microbe’, « Õ©­† ՙ ‘motorbike’, ±§Œ ŸŒ ˆ § ‘a musical’, ±Õ¥œŽ ›† §Š ‘lighthouse’, ±¢ÚŠ §†   ‘limerick’, ¥šŒ çŒ ± ‘cable-car’, ±Õ°±† Ÿ ‘searchlight’, ±Õ젆 œ ‘bulldozer’, ±ÕŸ§† ± ‘traffic light’, ¦Õ œ† § ‘thermometer’ Use a good dictionary to find the source of these acronyms:

¥"ڌ ™Œ ¡"ލ ±

‘board and lodging expenses’, ¥"â ‘overseas (from Israel)’, ‘corporal’, ¦"ç § ‘Radar’, ¥"Õ§ ‘publisher’, Ú"¥ ¯ ‘military award’, ¥"Ÿ   ‘the Sages’, ›"ލ ³† © ‘Ben-Gurion Airport’, «"© œ† › ‘Israeli  ‘Israel Security Service’ Military Cadet Force’, ç"ލ Ú 15 Form verbs and TEFULA-type nouns from these roots, and use a dictionary to determine their meaning:

ª.š 7 ¨.Ÿ 6 ¦.° 5 ¨.š 4 ¨.¤ 3 ³.§ 2 ¬.« 1 What is the meaning and the root of these nouns:

,Ò¯Ž Õñ ,ÚŽ ±Ž Õ§ ,³ÚŒ ±Œ Õ§ ,¥Ž šŽ Õñ ,³¥Œ «Œ Õñ ,œ±Ž Õ§ ,œ«‹ Õ§ ,±¯Ž Õñ ,±³Ž Õ§ ³œŒ ¥Œ Õ§ What is the root and meaning of these nouns? And what verbs are closely related to them?

©Ž ñŽ § ,™ÛŽ § ,±Ž ¡Ž § ,¢¥¢Š «Š ¥Õ¡§ ,³¢ Š â짍 ,­Ž ›‹ § , ì § ,«› § ,šÚ § ,«¡ § 69–71 ADJECTIVE TYPES 69 Passive adjectives (½Öòe×Ð ô ,½ÖòÐ×eô ,½eòÖk)

204

1 A broken leg 2 An injured thumb 3 A sun-tanned face 4 A shaved chin 5 A bent nose 6 A broken finger 7 A scratched arm 8 A burnt tongue 9 Two rows of polished teeth 10 Combed hair 11 Open eyes 12 Painted nails 13 A broken heart


Exercises

70 Adjectives from nouns Create adjectives from these nouns and suggest translations for them:

³â±­† ªŠ ‘literature’, ªâ좡Š ‘type’, ³œŽ ‘religion’, ¦Õ±œŽ ‘South’, Òâ­±† ‘medicine’, š¢ Ž šŠ ª† ‘environment’, « Õ¯°† §Š ‘profession’, ¥â¢©Š ‘management’, ™šŽ ¯Ž ‘army’, ³â¤¥† § ‘monarchy’, ³â«§Ž چ § ‘meaning’, ¦Õ°§Ž ‘place’, žž ±Œ ‘profit’, ª  ¢ ‘relation’, ¥Ž  Ž ³†  ‘beginning’ 71 Other meaningful adjective patterns Use these words to form PA’ALAN adjectives and suggest translations:

œ  ìŽ ‘to be afraid’,  š ©Ž ‘to bark’, ±Þ¢ ‹ œŠ ‘to talk’, ±§ ڎ ‘to conserve’ Use these words to create PA’IL adjectives and suggest meanings:

¥¤ Ò ‘eat’, ¥Þ¢ ‹ °Š ‘accept’, ±š ڎ ‘break’, ڛ ¢©Š ‘to access’ Figure out the technical English equivalent of these phrasal adjectives. (You may not find them all in a pocket dictionary.)

,¢™Š ±Ž °† §Š -±³ ކ ,¢±Š ¥Ž â°¥Œ Õ§-³ñ ,¢ñŠ چ ލ ¢-¦¢©Š ì† ,¢œ¢Š ±Š ž† -˂Õñ ,¢§Š † ± -®â  ,¢³Š ±Ž çŽ  -³ñ ,¢ñŠ چ ލ ¢-¨¢Þ‹ ,¢ÚŠ Õ©™‡ -¥« ,¢©Š ÕÚ¥† -š± ,¢­Š ⯱† ì -✠,¢œŠ œŽ ¯† -œ  ¢çŠ ±† «Œ -³¥Ž ñ† ,¢šŠ ±Ž «ˆ § -Õ±ì† ,¢šŠ ¤Ž Õç-¨¢Þ‹ 72 Present tense ‘verbs’ as nouns and adjectives From these verbs, make ‘present tense nouns’ and offer translations for them:

±  ªŽ ‘to trade’, ±§ ڎ ‘to watch’, ˂ž‹ ž¢ñŠ ‘to mediate’, «Ž ±Ž ‘to graze’, ¦œ‹ ° ³† Š ‘to advance’, ­Ž Ò ‘to bake’, Ÿç¢ ‹ ±Š ‘to convene’, ³±‹ ¢Ú‹ ‘to serve’, °¢ªŠ «‡ Œ ‘to employ’, œ°¢ ‹ ìŠ ‘to command’, ³©‹ ¤† ñŠ ‘to program’, œ§‹ ¥ ³† Š ‘to teach oneself’, ¤Ž ŸŽ ‘to win’, ¥Ž ›Ž ‘to go into exile’ ¨¢‹ ¢­† ™Š ‘to Ž ‘to rob’, « ±‹ ì ³† Š ‘to run riot’ characterize’, ±Ÿ «Ž ‘to help’, œœ Ú And from these make ‘present tense adjectives’:

¦¢Š œ† Š ‘to astound’, ®¯ ©Ž ‘to sparkle’, ±Þ‹ ¡ ¯† Š ‘to accumulate’,  §¢ ‹ ۊ ‘to delight’, «¢  ñŠ ±† Š ‘to deter’, ™ç¢ ‹ œŠ ‘to depress’, ¯¢ Ž §Š ‘to exhaust’, ¥¢ìŠ چ Š ‘to degrade’, ¦¢ÚŠ ±† Š ‘to impress’ ¨¢‹ ¢©† «Š ‘to interest’, œ¢±Š ¡† Š ‘to bother’, «¢  ›Š ±† Š ‘to soothe’, ¬¥  Ž ‘to pass’

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Exercises

73 The construct as a possessive (a) [Use possessive suffixes and constructs rather than ¥Ú Œ .] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Their heavy breathing interrupted our delicious meal. They were barely listening to my introduction. His students are crazy about his lectures. Her sons feared her cooking. Our parents are paying for our trip to South America. My husband has an elderly aunt in the north of Israel. My wife’s parents always forget her family name. There’s an exhibition of magazines from the time of the Mandate. The great powers’ reactions to the UN resolutions were disappointing. I have a bit of pull, because my father knows the minister’s secretary. The copying of records is absolutely forbidden. There’s no reason to be ashamed of participation in a demo. After closure of the Suez Canal came the intervention of the Western forces.

(b) Run through the suffixed forms (for both singular and plural) for:

±š‹ Ž ‘friend’, ¢Ž¢©Š ì† ‘request’, ³â¥¯† © ³† Š ‘apology’, žŽ ž°† ñŠ ‘hope’ (c) Translate: 1 Hannah and her sisters 2 Me and my girl 3 All my sons 4 The sound of music 5 Dead poets’ society (d) Translate:

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A long-haired counselor A green-eyed Frenchwoman Two broad-shouldered butchers A short-term opportunity Snow-covered mountains Her suitcase was full of books A country of great beauty Money-filled wallets He’s a person of influence This book has an important message for everyone She lacks friends A country lacking in science


Exercises

74 Ð ñ of possession 1 Rub your eyes. 2 Shut your mouth. 3 Shake your head. 4 Shake my hand. 5 Hold my arm. 6 Pull her hair. 7 Raise your hand. 8 Stretch your legs. 9 Cut your nails. 10 Cut Meir’s hair. 11 Wipe his chin. 12 Fold your arms. 13 Touch the baby’s forehead.

75–6 CONSTRUCT NOUNS – VOWEL CHANGES 75 Construct segolates 1 The tribes of Israel 2 The tombs of kings 3 Store owners 4 Food colors 5 Army tents 6 The flag of Israel 7 Car parts 8 Men’s clothes 9 Shabbat shoes 10 Shabbat Eves 11 Emergency teams 12 Art books 13 A science book

76 Some other vowel changes in constructs Translate aloud: 1 The army of Jordan 2 Student dorms 3 Place of birth 4 Jet plane 5 The peace of the world 6 Evening newspaper 7 Passenger plane 8 Bus ticket 9 Place of work 10 Orange grove 11 Egged driver 12 Turkey meat 13 Chicken soup and also: 1 The Likud party 2 Pine trees 3 The government of Syria 4 The Baath party 5 The Cohen family 6 The paratroop corps 7 Fig trees 8 A birthday greeting 9 The last names of the students 10 The Chief of Staff’s statement Form the construct of these words:

šŽ œŽ ©† ‘donation’, ³Õš¤Ž چ ‘layers’, ³Õ§ÚŽ ©† ‘souls’, ¯Ž ¯Ž ì† ‘bomb’, ‘bombs’, §Ž Ú Ž ©† ‘soul’, ³Õ±šŽ ˆ ‘companies’ (behaves like ³Õœ±Ž  ˆ )

³Õ¯¯Ž ì†

77 Double possessives: íÖ þN Ö ñL Ó íÖ³ËÑa 1 The doctors’ strike 2 An engineer’s salary 3 The dentist’s bill 4 A nurse’s work 5 A teacher’s living 6 The manager’s payslip 7 Avraham’s expenses 8 The workers’ demands 9 The management’s offer 10 The president’s vacation

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Exercises

78 Preposition + suffix: ÒîôÐ k ,öËÑa ,ËÌñÐa 1 She’s like me. 2 I’m like him. 3 You’re like them. 4 I’m here without her. 5 She went without him. 6 What am I without you, Chaya? 7 Between me and you, she’s a nobody. 8 What’s happening between them? 9 Going without me? 10 They look like us.

79–80 NUMERALS 79 Definite numerals: ‘The three idiots’ 1 The two medicines 2 The ten pills 3 The two thermometers 4 The four doctors 5 The two of us 6 The three diseases 7 The sixty patients

80 Ordinals: ‘first, second, third . . .’ 1 The third man 2 The fiftieth step 3 The second latke 4 The sixth dreidel 5 The first candle 6 The eighth evening 7 The forty-ninth day 8 The fourth glass of wine 9 The second matza 10 The fifteenth word 11 His thirteenth birthday

81 Hundreds and thousands Say aloud in Hebrew: 6000, 210, 390, 445, 14,220, 2000, 9083, 860, 10,100, 269, 104, 570, 613, 365, 248, 600,000, 11,504, 24,000, 967, 930, 175, 127, 120, 1756, 5751

82 Tense

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

My mother used to start cooking supper at 3 o’clock. She used to iron each shirt. Every Yom Kippur the community would cry and wail. If I had a Chinese rug, I would put it here exactly. What kind of cake would you make, wise guy? If the vase were green, it would look nice on the shelf. Oh Ruti, I thought you were going to clean. He said he was tidying up but he wasn’t. I knew she was uptight. Leave a light on when you leave.


Exercises 11 12 13 14 15

A beggar sat on the bench, rattling a can. If you give money, it’ll be a good deed. Sara rode her bicycle while holding a bag of pears in her hand. Don’t read while people are here, stupid! I was just walking down the street thinking about the party.

83 The object suffix: îÒ³ÒîòÐ ëÌñ ‘to build it’ 1 To deny it 2 To see her 3 To approve them 4 To take it 5 To dismantle it 6 To criticize him 7 To praise them

84 Reflexives: ‘myself, yourself . . .’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

I’m teaching myself. She always criticizes herself. Shake yourself off now, silly boy. The recruits undressed for a check-up. Get dressed and comb your hair, you’re both late! I warn you, you won’t forgive yourself. Easy, I’ve done it myself. Is there time to take a shower? You have to know yourself. He can’t come to the phone, he’s shaving. It’s the mayor – come on, introduce yourself! I’m not introducing myself.

85 ‘One another’ 1 2 3 4 5

The two officers hated one another. From the day that we met, we’ve loved one another. Look, the two ends join one another. The companies have been competing with each other for years. We told each other stories, jokes, gossip.

86 Experience adjectives: ËÌ ñ þÔš ,ËÌñ ìÔÒîò 1 2 3 4 5

I’m so cold in bed. Are you comfortable in those boots? The children are hot there at the back. They’re OK in their two-storey house in Savyon. I feel uncomfortable asking him.

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Exercises

87–90 COMPARATIVES 87 Comparative phrases 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I’m warmer now, thank you. Shoshi’s nicer than the last baby-sitter. This paper’s much thicker. Don’t exaggerate – it’s thinner, in fact. This silverware is less expensive than the other. There’s been more rain in the Sharon than they expected. It’s better than yesterday.

88 ‘The most . . .’ 1 2 3 4 5

He’s just met the most beautiful girl in the world again. Saudi Arabia is today the biggest oil exporter. Is that the longest roll of paper towels? Which city has the worst pollution? That’s the best way, I’m sure.

89 ‘as big as’: . . . ÒîôÐ k 1 2 3 4 5

It’s as smooth as a baby’s skin. It’s as cold as Chicago here! He’s not as smart as his brother, but that’s not the main thing. Did you find a place to park as quickly as last time? There’s no city as special as Jerusalem.

90 Measurement: ñÓ ðÒîè íÔô . . . ‘How big is . . .’

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

How long is the concert? How wide is your station-wagon? And how long is it? We need a fridge one meter wide. It’s only for people aged fifteen and over. How tall is that blond guy? How high is the partition? They’ve built a tower 90 meters high in the middle of the city. This dress is 2 cm longer than the black dress. Shabbat is two hours longer in summer.


Exercises

91 Adverbs of manner: ³eþËÌ íÐôÌa ‘quickly’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

She’s working hard with that guitar. Yes, but she sings so badly. Why does everyone drive so dangerously? If you run over a pedestrian, you’re automatically brought to court. That shepherd plays the pipe well. He stroked her hand gently. He beat her savagely. Can you write a bit more neatly? I think he writes very nicely. She’s pregnant? She has to get to hospital urgently. I want to clean my desk thoroughly.

92 Echo phrases, e.g. ¬Ö ñÐìeô öÒîìÖ®Ìò ìÔ®ËÌò ‘won decisively’ Translate into English:

.¢Ž©Š چ  ¢Ž¢¥Š «ˆ Ž ¥« ¦¤Œ ³† š ñŽ ç §Š ÞŽ Ⱨ† Ò©Ž  ¢³¢ Š ©‹ ‡ ©Œ 1 .ªŽ › ¥¢ Ž ¤Š ™ˆ ¥Õ¤™‡ ¥Œ ¥â¥«Ž ¥Œ Õ  2 .ŸŽ « §¢ Ž  Š ¥† š¢‹Õ™ÞŽ §Ž  ˆ ¥† ©Š š¢ Ž ¡Š  ˆ  3 93 Ð a of time, place and means 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

At the beginning of the school year we’re leaving. Next week I’m not coming. There’s a kiosk at the corner. I’m calling at six. Each time I put in a token there’s no tone. I was walking along the street when . . . . Every Friday we have a free day now. We waited nine years and then last year we got a phone. Each time I dial I have problems. Turn it with a screwdriver.

94 óÒîËÔ í ,íÖòL ÖÔí ‘today, this year’ 1 2 3 4 5 6

Where are you going for vacation this year? This evening we’re going for a walk to the Old City. I’d rather take a cab this time. This morning there was a serious incident. This week there’s a concert in the park. The Dead Sea? That’s the second time you’ve been this month!

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Exercises

95 íÖ of destination, e.g. íÖòÒîõÖ ® ‘northwards’ 1 Turn left after the circle. 2 No, you’re wrong, he has to turn right. 3 If you’re traveling south, you’re on the wrong road. 4 The steering-wheel pulls to the side. 5 It’s OK, we can get home by dark. 6 Stuck in the mud? Try going forwards and then backwards. 7 At the next interchange, go east. 8 On Independence Day, everyone goes north to Lake Kinneret.

96 Ì ô of location, e.g. ñêôÒ N Ð Ìô ‘on the left’ 1 The ball’s over the wall? Who’s to blame? 2 The gas canisters are there on the right. 3 There’s a fence, of course, all round the settlement. 4 Michael, can you change the light above the door? 5 On the left, there’s a sign ‘Ginossar’. 6 I keep the sticks under the steps.

97 The gerund: Òî¼ËÌèÔ íÐa ‘on his arrival’ Translate:

.¢œŠ ± ­Ž ª† ±§Ž Ÿ ±¢çŠ Š ,œ± ­Ž ª† ފ Õ³Õ¢† ފ .œš‹ çŽ œâ¢¯Š ¦¢ Š °† Õ¥ ¦‹ ,¥Ž ¢† ¥ ³Õ¥â«ì† « ¯‹ š ¥† ¦³™ Ž ¯‹ ކ .±‹ ۆ «Œ «Ú ñ† ¨šŒ ç† Õ³Õ¢† ފ ڛ ìŽ Õñچ ™Š ³™Œ . . . . ¦¥Ž Õ«Ž ³§Œ  Œ ¥† §Š ®Õ±ì† ¦«Š 98 Where to position óÔè and šÔ þ 1 I only have two potatoes, Sara. 2 Yossi’s applying? Good, I’m also applying. 3 She plays tennis . . . and she also plays piano. 4 Only invalids can sit in these seats. 5 She even brought the baby-carriage into the plane!

212

6 You can buy diapers there, too. 7 I only knew two people at the party.

1 2 3 4


Exercises

99–100 NEGATIVES 99 Inflexion of öËÑ ê 1 The company does not accept responsibility. 2 If you do not agree, please write immediately. 3 Britain does not support this position. 4 I am incapable of influencing them. 5 If he is not a tourist, he need not register.

100 ‘No one, nothing, nowhere’ 1 Who were you talking to? – Oh, no one . . . . 2 I have no questions. Do you? 3 No one saw the robbery. 4 The burglars didn’t take anything. 5 We needed witnesses, but there was no one there. 6 They park on the sidewalks but they never get a ticket. 7 That’s because you can’t find a meter anywhere. 8 What did the policeman say to you? – Nothing special . . . . 9 I never drive without my license. 10 Calm down, Mrs Abu-Hatzeira, nothing happened. What is the English equivalent of:

,¦â™¢ñ‹ -±ªŒ Õ ,«© §† ©Š -¢ñŠ ¥† ފ ,°ª‹ Õì-¢ñŠ ¥† ފ ,š¢¯Š ¢-¢ñŠ ¥† ފ ,¢±Š ڎ ­† ™Œ -¢ñŠ ¥† ފ ª¢šŠ çŽ -¢ñŠ ¥† ފ ,¦¢¥Š ՠކ ¥â좡Š -¢™Š ,³â©¥Ž š† ª -±ªŒ Õ  101 Questions 1 Don’t you have any envelopes? 2 You bought matches, didn’t you? 3 Does he intend to marry her or not? 4 I’m not sure if the elevator’s working. 5 The travel agent’s on the fourth floor, isn’t he? 6 You’re not passing the university, are you? 7 I’ve no idea what he wants. 8 I wonder if there’s a chance of a match between them.

213


Exercises

102 Wishes and requests 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I want her to join Gadna. His parents prefer him to go to Hesder Yeshiva. I was hoping she’d go to Nachal. I wish they’d stop whispering. Don’t you dare, Yitzhak . . . . Shoshi wanted the boys to go to university but they’re in Kollel. I want Ariela to play with me now – is it OK?

103 ‘Either . . . or’: îÒê . . . Òîê 1 2 3 4 5

Get either vanilla flavor or chocolate flavor. Should I buy the blue night-dress or do you prefer the pink? Either you make your mind up now or we’re going home. Is the bank closing in a moment or do we still have time? Either Monday or Tuesday will be all right.

104 Clauses as subject: ‘Painting is fun’ 1 2 3 4 5 6

Smelling every cottage cheese is disgusting. Driving fast and honking is fun. Earning big bucks is a problem. Watching Dallas is a national sport. I enjoy standing in line. He enjoys pushing.

105 Relative clauses 105a Relative clauses with a pronoun

214

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The neighborhood we live in is quite expensive. Where’s the contract you signed? We’re renting an apartment whose owner is abroad. Is this the stairway where you lost it? Look, that’s the building we lived in last year. In the first moshav we went to, there wasn’t any electricity yet. They’re in that parking lot where they always play. I only asked the tenants whose names I know. Is this the housing project you were thinking about? It’s a bit crowded. What’s the name of the girl whose parents live in Kfar Shemaryahu?


105b

Exercises

. . . ڌ ­¢™‹ ,. . . ڌ ¢§Š ,. . . ڌ §

1 The person who sells the flowers isn’t there today. 2 I’ve put the typewriter where there’s a bit of light. 3 At last – here’s what I was looking for. 4 But that’s not what I wanted to know! 5 I’m polite to whoever speaks to me. 6 What you said to him was very very rude. 7 Eat whatever there is in the freezer. 8 Come by whenever it’s convenient to you, Miriam. 9 Give this note to the person who’s in charge. 10 Allow him whatever you allow the others – it’s obvious. 11 Anyone who calls information doesn’t have to pay. 12 Take anything that fits.

105c Relative clauses with  Insert  as the relative conjunction in the blank space where possible:

. . . . ¦¢ŸŠ ¢¥Š «ˆ ¦¢«Š šŽ ¯† ފ ¡Ú‹ ° ³† §Š ⠝­Œ ¢Ž Úދ ¥ ³† §Š _ ±šŒ ›Œ ŸŒ "in" ¢¤Š ˆ .±Õ Ò¥† ©ŽÚŽ ¦¢¢Š ³™  §Ž ¦¢±Š šŽ ›†  ³™Œ ±¢ŸŠ  †  ¥† ¢ŽâÛ«ˆ_ ,³¢¥Š Ñ¢¯Š Õª ¤Ž ì‹ ˆ § ÛŒ «ˆ§ ¥† ⟠.ŸŒ  ڜŽ  Ž Œ š¯Ž § ¥ ¥›‹ ± ³† Š ¥† ÚŒ °Ž ¦Œ ¥Ž ¢Œ† ¢Š _ ¦¢ÚŠ ©Ž ™ˆ Ú¢‹ .³â™¥Ž °†   ¥† ¦¢™Š ³† § Õ©¢™‹ ¦¢ Š §† ⧝ ¢ìŠ -¥« _ ¦§‹ ÕÚ ¦Õ°§Ž ¢ñŠ ±†   ގ .¥  © ¥ ¥¢ÞŠ °† § ކ ³¥Œ ñŒ ì ³† §Š _ ,©Ž ¡ °† ˂±Œ œŒ ¥« ¦¢¥Š Õ«ž† ©Ž ¢§Š ¢Ž ¦¢©Š Õì .¨¡Ž °Ž ±¤Œ ªŒ ³§ °Ž  ކ °ª «Ž _ ,¬âŸÚŽ ž† ¢©Š ¢œŠ ©† եކ ±¢«Š ¯Ž ⩙¯Ž §Ž .˂⧪Ž  ±­Ž ç† Þ ڌ «"© œ† › ©‹  ˆ § ކ ¦¢Š ÕÚ_ ,±« Õ© ¢©‹ ކ ¢­‹ ¥† Ñ ©Ž ڎ ¥çŽ ¦¢±Š š† Õ«

1 2

3 4 5 6 7

106 When the order is not subject–verb–object 106a Inverting subject and verb 1 After my relatives emigrated to Israel, I began to be interested in my roots. 2 Outside, three fat men with beards were waiting. 3 We had our own eggs until the hens all died. 4 In front of the house stood a hive. 5 When they heard about this, farmers stopped using chemical fertilizers. 6 If war breaks out, the result will be a catastrophe.

215


Exercises

106b Starting with the object 1 2 3 4

I have silverware but I don’t have napkins. You want 30 shekels for this? I know Shoshana and Ariela – and I also know Yafa. That newspaper’s old, and I don’t need this one either.

106c Presentative verbs 1 2 3 4 5

216

Five new people have come today. It’s snowing again. A serious danger exists now. Rachel, your friend’s arrived. Someone else is coming, I think.


Vocabulary for exercises


about (= concerning) about (= approximately) to be about to abroad to be absent absolutely account acting activity actor actually advantage of, to take advice to be afraid after afterwards again aged . . . (travel) agent ago to agree agreement aim air conditioning air force air-letter airport all all right to allow it is not allowed along already although always America American

¢Þ‹ › ¥† ˂±Œ «‹ ކ ¥† ˂¥ Ž ®±Œ Ò¥Ž ®â ކ ±ª‹  Ž ¢±‹ §† › ¥† ¨ÕÞچ  Œ ° Ž ۆ §Š ³â¥¢«Š ì† ¨°Ž  † ۍ ¦¯Œ «Œ ކ ¥¯¢ ‹ ©Š ¯Ž «‹ §Š œ  ìŽ ¢±‹  ˆ Ñ ˂çŽ -±  Ñ šâÚ ,¦« ì œÕ« . . . ¥¢›Š ކ (³Õ«¢ªŠ ©† ) ¨¤‹ Õª . . . ¢©‹ ­† ¥Š ¦¢çŠ ª† Š ¦ç‹ ª† Œ ±Ž ¡Ž § ±¢žŠ žÑ ›âŸ¢§Š ±¢žŠ žÑ ¥¢ ‹ ±¢žŠ žÑ-³±Œ ›Œ ™Š ­Ž â«ñ† -¥§ ©† ¥çŽ ±œŒ ª‹ ކ ÚŽ ±† Š ±âªÒ ˂±Œ ՙ¥† ±šŽ ç† ÚŒ ³Õ±§† ¥ œ¢§Š ñŽ °¢ Ž ±Š §Œ Ñ ¢™Š °¢ Ž ±Š §Œ Ñ

Vocabulary for exercises

219


Vocabulary for exercises

to amuse and to annoy answer ant any anyway apartment apparently apple to apply to approve Arab Ariela arm armchair Army, the Israeli around art article (written) artist as to be ashamed to ask (a question) to ask (request) to be asleep assignment at at all atmosphere to attack Auntie author autumn

220

aware of Ayalon Highway

°¢ Š ¯† Š ž† Ÿ¢›Š ±† Š šâÚ Ž ñ† (¦¢¥Š §Ž ©† ) ¥Ž §Ž ©† ¥çŽ ¦¢©Š ìŽ ¥çŽ ¥« ,¥¥Ž ¤† ފ ±Ž ¢œŠ ™Œ ±† ©Š ç   âìñ ÚŽ °Ž ލ Ú¢›Š Š ±Ú¢ ‹ ™Š ¢šŠ ±Ž «ˆ ¥Ž ™¢ ‹ ±Š ™ˆ (¦¢¢Š œ ¢Ž) œ¢Ž ªŽ ±† âç ¥" ¯ š¢šŠ ª† ³â©§Ž ՙ ±§Ž ™ˆ § ±¢Ž¢¯ ±Õ³Þ† §Š Ú¢‹¢Þ ³† Š ¥Ñڎ Ú°¢ ‹ ފ ¨Ú ¢Ž œŽ ՚«ˆ ކ ¥¥Ž ¤† ފ ±Ž ¢žŠ ž† Ñ ¬¢°Š ³† Š œŽ ՜ ±­‹ Õª ž¢³Ž ª† ¥† «œ ⧠¨Õ¥¢ŽÑ ¢š¢ ‹ ³Š ©†


baby baby carriage baby girl baby sitter to be back bad bad (pain etc.) bag bakery balcony ball bank barely bargain barmitzvah base basement Bat Yam bath bath, to take a bathrobe bathroom bay beach bear to bear beard beautiful beauty because because of bed bee Beer-Sheva before beggar

°Õ©¢ñŠ ¥Ž ›Ž «ˆ ³°Œ Õ©¢ñŠ ±¡¢ Œ ª¢ Š Þ¢ Š ދ ±Ÿ Ž šÕ¡ ™¥ ÚŒ °Ž °¢ñŠ ¢Ž¢­Š ™ˆ § ³ªŒ ìŒ ±† §Š ±âœç °©† ލ ¢ÚŠ հކ Ò¢¯Š §† žžŽ ¯† §Š -±Þ ª¢ªŠ ގ ¬ñ‹ ±† § ¦¢Ž-³Þ ¢Ž¡† ލ §† Ñ ¢Ž¡† ލ §† Ñ ÛŽ «Ž °â¥ Ž ¢Ž¡† ލ §† Ñ ®±Ž ­† §Š ¬Õ  (¦¢ÞŠ âœ) šÕœ ™ÛŽ ©Ž ¨°Ž ŸŽ ­Œ ¢Ž ¢­Š Õ¢ ¢çŠ ¥¥ ›† ފ ¡¢ Ž §Š (¦¢±Š ՚œ† ) ±Ž ՚œ† «š ڌ -±™‹ ކ ¢©‹ ­† ¥Š ¨¯Ž ކ °

Vocabulary for exercises

221


Vocabulary for exercises

to begin beginning behind belt bench to bend Benny better (preferable) Bible bicycle big bill (money) bill bird to give birth birth birthday a bit black to be to blame blanket blessing blond blouse to boil bomb to bomb book bookcase booklet boot border boring to bother

222

bottle bowl

¥¢ Š ³† Š ¥Ž  Ž ³†  ¢±‹ Õ ™ˆ §‹ ±Ž ՛ ˆ ¥ªŽ ­† ª ¦°¢ ‹ «Š ¢©Š ތ ¬¢œŠ «Ž ˂"© ñ ¦¢¢Š © ­ ՙ ¥Õœ›Ž (³Õ±¡Ž چ ) ±¡Ž چ ¨ÕÞچ  Œ ±Õ좯Š œ¥ ¢Ž œ¢ Ž ¥‹ ³œŒ ¥Œ ❠¦Õ¢ ³¯Ž °† ±Õ ÚŽ ¦Ú‹ Ò ¤¢ Ž §Š ۆ ¤Ž ±Ž ކ ¢©Š ¢œŠ ©† եކ ¯Ž ¥† â   ¢  ñŠ ±† Š ¯Ž ¯Ž ì† ®¢¯Š ­† Š ±­Œ ª‹ ³¢©Š ©Ž Õç ³±Œ šŒ Õ  (¦¢¢Š ­ ›Ž § ) ¬›Ž § ¥âš›† ¦§‹ «ˆ ڍ §† ¥† «¢  ±Š ­† Š °âÞ°† ލ ³¢ Š Õ¥¯†


brainwave bread to break to break out (war) breakfast to breathe brigade bright brilliant broken broom brother brown brush buddy building burglar to burn (something) to burn intrans. bus bus-stop busy but butcher butter button to buy by (= at the latest) by (= next to) cab cabinet cafeteria cake a call (by phone) to call (by phone)

§Ž ¤† Õ ¦ Œ ¥Œ ±š ڎ ®± ìŽ ±°Œ ÕÞ-³  ⱙˆ ¦Ú ©Ž š¢ Ž ¡Š  ˆ ±¢Š ގ °¢±Š š† § ±âšÚŽ ™¡™ ‹ ¡ §  Ò ¦â  ³ÚŒ ±Œ š† §Š ±š‹  Ž ¨¢Ž¢©† ފ ®±‹ Õì ¬± ێ ¬± ۆ ©Š ªâÞաՙ ©Ž  ˆ ñ °âª«Ž ¥šŽ ™ˆ š¯Ž ° Ò§†  Œ ±Õñ­† ç ©Ž °Ž œ« œ¢-¥« ³¢©Š Õ§ ¨Õ±Ò ªŽ ©† §Œ ›Ž â«  ¢ Ž ۊ ¥† ¥¯‹ ¥¢† ¯Š

Vocabulary for exercises

223


Vocabulary for exercises

called (= by the name of) to calm down camera camp can can I, can we? can-opener canal to cancel canister (gas) capable car careful! (he) cares about carpenter carton case (= instance) cash cash-dispenser cat catastrophe to catch celebration cemetery center centimeter cereal certain (= particular) Chagit Chaim chair challah Chana chance of . . .

224

Chanukkah chapter

¦Ú‹ ކ «› ±† ©Š §Ž ¥‹ ¯† § ©Œ ˆ § ¥Õ¤¢Ž ±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ ¨  ³† Õì ¥Ž «Ž ñ† ¥¡¢ ‹ ފ ¨Õ¥Þ ¥›Ž ⪧† ³¢©Š Õ¤§† !³â±¢Š Ÿ† . . . §Š Õ¥ ³ì ¤¢† ™Š ±›Ž © ŸŽ ¢±Š ™ˆ ±Œ °† §Š ¨§Ž ⟧† ¡§ Õ쪆 ç ¥â³ Ž ­Ž Õ±¡† ª† ¡ ° ª­ ñŽ  Ž §† ۊ ³Õ±šŽ °† -³¢Þ‹ ŸçŽ ±† §Œ ±¡Œ §¢ Œ ¡Š ©† ªŒ ª°¢ † ¥‹ ­† ©† ±† Õ° ¦¢¢Žâª§† ³¢›Š   ¦¢¢Š   (³Õ™ª¢ † çŠ ) ™ª¢ ‹ çŠ ¥Ž   ©Ž  ˆ ¥† ¢â碪Š çŽ â© ˆ °±Œ ìŒ


in charge charity Chava Chaya cheap check (money) check (= investigation) check-up to check checkbook cheek! chemical chicken Chief of Staff chin Chinese chocolate to choose cinema circle (traffic) circular noun circumcision civilian class clean to clean cleaning lady clerk clever close (= near) to close intrans. closet coalition coat cockroach coffee

¢™Š ±Ž ˆ Ñ °Ž œŽ ¯† žŽ   ¢Ž  ¥ÕŸ °ÚŒ °¢ Ž œŠ ކ °¢ Ž œŠ ކ °œ ގ ¦¢°Š ڌ -ª° ©† ìŠ !ìŽ ¯† â  ¢§¢ Š ¤Š ¬Õ« ¥"çŽ ¡† § ± ±¡‹ ©† ª ¢©Š ¢ªŠ Õ°ÕÚ Þ† ±  ގ « Õ©¥† Õ°-³¢Þ‹ šâš¢ªŠ ±Ÿ‹ Õ  ¥¢ Ž §Š -³¢±Š ކ  ±Ž Ÿ† ™Œ ñ¢ Ž çŠ ¢°Š ©Ž °¢ Ž ©Š ³±Œ ŸŒ Õ« œ¢°Š ìŽ ¦¤Ž  Ž ¥† šÕ±°Ž ±› ª† ©Š ¨Õ±Ò ¢Ž¯¢ † ¥Š ÑÕ° ¥¢«Š §† °â'› ­Œ °Ž

Vocabulary for exercises

225


Vocabulary for exercises

coin color colored comb to comb to come to come back to come by to come out comfortable coming (= next) commitment community company compensation to compete complaint compulsory computer concert concession conference contract convenient to cook cookie to copy corner corridor to cost cottage cheese couch counselor (camp) counter

226

country course

(³Õ«Þ‹ ¡† § ) « ދ ¡† § «š ¯Œ ¢©Š Õ«š† ¯Š °±‹ ª† § °±‹ ¢ªŠ ™ÞŽ ±Ÿ Ž ®­ °Ž ™¯Ž ¢Ž   Õ© ™ÞŽ ³âš¢† ¢  ³† Š ¥¢ Ž Š °† ±Ž š†  Œ ¦¢¢Š â¯¢ìŠ ±Ž  Ž ³† Š ©Ž â¥ñ† šŽ Õ  šÚ‹  † § ¡±† ¯† Œ ©Õ° ±âñ¢žŠ œ¢ Ž «Š ž† ŸŒ Õ    Õ© ¥Ú¢ ‹ ފ ¢Ž¢›Š â« °¢³Š «‡ Œ ©Ž ¢ìŠ ¨Õ±œ† ª† §Š ¥Ž «Ž '›¡Œ Õ° ìŽ ª ˂¢±Š œ† § °ì‹ ¥† œ ©Ž ¢œŠ §† ª±† â°


court (of law) courtyard cousin cow crazy to create credit card crisis to criticize cross with crowded cup curfew custom customer customs to cut (nails) (hair) to cut off (= isolate) Daddy dairy adj. danger dangerous Danny to dare dark noun dark dark blue darling David day the day after tomorrow Dead Sea to deal with

¡ìŽ چ §Š -³¢Þ‹ ±¯‹ Ž œÕœ-¨ÞŒ ±Ž ìŽ «› âÚ§† ±¯ ¢Ž ¢™± چ Ñ ª¢¡Š ±† ç ±Þ‹ چ § ±°¢ ‹ ފ ¦«Š Ÿ›Œ ձކ ¬â­¯Ž ¥­Œ ª‹ ±¯Œ Õ« ›Ž ©† §Š ©Œ Õ° ª¤Œ §Œ ˂³  Ž ±Ÿ ›Ž ±ì¢ ‹ ªŠ °ñ¢ ‹ ©Š ™ÞŽ Ñ ¢šŠ ¥Ž  ˆ ©Ž çŽ ª ¨çŽ ⪧† ¢©Š œ Ÿ¢«Š ‹ ¤Ž ڋ  ˆ Œ ç‹ ¥Õ çŽ °³Œ Õ§ œžŠ œŽ ¦Õ¢ ¦¢Š ¢³ ±Ž  ‰ §Ž  ¥ §Œ  ¦¢ ކ ¥ì¢ ‹ ¡Š

Vocabulary for exercises

227


Vocabulary for exercises

debate to decide (good) deed delicious a demand demo dentist to deny desert desk to destroy development Devora to dial diaper to die different dining corner director director (theatrical) dirt dirty disappointed discount disease disgrace disgusting to dismantle to distribute to divorce to do doctor dog door

228

dope dorms

¨â¢œŠ ¡¢¥Š † Œ žŽ ž¯† §Š ¦¢«Š ¡Ž «¢ Ž šŠ ñ† ©Ž ›Ž ­†  ¦¢¢Š © ¢ÚŠ ™­‹ Õ± Ú¢ Š ¤† Š ±ÞŽ œ† §Š ¨ Ž ¥† âÚ œ¢§Š چ Š ³â ñ† ì ³† Š ±Ž ՚œ† ›¢‹¢ Š ¥âñ¢ Š ³§‹ ©Œ ÕÚ ¥¤Œ ՙ-³© ¢ìŠ ¥‹ © §† ¢™§ ލ ˂⥤¢† ¥Š ˂¥Ž ¤† ⥧† šŸŽ ¤† ♧†  Ž ©Ž  ¥Ž  ˆ § ÚŽ âÞ ¥¢«Š ›† § °±‹ ¢ì‹ °¥¢ ‹  Š Ú±‹ ¢›‹ ÛŽ «Ž ™­‹ Õ± š¥Œ çŒ ³¥Œ œŒ ¥Þ‹ §† ¡Œ ¨Õ«§Ž


Dov downstairs Dr drag noun dress dresser drier to drink to drive driver dry Dudu dumb (= stupid) during duvet ear to earn East easy to eat Efrayim egg Egypt Eilat either . . . or elderly electricity elevator embassy emergency to emigrate (to Israel) to employ empty end (physical) end

šœ ¡Ž § ¥† ±"œ  Ž ±† ¡Š ¥Ž §† ۊ œ¢ Ž ڊ ±™¢¢ Œ ± œ† ³Ž ڎ › ©Ž ›Ž ©Œ ښ‹ ¢Ž âœâœ ¦¡Ž §† ⡧† ³« چ ފ ³ªŒ çŒ ¨ŸŒ ՙ  ¢  žŠ ž±† Š  ±Ž Ÿ† §Š ¥° ¥¤ Ò ¦¢Š ± ­† ™Œ (¦¢¯¢ Š ދ ) ¯¢ Ž ދ ¦¢¢Š ± ¯† §Š ³¥¢  ™‹ ՙ . . . ՙ ڢڊ °Ž ¥§Ž چ   ³¢¥Š «ˆ § ³â±¢±Š ›† ڍ ¦â±¢ ‹ ¥Ž «Ž ¥¢«Š ­† Š °¢±‹ (³Õž¯Ž °† ) ¯Œ °Ž ¬Õª

Vocabulary for exercises

229


Vocabulary for exercises

to end enemy engine engineer to enjoy enough entrance envelope especially Esther Europe even evening (in the) event every everyone exactly to examine exemption exercise exhibition exit to expect expenses expensive experience expert in to explain exporter extremely eye face (in) fact

230

factory to fall

±§ ›† ©Š š¢‹Õ™ « Õ©§Ž ªœ‹ ©†  §† §Š ©Ž ‡ ©Œ °¢ìŠ ª† § ª¢ Ž ©Š ç† ­Ž ¡Ž «ˆ § ±°¢ Ž «Š ކ ±ñ‹ ª† ™Œ ìŽ Õ±¢™‹ ⥢­Š ™ˆ š±Œ «Œ ±Œ °† §Š ކ ¥çŽ ¦¥Ž âç ,œ Ž ™Œ ¥çŽ °â¢œŠ ކ °œ ގ ±Õ¡ì† ¥¢›Š ±† ñ ¤Ž Ⱬˆ ñ Ò¢¯Š ¢† ì¢ Ž ¯Š ³Õ™¯Ž ՝ ±°Ž ¢Ž ¨Õ¢ªŽ ©Š ¥†  Œ §† ⧠±¢ÞŠ ª† Š ¨Ò⯢† ±³‹ բކ (¦¢¢Š © ¢«‹ ) ¨¢¢Š « ¦¢©Š ìŽ ¦¯Œ «Œ ކ ¥«Ž ­† §Š ¥­ ©Ž


to fall in love with family fantastic (as) far as farm farmer fast (= quick) fast noun to fast fat father fault (he’s) fed up with fence fertilizer festival few a few fiancee Fiat field fierce fig film filthy final finally to find finger to finish fire (= a blaze) to fire first first (= firstly) first of all to fit (clothes)

ކ š‹ ѳ† Š  Ž ìŽ Ú† §Š ¢¡Š ª† ¡ ©† ­ œ« °ÚŒ §Œ ¢™¥ °†   ±‹ § ¦Õ¯ ¦¯Ž ¨§‹ ڎ ™ÞŽ Ñ ,šÒ ¥Ž °Ž ñ . . . §Š Õ¥ ªÑ§† ©Š ±œ‹ ›Ž ¨ÚŒ œŒ ›  œ™§† ¡« §† ¦¢¡Š « §† ,¦¢œŠ  Ž ™ˆ ,§Ž ç ªŽ ⱙˆ ¡Ñ¢­Š (³ÕœÛŽ ) œŒ ێ ¢±Š ŸŽ ¤† Ñ ©Ž ™‹ ñ† ¡±Œ ªŒ ¬©Ž ⡧† ¢­Š Õª ¬Õª ¬Õª ™¯Ž §Ž (³Õ«ÞŽ ¯† ™Œ ) «Þ ¯† ™Œ ±§ ›Ž °¢ Ž ¥‹ œ† ±¡‹ ¢ìŠ ¨Õڙ±Š ¦œŒ Õ° ¥çŽ -¦œŒ Õ° ¦¢™Š ³† Š

Vocabulary for exercises

231


Vocabulary for exercises

to fix fixed flashlight flavor floor floor (= storey) fly to fold (one’s) hands folder food foodstore for for (= since) forbidden force forecast forehead foreign Foreign Minister to forget to forgive fork form France free (= for free) free (= empty) freezer Frenchman Friday Friday night fridge friend to frighten from

232

front (in) front of

¨°¢ ‹ ñŠ « ⚰Ž ª©Ž ì ¦« ¡ ìŽ ¯† ±Š §Ž Õ° šâšŸ† ¦¢¢Š œ ¢Ž š¥¢ ‹ ڊ °¢ñŠ ¥¤Œ ՙ ³¥Œ Õ种 ¥¢šŠ چ ފ ±šŽ ç† ,ŸŒ ±âªÒ (³Õ Õç)   Õç ³¢ŸŠ  ˆ ñ  ¯ §Œ ±ŸŽ ®â  ±ÛŽ  ¤ ڎ ¥†  ¥ ªŽ (³Õ›¥‹ Ÿ† § ) ›¥‹ Ÿ† § ª­Œ Õ¡ ³­ ±† ¯Ž ¦©Ž ¢ Š ¢â©ìŽ ±Ÿ‹ ¢±Š ­† ¢³Š ­Ž ±† ¯Ž ¢Ú¢ Š ڊ ¦Õ¢ ³ÞŽ ڍ ¥¢¥‹ ±±‹ ° §† ±š‹  Ž œ¢ Š ­† Š §Š ³¢ŸŠ  Ž ¢©‹ ­† ¥Š


a fruit fun furniture Gadna the Galilee garbage garden gas (for cooking etc.) gas station gear gentle Gershon to get (= receive) to get down to get (someone) down to get into to get (someone) out Gila girl girl, little girl-friend to give to be glad a glass glasses to go to go (travel) to go back to go on to go out good gorgeous government to grab grade

(³Õ±ì‹ ) ¢±Š ì† ¬¢ç‹ ¡â¢±Š «"© œ† › ¥¢¥Š ›Ž  ¥šŒ ŸŒ ©Ž ¢›Š Ÿ› °¥Œ œŒ ³© ˆ ñ ˂⥢Š ¨¢œŠ «Ž ¨ÕÚ±† ›‹ ¥Þ¢ ‹ °Š œ± ¢Ž œ¢±Š ՝ ª© ¤† ©Š ™¢¯Š ՝ ¥¢ Ž ›Š ±Ž â Þ œŽ ¥† ¢ ±Ž š‹  ˆ ¥† ¨³ ©Ž   §‹ ێ (³ÕªÕç) ªÕç ¦¢¢Š ­ °Ž چ §Š ˂¥ Ž «ª ©Ž ±Ÿ  Ž ˂¢ÚŠ §† Š ™¯Ž ¢Ž šÕ¡ ±œŽ ‡ ©Œ ¥Ž ڎ §† §Œ ¬¡  Ž ¨â¢¯Š

Vocabulary for exercises

233


Vocabulary for exercises

gradually Grandma Grandpa grape great! great (= major) great (= fabulous) green ground group grove to grow (up) guitar guy guys Hagada Haifa hair half half an hour hamsin hand hang on hanger to happen happy hard to hate to have to have to (= must) head headache healthy

234

to hear (about) heart

¡Ñ¥† ¡Ñ¥† ™ñŽ š† ª ™ÞŽ ª (¦¢šŠ ©Ž «ˆ ) š©Ž «‹ !Ÿâ Ò Ò§‹ ¥Õœ›Ž « ›‹ ڍ §† °Õ±¢Ž §Ž œŽ ™ˆ ¯Ž ⚰† ªœ‹ ±† ì ¥œ ›Ž ±Ž ¡¢ Ž ›Š ±â ÞŽ '±Œ š†  Œ œŽ ›Ž ˆ ­¢ Ž  ‹ ±«¢ Ž ۋ ¢¯Š  ‹ «Ž ڎ ¢¯Š  ˆ ¨¢ªŠ §†   œ¢Ž !ç‹   š¥Ž Õ° ±Ž °Ž ±ÚŽ ♧† ÚŒ °Ž ™©Ž ێ Ú¢‹ . . . ¥† ˂¢±Š ¯Ž ڙ± ڙ±-š™‹ ç† ™¢±Š ގ (¥« ) «§ ڎ š¥‹


heat heatwave heaven forbid (for) heaven’s sake heavy Hebrew (language) Hebrew adj. Hebron (go to) hell help to help hen here here’s . . . the Hermon Hesder hey! hi high school highway to hit hive to hold to hold (conference etc.) home honey to honk to hope hospital hot hour house housing project how how about . . . how many

¦Õ ¨¢ªŠ §†   ¥¢ Ž ¥Š  Ž ˃¢¢Œ  ކ œš‹ çŽ ³¢±Š š† «Š ¢±Š š† «Š ¨Õ±š†  Œ ¥Ÿ‹ ™ŸŽ «ˆ ¥ ˂¥‹ ±Ž Ÿ† «Œ ¥† ±Ÿ «Ž ³¥Œ ՛©† ±† ñ ¨™çŽ ,ì ©‹ Š ¨Õ§±†  Œ  ±œ‹ ª† Œ !Õ¥ ¦Õ¥ÚŽ ¨Õ¤¢ñŠ Ú¢šŠ ç† ®¢ÞŠ ±† Š ³±Œ žŒ žç °¢ŸŠ  † Œ ˂± «Ž ³¢Š ލ  °³Œ Õ§ ¬¯‹ ­† ¯Š žŽ ž¢°Š ¦¢¥Š Õ -³¢Þ‹ ¦  «Ž ڎ ³¢Š ލ ¨âç¢ÚŠ ˂¢™‹ . . . ڌ ˃³† « œ § §Ž ç

Vocabulary for exercises

235


Vocabulary for exercises

how much huge hummus a hundred hungry to hunt husband ID idea immediately immigrant important (it’s) impossible to be impressed with to improve in incident Independence Day India to influence influence to initiate to injure installment instead institute insurance to intend interchange interested in international intersection to intervene

236

into to introduce

§Ž ç ¢°Š ©Ž «ˆ ªâ§â Ò§‹ š«‹ ±Ž œ¯Ž ¥« ލ ³âŸ‹ ³œ â«ñ† ›ÛŽ ⧠œ¢Ž§Š ¥Õ« Œ šâÚ Ž ±ÚŽ ­† ™Œ -¢™Š §Š ¦Ú‹ ± ³† Š ±ì¢ ‹ ڊ ކ ³¢±Š °† ñ ³â™§Ž ¯† « Ž ¦Õ¢ âœÕ «¢  ìŠ Ú† Š «Ž ìŽ Ú†  ¦Ÿ ¢Ž «¯ ìŽ ¦â¥Ú† ñ ™°Ž ž† žœ ¨Õ¤§Ž   ⡢ފ ¨ž‹ žç ³† Š ¬¥‹  † § ކ ¨¢Ž¢©† ⫧† ¢§Š ♥† ©† ¢Þ‹ ³§Œ Õ¯ š±‹ « ³† Š ˂Õ³¥† ›¢¯Š Š


invalid to invite iron to iron ironing Israel Israeli Italian jackal jacket jam (traffic) to be jealous of jeans jelly Jericho Jerusalem jet Jezreel to join intrans. to join (a club) joke Jordan the Jordan Valley Judaism juice Junior High just (now) just (= only) just as (= equally) to keep kettle key kibbutz kid

¤Œ ©Ž ¨¢§Š Ÿ† Š ¥ŸŒ ±† ލ ®¢ ‹ ›Š ®â¢›Š ¥™‹ ±Ž ۆ ¢Š ¢¥Š ™‹ ±Ž ۆ ¢Š ¢°Š ¥† ¡¢  ™Š

Vocabulary for exercises

¨ñ ¡°Œ 'Ÿ °°Ž ì† Þ† ™©‹ ¢°Š ª©† '›Š Þ¢ Ž ±Š Õ ¢±Š ¢† ¦¢Š ¥ ڎ â±¢† ¨Õ¥¢ªŠ ¥™« Œ ±† Ÿ† ¢Š ±Þ‹   ³† Š ¥† ¬±‹ ¡Ž ¯† Š  ¢ Ž œŠ ކ ¨œ‹ ±† ¢ «Ž °† ފ  ³âœˆ ¢ ®¢§Š ¦¢Š ¢© ¢Þ‹ ³š¢  ¡Š  ˆ ž¢ÚŽ ¤† « °± œ¢ Ž §Š ³Ž ՙކ ±§ ڎ ¦â°§† â°   ñ‹ ­† § ®âÞ¢°Š œ¥Œ ¢Œ

237


Vocabulary for exercises

to kill kilo kilometer kind (= sort) kind of kindergarten teacher king kitchen knife to know (someone) (something) Kobi Kollel kosher Lake Kinneret lamp to land lane (on highway) language large last adv. last last (week, month . . .) to last late late show to be late to laugh launchpad laundry (place) laundry (clothes) lawyer leader

238

leaf to learn

›± Ž Õ¥¢°Š ±¡Œ §Œ Õ¥¢°Š ›âª ¤Ž çŽ ³©Œ ©Œ › ˂¥Œ §Œ ލ ¡† §Š ¨¢çŠ ª ±¢çŠ Š «œ ¢Ž ¢ÞŠ Õ° ¥¥‹ Õç ±Ú‹ çŽ ³±Œ ©Œ çŠ ¦¢ ±Ž Õ©§† ³  ©Ž š¢³Š ©Ž ­Ž ێ ¥Õœ›Ž ©Ž Õ± ˆ ѝŽ ¦« ì Þ ¨Õ± ˆ Ñ ±š «Ž ڌ ˂ڍ §† ©Š ± Ž ♧† ¢Ž¢©Š چ ›Ž ¯Ž  ± ¢ ‹ ™Š °  ¯Ž ¨ç‹ ªŽ ދ ¤† § ª¢ Ž šŠ ç† ¨¢œŠ -˂±‹ Õ« ›¢†Š ©§ ¥Œ «Ž œ§ ¥Ž


(at) least to leave (= quit) to leave Lebanon lecture lecturer left to be left leg less lesson to let know letter lettuce library license to lie (= untruth) to lie down life lift (by car etc.) light light blue lightning to like likely to line (for clothes) line (of people) lion to listen liter a little to live a living living room lizard loads of

³Õ ­Ž ¥† šŸ «Ž ±¢™Š چ Š ¨Õ©šŽ ¥† Ò¯Ž ±†  ¯Œ ±† § ¥™§Û† ±Ñچ ©Š ¥›Œ ±Œ ³Õ ìŽ ±â«¢ÚŠ «¢  œŠ ՝ šñŽ ¤† §Š ªŽ   ¢Ž¢±Š ­† ªŠ ¨Õ¢Ú† ±Š ±°¢ ‹ ڊ š¤ ڎ ¦¢Š ¢  짆 ±Œ ¡† ±Õ™ ³¥Œ ¤‹ ñ† °±Ž ގ š Ò ¥† ¥â¥«Ž ¥šŒ  Œ ±Õñ (³Õ¢±Ž ™ˆ ) ¢‹±† Ñ ¥† š¢ÚŠ °† Š ±¡¢ Œ ¥Š ³¯Ž °† ¢  ªŽ ©Ž ±† ì ¨Õ¥ª Ò¡Ž ¥† ¨Õ§Ž

Vocabulary for exercises

239


Vocabulary for exercises

to lock long a long time to look (= appear) to look after to look for to lose to lose (= mislay, drop) lots of loud (it’s) lucky lunch magazine Magen David Adom mailbox (the) main thing mainly to make man management manager Mandate many map margarine margin to marry Master’s (MA degree) match (fire) match (matrimonial) matza maybe mayonnaise

240

mayor meal

¥« ©Ž ˂Õ±Ò ¨§Ž Ÿ† Þ‹ ±†  Ò±† ©Š ¥« ±§ ڎ Ûì¢ ‹ Š œ¢ªŠ ­† Š œÞ¢ ‹ ™Š Þ‹ ±†  ፠՚›Ž ¥ŸŽ § ¦¢¢Š ± ‰ ¯Ž -³  ⱙˆ ³«‹ -š³ ç† ¦ÕœÒ œžŠ œŽ ¨›‹ §Ž ±Ñ՜-³š¢  ñ‹ ±°¢ Ž «Š Ž ±°¢ Ž «Š ކ ÛŽ «Ž ±šŒ ›Œ ¥Ž Ž ©†  ¥‹ © §† ¡œŽ ©† § š± ,Þ‹ ±†  ìŽ § ©Ž ¢±Š ›Ž ±† § ¦¢¢Š ¥ âÚ ¦«Š ¨ñ‹   ³† Š ±¡Œ ª† § ,.™.§ ±â±­† › ˂✢ڊ ¯Ž § ¢¥ ♠Ÿ©Œ Õ¢§ ±¢«Š Ž ڙ±  Ž ⱙˆ


to mean meaning meanwhile meat meaty medicine to meet meeting Meir Menachem menu message mezuzah Michael micro-wave middle the Middle East midnight Miki milk to make up one’s mind (at a) minimum minister minute Miriam mirror missile mistake mister MK (member of Knesset) moment (at the) moment (in a) moment Mommy Monday money

¥† ¨žž‹ ç ³† Š ³â«§Ž چ § ¦¢¢Š ³ ©† ¢Þ‹ ±ÛŽ ގ ¢±Š ێ ކ ­Ž â±ñ† ڛ ìŽ š¢ Ž ڊ ¢† ±¢™Š §‹ ¦ ‹ © §† ¡¢±Š ­† ñ ±ªŒ §Œ ŸŽ ⟧† ¥™‹ ¤¢ Ž §Š ¥› -Õ±°¢ † §Š «¯ §† ™Œ ¨Õ¤¢ñŠ   ±Ž Ÿ† §Š  ³Õ¯  ¢°¢ Š §Š š¥Ž  Ž ¡¢¥Š  † Œ ¦â§¢©Š ¢§Š ±ÛŽ °Ž œ ¦¢Ž±† §Š (³Õ™±† § ) ¢™Š ±† ¥¢¡Š ³â«¡Ž ±§ ³ªŒ ©Œ ç† ±š‹  ˆ «› ±Œ «› ±Œ ç ¬¤¢ Œ ñ‹ ™§Ž ™Š ¢©Š ڋ ¦Õ¢ ¬ªŒ çŒ

Vocabulary for exercises

241


Vocabulary for exercises

monkey month more (things) more moshav Moshe most mother mother-in-law mountain mouth to move Mr mud music must Naama Naava Nachal nail (of finger) name Naomi napkin national Navy near nearly neat Nechama need (the) Negev negotiations neighbor

242

neighborhood new

¬Õ° (¦¢ÚŠ œŽ Õ ) ڜŒ Õ  œÕ« ±³‹ Õ¢ šÚŽ Õ§ Ú§ Œ šÕ± ™§Ž ™Š ,¦™‹ ³©Œ ³Œ Õ  ±Ž ìŒ ŸŸŽ ±§ ®ÕÞ °¢ Ž ªŠ ⧠˂¢±Š ¯Ž §Ž «ˆ © žŽ ™ˆ © ¥"  © ¨±Œ Õ좯Š (³Õ§Ú‹ ) ¦Ú‹ ¢§Š «‰ ©Ž ³¢ìŠ § ¢§Š ♥† ¦¢Ž ¥¢ ‹ œ¢-¥« ¡« §† çŠ ±œŽ ⪧† §Ž  Ž ©Œ ˂¢±Š ¯Ž š›Œ ©Œ  ¨ñŽ § ⠙ێ § ¨¤‹ ڎ ©Ž â¤Ú† ڜŽ  Ž


news newspaper (the) next next to nice nice (person) nightdress no good Noam (a) nobody noise nonsense nose note (written) notification now nuclear number nurse objection obvious of course off (= bad) offer noun office officer official Ofra oh darn! oil (petroleum) O.K. old (of people) the Old City old man old (of things)

³ÕڜŽ ˆ ¨Õñ«Š ™ÞŽ  œ¢-¥« ™Œ ©Ž ,œ§Ž  † ©Œ ¢¡Š ì §¢ † ªŠ ,œ§Ž  † ©Œ ¥Ž ¢† ¥ -³©Œ Õ³ç† ±œŒ ª‹ ކ ™¥ ¦« © ª­Œ ™Œ Ú« ± ³Õ¢â¡Ú† ¬Ñ °³Œ ìŒ «Ž œŽ ՝ ž¢ÚŽ ¤† « ¢©Š ¢«Š ±† › ±ìŽ ª† §Š ³Õ Ò ³âœ›† © ³† Š ±â±ÞŽ ¨šŽ â§ç ¥°Ž ¥† â°§† «Ž ¯Ž  œ±Ž ۆ §Š ¨¢¯Š °Ž ¢§Š چ ±Š ±Ž ­† «Ž !¢Õš™ˆ ž ¢Õ™ ¡­† ©‹ ±œŒ ª‹ ކ ¨°‹ ŸŽ °¢ Ž ñŠ « Ž ±¢«Š Ž ¨°‹ ŸŽ ¨ÚŽ ¢Ž

Vocabulary for exercises

243


Vocabulary for exercises

olive on to be on (e.g. a light) once one to open intrans. opportunity opposite (the) opposite or orange orchard to order (something) Orit other outfit outside oven over (= more than) over there overseas (of one’s) own owner of . . . to pack package page pain-in-the-neck paint to paint (i.e. decorate) pajamas pants paper paper (school assignment)

244

to parachute paratroop

³¢Š Ÿ ¥«  â³ìŽ ¦« ì œ Ž ™Œ  ñ ­† ©Š ³â©§† œ Ÿ† Š ¥â§ Œ ‹  ˂­¢ ՙ Ÿâìñ ªœ‹ ±† ì ¨¢§Š Ÿ† Š ³¢±Š ՙ ± ‹ Ñ ³ÚŒ ÕÞ¥† ñŠ ®â Þ ±â©ñ §Š ¥Ž «ˆ § ¥† §Ž ڎ ®±Œ Ò¥Ž -®â  . . . ¥ÚŒ §Š . . . ¥« ލ Ÿ± Ò ¥¢ Ž šŠ  ˆ œâ§« °¢©Š œ† â© «š ¯Œ «š ¯Ž §Ž 'Ÿ ¢ìŠ ¦¢¢Š ª ©Ž ¤† §Š ±¢Ž¢©† ±âÞ¢ Š  ¢  ©Š ¯† Š ¨ Ž ©† ¯


parents park noun to park intrans. parking-lot parking meter parking ticket part to participate particularly partition party (political) party (the other sort) to pass (by) passenger Passover passport patience patient to pay payment payslip peace pear pedestrian pen people percent perfume perhaps person Peugeot photo (to take a) photo of piano to pick up (people) picture

¦¢±Š ՝ ¢±Š âÞ¢¯Š ¨› ©Ž Ž ¨Õ¢©†  Œ ¨ Ž œ† §  "՜ °¥Œ  ‹ ¬ñ‹ ñ چ Š œ Ž ⢧† ފ ¯¢ Ž  Š §† ›Ž ¥Ž ­† §Š Þ¢ Ž ªŠ §† (œ¢-¥« ) ±š «Ž « ª‹ Õ©  ª ìŒ ¨Õ籆 œ ³â©¥Ž š† ª ¥Œ Õ  ¦¥¢ ‹ ڊ ¦â¥Ú† ñ ³±Œ Õçۆ § Úâ¥ñ† ¦Õ¥ÚŽ ª›Ž Ñ ¥›Œ ±Œ -˂¥‹ ՝ ¡«‹ ¦¢ÚŠ ©Ž ™ˆ Ÿâ Ò ¦ÛŒ ÕÞ ¢¥ ♠¦œŽ Ò Õ'ŸìŒ ¦â¥¢¯Š ¦¥¢ ‹ ¯Š ±ñ‹ ©† ª ì† ¬ª Ò ©Ž â§ñ†

Vocabulary for exercises

245


Vocabulary for exercises

pill pillow pine pink pitch pitta (it’s a) pity plan plane plastic bag plate play (theater) to play (game) to play (instruments) please pleased pleasure plum poet police policeman to polish polite political pollution pool poor thing! port position (it is) possible that . . . post office postcard potato pound

246

a power (e.g. USA) to praise

±âœç ±ç ¨±Œ ՙ œÕ±žŽ Ú±Ž ›† §Š ñ¢ Ž ìŠ ¥šŽ ˆ ³¢©Š ¤† Õñ ªÕ¡§Ž ¨Õ¥¢¢© ³¢°Š ۍ ³  ¥ ¯ ŸŒ  ˆ § ° ¢ ‹ ۊ ¨›‹ ¢©Š ÚŽ °Ž š ކ ¡âªÞ† § ›â©«ˆ ñ ¬¢ŸŠ ڎ ±±‹ ÕÚ§† ±Ž ¡Ž چ §Š ±¡‹ ÕÚ   ¯‹  † ¯Š š¢œŠ Ò ¢¡¢ Š ¥Š Õì ¦â¢ŸŠ ¤Ž ±‹ ކ !¨ç‹ ª† §Š ¥§‹ ©Ž œŽ §† «Œ . . . ڌ ¨¤‹ ñŽ ¢Š ±Ñ՜ ¢Žâ¥›† §Ž œŽ ™ˆ -  âìñ ±Ž ¢¥Š §Ž ¯Ž «ˆ §  Þ¢ ‹ ڊ


prayer-book prayer-shawl to prefer pregnant preparatory course present (gift) pressure price Prime Minister priority probably problem product promise noun to promise proud Psalms pull to pull to push to put to put in to put on (clothes) to put together (assemble) to quarrel queen question quickly quiet quite Rachel radio rag to rain

±âœ¢ªŠ ³¢¥Š ¡ ¬¢œŠ «‡ Œ ¨Õ¢±Ž ‹ ކ ©Ž ¢¤Š §† ©Ž ñŽ § ®  ¥ ±¢ Š §† ¥Ž ڎ §† §Œ ڙ± ³â­¢œŠ «  ¡ ތ ¢Ž¢«Ž ކ ±¯Ž ⧠ Ž ¡Ž š†   ¢  ¡Š š† Š ™Œ ›‹ ¦¢¥Š Š ñ† ¢Ž¯† °† ¡Œ Õ±ì† ˂ڍ §Ž ¬  œŽ ¦ÛŽ ¦ÛŽ ښ ¥Ž š¢çŠ ±† Š

Vocabulary for exercises

š±Ž çŽ ¥† § ¥Ž ™‹ چ ±‹ § ¡°Œ ڌ ¢œ ¥ ‹ ±Ž Õ¢œ† ± ¡â¡±† § ª† ¦ÚŒ ›Œ œ± ¢Ž

247


Vocabulary for exercises

to raise Ramle Ramot rarely rather (would) rather to rattle reaction to read really reason noun receipt to receive recently reception record (= disc) to record recruit (army) red to refuse to register (for) relative religious to remember reminder to rent reserve duty resolution responsibility (the) rest (= remainder) to rest restaurant result to ride

248

rifle right (= entitlement)

¦¢±Š ‹ ¥Œ §† ± ³Õ§±Ž ³Õ°Õ ±† ¦¢ñŠ «Š ¥† ¢œ ¬¢œŠ «‡ Œ Ú°‹ Ú¢ † °Š šŽ â›ñ† ™±Ž °Ž Ú§Ž § Þ¢ Ž ªŠ ¥Ž ގ ° ¥Þ¢ ‹ °Š ©Ž Õ± ˆ Ñކ ¥Ž °Ž ³¥ ގ ° ¡¢¥Š °† ñ ¡¢¥Š °† Š ¨Õ±¢¡Š ¦ÕœÒ š±‹ ¢ª‹ ¥† ¦Ú ±† ©Š šÕ±°Ž ¢³Š œŽ ±¤ ŸŽ ±¢çŠ Ÿ† ñ ±¤ ێ ¦¢™Š ⥢§Š ¡Ž ¥Ž  †  ³â¢±Ž  ˆ Ñ ±Òچ  ©Ž œŽ «Ž ª† §Š Ò¯Ž Õñ š¤ ±Ž šŒ Õ± ³â¤Ÿ†


right (opp. of left) to be right right away Rina to rinse Rivka road robbery Ronit room root Rosh Hashanah round adj. row (= line) to rub rude rug to run to run over (someone) Russian Ruti salad salary sale salt salty (the) same sandal sandwich Sara satisfied saucepan Saudi Arabia savage Savyon

¨¢§Š ¢Ž °œ ¯Ž œ¢Ž§Š ©Ž ¢±Š ¬¡ ڎ °Ž š† ±Š Ú¢šŠ ç† œÕÚ ³¢©Š Õ± ±œŒ Œ Ú±Œ ÕÚ ©Ž ڎ  ڙ± ¥Õ›«Ž ±Ž âÚ ¬Ú‹ ­† ڊ ª› œš ±† § ®±Ž ª± œŽ ¢ªŠ â± ¢³Š â± ¡¥ ª ³±Œ Õçۆ § «¯ š† §Š  ¥ §Œ   ⥧Ž ճՙ ¥œŽ ©† ª '®¢žŠ žœ† ©† ªŒ ±Ž ێ ¯Œ Ⱨ† ±¢ªŠ ³¢œŠ ⫪  š±Ž «ˆ ¢±Š ŸŽ ¤† Ñ ¨Õ¢š† ª

Vocabulary for exercises

249


Vocabulary for exercises

to say scarcely school school year science scissors scorpion to scratch scream screwdriver season ticket seat (a) second (of time) second second-hand secretary secular to see to sell semester to send sense serious sermon service (= prayers) set (TV etc.) settlement several Shabbat Shabbat Eve to shake (head) (by the hand) (The) Sharon sharp

250

to shave sheep

±§ Ò ¢ÚŠ հކ ±­Œ ª‹ -³¢Þ‹ ¦¢œŠ ⧢¥Š ³© چ «œŽ § ¦¢¢Š ± ìŽ ª† §Š š±Ž °† « ¡± ێ ± ¯Ž ›±‹ š† § ¢Ž¢ª¢ Š ¡Š ±† ç šÚŽ Õ§ ¢Ž¢©Š چ ¢©Š ڋ Ú§Ž âÚ§† ±Ž ¢çŠ Ÿ† § ¢©Š Õ¥¢ Š Ò±Ž ±¤ §Ž ±¡Œ ª† §Œ ªŒ  ¥ ڎ ¥¤Œ ۋ ¢©Š ¢¯Š ±† ÚŽ ±Ž œ† ¥¢ Ž ­Š ñ† ±¢ÚŠ ¤† § šâÚ¢¢Š ¦¢œŠ  Ž ™ˆ ³ÞŽ ڍ ³ÞŽ ڍ š±Œ «Œ « ©‹ «ˆ ©Š ®  ¥Ž ¨Õ±ÚŽ  œ    ¥‹ › ³† Š ÛŽ š† çŠ


sheet shelf shelter Shimon shirt shiva Shlomo shoe shop to shop Shoshana shoulder bag to shout show shower, to take a shtreimel Shula to shut sick side sidestreet sidewalk sign to sign silly silverware simple sink sir sister sister-in-law to sit (down) to sit (someone) down situation sixty skin

¨¢œŠ ªŽ ¬œŽ § ¡¥Ž °† §Š ¨Õ«§† ڊ ¯Ž ¥† ⠝«Ž š† ڊ §¥Ú† (¦¢¢Š ¥ « © ) ¥« © ³â© ˆ ³Õ¢©Š °† ÛŽ «Ž ©Ž ڍ ÕÚ œ¯ °¢ñŠ °« ¯Ž ›Ž ¯Ž  ³  ¥ °† §Š ÛŽ «Ž ¥§¢¢ Œ ± ¡† چ ¥Ž âÚ ±› ªŽ ¥Œ Õ  œ¯ ¡Ž §¢ † ªŠ ¤Ž ±Ž œ† §Š ¨§¢ Ž ªŠ ¦³  Ž ¦¡Ž §† ⡧† ¦"â窍 ¡âÚìŽ ±Õ¢çŠ ¢©Š ՜™ˆ ³Õ Ò ª¢ Ž ›Š šÚ ¢Ž š¢ÚŠ ՝ š¯Ž § ¦¢Ú¢ Š ڊ ±Õ«

Vocabulary for exercises

251


Vocabulary for exercises

skirt sky sleep to sleep slightly slowly small smart to smell (something) smelly to smile smooth snail snake to snow so so (= therefore) soap soccer social science society socks soft soldier solution some (= a certain) some (= a few) something sometimes son soon sorry (to be) sorry (a) sort of

252

sound noun soup

³¢™Š ¯Ž ˆ ¦¢¢Š § ڎ ©Ž ¢Ú‹ ¨Ú‹ ¢Ž ì¢ Ž ¡Š ¡Ñ¥† ¨¡Ž °Ž ¦¤Ž  Ž  ¢  ±Š ‹  ¢  ±Š ª† § ˂¢‹¢ Š °¥Ž  Ž ¥â¥Þ† ڍ Ú Ž ©Ž ›¥Œ ڌ œ± ¢Ž ˂çŽ -¥çŽ ŸÒ ¨ÕÞª ¥›Œ ±Œ âœç ±Ž š†  Œ ¢«‹ œŽ § ±Ž š†  Œ ¦¢Š ¢Þ ±† › ˂± ¥¢Ž¢  (³Õ©Õ±³† ìŠ ) ¨Õ±ñŽ ìŠ ŸŒ ¢™‹ §Ž ç âÚŒ § ¦¢§Š «Ž ­† ¥Š (¦¢©Š ގ ) ¨Þ‹ ¡« §† œÕ«  ¢ Ž ¥Š ª† ±«‹ ¡ ¯† Š ¨¢§Š ¥Õ° °±Ž §Ž


sour South southern sparkling to speak special to spend (time) spoon sport spring stair stairway stamp star to start to start with statement station-wagon steering wheel step stick still to stop (= halt) to stop (doing something) storage room store two-storey storm story straight street to stretch strike strong structure stuck student

®â§ Ž ¦Õ±œŽ ¢§Š Õ±œ °¢±Š š† § ±Þ¢ ‹ œŠ œ Ž ⢧† ±š «Ž (³Õìç ) ¬ç ¡±† Õ쪆 š¢šŠ Ò ›Ž ±‹ œ† § ³Õ›±‹ œ† § -±œ  ˆ ¥âÞ š¤Ž Õç ¥¢ Š ³† Š ¦«Š ¥¢ Š ³† Š «¢ Ž šŠ °† ¨Ú¢¢ Œ ¡‹ ª† ›Œ Œ œ« ¯ (³Õ¥°† § ) ¥°‹ § œÕ« ±¯ «Ž °¢ªŠ ­† Š ¨ªŽ  † § ³â© ˆ ¢³Š §Ž Õ°-✠±Ž «Ž ª† ±â좪Š ±ÚŽ ¢Ž šÕ ±†  ³ §Ž ³¢ Ž šŠ چ °ŸŽ  Ž ©Œ š† §Š « â°ñŽ ¡©† œŒ ⡪†

Vocabulary for exercises

253


Vocabulary for exercises

254

to study stupid stupidity subject (in school etc.) submarine successful such sucrazit suddenly Suez sugar suggestion suit suitcase sukkah summer sun, sunshine to suntan supermarket supper supplement to support sure sure! to surprise surprising to suspect sweater sweetheart swimsuit Switzerland synagogue Syria

œ§ ¥Ž Úì¢ ‹ ¡Š ³âÚì† ¡Š «Õ¯  °† §Š ³¥Œ ¥Œ Õ¯ ¢  ¥Š ¯† § ŸŒ çŽ ³¢ŸŠ ± ç† âª ¦Õ™³† ìŠ ®™Œ ⪠±çŽ ⪠«Ž ¯Ž  ­¢ Ž ¥Š  ˆ œŽ žŽ žŸ† §Š çŽ ⪠®¢Š ¢° Ú§Œ ڌ ¬Ÿ‹ ¢ÚŠ ±ì‹ ⪠š±Œ «Œ -³  ⱙˆ ¬ªŽ ⧠ކ ˂§ ñŽ   â¡ÞŽ ! ¡ ތ «¢  ñŠ ­† Š «¢  ñŠ ­† § ކ œÚ  Ž ±œŒ žŒ žª† °³Œ Õ§ ¦¢Ž-œ›Œ ތ ¢Ž±† ¯¢ Ž žŠ žÚ† ³ªŒ ©Œ ç† -³¢Þ‹ ¢Ž±† âª

table to take taken (= occupied)

¨ Ž ¥† âÚ  ° ¥Ž ªâ­ñŽ


to talk to tall tank (weapon) tape-recorder tax teacher team teaspoon tefillin telegram to tell temperature temporary tenant tennis tension tent tenured terribly test thank heavens thank you that pron. that (such-and-such) then there there is / are to be there thermometer thick thin (object) thing to think third this pron. this (such-and-such)

¦«Š ±Þ¢ ‹ œŠ ፠՚›Ž °©† ¡ 좢¡‹ ª§ ±Œ Õ§ ³žŒ ž¯Œ ³¢ìŠ ç ¨¢¥¢Š ­Š ñ† °±Ž š† §Š ±ì¢ ‹ ªŠ ,±§ Ò ±Ž ⡱ ìŒ §† ¡Œ ¢©Š § Ÿ† ±¢Ž¢œ ª¢©Š ¡Œ ³ §Œ ¥Œ ՙ « ⚰Ž ™±Ž Õ© ¨  š† §Š ¦Ú‹  ˂â±ÞŽ œŽ Õñ ŸŒ ™â ,ŸŒ ŸÒ ¦ÚŽ Ú¢‹ ™¯Ž §† ©Š ¦Õ œ† § šŒ «Ž °œ ±šŽ œŽ šÚ  Ž ¢Ú¢ Š ¥Š چ ŸŒ ŸŒ

Vocabulary for exercises

255


Vocabulary for exercises

thorough through to throw (into) to throw away thumb thunder Tiberias ticket to tidy up tie (necktie) till noun till-receipt time time (= period) time ( = instance) what time? Tirtza today together toilet toilet-bowl token (for telephone) tomato tomorrow tongue tonight too (= also) too much tooth toothbrush Torah to touch tourist towel

256

town track

¢œŠ Õª¢† ˂±Œ œŒ (¥† ) °± ŸŽ °± ŸŽ ¨Œ ÕÞ ¦« ± ¢Ž±† šŒ ¡† ª¢¡Š ±† ç ±œ¢ ‹ ªŠ š¢ Ž ©Š «ˆ ìŽ â° ³¢©Š ÕÞچ Œ ¨§Ž Ÿ† ­Ž â°ñ† ¦« ì «Ž ڎ ՟¢™‹ ކ ¯Ž ±† ñŠ ¦Õ¢ œ  ¢ ¦¢³Š Ɫڋ ¥Ž ª† Ñ ¨Õ§¢ªŠ Ñ ¢Ž¢©Š šŽ ›† « ± Ž §Ž ¨ÕÚ¥Ž ¥¢ Ž ¥  ¨ç‹ -¦› ¢œ §Š ±³‹ Õ¢ (¦¢¢Š © ¢ÚŠ ) ¨Ú‹ ¦¢¢Š © ¢ÚŠ -³ÚŒ ±Œ š† §Š ±Ž Õñ ކ «› ©Ž ±¢Ž¢ñ ³šŒ ›Œ § ±¢«Š ¥¢šŠ چ


traffic-light tray treatment tree tribe trip trolley to trouble truck to try Tuesday turkey to turn to turn off to turn on TV twenty typewriter typist ulpan ultraorthodox UN uncle under to undress unemployment university until upstairs uptight urgent USA to use USSR usually

±ÕŸ§† ± ڛŽ § ¥â좡Š ®«‹ ¡šŒ ڋ ¥â¢¡Š ¥Ž ›Ž «ˆ œ¢±Š ¡† Š ³¢™Š ێ § ª¢ Ž ©Š ¢Ú¢ Š ¥Š چ ¦Õ¢ âœÕ šš‹ Õª ±› ªŽ °¢¥Š œ† Š , ³ ìŽ ¢ŽŸ† ¢žŠ ž¥Œ ¡Œ ¦¢±Š ۆ «Œ š¢ Ž ³Š ç† ³© Õ¤§† ¨šŽ ³† ç ¨ì ¥† ♠¢œŠ ±‹  ˆ ¦"♝Ž œÕœ ³  ñ ¡Ú‹ ì ³† Š ¥Ž ¡Ž š† Ñ ¡¢ Ž ªŠ ±† š¢ Œ ©Š ♠œ« ¥Ž «ˆ § ¥† ¢©Š ގ ¯† « ¬â œŽ ³¢±Š ކ  ³Õ¯±† Ñ Þ† Ú§‹ ñ چ Š ³Õ¯«ˆ Õ§ ³¢±Š ކ ¥¥Ž ç† -˂±Œ œŒ ކ

Vocabulary for exercises

257


Vocabulary for exercises

vacation valley Value Added Tax vanilla various vase vegetables very video view village vineyard to visit Volvo to vote to wait for waiter to walk wallet to want war War of Independence warm to warn warning washing machine to watch to watch out water way weapons to wear weather

258

wedding week

ÚŽ ­† â °§Œ «‹ ¬ªŽ ⧠˂±Œ «‹ ª§ ¥¢©Š ž ©Œ ÕÚ ³©Œ ¯Œ ©† ¯Š ³Õ°±Ž ¢† œ™§† ՙœ¢ ‹ žŠ ¬Õ© ±­Ž ç† ¦±Œ çŒ ±°¢ ‹ ފ ՞¥† ՞ «¢  ފ ¯† Š ¥† ç¢ Ž  Š ±¯ ¥† §Œ ˂¥ Ž °©Ž ±† Ñ ¯Ž ±Ž §Ž  Ž ¥† §Š ±â± ¢ † ڊ  ³§Œ  Œ ¥† §Š ¦  ±¢Š Ÿ† Š ±Ž Ž Ÿ† Ñ ª¢ Ž šŠ ç† ³© Õ¤§† ކ ­Ž ¯Ž š¥‹ ¦ÛŽ ¦¢Š § ˂±Œ œŒ °ÚŒ ©Œ ښ ¥Ž ±¢žŠ žÑ ›ŸŒ §Œ ©Ž â³ ˆ (³Õ«âšÚŽ ) « âšÚŽ


weird well well done! Western wet what? whatchamacallit when which? while to whisper whitewash who? why? wide wife wig wind window wine-glass winter to wipe wire wise guy with witness woman (I) wonder wonderful wood wool word work to work world

±ŸŽ ⧠šÕ¡ !œÕšçŽ  ¥çŽ ¢šŠ ±Ž «ˆ § šÕ¡±Ž § ŸŒ ڌ ç† ŸŒ ¢™‹ ڌ ¨§Ž Ÿ† ފ Ú  ¥Ž œâ¢ªŠ ?¢§Š §Ž ¥Ž š Ž ±Ž Ú¢ Ž ™Š Òì‹   â± ¨Õ¥  ³¢ªŠ Õç ¬±Œ Õ  š›‹ ¢©Š ¡â  ¦¤Ž  Ž ¦«Š œ«‹ Ú¢ Ž ™Š . . . ³« œ ¥Ž ¨¢‹¢©† « §† ™¥Ž ­† ©Š ®«‹ ±§Œ ¯Œ ¥Ž §Š œŽ ՚«ˆ œš «Ž ¦¥Ž Õ«

Vocabulary for exercises

259


Vocabulary for exercises

worry to worry to worry (someone) worth to write wrong Yael Yafa Yair yard year Yehudit yes yeshivah yesterday (not . . .) yet Yitzhak yoghurt Yosef Yossi young yuk Zeev Zionist zipper zoo Zvi

260

›Ž Ҝ† ›ÑœŽ ›¢™Š œ† Š žŒ žÚŽ š³ çŽ ¨Õ¤©Ž ™¥ ¥«‹ ¢Ž ­Ž ¢Ž ±¢™Š ¢Ž ±¯‹ Ž ©Ž ڎ ³¢œŠ ❢† ¨ç‹ š¢ Ž ڊ ¢† ¥Õ§³† ™Œ ™¥ œÕ« ° Ž ¯† ¢Š ¡±† â›Õ¢ ¬ª‹ Õ¢ ¢ªŠ Õ¢ ±¢«Š ¯Ž ª¤¢† ™Š š™‹ Ÿ† ¢©Š Õ¢¯Š ¨ªŽ ¤† â± ³Õ¢  -¨› ¢šŠ ¯†


Key to exercises


2

Key to exercises

2a `

.¬©ž¡§ ¢±§›¥ ,¬©ž¡§ š¥¤ 2 .§¤  ­²§ ¥¤ ¦¯«š ,¦¤  ¦«ž© 1 .£± £¤ ¥¤ ¥ž³  5 .™¥­© §¥¯§ 4 .ž¢²¤« ³ž±²ž™§ ³¢› ž ³¢©ž± 3 .¦¢§¤  £¤ ¥¤ ¥ž³ ž š¥¤ 7 .¢°© š¥¤ ž¢²¤« 6 2b `

Ÿ 4 .¥™±²¢š ±š¤ šœ 3 .¢Ÿ¢ž¥¡ ³ ³ ž™œ¢ž 2 .¢š¯ œžœ§ ž¢œ± 1 .¦¢œ¥¢ž ¥ž² ¦« œ¢§³ ©  5 .™³šªž ™šª ¥¢š²š  ¡š 2c `

™ž š² § 3 .™§™ ¥¢š²š ©³§ ™ž ­¢¢¡ 2 .¨¢œ £±ž« ™ž ¨¤² 1 .¨¤ ¦› ¨¢œ £±ž« ™ž ™š™ 5 .°¢©œž© ²§§ ™ž ¢°'› ¦¢§«­¥ 4 .¢«š ³¯° ž¢©§ ¨¢œ £±ž« Ÿ ¦¢¢  8 .ªœ§ ³ž ™ Ÿ ¥ ± 7 .³ž ™ ™¢ ¥ ± 6 .¢Ÿ±'› 3

³™ 3 ?³ž°žª« ¨ ¦› ?©²ž²ž ­¢ 2 ?¦¢¢ ž ²§ ,¦¢š«± ¦³™ 1 .šž² ¢©™ Ÿ ?³™ Ÿ ,¢©š ¢ 5 .³ž°žª« œž™§ ¢©™ž ™¢ 4 .¯±³ ,©ž²™± 4

¦² ¢©™ 4 . š¡§š ¬±²© ž²§ 3 .³ž© ¥ ±Ÿž  ¢©™ 2 .±¢¢±œš ¤¢§² 1 ? ­¥ ±²¢ ¦¢°žš°š °±žŸ ³™ ?§ 5 .¨ ¥ž² ¥« ±²¢ ¥›ž±°¢§§ ¥¤ž™ «ªž© ³™ Ÿ™ 8 .¨ž±™š ¤¢§² 7 .Ÿ› ¥« Ÿ² ž™ ±ž©³š Ÿ² ž™ 6 ¥š  ¥« ¤¢§² ¢¥ž™ 10 .¦¢¥ «ªž© ¢©™ ,£­¢¥ ,™¥ 9 ?¦¢±¥ .³ª­±§š 5

.¨ž±š ž ¦¢¥²ž±¢ ¥² ³ž™±§ ¦« ³ž¢ž¥› ©ž° ¢©™ 2 .¥¢¥›§ ž™š ¦¢±š  1 °ž°¥ ¨§Ÿ ¥¥¤ £±œš ²¢ «š² ±™šš 4 .¦¢šž±° ¦« ­¢ š ±°š§ ¢œžœ 3 .°³ž§ ,±±°§š ¦¢¡±ž›ž¢ ²¢ 5 .¥ž°

263


Key to exercises

6

±ž¢¤ž ¢¡š§™ ,¦¢­¢ ª¢©¤ž ¥ž ,³ž­¢ ±°³ž ­¯± ,¦¢­¢ š¡§ž ¨ž¥ª ³ž­¢ ³ž¥¢žž ³ž±¢œ ,³ž­¢ ©¢›ž ³ª­±§ ,¦¢­¢ ¨ž¥ ž ³¥œ ,¦¢­¢ 7 7a `

,¦¢©žšžœ ,¦¢¥¢«§ ,³ž¢­ž› ,¦¢¥žž±² ,³ž±ž› ,³ž¢™¯  ,³ž¯¥ž  ,¦¢±œžžª ¦¢¥œ©ª ,³žš¢©« ,¦¢«šž¤ ,³ž­¢¤ ž™š ¦¢¥¢¢  2 .¦¢¥ž«¥ ³ž© §š ³ž²° ¦¢©² ²§  ±š«  ­²§ 1 ¥¤ ¥« ³ž¢œ¢ ž§² ™¥ 3 .³ž¢©ž§š ž¥¢­™ž ³ž¢©ž¤§ ,¦¢ªžšž¡ž™ ,³ž¢™²§š .¦¢¤¥¤ž¥§ ³ž© ¥ž² §¤ ¦› ²¢ 5 .³ž¡¢§ §¤ ²¢ ±¢œš 4 .³ž±¢›§ ¥² ¦¢±°§ š± ²¢ 7 .³ž°ž ± ¦¢³¢«¥ ³ž¢©žš²  ¦¢±§ž² ¦¢©ž° 6 .¦¢¢ž¯¢­ ž¥š°¢ ¦¢«žš° ¦¢±ž§ 9 .¦¢©¤žª§ ¥™ ¦¢©š§ 8 .¥¡š™ 7b `

,¦¢©­² ,¦¢±­±­ ,¦¢°žª§ ,¦¢š² § ,³ž§¥¯§ ,¦¢±žœ§ ,¦¢ªž¡§ ,¦¢°±š ¦¢²¥š ,¦¢©³  ,¦¢±š  ,¦¢œš¤ ,¦¢¡¢¢  ,¦¢±­ª ,¦¢¥§© ,¦¢š¢š™ ,¦¢š¯° ,¦¢² © ,¦¢ š¡ ,³žš°« ,¦¢œš±§ ,¦¢¥ ± ,¦¢ª¢¢¡ ,¦¢¥«¢ ¦¢±š¤« ,¦¢±žœ¤ ,¦¢©ž«² ,¦¢­¢«¯ 7c `

,¦¢§¥š ,¦¢¥³¤ ,¦¢«±Ÿ ,¦¢ª©¤ ,¦¢«š¯ ,¦¢¤¥§ ,¦¢›±š ,¦¢±³¤ ,¦¢Ÿ±š ¦¢±°² ,¦¢±™³ ,¦¢¥ © ,¦¢›¥² ,¦¢±š° ,¦¢¯ ¥ ,¦¢±«² ,¦¢«¥ª ,¦¢¯§° ,¦¢©š™ ,¦¢ª­™ ,¦¢¡¥² ,¦¢§²› ,¦¢°§« ,¦¢œª  ,¦¢¯­  ,¦¢±œ« ¦¢­¥™ ,¦¢© š ,¦¢œ«¢ ,¦¢±š« ,¦¢±œ  ,¦¢²±° ,¦¢œš« ,¦¢±¯° 7d `

264

¥¤ 3 .³ž¢ž«¡ š± ³ž²ž« ³ž¢ž±¢±›² 2 .³ž¢©§œŸ ¥¤ ³™ ¥¯© 1 .³ž¢ž¥¢«­ §¤ ž¥¡¢š ¦ž  ¥¥›š 4 .³ž©ž¤© ™¥ ž¥² ³ž¢ž­¢œ« ¥² ³ž¢ž¤Ÿ ¢š›¥ ³ž¢žš¢¢ ³ 6 ?¨ž¤¢³  ±Ÿ§š ³ž²œ  ³ž¢ž ³­³ 5 .³ž¢ž¡² ?¦¢¥ž«


7e `

Key to exercises

³š¤ž¤ ž¥¢­™ ™¢ Ÿ ±­ž« 2 .œ¥¢ ±ž³š ¤¥§ ¥² ©ž§³ ³™Ÿ 1 ™ž 4 .¨ž¤¢³ Ÿ¢™š ±ž§ ™¢ ±­ž« ž©¥² ©¤² 3 .³¢±š ³ž¯±™š .™­ž± ™¢ ,¨¢©šš ³ž± ™ ³ž¢ªž± ž§¤ 5 .™±©¤ ,¢³­±¯ ¦« ¨³ ³§ ³¢±š§ ³¢¡©œž¡ª ™¢ – ²¡© ²¢ ž© 7 ?šž¡ ³¢©š³¤ ²­ § ³™ 6 ³¤±ž« ™¢ ž™© 9 .³¢©° ² ¢¥ž™ ž™ ,š²ž  ¢©™ ,³¢©§ž™ ™¢ 8 .³ž¯«ž§ .¥§±š ¨¢œ 8 8a `

,³ž™¥­© ,¦¢±° ,¦¢œ§ © ,³ž©ž± ™ ,¦¢«± ,¦¢¢¡±°ž§œ ,³ž¢¡ª¢©ž§ž° ³ž¢™°¢±§™ ,¦¢¢¥›©™ ,³ž¢¡™ ,¦¢¢³«žžŸ 8b `

³ž±¢œš ³ž±› ¦ 3 .¦¢¤ ¦¢«š¯ °± ²¢ 2 .¦¢­¢ £¤ ¥¤ ¦² ¦¢ ±­ 1 .³žš« ³ž±°³ ¦¢¯ž± ž© ©™ 4 .³ž™© 8c `

,¦¢š«± ,¦¢²œ ,¦¢™§¯ ,¦¢§¢§³ ,¦¢±¢š¤ ,¦¢±ž›ª ,¦¢±¢œ™ ,¦¢±¢šª ¦¢š ± ,¦¢±¯° ,¦¢±¢²« ,¦¢°¢ ¯§ ,¦¢©žš© ,¦¢¥¢«¢ ,¦¢š¢¯¢ 9

. . . ³ž±°¢ £¤ ¥¤ ¨ ³žœ¢² 2 ?¥žŸ ±ž©§ Ÿ¢™ – ¥žŸ ±ž©§ £¢±¯ ¢©™ 1 ³™ 4 .šž² Ÿ šž¡ ±¤ – ¦¢šž¡ ¦¢±¤ ¦¢¯ž± ž© ©™ 3 ?°Ÿ  œ¢² žŸ .§  ™¢ ­ ³ª¤ ¥¤ ,Ÿž ™ ™§ ?§  ³ª¤ šž™ 10

 © ³¯° 5 ¦¢±¢ § šž± 4 ¦¢«¯š§ §¤ 3 ³ž™¢¯§ ¥¤ 2 ª§ š± 1 ª§ §¤ 10 ¦¢§ž¥²³ 20š 9 ¦¢©ž° ™§ 8 ³ž¥š° §¤ 7 ³ž©žš²  œž« 6 ³ž¢ž©  §¤ 13 œ ™ ±­žª 12 Ÿž ™ ¦¢²¢² 11 ?¬ªž§ £±«

265


Key to exercises

11

?¯¥ž Ÿ¢™ 5 °ž¥  ž³ž™ 4 Ÿ¤ ¥¢«§ 3 ­¢¥  ¥¤ 2 ?§'Ÿ¢­ Ÿ¢™ 1 ³¢™¯  ¥¤ 9 Ÿ¤ ¨ª¤ž± 8 Ÿ ¡°'Ÿ 7 Ÿ ¥¢«§ 6 ?¦² ¯¥ž  ™¢ 12 ©² ²™±¥ šž¡ ³²žš¥³ Ÿ¢™ 11 ±ž›  ¨¢§ Ÿ 10 ±œªš Ÿ¢™ 14 ¨šž§¤ ±ž³­¤ ž³ž™ £¢±¯ ¢©™ 13 ³¢š±« ¥§² ¨¢§ ³²šž¥ ?™ž ±œžžª¥ šž¡ š¥ž° Ÿ¢™ 15 ?£¥ ²¢ ¦¢¢ª©¤§ 12 12a `

œ« 5 ¨ž²™± ¦ž¢š 4 ³œ ž¢§ ›¢›  3 ¥žœ› ¦ž¢ 2 ™š ›  1 ™š š¢š™ ¥¢š²š 8 £ž±™ ®¢° 7 ¨ž± ™ ¨¢ª§ š 6 ¥žœ› ¦ž¯ ¨¢¢¡²©°©±­ ±"œ 12 ¦¡§ž¡§ ¢©œ 11 ¢©² ¬±ž  10 ¦¢­¢ ¦¢ž³ª 9 ²œ  ³±šž  ­¢™ 14 .°¢±š§ ¨¢¢¡²©°©±­ ±"œ 13 ²­¢¡ ¥¢š²š Ÿ ¥« £ž±™ ±§™§ ³™ š³¤ ¢§ 15 ?³¢±š« ¡¢ª±š©ž™§ .©¡° ³¢©©ž¤ ¥« ™ž ± ™ ±­ª 16 ?¢³œ ¨ž³« 12b `

«œž ™ž Ÿ ±Ÿž 3 .šž  ™ž Ÿ ª­ž¡ 2 ?¥¥¤š Ÿ ±­žª ¢§ 1 .¦ž™³­ °«ž¯ Ÿ ±ž šž 5 . . . . ³™Ÿ š¢²¢§ ¢³±Ÿ  4 .³¢­žª 13 13a `

¨¢¢œ« ³ž›±œ§ ,ª¤¢™ 3 .š± žž² ¨²¢ ¢™± 2 .³ž±œ© ³ž©ž§³ 1 ?¥«§¥ ¥žœ› ¢¡š§™š ?­¢™ 5 .¦¢¢©ž«š¯ ¦¢œš±§ ²¢ 4 .³ž¤¥¤ž¥§ 13c ` 266

.¨¥¢™ ±šš ¯±§ ¦› ™ž šœ 3 .¦¢ªœ©§ ¦ ±¢™¢ž šœ 2 .³©©› ™¢ ¥ ± 1 .³žœ¢°­ ž™ ³ž±¢¤Ÿ§ ž™ ¨ ¥² ³ž±š  4


13d `

Key to exercises

³ž©ž¥³ Ÿ¢™ 4 ¦¢§¤ª ¦³ž™ 3 ¥™¤ ³ž©ž¢«± 2 ³™Ÿ «¯ 1 ¥™ ³ž§¤ž  8 ³™Ÿ ³°ž©¢³ 7 Ÿ¤ ›ž©«³ 6 ¥™ ³ž¢ž¡² 5 ³™Ÿ¤ ¤±š 10 ¨²¥¤ ³ž¢«š 9 13e `

¦¢¢°¥¡¢™ ¦¢¡±ª 4 £ž¥¤¢¥ ³ž ­ 3 ¦¢§ž ¨žšª œž« 2 ?¦¢°±ª§ §¤ 1 ¡ž¢± ¢œ§ ±³ž¢ 7 ?¡ž¢± §¤ 6 ³ž™ª¤ž ³ž© ¥ž² ¨ž§ 5 ¦¢œ ™ œž™§ ¡«§ 11 ³ž¢¡š§™ ³ž ­ 10 ¦¢§²š š± 9 ³žª±ž¤ °¢­ª§ 8 ™¥ ³™ 13 ³ ¥°§ ¦¢²ž« ¦¢¥™±²¢ šž± 12 ¢¡š§™ ¦¢²ž« ¦¢¥™±²¢ ¦¢³ž±¢² ¨ž§ ­ ²¢ ¥š™ ?¦¢³ž±¢² ³™¯§ 14 14a `

²¢§ 4 ¦¢²›§ ¢©² 3 ³žªž¤ ²²ž ¦¢¥­ª ²¢² 2 ¦¢°žš°š ²ž¥² 1 ³ž±¢ª ²ž¥² 7 ¦¢¡¢±­³ ¢©² ¦¢¤¢±¯ ž© ©™ 6 œ ™ ¦ž°§ž° 5 ¦¢©¢¤ª ³ž¢±¯¥§ ±²«ž ¦¢±¯¥§ ©ž§² 10 ³žœ«ª§ ²ž¥² °± ²¢ 9 ³ž¢­¤ «š±™ 8 ª°¥­ª©±ž° ¥¢š²š ³ž¢ ž¥¯ «²³ 13 ³ž¢­§ «²³ 12 ³ž¢ªž¤ «š±™ 11 ³ž­¤ ¢³²ž ³ž›¥Ÿ§ ¢©² 15 ¢š¥  œ ™ž ¢±²š œ ™ ,¦¢© ³ž­ ¢©² 14 14b `

³ž¢ž¥› ±²«-³ ™ 3 ±¢ž™ ³ž±›™ ±²«-²² 2 ¦¢¥žš ±²«-¦¢©² 1 ±²«-²ž¥² 5 ®±™¥ ®ž ¥ «š±™ž ¥™±²¢¥ ¦¢š³¤§ ±²«-«²³ 4 ¦¢¢§²± ¦¢š³¤§ ±²«-¦¢©² 7 ¦¢°±š§ ±²«-©ž§² 6 ³ž©¡° ³ž¥¢š  ±²«-«š² ²¢ 10 ¦ž¢ ³ž ¢² ±²«-«²³ 9 ¦¢ª­¡ ±²«-²§  8 ª¢©¤š ±™žœ ³žš¢³ 14c `

¦¢±­¤ «š²ž ¦¢©ž§² 3 ¦¢š²ž§ ²ž¥²ž ¦¢²ž¥² 2 ¦¢¯žš¢° ¦¢«²³ 1 ¦¢«š±™ 6 ²¢š¤ £±ž™¥ ¦¢ªœ±­ ¦¢²¢² 5 ¦¢§±¤ ¦¢¢©²ž ¦¢±²« 4 ¦¢¥¢š² ¦¢²¢² ž™ ¦¢²§ ¤ 8 ³žœ² ²§ ž ¦¢«š² 7 ¦¢¯« «²³ž ¦¢°²§ ¦¢©ž§²§ ¥«§¥ 9

267


Key to exercises

15

§¤ ¥« 3 .³ ¥¯ ¥« ™§  ±™² 2 .³ž¥°¥ž°§ ¦¢¯¢š šž± 1 ³žšž¡ ™¥ ³ž¥ § ²ž¥² 4 .Ÿ©ž¢§ ²¢ §¤ ¥«ž ©¢±›±§ ²¢ ¦¢'¯¢žžœ©ª§ ³™ ¡«§¤ ž±§› ¦¢œ¥¢ 6 ?±™²© š¥ § §¤ 5 .§œ™ ¥« ž¥­© ¨ – ¦ ¦¢±¯ž§§ š± 8 ?³¢­ž ªž§ž  ¦¢¯ž± '±š § §¤ 7 .š¢± ¥¤ .³žªž¤§ «š±™š ®¢§ ¢³§² 9 .¦¢±²¤ ™¥ 16 16a `

¢ž™ . . . ¦² £ž±š ¥›« © 2 .¨¡° °¢³š ™ž ?°³ž§ ,£¥² ¨ž¤±œ 1 Ÿ ,¦«­ œž« ± ™§ ªž¡§ 4 .ŸŸ ™ž ,Ÿ ±ž³¥ ™žš 3 .±žš² ™¢ ,¢žš™ž !œ¯ °¢³ž ¨ž¥¢¢© ³ž¢°² «š±™ 6 !±œªš Ÿ – ³žœžžŸ§ ¢³² ¢¥ ²¢ 5 .²žš .­¯ž  Ÿ 16b `

.°­¥œš ž²§ ¥™ž² ¢©™ ,¤ 2 ?­ ±ž° § ,ž¥ .¬ žœ ž²¢§ 1 .¦«­ ±°š¥ ™žš 4 .­ž±¢™š ¦ž°§ ž²Ÿ¢™š ­ž«³ ¥§©š ¦¢³ ž© ž© ©™ 3 ?±¤žŸ ³™ ,ª¤§š °¢œš ž²« ¦ ¦«­ 6 ?¦¢ª¢¡±¤ ³™ °œžš ž²¢§ 5 .¥¢› ¦²š ¢²¢§ ¥¢š²š «œž ²¢ 8 ?±œªš ™¥ ž²§ 7 16c `

,¥™ ¦¢ ž­³ ³™ šž™ ™¥ ¢©™ 2 .± ™ © Ÿ™ ?±œªš ™¥ Ÿ ¬¢Ÿ² 1 ¦¢š©« 4 .³ž±¢­ œž« ¢¥ ¨¢™ ?Ÿ ³™ ¥¤ž™ ™¥ ³™ ?§ 3 ?¦žœ™ £¥ ²¢ .¦¢¯ž§  ¦ – ¦¢±ž ² ¦ ¦ 16d `

268

²¢ ³™Ÿ ¥§¥ ,œ ™ «›± 2 .²§  ¢³™¯§ ¢©™ ?³™¯§ ³™ ³ž¢ž«¡ §¤ 1 š± ¥™±²¢š ?³ ™ ­² °± ±šœ§ ³™ 3 ?¦¢¢³² ž™ ³ ™ ³ž«§²§ .«š² ž™ ²² ¦¢±šœ§ ¦¢²©™


17

Key to exercises

17a `

¢©¡¢±š ¥²  ¡š 3 ?¢§ ¥²  ¡š 2 ¨ž¢±ž› ¨š ¥² «­² 1  ™ 7 ¨¢¢ªž  ¥² ³ž¢©¤ž³ 6 ¨¢›š ¥² ¦¢±ž³¢ž 5 ¦¢±¯§ ¥² ³ž±¡§ 4 ¥² ž™ ¦ ©§ ¥² ?­¯± ¥« ¥™ ¦¢¥œ©ª ¢§ ¥² 8 ?³™ ¢§ ¥² ?¨ž«§² 17b `

¥¤² 5 ¦¥² ³ž²­¢¡ 4 ¢¥² žž¥žž 3 £¥² ž'Ÿ¢­ 2 ¥² ¡™¢­ 1 ³™ ³šž™ ¢©™ 9 ¢¥² ±š  8 ¥² ³ž ™ 7 ž©¥² ¨ž¢ª¢© 6 £¥² ¨ž²±› ,£¥² ¥§¢¢±¡² ³™ šž™ ¢©™ 10 žž  ,£¥² ™¢­ 17c `

¥©§ 6 ®¢¢° © § 5 ¥›±žœ¤ ²±›§ 4 ª¢©¡ ° ²§ 3 ³¢Ÿ ®« 2 ª›™ ®« 1 ¦¢Ÿž­³ ªœ±­ 10 ®¢§ ³¥¢š  9 ¦¢Ÿž­³ ®¢§ 8 ¦¢ ž­³ ®¢§ 7 © § ¦¢¢   ž¡¢š 12 ¬ž« ±²š 11 17d `

¨³© 3 .¢­ž¢ ³¤¥§ ™¢ ¢¥² ª¢› 2 .±°žš ³ ž±™ ¯ž± ¥ž³  ¢¯¢§ 1 .Ÿ šž ±š  ž¡¢š ³ž±š  ²ž¥² ³ž ­¥ ²¢ 4 . ž¡¢š ³±š ¥ š³¤ ž™œ¢ž ¢¡¥°§ 7 .¦¢±°¢ ¦ ¢Ÿ¢ž¥¡ ¢¡¥°§ 6 !?³žšž¡ ¢Ÿ¢ž¥¡ ³ž¢©¤ž³ 5 ¥¢š²š ³§¥¢² §¤ 9 .ž™œ¢ž ³§¥¯§ ¢³¥š¢° 8 .œ¢§ ³ž™š ¦¢±°¢ ¦ .¦¢©­ ³ž¥š° ™©ž² ¢©™ 10 ?©ž³  ¢§ž¥¢¯ 17e `

³¢±š 5 ³ª©¤ ³¢š 4 ¦¢¢±ž¯ ³ž ž±™ 3 ¦¢¥ž  ³¢š 2 ±­ª ³¢š 1 ž™œ¢ž ¡¥°§ 9 žž¯§-±š ³­¢¥  8 žž¯§-±š 7 ¦¢-œ›š 6 ¥¢§ š± ¥ž« ±­ª ³¢š 12 ?¦¢-œ›š ¥ž« §¤ 11 ž™œ¢ž ³§¥¯§ 10 ³¢šš ¥¢­³ ¢³§ 14 .¦©¢  ™ž Ÿ ¦¢¥ž  ³¢šš ¥ž­¢¡ 13 .¬ª¤ ?³¢šš ž™ ³ª©¤ ³¢šš ¥¢§-³¢±š ¦™ 15 ?³š² ¥¢¥š ³ª©¤

269


Key to exercises

19 19a `

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95

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.©¢§¢ ³ž©­¥ £¢±¯ ™ž ,«ž¡ ³™ ,™¥ 2 .šžš¢ª ¢± ™ ¥™§² ©­³ 1 Ÿ 5 .œ¢¯ £²ž§ › 4 .¨ž¤© ™¥ ²¢š¤š ³™ §ž±œ «ªž© ³™ ¦™ 3 «žª©¥ ª©³ ?®žšš «ž°³ 6 .£²ž š ³¢š «¢›¥ ¦¢¥ž¤¢ ž© ©™ ,±œªš ¦¥ž¤ ³ž™§¯« ¦ž¢š 8 . ±Ÿ§ «ª³ ™š ³§ž¯š 7 .±ž ™ Ÿ™ž §¢œ° .³±©¢¤ ¦¢¥ ©ž­¯ ¦¢«ªž© 96

±œ› ²¢ 3 .¨¢§¢§ §² Ÿ™› ¢©ž¥š 2 ?¦²™ ¢§ ?§ž ¥ ±š«§ ±žœ¤ 1 ?³¥œ¥ ¥«§ ±ž™ ³™ ¬¢¥ ¥ ¥ž¤¢ ³™ ,¥™¤¢§ 4 .šž²¢¥ š¢šª§ ¨šž§¤ .³ž›±œ§¥ ³ ³§ ³ž¥°§ ³™ °¢Ÿ § ¢©™ 6 ."±ªž©¢›" ¡¥² ²¢ ¥™§²§ 5 97 1. When in Spain, he got to know a Spanish singer. 2. When setting out to perform night actions, they take heavy equipment. 3. He met his wife when he was about 19. 4. When the world war broke out . . . .

98

¢©™ ¦› ,šž¡ ?²°š ²¢›§ ¢ªž¢ 2 .±² ,§œ™ ¢ ž­³ ¢©² °± ¢¥ ²¢ 1 ¦¢¤© °± 4 .±³©ª­š ³©›©§ ¦› ™¢ž ª¢©¡ ³° ²§ ™¢ 3 .²°š ²¢›§ £ž³¥ ¥›« ³™ ™¢š ž¥¢­™ ™¢ 5 .¥™ ¦¢š²ž§š ³š²¥ ¦¢¥ž¤¢ ¦¢²©™ ¢©² °± ¢³±¤ 7 .¦¢¥ž³¢  ¦› ¦² ³ž©°¥ ¥ž¤¢ ³™ 6 .ªž¡§ .š¢ª§š 99

.œ¢§ šž³¤¥ ™© ¦¢¤ª§ £©¢™ ¦™ 2 .³ž¢± ™ ³¥š°§ ©¢™ ±š  1 ¦™ 5 .¦¢¥« «¢­²¥ ¥›žª§ ¢©©¢™ 4 .žŸ œ§«š ³¤§ž³ ©¢™ ¢©¡¢±š 3 .¦²±¥ £¢±¯ ž©¢™ ±¢¢³ ž©¢™ ™ž

295


Key to exercises

100

™¥ œ ™ ¬™ 3 ?²¢ £¥ .³ž¥™² ¢¥ ¨¢™ 2 .œ ™ ¬™ ¦« – ?³±š¢œ ¢§ ¦« 1 ™¥ ¥š™ ,¦¢œ« ¦¢¤¢±¯ ž©¢¢ 5 .¦ž¥¤ ž °¥ ™¥ ¦¢¯±ž­ 4 .œž² ³™ ™± ¦¢¥š°§ ™¥ ¦ ¦«­ ¬™ ¥š™ ,³ž¤±œ§ ¥« ¦¢©ž  ¦ 6 .œ ™ ¬™ ¦² ¢ ±§™ § 8 .¦ž°§ ¦ž²š ¨ œ§ ™ž¯§¥ ¥ž¤¢ ™¥ ³™² ¦ž²§ Ÿ 7 . "žœ ¨ž¢²± ¢¥š ›ž© ™¥ ¦«­ ¬™ ¢©™ 9 .œ ž¢§ ±šœ ¦ž² – ?™ž ±¡ž² £¥ .±° ™¥ ±šœ ¦ž² ,±¢¯ -žš™ 'š› ,¢«›±³ 10 .¢¥² Impossible, unstable, unending, unavoidable, lack of coordination, impatience, non-treatment of patients, non-washable

101

¨³ ³¥ ¨žž¤³§ ™ž ¦™ 3 ?¨ž¤© ,¦¢±ž±­› ³¢©° 2 ?³ž­¡«§ £¥ ¨¢™ 1 ™ž ³ž«¢ª© ¨¤žª 5 .³œšž« ³¢¥«§ ¦™  ž¡š ™¥ ¢©™ 4 ?™¥ ž™ ³¢™ ¨¢™ 7 ?¨ž¤© ,¡¢ª±š©ž™ œ¢ ¥« ±šž« ™¥ ³™ 6 ?¨ž¤© ,³¢«¢š± §ž°š .¦¢©¢š £žœ¢²¥ ¢ž¤¢ª ²¢ ¦™ ³«œ¥ ¨¢¢©«§ 8 .¯ž± ™ž § ›²ž§ ¢¥ 102

³š¢²¢¥ £¥¢ ™ž² ¦¢­¢œ«§ ž¢±ž 2 .«"©œ›¥ ¬±¡¯³ ™¢² ¯ž± ¢©™ 1 ,Ÿ¢«³ ™¥² 5 .²ž ¥¥ ž°¢ª­¢ ¦² 4 .¥" ©¥ £¥³ ™¢² ¢³¢ž¢° 3 .±œª ¢©™ 7 .¥¥ž¤š ¦ ¥š™ ¡¢ª±š¢©ž™¥ ž¤¥¢ ¦¢©š² ³¯± ¢²ž² 6 .° ¯¢ ?±œªš Ÿ ž¢²¤« .¢³¢™ ° ²³ ¥™¢±™² ¯ž± 103

296

¥¢¥ ³©ž³¤ ³™ ³ž©°¥ ¢¥ ¢™œ¤ 2 .ž°ž² ¦«¡ ž™ ¥¢©ž ¦«¡ ž™ ©°³ 1 ž™ ž¢²¤« ¡¢¥ § ³™² ž™ 3 ?œž±ž ³™ ­¢œ«§ ³™² ž™ ,¥ž ¤ œž« ž©¥ ²¢² ž™ ,«›± œž«š ±›ª© °©š ¦™ 4 .³¢š ¦¢±Ÿž  ž© ©™² .±œªš ¢¢ ¢²¢¥² ¦ž¢ ž™ ¢©² ¦ž¢ ž™ 5 ?¨§Ÿ


Key to exercises

104

.¬¢¤ Ÿ ¬¯­¯¥ž ±§ «žª©¥ 2 .¥¢«›§ Ÿ '›¡ž° ³©¢š› ¥¤ ¢±¥ 1 ¢©™ 5 .¢§ž™¥ ¡±ž­ª Ÿ ª™¥™œš ³ž­¯¥ 4 .¢«š žŸ ¬ª¤ ¨ž§  ¢žž±¥ 3 .¬ž œ¥ ©© ™ž 6 .±ž³š œž§«¥ ©© 105 105a `

?ž¢¥« ³§³ ² Ÿž  ­¢™ 2 .±°¢ ¢œ ™¢ ¦¢±› ž© ©™ š² ©ž¤² 1 žš² ³ž›±œ§ ±œ  Ÿ 4 .®±™¥ ®ž š ¢¥«š² ±¢œ ¦¢±¤ž² ž© ©™ 3 š²ž§š 6 .±š«² ©²š žš ž©±›² ¨¢©š Ÿ ,™±³ 5 ?Ÿ ³™ ³œš¢™ œ¢§³ ¦² Ÿ ¨ž¢© š ¦ 7 .¥§²  ¢ ™¥ œž« ž¢¥™ ž©¤¥² ¨ž²™± .¦¥² ³ž§² ³™ ±¢¤§ ¢©™² ¦¢±¢¢œ ³™ °± ¢³¥™² ¢©™ 8 .žš ¦¢° ²§ ±ž š ¥² ¦² § 10 .¬ž­¯ ³¯° ™ž ?ž¢¥« ³š² ² ¨ž¤¢² Ÿ 9 ?ž¢±§² ±­¤š ¦¢±› ¢±ž² 105b `

­¢™ š¢³¤ ³©ž¤§ ³™ ¢³§² 2 .¦ž¢ ™¯§© ™¥ ¦¢ ±­ ³™ ±¤ž§² ¢§ 1 ¢³¢¯±² § ™¥ Ÿ ¥š™ 4 .¢³²­¢ ² § © ,¬žª ¬žª 3 .±ž™ ³¯° ²¢² œž™§ ¢ ž¥ ³±§™² § 6 .¢¥™ ±šœ§² ¢§ ¥¤ ¦« š¢œ™ ¢©™ 5 .³«œ¥ .¦¢±§ ,£¥  ž©² ¢³§ ¢¯­°³ 8 .±Ÿ¢±­š ²¢² § ¥¤ ¥¤™³ 7 .ª› œž™§ ²±§ ³™² § ¥¤ ž¥ ²±³ 10 .¢™± ™² ¢§¥ Ÿ °³­ ³™ ¨³ 9 ¥¤  ° 12 .¦¥²¥ £¢±¯ ™¥ ,¨¢«¢œž§¥ ›¢¢ §² ¢§ 11 .±ž±š Ÿ ,¦¢± ™¥ .¦¢™³§² §

297


Key to exercises

106 106a `

.¢¥² ¦¢²±ž²š ¨¢¢©«³¥ ¢³¥ ³ ,¥™±²¢¥ ¢¥² ¦¢šž±° ž¥«² ¢± ™ 1 œ« ,ž©¥²§ ¦¢¯¢š ž©¥ ž¢ 3 .¦¢©°Ÿ ¦« ¦¢©§² ¦¢²©™ ²ž¥² ž¤¢  ®ž š 2 Ÿ ¥« ž«§²²¤ 5 .³±žž¤ œ§« ³¢š ¢©­¥ 4 .³ž¥ž›©±³ ¥¤ ž³§² ¢³ ,§ ¥§ ®ž±­³ ¦™ 6 .¦¢¢§¢¤ ¦¢©²œš ²§³²¥ ¦¢™¥°  ž°¢ª­ .­ž±¡ª¡° ™¯ž³ 106b `

¢©™ 3 ?Ÿ ¥¢š²š ¯ž± ³™ ¥°² 30 2 .¢¥ ¨¢™ ³ž¢­§ ¥š™ ¦"ž¤ª ¢¥ ²¢ 1 ™ž ¨ž³¢« 4 .±¢¤§ ¢©™ ­¢ ³™ ¦›ž – ¥™¢±™ ³™ž ©²ž² ³™ ±¢¤§ .£¢±¯ ™¥ ¢©™ Ÿ ³™ ¦›ž ,¨²¢ 106c `

ž¢²¤« ³§¢¢° 3 .›¥² ¦«­ œž« œ±ž¢ 2 .¦ž¢ ¦¢²œ ¦¢²©™ ²¢§  ž™š 1 .š²ž  ¢©™ ,ž²¢§ œž« ™š 5 .£¥² ±š  «¢› ,¥ ± 4 .³¢©¢¯± ©¤ª

298


Index

Numbers refer to sections ‘a’ 5 action nouns 64 adjective inflections 8, 61 adjective patterns 8, 69–71 adjectives ending in ¢ 8(a), 70 adjectives from participles 69, 72 adjectives, qualifying 9 adjective without noun 16(c) adverbial clause 48, 106(a) adverbs of manner 91–2 adverbs, time and place 2(b), 41, 43, 93–6 agreement, adjectives 13(a) agreement,  12 agreement, demonstrative 13(d) agreement, numerals 14 agreement, quantity words 13(e) agreement, verbs 13(b) ‘also’ 98 ‘although’ 48 Article, definite 4, 12, 94 Article, indefinite 5 ‘as’ 48 ‘as . . . as’ 89 ayin–ayin 56, 68 ayin–vav 26(b), 57 ‘be’ 2, 56(f) beged-kefet 36 binyanim, function 25 ‘can’ 56(d) commands: see requests comparatives 87–90 conditional, unreal 82(b)

conditional tense 82(d) construct endings 17(d), 75–6 constructs, segolates 75 constructs, set phrases 17(c) constructs, possessive 73 ‘dative of experience’ 86 degree words 42, 88 demonstratives 11, 13(d) duals 60(a–b) ‘either . . . or’ 103 feminine 6–8 future tense 21 gender of nouns 6 generic plural 62 gerunds 97 ‘go’ 56(c) government by verbs 33–4 gutturals 51 ‘have’ 38 hif’il 27 hitpa’el 29 huf’al 31 imperatives 22, 102(b) impersonal plural 49(a) indirect speech 46 infinitival clauses 44–5 infinitive 23 interrogative: see questions ‘it’ 16(a), 45

299


Index

lamed-alef 58(d) lamed-he 50 masculine 6 measurement 90 mishkalim: see noun patterns ‘more’ 87 ‘most’ 88 ‘must’ 56(d) negative pronouns 100 nif’al 30 ‘no one’ 100 ‘not’ 40, 99 ‘not’, inflection 99 ‘nothing’ 100 nouns from adjectives 65 nouns from participles 72 noun patterns 7, 64–8 numerals, 1–10 14(a) numerals, 11–19 14(b) numerals, 20–90 14(c) numerals, 100s and 1000s 81 numerals, construct 79 numerals, ordinal 80 object clause 46 object, direct 33–4 object marker 34 object suffixes 83 ‘of’ 15, 17(a), 73, 77 ‘one another’ 85 ‘or’ 103 order of words 106–7

300

pa’al 26 partitive 15 passive 30–2 past tense 19 past tense, habitual 82(a) pe-nun 56(a), 57(a–b), 68 pe-yod 54, 68 pi’el 28 plural of adjectives 8, 61 plural of nouns 7, 60–1, 63 po’el 59 possessive 17, 73–7 possessive, double 77 prepositions with verbs 34(b)

preposition + suffix 35, 78 present tense 20 pronoun, personal 3 pronouns 16 pronunciation 36 pu’al 32 quadrilateral roots 53 quantifiers 10 questions 39, 101 questions, indirect 101(b) reciprocals 85 reflexives 84 relative clauses 47, 105 reported speech 46, 82(c) requests 21(b), 22(b), 23(b) requests, negative 40(c) root 24 root types 50–9 ‘same’ 11 segolates 7(c) segolates, construct 75 segolates, plural 7(c), 60(c) sibilant cross-over 55 ‘someone’ 16(b) ‘so that’ 48 spelling 108 ‘statives’ 58(a) subject, lack of 49 subject clause 104 superlatives 88 ‘take’ 56(b) tense in adverbials 82(d) tense in reported speech 82(c) ‘than’: see comparatives ‘the’ 4, 12 ‘there is’ 37 ‘this’ 11, 12 topic at front of sentence 107 verbal patterns: see binyanim ‘which’ 47 ‘while’ 82(d) ‘who’ 47

Modern hebrew grammar  
Modern hebrew grammar  

Modern hebrew grammar

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