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The Theory Of Pigment Colors For practical purposes, colors are grouped in various classifications which may be better understood by reference to a diagram. The three Primary colors are red, yellow and blue in their strongest tones. No mixture of other colors will produce any one of these three. The nearest objects in nature approximating these three colors are the red of the geranium flower, the yellow of the lemon skin and the blue of a sunny southern sky. In pigments, these are known as vermilion, chrome yellow and cobalt blue, although other names are sometimes used for chemical combinations for custom picture frames that are close to these. If any two of these pigments are combined, they produce what are known as the secondary colors. These are orange, purple, and green and are produced respectively by the combination of red and yellow, red and blue, yellow and blue. In addition to the primaries and secondaries, there are colors known as tertiaries, which are formed by the combination of primaries and secondaries. It is impossible to indicate the tertiaries in a diagram; therefore the list is given below. oRed (primary) combined with purple (secondary) makes mulberry (tertiary) oRed combined with orange makes russet oBlue combined with purple makes plum oBlue combined with green makes slate oYellow combined with green makes citron oYellow combined with orange makesflame The tertiary colors have names that are already indefinite and often convey different ideas to different persons, particularly when it comes to interior design elements such as pediment entry. Therefore, it is inappropriate to continue to give definite names to the infinite number of color variations that may be formed by varying qualities of colors used in different mixtures. The term complex color is often applied to all color combinations beyond the tertiary group. In addition to mixing the colors above mentioned with each other, they may be also mixed with white or black pigments and the more these either is added, the lighter or darker the original colors become and the closer they become to pure white or black. The colors produced are known as neutral colors. Neutral colors may be produced by combining any of the primaries, secondaries, tertiaries of complex colors with white or black, or both white and black. If white is added, the colors become tints. If black is added, the colors become shades. All tints and shades are neutral colors. These are not scientific but popular terms. A color therefore that is complementary to another color must contain the primary color or colors that are not contained in the first. The complement of red must contain the other two primaries, yellow and blue. Yellow and blue make green. Green is, therefore, the complement of red. The reverse is true and one may state that red is the complement of green. By the same reasoning, orange with blue are complementary and purple with yellow. Complementary colors are those of greatest contrast and when in a decorative treatment, the


law of contrast is to be considered in connection with the color selection, the diagram given herewith may be used to advantage. Colors of strong contrasts accentuate each other when used in close proximity. In considering the effect of color, one must also take into consideration the surface upon which the color is to be applied: will it be ornamental pediment or bar rail molding? Will the color be seen at a short distance from the eye or far away? Objects that are but two or three feet from the onlooker sometimes change their apparent tone when seen at a distance of ten to twenty feet. If a small sample of paint is placed on a strip of wood and held in the hand, the same paint will have a very different effect when placed in a large area on the wall, especially if the wall is rough or if the final coat of paint is stippled or given a rough finish. Klink klorofil


The Theory Of Pigment Colors