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contents

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01 CMYK vs RGB PANTONE & TRUMATCH COLOR MATCHING SYSTEMS

colors 4 6

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formats

VECTOR vs RASTER FILE FORMATS TYPEFACE

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LITHOGRAPHY OFFSET PRINTING SCREEN PRINTING THERMOGRAPHY DYE SUBLIMATION XEROGRAPHY GRAVURE PRINTING FLEXOGRAPHY INKJET PRINTING LENTICULAR BLIND EMBOSSING FOIL STAMPING RESIN PRINTING

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COIL & COMB PERFECT BINDING & SADDLE STITCHING UV COATING, SPOT UV, & AQUEOUS COATING LAMINATION

printing methods 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 27 28 29 30 30 31

binding & finish 32 34 36 38

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cmyk

CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key (Black) Black, in this case, is referred to as key because it is used in the key plate which is responsible for adding the contrast and the detail for the final image. The CMYK color system is most commonly referred to as the four-color process because it uses four different colors to produce different hues. The black color here is used because the other three colors combined cannot produce a fully saturated black. Unlike the RGB color system, CMYK is a subtractive color model because the printed ink reduces the light that would normally be reflected. The inks used subtract the brightness from a white background from those four colors. The CMYK colors are mixed during the printing process which can sometimes cause minor inconsistencies. For that reason, you should always look at the printed proof of a given project before going through with the full print run.

versus RGB stands for Red, Green, and Blue

rgb

It’s used exclusively in the digital design industry because it represents the same colors used in computer screens, TV screens, as well as mobile device screens.

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It’s an additive color system which means that the primary colors are added together in various combinations to produce a much wider spectrum of colors. These colors are produced by blending light itself by superimposing the red, green, and blue light beam. Without any intensity, each of those colors will be perceived as black, while full intensity will make them appear white. It’s also worth mentioning that different intensities of each color will produce the hue of a particular color. The resulting color will also appear more or less saturated depending on the difference between the most and the least intensive color. Brenda Stokes Barron. Envato Blog. Web. 15 Feb 2018.


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color matching systems 6


pantone matching system Pantone Matching System. The first color matching system for designers was developed by Pantone in 1963. The primary tool in the Pantone Matching System (commonly referred to as PMS) was the Pantone formula guide. This guide was designed to allow graphic designers and printers to communicate color by referencing a Pantone number. This was a huge improvement, as in the past every ink company had their own color system and there was no way to correlate "Firecracker Red" from one ink company to another. The Pantone formula guide was also built around an ink mixing system, which made it much easier for ink companies to provide consistent color across multiple locations. Early versions of the Pantone formula guide had 747 different colors, on coated and uncoated stocks. Eakin-Austin Inc, colorguides.net. Web. 2010-2018.

trumatch matching system Trumatch Matching System. The innovative TRUMATCH System, introduced in 1990, is the standard for 4-color matching and is patented in countries around the world. Its smooth transitions of color let you easily find tints and shades within color families, without shifting color cast. This digital System displays accurate, balanced proportions of process color that are logically organized and conveniently arranged according to the familiar R-O-Y-G-B-I-V spectrum. There are 50 hues, with 40 perfectly proportioned tints and shades of each hue, plus a section of 4-color greys, resulting in over 2,000 color choices. Steven Abramson, TRUMATCH, Inc. Web.

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vector

There are two types of digital graphics files – vector and raster. Vector images are made of hundreds of thousands of tiny lines and curves (or paths) to create an image. Raster images are composed of pixels.

Vector images, which are made of thin lines and curves known as paths, are rooted in mathematical theory. Vector graphics must be created in computer software that is designed to create this intricate wireframe-type image and each line includes defined node positions, node locations, line lengths and curves. Any of the lines and curves in the image can be assigned a color value. Because of this defined, formulaic approach to drawing, each image can be sized and scaled repeatedly and limitlessly without losing resolution or beginning to look cloudy or pixelated. Carrie Cousins, designshack.net. Web.

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raste

Raster images are often called bitmap images because they are made of millions of tiny squares, called pixels. You can identify a raster or bitmap image by looking at it very closely. If you zoom in enough, you will be able to see the square outlines of each pixel (especially around edges where there are dramatic color contrasts). Raster graphics typically have larger file sizes than their vector counterparts. Higher DPI (dots per inch) and PPI (pixels per inch) settings also contribute to larger files because software must keep track of and be able to render each pixel. File size can become a concern if storage or server space is limited or if files have to be transmitted electronically. Carrie Cousins, designshack.net. Web.

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file formats

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ai Adobe Illustrator AI files are vector files used by designers and commercial printers to generate files of different file formats and sizes. AI files can only be opened using Adobe Illustrator and may be created in layers. An AI file is one of the most preferred formats by printers, promotional product companies, silk screeners, banner and sign companies, and other third party creatives.

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jpg Joint Photographic Experts Group A JPG file is a compressed image file that does not support a transparent background. The level of compression in JPG files can vary in resolution with high quality for desktop printing, medium quality for web viewing and low quality for email. When compressed repeatedly the overall quality of a JPG image is reduced.

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eps Encapsulated Postscript EPS files are most commonly used by designers to transfer an image or artwork, generally a vector file into another application. Vector-based EPS files are scalable to any size. EPS files can be opened using Adobe Illustrator, Freehand, or Adobe Photoshop. A vector EPS file is one of the most preferred formats by printers, promotional product companies, silk screeners, banner and sign companies, and other third party creatives.

gif Graphics Interchange Format GIF files are low resolution files most commonly used for web and email purposes. Almost all browsers can support the use of GIF files, which use a compression scheme to keep the file size small. GIF files can be created with a transparent background.


There are many file formats in the graphic design world but below are brief descriptions of the most common and different file extensions written by Jennifer Bourn from Bourn Creative: from her online article, ‘Common Graphic Design File Formats Explained.’

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pdf Portable Document Format A PDF is a universal file format that preserves/embeds the fonts, images, layout and graphics of any source document, regardless of the application used to create it. PDF files can be shared, viewed and printed by anyone with the free Adobe Reader software. Some PDF files can be used for commercial, digital, and/or desktop printing.

tif Portable Document Format The TIF/TIFF file format is most commonly used for storing images, photography, or art. TIF files are most commonly used in professional environments and commercial printing. The TIF format is the most widely supported format across all platforms. It is the standard format for high quality images. Though large in size, TIF formats are considered to be the most reliable format for high quality images.

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psd Photoshop Document The PSD file format, usually a raster format, contains graphics and photos created in Adobe Photoshop image editing software. Most commonly used by designer and printers. PSD files can only be opened using Photoshop and may be created in layers.

png Portable Network Graphics The PNG file format is most commonly used for use online and on websites due to their low resolution. PNG files are bitmap images that employ lossless data compression, and like GIF files, PNG files can be created with a transparent background.

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abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwyz 0123456789

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typeface A typeface is a set of characters of the same design. These characters include letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and symbols. Some popular typefaces include Arial, Helvetica, Times, and Verdana. While most computers come with a few dozen typefaces installed, there are thousands of typefaces available. Because they are vector-based (not bitmaps), typefaces can be scaled very large and still look sharp. The term "typeface" is often confused with "font," which is a specific size and style of a typeface. For example, Verdana is a typeface, while Verdana 10 pt bold is a font. It's a small difference, but is good to know. Christensson, Per. TechTerms. Sharpened Productions. Web.

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lithography lithography Lithography is a printing process that uses a flat stone or metal plate on which the image areas are worked using a greasy substance so that the ink will adhere to them by, while the non-image areas are made ink-repellent. A printing process based on the fact that grease and water don’t mix. The image is applied to a grained surface (traditionally stone but now usually aluminium) using a greasy medium: such as a special greasy ink – called tusche, crayon, pencils, lacquer, or synthetic materials. Photochemical or transfer processes can also be used. A solution of gum arabic and nitric acid is then applied over the surface, producing water-receptive non-printing areas and grease-receptive image areas. The printing surface is kept wet, so that a roller charged with oil-based ink can be rolled over the surface, and ink will only stick to the grease-receptive image area. Paper is then placed against the surface and the plate is run through a press. Tate. Art Terms. Tate.org.uk. Web.

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offset printing

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O

Offset printing, also called offset lithography, or litho-offset, in commercial printing, widely used printing technique in which the inked image on a printing plate is printed on a rubber cylinder and then transferred (i.e., offset) to paper or other material. The rubber cylinder gives great flexibility, permitting printing on wood, cloth, metal, leather, and rough paper. An American printer, Ira W. Rubel, of Nutley, N.J., accidentally discovered the process in 1904 and soon built a press to exploit it.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Web.

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screen

printing

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Screen Printing also known as silk screening, is the printing process of applying artwork, images or graphics to items such as t-shirts, wood, posters, and among others through the process of the right tools, equipment and ink/foils. The process of screen printing involves taking mesh that is stretched over a frame and burning it to create the stencil. The area that has been stenciled will remain open mesh while on the area that is not stenciled is filled material that is non-porous. The mesh is then laid over the material to be printed on and filled with ink. Then you use a special tool called a squeegee to help push the ink via the open area of the mesh to the material to be printed thus creating the desired image.

Suzanne Winchester. HonorSociety.org. Web. 03 Nov 2017.

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thermography is hot printing Thermography is, as its name suggests, hot printing. It creates raised imagery – and interesting textures – by fusing tiny granules of thermo powder with wet offset inks. The thermography unit is attached to a standard offset press. The thermo powder reservoir releases a shower of granules, dusting each just-printed sheet as it passes beneath. Granules adhere only to the wet ink, and a vacuum immediately sucks excess granules back into the reservoir. The sheets pass directly into the heat tunnel, where the thermo powder melts (at several hundred degrees), fuses with the ink, and is literally baked onto the paper in a matter of seconds et voilà , the ink puffs up and sits proud on top of the sheet. DataGraphic, DataGraphicDesign.com. Web.

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dye sublimation

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Dye sublimation is a method of applying an image to specially coated ceramics, metals and polyester fabric. Sublimation ink is unique in its ability to convert from a solid to a gas without going through a liquid form. The conversion is initiated by heat and controlled with pressure and time. The high temperature - from a heat transfer press - opens the pores of the polymer and allows the gas to enter. When the temperature drops, the pores close and the gas reverts to a solid state. The print then becomes part of the polymer.

GJS Group Australia. GJS.co. Web.

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1938 Xerography. The xerographic process, which was invented by Chester Carlson in 1938 and developed and commercialized by the Xerox Corporation, is widely used to produce high-quality text and graphic images on paper. Carlson originally called the process electrophotography. It's based on two natural phenomena: that materials of opposite electrical charges attract and that some materials become better conductors of electricity when exposed to light. Carlson invented a six-step process to transfer an image from one surface to another using these phenomena. First, a photoconductive surface is given a positive electrical charge. The photoconductive surface is then exposed to the image of a document. Because the illuminated sections (the non-image areas) become more conductive, the charge dissipates in the exposed areas. Negatively charged powder spread over the surface adheres through electrostatic attraction to the positively charged image areas. A piece of paper is placed over the powder image and then given a positive charge. The negatively charged powder is attracted to the paper as it is separated from the photoconductor. Finally, heat fuses the powder image to the paper, producing a copy of the original image. Xerox Corporation, Xerox.com. Web.

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xerox

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gravure printing Gravure printing, an image is acid-etched on the surface of a metal cylinder—one cylinder for each color—in a pattern of cells. The cells are recessed into the cylinder, unlike relief printing or letterpress where the printing image is raised or like offset printing, in which the image is level with the plate. The cylinder is etched with cells of different depths. These cells hold the ink that is transferred to the substrate. The dimensions of the cells must be precise because the deeper cells produce more intensive color than shallow cells. The cells are filled with ink, and the non-printing portions of the plate or cylinder are wiped or scraped free of ink. Then paper or another substrate is pressed against the inked cylinder on a rotary press, and the image is transferred directly to the paper, unlike in offset printing, which uses an interim cylinder. The engraved cylinder sits partially immersed in the ink fountain, where it picks up ink to fill its recessed cells on each rotation of the press.

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Jacci Howard Bear. LifeWire.com. 21 Jan 2018. Web.

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flexography Flexography is a modern version of letterpress printing. This traditional method of printing can be used on almost any type of substrate, including corrugated cardboard, cellophane, plastic, label stock, fabric and metallic film. Flexography uses quick-drying, semi-liquid inks. In this new age of digital printing, flexography holds its own in the areas of large orders, particularly of packaging products and labeling. Flexographic printing uses flexible photopolymer printing plates wrapped around rotating cylinders on a web press. The inked plates have a slightly raised image and rotate at high speeds to transfer the image to the substrate. Flexography inks can print on many types of absorbent and non-absorbent materials. Flexography is well-suited to print continuous patterns, such as for gift wrap and wallpaper. Jacci Howard Bear. LifeWire.com. 17 Jan 2018. Web.

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inkjet Inkjet printing is the printing process that uses a device: an inkjet printer utilizing mechanisms called ‘jets,’ in which the print head inside obtains several miniature spouts to be sprayed onto paper. Inkjet printing requires either single or multiple ink cartridges most of the primary pigments (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black). When the printing process starts, the paper is fed and ink is spouted onto the paper line by line. Inkjet printing is cost-effective and used moderately everywhere in most homes, offices and etc as inkjet printers can be easily purchased.

Lorrie May Manuel.

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lenticular Lenticular Printing. A printing method that, when the image is viewed at different angles, the objects either look 3D or they change their appearance. Two or more views of a scene are printed on a thermoplastic sheet of lenticular (concave) lenses that look like parallel ridges. In order to align the image to the lens array, specialized, high-quality lithographic presses that can be adjusted to fine tolerances are used. The Computer Language Company Inc. Ziff Davis, LLC. PCMag Digital Group. Web.

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blind emboss Blind embossing – Like a piece of fine sculpture, blind embossing creates both visual and tactile appeal. It is especially effective when a subtly elegant, three dimensional image is desired.

An embossed image is formed using male and female moulds. Under extreme pressure, these two mould the paper to their shape, creating a multi-dimensional impression. When embossed, the image is raised; when debossed, the image is below the paper surface. Baddeley Brothers. BaddeleyBrothers.com. Web.

foil stamping Foil stamping is a specialty printing process that uses heat, pressure, metal dies and foil film. The foil comes in rolls in a wide assortment of colors, finishes, and optical effects. Metallic foil is most commonly seen today – particularly gold foil, silver foil, copper foil, and holographic metallic foils – but foil rolls are also available in solid colors in both glossy and matte finishes. Nole Garey. OH SO BEAUTIFUL PAPER. OHSOBEAUTIFULPAPER.COM. Web.

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resin printing Resin Printing is also known as Stereolithography (SLA). Stereolithography is a laser-based technology that uses a UV-sensitive liquid resin. A UV laser beam scans the surface of the resin and selectively hardens the material corresponding to a cross section of the product, building the 3D part from the bottom to the top. The required supports for overhangs and cavities are automatically generated, and later manually removed. Materialise. Materialise.com. Web.

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&

coil

comb 32


Coil & comb binding look alike because they are very similar. With both binding methods, one edge of every sheet (and covers) is punched with holes and then a piece of rigid material is inserted through the holes. This process secures the edge of the book while also allowing it to open and lay flat. There is no glue used in the process, only punching, inserting the binding material, and closing the binding. Importantly, both coil and comb binding can quickly make a book out of an ordinary stack of paper — they can bind paper that has already been printed on. Tom Gimer. KKP | Kwik Kopy Printing. KKPDC.com. Web.

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perfect b Perfect binding is commonly used for catalogs, directories and paperback books that have a higher page count. Pages are glued together at the spine with a strong, flexible glue. The cover is wrapped around the glued pages, and the brochure or catalog is then trimmed to its finished size.

Sabine Lenz. PaperSpecs. PaperSpecs.com. Web.

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saddle s 34


binding

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Saddle stitching is simply a printer’s term for stapling. Printed, folded forms are opened at their centers (half the pages on one side and half on the other side) and then gathered or nested together – each from falling on top of the next in proper order while riding along a chain.

Sabine Lenz. PaperSpecs. PaperSpecs.com. Web.

stitching 35


aqueous coating

spot uv uv coating 36


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Aqueous coating is a clear, fast-drying water-based coating that is used to protect printed pieces. It provides a high-gloss or matte surface that deters dirt and fingerprints. Aqueous coating improves the durability of postcards and other mailed pieces as they go through the mail, and protects business cards as they are carried in peoples' wallets. It also looks beautiful on brochures, catalog covers, and presentation folders. Aqueous coatings provide more substantial scuff-resistance than varnishes. Aqueous is typically applied to the entire printed piece, usually by the last unit on a printing press. Due to its water base, aqueous coating is more environmentally friendly than varnish or UV coatings.

Spot UV, also known as varnish is basically clear ink and can be gloss, satin or matte. A flood varnish covers the entire printed page for protection or sheen. A spot varnish allows you to highlight specific areas of a printed piece and adds shine and depth to specific elements on the page such as a logo or image. Varnishes are also applied on-press, but they are heavier-bodied and can be applied (like inks) to only certain areas (spot varnish). A plate must be created to apply a spot varnish, so artwork is necessary.

UV coatings are cured by exposure to ultraviolet light to quickly dry and harden the coating. UV coatings provide the highest gloss versus other coatings but may crack when scored or folded due to the thickness and hardness of the coating. Some find it too shiny for some uses. UV coatings can be applied as a flood (covering the entire printed sheet) or as a spot coating and can be applied on or off press. UV compatible inks must be used on sheets that will be UV coated. UV coated sheets can not be foil stamped and embossing should be done after the coating.

PrintingForLess.com. Web.

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lamination

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Lamination is the process of applying a thin layer of plastic to paper or card sheets to enhance and protect the printed matter. Common types of laminate are gloss, matt and silk. Lamination is often used for packaging, book covers, brochures, business cards and other printed items. Richard Gillgrass. Celloglas Ltd. Celloglas.co.uk. 03 May. Web.

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Designed by: Lorrie May Manuel

Print Manual  

Print Manual showcasing graphic design & print from colors, formats, printing methods & bindings/finishes. Designed with custom 4-color pale...

Print Manual  

Print Manual showcasing graphic design & print from colors, formats, printing methods & bindings/finishes. Designed with custom 4-color pale...

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