the cathedral choir of men and boys Woodrow Bynum, Director of Music
20 march, 2012 The Cathedral
Albany, New York
th e f r i en ds of t he c hoi r presents
th e cat hedral c hoir of m en an d boys Woodrow Bynum, Director of Music evangelist
Michael Slattery, Tenor jesus
Alexander Jones, Baritone pilate
Richard Lippold, Baritone Greer Davis, Soprano arias
Kirsten Sollek, Contralto arias
Charles Blandy, Tenor arias
Nathaniel Webster, Baritone arias
maid Peter Horvath, Treble servants John Cox, John Schreiner, Tenors peter Colin Helie, Bass orchestra
Violin Lisa Rautenberg, Concertmaster Lisa Brooke
Viola Andrea Andros
Cello Guy Fishman AndrĂŠ Laurent Oâ€™Neil (Viola da Gamba soloist) Double Bass Andrew Arceci Flauto traverso Yvonne Hansbrough Andrea LeBlanc Oboe Virginia Brewer
Continuo Ian Watson There will be a fifteen minute interval. Beverages will be available for purchase. please switch off your cell phones and other electronic devices. 3
tucker besch adam biszick matthew brockley andrew brusic ian davis shane ferris peter horvath christopher howard paul howard clement keats wyatt kirschner jonathan lasselle dante perrotto connor reilly sergio rodriguez griffin simon silas strich sebastian vanderbeck christian wallace nolan wolfe
david todd allen michael galvin corey hough jeremy vosburgh nicholas wiggins matthew burton*
Tenor matthew anisfeld charles blandy* todd chardeen john cox michael lister john schreiner
Bass colin helie alexander jones stephen piwowarski richard lippold* sherwood wise *Guest
T he C athedral C hoir
Established in 1872, The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys is the oldest continuously performing choir of its kind in the country. As the principal choir of The Cathedral of All Saints, the Choir of Men and Boys sings choral services in the Cathedral during the academic term.The choir enjoys an international reputation for musical excellence and acts as a vital link to the ancient choral traditions of England and Europe; all the while remaining distinctly American. In addition to its liturgical role, the choir is heard regularly in concert and has performed with The Albany Symphony, The Boston Symphony, and at The Tanglewood Music Festival. Recently the Choir was in residence at Hereford Cathedral, and guest choir at Gloucester Cathedral, England. The choir is made up of trebles (boys ages 7-14 with unchanged voices) who sing the soprano line, while a dedicated group of professional men sing the alto, tenor and bass parts. Boys rehearse twice weekly during the academic term, and the gentlemen join them once each week for musical preparation. Choir members come from all parts of the Capital region, and represent a wide variety of backgrounds, faiths, and cultures.The quality of their music making, coupled with their uncommon dedication to excellence has helped make The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys â€œAlbanyâ€™s Boy Choirâ€? for more than 140 years. The choristers are trained according to the standards set forth by The Royal School of Church Music. As they move through the training scheme, they earn ribbons of various colors that represent their rank in the ensemble. The boys not only work hard, but they also play hard. Choir parents organize weekly dinners for the full choir, and the boys enjoy regular non-musical outings, giving them a chance to enjoy a lighter side of the chorister experience.
Woodrow Bynum Director of Music
Woodrow Bynum was born in Arkansas in 1975 and began pursuing his musical education at The Interlochen Arts Academy before graduating summa cum laude from The University of Michigan. Following a residency at The Detroit Opera House, Bynum moved to New York City and studied at The Juilliard School and sang in the choir of Saint Thomas Church Fifth Avenue. He studied voice with Lorna Haywood, Rita Shane and Beverley Peck Johnson, and his other musical influences include Robert Glasgow, Gerre Hancock and John Scott. As a professional singer, he appears regularly in concert with orchestras and choirs alike. He has been lauded by The New York Times for his “fine free baritone register” and The Dallas Morning News as “...a gorgeous oiled-walnut baritone, elegant diction and delivery.” Recent solo appearances include Messiah with Dallas Bach Society, and St. John Passion with Saint Thomas Church Fifth Avenue. With Albany Pro Musica he was soloist in Bach’s St. John Passion, Durufle’s Requeim and Gabriel Fauré’s Requiem. He has also appeared as soloist in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony and Mendelssohn’s Elijah. as well as Bach’s Mass in B Minor. In late 2011 he sang with Harry Christophers and The Handel & Haydn Society. at Boston Symphony Hall in Dixit Dominus (Handel). Known for his work as a choir and voice trainer, Bynum took up his post as Director of Music at The Cathedral of All Saints in 2007. The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys sing nearly sixty choral services a year and maintain a rigorous schedule of concerts as well, including presenting Bernstein’s Chichester Psalms, Handel’s Messiah and sacred choral works of Benjamin Britten. Members of The Cathedral Choir under Mr. Bynum were in residence in February, 2011 at Hereford Cathedral, England, also singing at Gloucester Cathedral to wide acclaim. Under his direction, the choir has made three recordings, including the complete performance of Handel’s Messiah with period instrument orchestra; Music for a Royal Occasion, including Mozart’s Coronation Mass and Handel’s Coronation Anthems and a collection of Benjamin Britten’s sacred choral works To Thee All Angels Cry Aloud.
Michael Slattery, Tenor The Evangelist Since graduating from Juilliard, tenor Michael Slattery has enjoyed an exciting international career. He has worked with the New York Philharmonic, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Lincoln Center’s Mostly Mozart Festival, the French National Orchestra in Paris, the Akademie für Alte Musik in Berlin, and the Orchestra of St. Luke’s at Carnegie Hall. Career highlights include Peter Sellars’ Tristan Project at Lincoln Center, the title role in Bernstein’s Candide at Royal Festival Hall in London, and Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo at the Châtelet Theater in Paris, the Staatsoper in Berlin, and at Glimmerglass. He was recently included in The Spectator’s list of tenor “Heroes of the Concert Hall.”His solo discs The Irish Heart, and Secret and Divine Signs, received critical acclaim from Gramophone Magazine and Five Star ratings from BBC Music Magazine and ClassicFM. Other prize-winning recordings include Mozart’s Bastien und Bastienne, Scarlatti’s Cecilian Vespers, Handel’s Atalanta, Acis and Galatea, Saul, Solomon, and Samson, Britten’s Curlew River, and Bernstein’s Candide. Last season he performed at Lincoln Center, the Kennedy Center and Carnegie Hall. In addition to his performances this season, he will record a CD of Dowland songs and offer master classes to students across the United States.
Alexander Jones, Baritone Jesus Alex has been seen regionally as Raphael in The Creation (College Consortium Singers at Russell Sage) and Pilate in St. John Passion (Williamstown Early Music, under Richard Giarusso). In 2009 he made his Carnegie Hall debut under Helmuth Rilling; this past January he made his second appearance there with Aoede Consort, performing new sacred music of Vladimir Pleshakov. Other professional affiliations include Hubbard Hall Opera Theater, the New York Catholic Chorale, Albany Pro Musica, Saratoga Chamber Singers, the Williams College Choir, and Glimmerglass Opera. A dedicated church musician, Alex performs regularly with the Choir of Men & Boys at All Saints Cathedral, and has also appeared at St. George’s Episcopal (Schenectady, NY), St. Thomas Fifth Avenue (New York, NY), and St. David’s Episcopal under David Stevens (Austin, TX). Upcoming solo work includes Vaughan Williams (Dona Nobis Pacem) and a return to Haydn’s Creation under Curtis Funk. Offstage, Alex enjoys an active range of artistic pursuits including fingerstyle acoustic guitar, Sacred Harp singing and Eastern European folk music.
Richard Lippold, Baritone Pilate. Mr. Lippold has been a soloist in Paris, Athens, Köln, Brussels, the UK, Italy, throughout the US, and in NYC, including several appearances at Carnegie Hall, most recently for Masterwork’s performance of Handel’s Messiah. Highlights include ‘Joe’ in Dead Man Walking (with composer Jake Heggie, Frederica von Stade, and Joyce DiDonato), Jesus in Pärt’s Passio for the Tribeca Film Festival, and the groundbreaking ‘Poppea’ with OperaOmnia at Le Poisson Rouge. With opera companies of Chattanooga, Portland, Utah, Idaho, St. Louis, and others, he has presented leading roles in standard repertoire and in new works, including Salvador Brotons’ Reverend Everyman, and the NY premiere of Summer by Stephen Paulus. In addition to broadcasts (NPR, WQXR, and WNYC) and recordings, concert repertoire includes Carmina Burana, major works and cantatas of Bach and Telemann, Requiem Masses of Brahms, Fauré and Duruflé; Dvorák’s Te Deum, Haydn’s Masses (on NAXOS), Purcell’s Dido & Aeneas, Rameau’s Inconvertendo, Monteverdi’s Vespers, and more. Richard appears regularly as a soloist at St. Thomas Fifth Avenue with John Scott, Trinity Wall Street with Julian Wachner, and is in his second season at The Metropolitan Opera as an Extra Chorister. Other noted conductors with whom he has worked as a soloist include Jane Glover, Andrew Parrott, Simon Carrington, Paul Hillier, Eric Milnes, Stefan Parkman, and Andrew Megill. 6
Soprano Greer Davis is touted as a “vibrant” performer by Chicago Time Out Magazine, “vocally rich, charming and expressive” by the Barre-Montpelier Times Argus, and “a superb musician” by the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Most recently, Ms. Davis sang the role of Sharon with Metropolis Opera Project’s world premier of One Hot Kitchen in New York City. Earlier this season she appeared as Venus and Belinda in the Florentine Opera’s double-bill of Venus and Adonis/Dido and Aeneas, and placed second nationally in The American Prize in Vocal Performance – Schorr Memorial Awards Competition. Frequently appearing in concert, Ms. Davis’s recent appearances include performances at the Pianoforte Salon Series in Chicago (broadcast on WFMT Chicago), the Steinway Piano Gallery (Milwaukee), the Union League Club (Chicago) and the Lincolnwood Concert Series. Called “…an appealingly rich alto” by The New York Times and “… an ideal Bach alto” with “elemental tone quality” by The Philadelphia Inquirer, Kirsten Sollek is an active presence on the concert and opera stage. Career highlights include three Haydn Masses performed and recorded with Jane Glover and Trinity Wall Street for Naxos, several Bach performances with Andrew Parrott and the New York Collegium, an all-Bach program with Helmuth Rilling and the Chamber Orchestra of Philadelphia, Vivaldi’s Stabat Mater with Kent Tritle and Sacred Music in a Sacred Space, Duruflé’s Requiem with John Scott at St. Thomas Fifth Avenue, Handel’s Messiah with Bach Collegium Japan, Minnesota Orchestra, Pacific Symphony, and the Dallas Bach Society. 2012/13 upcoming performances include Vivaldi’s Gloria with the Seattle Baroque Orchestra, a premiere of Hannah Lash’s Requiem For Extinct Birds, Richard Einhorn’s Carnival of Miracles with the Sinfonia Players and Messiah with the Kansas City Symphony. Charles Blandy, tenor, has been hailed as “unfailingly, tirelessly lyrical” (Boston Globe), and for having a “clear, focused, gorgeous tenor voice” (Worcester Telegram and Gazette). The Globe praised his performance of Tom Rakewell in Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress at Emmanuel Music in Boston, where he has also sung Tamino in Mozart’s Magic Flute and Lurcanio in Handel’s Ariodante. He recently performed the role of Almaviva in Boston Lyric Opera’s family performances of Barber of Seville. Opera News and the Boston Globe praised his performances as Francis Flute in Britten’s Midsummer Night’s Dream. In December 2011 he sang Handel’s Messiah with the American Bach Soloists in San Francisco. In April he will sing Bach’s B Minor Mass with the National Chorale at Avery Fisher Hall in New York, where he has recently sung the Mozart Requiem, Haydn Paukenmesse, and Handel’s Alexander’s Feast. He teaches in Harvard University’s Holden Voice Program and at Tufts University. He is a native of Troy, NY, and graduated from Oberlin College with a BA in religion. Baritone Nathaniel Webster is a graduate of the Eastman School of Music and The Royal Scottish Academy of Music in Glasgow. He has worked with the Paris Opera, New York City Opera, Frankfurt Opera, Theatre de La Monnaie in Brussels, and Nationale Reisopera in Amsterdam. He has been engaged as guest soloist with the Dallas, Atlanta, Bavarian Radio and National Symphony Orchestras and the Brooklyn Philharmonic as well as Music@Menlo, Casals and Ravinia Festivals. In 2008-09, Mr. Webster completed a six-year tenure with the Frankfurt Opera. In the 2009-10 season, Mr. Webster performed Haydn’s Lord Nelson Mass, and with the San Diego Symphony in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony. Additionally, he sang Roberto Sierra’s Missa Latina with the Mendelssohn Society of Philadelphia, a work written for his voice. Abroad, Mr. Webster was heard in Bach’s Christmas Oratorio in Würzberg, Germany. In 2011 he performed and recorded Gordon Getty’s opera Plump Jack in Munich and has had several recent performances of Schubert’s Winterreise, also in Germany. A native of Medina, New York, Mr. Webster currently resides in New York and Berlin. 7
St John Passion – Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 - 1750) BWV 245 ‘…whoever meditates thus upon God’s sufferings for a day, an hour, yea, for a quarter of an hour, we wish to say freely and publicly, that it is better than if he fasts a whole year, prays the Psalter every day, yea, than if he hears a hundred masses. For such a meditation changes a man's character and almost as in baptism he is born again, anew. Then Christ’s suffering accomplishes its true, natural and noble work, it slays the old Adam, banishes all lust, pleasure and security that one may obtain from God’s creatures; just like Christ was forsaken by all, even by God’, (from “A Good Friday sermon on how to contemplate Christ’s Holy Sufferings”) Thus, Martin Luther affirmed his conviction that profound contemplation of the sufferings of Christ in his trial and death was the only route into faith, and into a clear conscience. Other forms of religious observance, such as attending mass, were still valuable, but to contemplate the cross was the most important and necessary way for mankind to seek and experience God. Perhaps in consequence, the passion of Christ became a central theme in the devotional art of the German Baroque, in passion plays such as that from Oberammergau, as well as in the rich musical tradition of passion settings for the Good Friday liturgy. This tradition reaches its zenith in the music of J. S. Bach, the supreme Lutheran musician. On 22nd May 1723, Bach and his family arrived in Leipzig. He was moving from his position of Kapellmeister at the small, provincial court of Anhalt-Cöthen, about 30 miles to the north west, to take up the post of Cantor of the Thomasschule – the school attached to St. Thomas’s church, one of the two main churches in Leipzig. At the time, Leipzig was a city of about 30,000. It was a thriving commercial and cultural centre, and its university was one of the leading intellectual institutions in Germany. As well as teaching music and Latin to the 50 or 60 boys at the school (he normally delegated the Latin teaching to a senior pupil), Bach was responsible for the music at four Leipzig churches: those of St. Nicolas, St. Thomas (to which the school was attached), St. Peter and St. Matthew. Bach's musical forces included the schoolboys, who were divided into four choirs, a few professional instrumentalists, and a number of university students, some of whom studied music with him privately. In a much-quoted letter from 15 years earlier, Bach described his life’s goal as the creation of “a well-regulated church music, to the glory of God”. As soon as he arrived in Leipzig he threw himself into this task with extreme energy. In the first year in his new post, Bach composed a complete liturgical cycle of sixty cantatas, one for each Sunday and major feast day. These were complex, multi-movement works lasting up to half an hour, and were performed between the gospel reading and the sermon in the main Sunday service. They were performed by his principal choir, which alternated week by week between the churches of St. Thomas and St. Nicolas; the second-, thirdand fourth-string musicians performed simpler music in the other three churches. Over the next three years Bach completed two further cantata cycles – a barely believable outpouring of musical craftsmanship, which must have made formidable demands on his performers, and probably on his listeners too. There were two breaks in the annual cantata cycle, in Advent, and Lent, so it seems likely that Bach spent most of Lent in 1724 preparing for what was the biggest musical occasion of the liturgical year, the passion service at Good Friday Vespers. Sung passion settings are an ancient tradition in Christian liturgy – there are accounts of visitors attending them in Jerusalem in the fourth century AD – but they were a novelty in Leipzig, having been introduced by Kuhnau, Bach’s immediate predecessor, in 1721. Passion settings came in many forms, but the central element was normally a musical setting of one of the gospel accounts of the trial and crucifixion of Jesus. In Protestant Germany, there would also be chorales – Lutheran hymns. From the mid-seventeenth century onwards, composers started to interpolate arias and choruses employing non-biblical texts, as well as instrumental sinfonias, so a church congregation in a large musical centre would be accustomed to seeing expanded instrumental forces in a Good Friday service, and to hearing music in modern styles alongside the traditional hymns and gospel reciting tones. Against this background, Bach’s St. John Passion, which was first performed in St. Nicolas’s Church on 7 April 1724, would not have seemed like a radically new type of piece. However, a listener familiar with Good Friday music of the time would probably have noticed the supremely inventive, expressive harmonizations of the hymn tunes, the virtuosity demanded of the soloists and orchestral players, and the highly dramatic musical setting of the gospel text. Although the gospel accounts of the crucifixion are an unchanging constant in Western culture, interpretations of what they mean are far more diverse. Bach does not change the text of John’s gospel, although he does add two dramatic episodes from Matthew (Peter weeping after he hears the cock crow, and the veil of the temple being torn in two after Jesus’ death). However, he constructs his interpretation of the passion story by his choice of extra texts to insert, and by the positioning 8
of the breaks in the gospel narrative. The textual interpolations come in the form of chorale verses, of which the words and melodies would be familiar to Bach’s congregation, and solo arias. Bach’s choices of aria and chorale text are often triggered by details in the gospel story. These movements provide points of reflection, and challenge the congregation to respond personally. Thus the whole is designed as a “meditation [which] changes a person’s character”, after Luther’s enjoinder. The opening chorus sets the tone. Dissonant oboe and flute parts are woven above constantly undulating strings, setting up the work’s distinctive sonority. The choir offers praises to Christ on behalf of all nations, and asks to be shown, through his passion, that he is the true Son of God. After this, the passion story begins in the garden of Gethsemane with the arrest of Jesus. Most of the gospel text is sung by the Evangelist, or narrator, in a recitative style that gains expressive richness from its wide-ranging harmonies and complex melodic shapes. Dialogue is sung by individual soloists, notably the words of Jesus and of Pilate. The words of the various crowds are sung by the choir, often in complex polyphony with vivid orchestral accompaniment. The account of the arrest is broken up by two chorale verses. Both are prompted by words spoken by Jesus: “Now let these men go”, leads into a chorale which affirms his selfless love, then “Shall I not drink the cup which now my Father hath given me”, is followed by a chorale which urges acceptance of God’s will. Longer breaks in the narrative come in the alto and soprano arias, which likewise reflect and elaborate on themes which appear in the gospel text (for example “Simon Peter followed Jesus afar off” leads into “Ich folge dir gleichfalls”). Next comes the dramatized account of Peter’s denial of Jesus, which is lamented in an impassioned tenor aria. The chorale which follows this makes clear that all believers should share Peter’s intense shame at their sins. In the Leipzig Good Friday liturgy, Part One of the Passion setting would be followed by a sermon lasting approximately an hour. Part Two begins with Jesus, abandoned by his disciples, being led by the Jewish leaders to Pilate. The trial before Pilate is depicted dramatically, with the choir singing the part of the baying mob. After the scourging of Jesus, the narrative pauses for a bass arioso and a tenor aria, both of which offer the thought that his sufferings were for the good of all. The narrative resumes, and the mob gradually persuades Pilate to crucify Jesus. As he is led to crucifixion, a bass aria urges all weary souls to follow him there, to Golgotha. The narrative then describes the crucifixion, and finally the death of Jesus. The alto aria “Es ist vollbracht”, and the bass aria “Mein teurer Heiland”, come on either side of a single sentence in which the Evangelist describes Jesus giving up the ghost. Bach’s choice of texts here makes it clear that he regards the crucifixion as a victory of good over evil, and of redemption over sin. However, he is not content with crude theological triumphalism, and the movements for tenor and soprano which follow are full of genuinely human emotions of grief and loss. The final act of the passion story is the burial in the garden tomb, which is related by the Evangelist alone. The concluding chorus and chorale reiterate Bach’s central theme, that the death and sufferings of Jesus are both lifegiving and transforming for all. Bach sets his interpretation of the story to music of intense expressive depth, and enormous stylistic range. The recitative settings of the gospel, and the polyphonic choral settings of the crowd, lie within the mainstream of Lutheran liturgical music, although the richly complex harmonies and contrapuntal elaboration of Bach’s music are exceptional. Similarly, in the chorales Bach’s harmonic genius enriches an established tradition of sacred music. The arias are influenced more by modern secular forms and styles, including the Sarabande rhythm of the tenor aria “Ach, mein Sinn”, and the Minuet of the closing chorus “Ruht wohl”. Bach was under stern instruction to avoid sounding too operatic; it almost seems in places that he had conveniently forgotten this. The instrumentation is a mixture of the archaic and the avant-garde: new and fashionable instruments like the transverse flute and the oboe d’amore appear side by side with archaic (although secular) ones like the viola da gamba. Bach uses the solo arias as opportunities to vary the instrumental palette: the vocal soloists are accompanied variously by obbligati for oboes, flute, strings, and gamba, with the full orchestra accompanying the choral movements. The St. John Passion can be heard as a dramatic story of universal human emotions, as a theological exposition, as a challenge to amend and improve our lives, as a masterpiece of musical craftsmanship and invention, or as any combination of the above. There is no record of the reaction of the first audience in 1724, but they must have had some sense of how extraordinary a composition it is: how the supreme technical accomplishment of Bach’s music is allied to an expressive purpose of complete sincerity and enormous profundity, which is still gripping, nearly 300 years on. It is never an easy work to listen to; it demands concentrated engagement from the listener, and was always meant to challenge and disturb. Approached like this, Bach’s passion setting comes across as a deeply compassionate and optimistic story, where the crucifixion is an act of redemptive love, and the resurrection is awaited with certainty. Dr. Peter Foster 9
Regarded as perhaps the greatest composer of all time, Bach was known during his lifetime primarily as an outstanding organ player and technician. The youngest of eight children born to musical parents, Johann Sebastian was destined to become a musician. While still young, he had mastered the organ and violin, and was also an excellent singer. At the age of ten, both of his parents died within a year of each other. Young Sebastian was fortunate to be taken in by an older brother, Johann Christoph, who most likely continued his musical training. At the age of fifteen, Bach secured his first position in the choir of St. Michael’s School in Lüneburg. He travelled little, never leaving Germany in his lifetime, but held various positions during his career in churches and in the service of the courts throughout the country. In 1703 he went to Arnstadt to take up the post of organist at the St. Boniface Church. It was during his tenure there that Bach took a month’s leave of absence to make the journey to Lübeck (some 200 miles away, a journey he made on foot) to hear the great organist Dietrich Buxtehude. One month turned into five, and Bach was obliged to find a new position at Mülhausen in 1706. In that year he also married his cousin, Maria Barbara. Bach remained at Mülhausen for only a year before taking up a post as organist and concertmaster at the court of the Duke of Weimar. In 1717, Bach moved on to another post, this time as Kapellmeister at the court of Prince Leopold in Cöthen. During the years Bach was in the service of the courts, he was obliged to compose a great deal of instrumental music: hundreds of pieces for solo keyboard, orchestral dance suites, trio sonatas for various instruments, and concertos for various instruments and orchestra. Maria Barbara died suddenly in 1720, having borne the composer seven children. Within a year Bach remarried. The daughter of the town trumpeter, Anna Magdalena Bach would prove to be an exceptional companion to the composer. In addition, the couple sired thirteen children. (Of Bach’s twenty offspring, ten died in infancy. Four became well-known composers, including Carl Philipp Emanuel and Johann Christian.) Soon after his second marriage, Bach began looking for another position, and eventually took one in Leipzig, where he became organist and cantor at St. Thomas Church. He remained in Leipzig for the rest of his life. A devout Lutheran, Bach composed a great many sacred works as his duties required when in the employ of the church: well over two hundred cantatas (a new one was required of him every week), several motets, five masses, three oratorios, and four settings of the Passion story, one of which, The St. Matthew Passion, is one of western music’s sublime masterpieces. Bach also wrote vast amounts of music for his chosen instrument, the organ, much of which is still regarded as the pinnacle of the repertoire. One such work is the tremendous Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor. Towards the end of 1749, Bach’s failing eyesight was operated on by a traveling English surgeon, the catastrophic results of which were complete blindness. His health failing, Bach nevertheless continued to compose, dictating his work to a pupil. He finally succumbed to a stroke on July 28, 1750. He was initially buried in an unmarked grave at St. Thomas Church, but he was later reinterred in front of the altar. Bach brought to majestic fruition the polyphonic style of the late Renaissance. By and large a musical conservative, he achieved remarkable heights in the art of fugue, choral polyphony and organ music, as well as in instrumental music and dance forms. His adherence to the older forms earned him the nickname “the old wig” by his son, the composer Carl Philip Emanuel Bach, yet his music remained very much alive and was known and studied by the next generation of composers. It was the re-discovery of the St. Matthew Passion in 1829 by Felix Mendelssohn that initiated the nineteenth century penchant for reviving and performing older, “classical” music. With the death of Johann Sebastian Bach in 1750, music scholars conveniently mark the end of the Baroque era.
Johannes-Passion BWV 245 1. Chorus Herr, unser Herrscher, dessen Ruhm In allen Landen herrlich ist! Zeig uns durch deine Passion, Dass du, der wahre Gottessohn, Zu aller Zeit, Auch in der größten Niedrigkeit, Verherrlicht worden bist!
Lord, our ruler, whose glory is magnificent everywhere! Show us through your passion, that you, the true son of God, at all times even in the most lowly state, are glorified.
2a. Recitative Evangelist:
Jesus ging mit seinen Jüngern über den Bach Kidron, da war ein Garten, darein ging Jesus und seine Jünger. Judas aber, der ihn verriet, wusste den Ort auch, denn Jesus versammlete sich oft daselbst mit seinen Jüngern. Da nun Judas zu sich hatte genommen die Schar und der Hohenpriester und Pharisäer Diener, kommt er dahin mit Fackeln, Lampen und mit Waffen. Als nun Jesus wusste alles, was ihm begegnen sollte, ging er hinaus und sprach zu ihnen:
Jesus went with his disciples over the brook Kidron where there was a garden which Jesus and his disciples entered. But Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place, for Jesus often met there with his disciples. Now Judas had got a band of servants from the chief priests and the Pharisees and he came to the place with lanterns, torches and weapons. As Jesus knew everything that was going to happen to him he came forward and said to them:
Who are you looking for?
Wen suchet ihr?
They answered him:
Sie antworteten ihm:
2b. Chorus Jesus of Nazareth.
Jesum von Nazareth
2c. Recitative Evangelist:
Jesus spricht zu ihnen:
Jesus said to them
I am he.
Judas aber, der ihn verriet, stund auch bei ihnen. Als nun Jesus zu ihnen sprach: Ich bin’s, wichen sie zurücke und fielen zu Boden. Da fragete er sie abermal:
But Judas, who betrayed him, was standing with them. When Jesus said to them, “I am he”, they moved back and fell to the ground. He asked them a second time:
Wen suchet ihr?
Who are you looking for?
Sie aber sprachen:
And they said: 11
2d. Chorus Jesum von Nazareth.
Jesus of Nazareth.
2e. Recitative Evangelist:
Ich habs euch gesagt, dass ichs sei, suchet ihr denn mich, so lasset diese gehen!
I have told you that I am he. If you are looking for me, then let these go!
3. Chorale O great love, o love without any limits, that has brought you along this martyr›s way I live with the world in pleasure and delight, and you must suffer.
O große Lieb, o Lieb ohn alle Maße, Die dich gebracht auf diese Marterstraße Ich lebte mit der Welt in Lust und Freuden, Und du musst leiden.
4. Recitative Evangelist:
Auf dass das Wort erfüllet würde, welches er sagte: Ich habe der keine verloren, die du mir gegeben hast. Da hatte Simon Petrus ein Schwert und zog es aus und schlug nach des Hohenpriesters Knecht und hieb ihm sein recht Ohr ab; und der Knecht hieß Malchus. Da sprach Jesus zu Petro:
In this way the word was fulfilled which said: I have lost none of those which you gave to me. Then Simon Peter had a sword and he drew it out and struck the chief priest’s servant and cut off his right ear; and the servant was called Malchus. Then Jesus said to Peter
Stecke dein Schwert in die Scheide! Soll ich den Kelch nicht trinken, den mir mein Vater gegeben hat?
Put up your sword in its scabbard! Shall I not drink the cup which my father has given me?
5. Chorale May your will be done, Lord God,both on earth as in heaven. grant us patience in time of sorrow, obedience in love and sorrow, restrain and guide our flesh and blood that acts against your will!
Dein Will gescheh, Herr Gott, zugleich Auf Erden wie im Himmelreich. Gib uns Geduld in Leidenszeit, Gehorsam sein in Lieb und Leid; Wehr und steur allem Fleisch und Blut, Das wider deinen Willen tut!
6. Recitative Evangelist:
Die Schar aber und der Oberhauptmann und die Diener der Jüden nahmen Jesum und bunden ihn und führeten ihn aufs erste zu Hannas, der war Kaiphas Schwäher, welcher des Jahres Hoherpriester war. Es war aber Kaiphas, der den Jüden riet, es wäre gut, dass ein Mensch würde umbracht für das Volk.
But the soldiers and their commander and the servants of the Jews arrested Jesus and bound him and led him first to Annas who was the father-in-law of Caiphas – this man was the chief priest that year. It was Caiphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people. 12
7. Aria Alto From the bonds of my sins to set me free my saviour is bound. From all infections of vice to heal me completely he gives himself to be wounded.
Von den Stricken meiner Sünden Mich zu entbinden, Wird mein Heil gebunden. Mich von allen Lasterbeulen Völlig zu heilen, Läßt er sich verwunden.
8. Recitative Evangelist:
But Simon Peter and another disciple followed Jesus.
Simon Petrus aber folgete Jesu nach und ein ander Jünger.
9. Aria Soprano I follow you likewise with joyful steps and do not leave you my life, my light. Bring me on my way and do not cease to pull, push and urge me on.
Ich folge dir gleichfalls mit freudigen Schritten Und lasse dich nicht, Mein Leben, mein Licht. Befördre den Lauf Und höre nicht auf, Selbst an mir zu ziehen, zu schieben, zu bitten.
10. Recitative Evangelist:
This disciple was known to the chief priest and he went along with Jesus into the palace of the chief priest. But Peter stood without by the door. then the other disciple who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the woman in charge of the door and led Peter within Then the woman in charge of the door, the maid, said to Peter:
Derselbige Jünger war dem Hohenpriester bekannt und ging mit Jesu hinein in des Hohenpriesters Palast. Petrus aber stund draußen für der Tür. Da ging der andere Jünger, der dem Hohenpriester bekannt war, hinaus und redete mit der Türhüterin und führete Petrum hinein. Da sprach die Magd, die Türhüterin, zu Petro:
Are not you one of this man’s disciples? Evangelist: He said
Bist du nicht dieses Menschen Jünger einer? Evangelist: Er sprach:
I am not.
Ich bins nicht. Evangelist: Es stunden aber die Knechte und Diener und hatten ein Kohlfeu›r gemacht (denn es war kalt) und wärmeten sich. Petrus aber stund bei ihnen und wärmete sich. Aber der Hohepriester fragte Jesum um seine Jünger und um seine Lehre. Jesus antwortete ihm:
Evangelist: The servants and officers were standing there and had made a charcoal fire (for it was cold) and were warming themselves. Peter stood by them and warned himself. The chief priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. Jesus answered him.
I have spoken openly before all the world. I have always taught in the synagogue
Ich habe frei, öffentlich geredet für der Welt. Ich habe allezeit gelehret in der Schule 13
und in dem Tempel, da alle Jüden zusammenkommen, und habe nichts im Verborgnen geredt. Was fragest du mich darum? Frage die darum, die gehöret haben, was ich zu ihnen geredet habe! Siehe, dieselbigen wissen, was ich gesaget habe. Evangelist: Als er aber solches redete, gab der Diener einer, die dabeistunden, Jesu einen Backenstreich und sprach:
and in the temple where all the Jews gather together and have spoken nothing in secret. Why therefore do you question me Question those who have heard about what I have spoken to them! See, they themselves know what I have said Evangelist: As he spoke in this way, one of servants who was standing by, struck Jesus with his hand and said
Solltest du dem Hohenpriester also antworten?
Should you reply to the chief priests in this way? Evangelist: Jesus answered:
Evangelist: Jesus aber antwortete:
Hab ich übel geredt, so beweise es, dass es böse sei, hab ich aber recht geredt, was schlägest du mich?
If I have spoken badly, then show what was wrong. But if I have spoken rightly, why do you strike me?
11. Chorale Wer hat dich so geschlagen, Mein Heil, und dich mit Plagen So übel zugericht›? Du bist ja nicht ein Sünder Wie wir und unsre Kinder, Von Missetaten weißt du nicht. Ich, ich und meine Sünden, Die sich wie Körnlein finden Des Sandes an dem Meer, Die haben dir erreget Das Elend, das dich schläget, Und das betrübte Marterheer.
Who has struck you in this way, my saviour, and with torments treated you so badly? You are indeed not a sinner as we and our children are, of wrongdoing you know nothing. I, I, and my sins, that are as many as grains of sand by the sea have provoked for you the misery that has struck you and the host of troubles and torment.
12a. Recitative Evangelist:
Und Hannas sandte ihn gebunden zu dem Hohenpriester Kaiphas. Simon Petrus stund und wärmete sich, da sprachen sie zu ihm:
And Annas sent him bound to the chief priest Caiphas. As Simon Peter stood and warmed himself, they said to him
12b. Chorus Bist du nicht seiner Jünger einer?
Aren’t you one of his disciples?
12c. Recitative Evangelist:
Er leugnete aber und sprach:
But he denied it and said:
Ich bins nicht.
I am not.
Spricht des Hohenpriesters Knecht einer,
One of the chief priest’s servants, 14
ein Gefreundter des, dem Petrus das Ohr abgehauen hatte:
a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, said
Sahe ich dich nicht im Garten bei ihm? Evangelist: Da verleugnete Petrus abermal, und alsobald krähete der Hahn. Da gedachte Petrus an die Worte Jesu und ging hinaus und weinete bitterlich.
Did I not see you in the garden with him? Evangelist: Then Peter denied it again, and once the cock crew Then Peter thought of Jesus’s word and went out and wept bitterly.
13. Aria Tenor Ah ,my soul where will you at last go, where shall I find relief? Should I stay here or should I wish that hills and mountains were behind me? In the world there is no help, and in my heart are the pains of my wrongdoing since the servant has denied the Lord.
Ach, mein Sinn, Wo willt du endlich hin, Wo soll ich mich erquicken? Bleib ich hier, Oder wünsch ich mir Berg und Hügel auf den Rücken? Bei der Welt ist gar kein Rat, Und im Herzen Stehn die Schmerzen Meiner Missetat, Weil der Knecht den Herrn verleugnet hat.
14. Chorale Peter, who does not think back at all, denies his God, but then at a look of reproach weeps bitterly. Jesus, look at me also when I am reluctant to repent; when I have done evil stir up my conscience!
Petrus, der nicht denkt zurück, Seinen Gott verneinet, Der doch auf ein ernsten Blick Bitterlichen weinet. Jesu, blicke mich auch an, Wenn ich nicht will büßen; Wenn ich Böses hab getan, Rühre mein Gewissen! Second Part
15. Chorale Christ, who makes us blessed and has done no wrong, was for us in the night seized like a thief, led before godless people and falsely accused, derided, mocked and spat upon, as the scripture says.
Christus, der uns selig macht, Kein Bös hat begangen, Der ward für uns in der Nacht Als ein Dieb gefangen, Geführt für gottlose Leut Und fälschlich verklaget, Verlacht, verhöhnt und verspeit, Wie denn die Schrift saget.
16a. Recitative Evangelist:
Da führeten sie Jesum von Kaiphas vor das Richthaus, und es war frühe. Und sie gingen nicht in das Richthaus, auf dass sie nicht unrein würden, sondern Ostern essen möchten.
Then they led Jesus from Caiphas to the hall of judgement,and it was early. And they did not go into the hall of judgement so that they would not become defiled but would be able to eat the Passover meal. 15
Da ging Pilate zu ihnen heraus und sprach:
Then Pilate came out to them and said:
Was bringet ihr für Klage wider diesen Menschen?
What accusation do you bring against this man?
Sie antworteten und sprachen zu ihm:
They replied and said to him:
16b. Chorus Wäre dieser nicht ein Übeltäter, wir hätten dir ihn nicht überantwortet.
If this man were not a criminal, we would not have brought him before you.
16c. Recitative Evangelist:
Da sprach Pilate zu ihnen:
Then Pilate said to them :
So nehmet ihr ihn hin und richtet ihn nach eurem Gesetze!
Then take him away and judge him according to your law!
Da sprachen die Jüden zu ihm:
Then the Jews said to him:
16d. Chorus Wir dürfen niemand töten.
We are not allowed to put anyone to death.
16e. Recitative Evangelist:
Auf dass erfüllet würde das Wort Jesu, welches er sagte, da er deutete, welches Todes er sterben würde. Da ging Pilate wieder hinein in das Richthaus und rief Jesu und sprach zu ihm:
In this way was fulfilled the words of Jesus, which he said to indicate by what sort of death he would die. Then Pilate went back into the hall of judgement and called Jesus and said to him:
Bist du der Jüden König? Evangelist: Jesus antwortete:
Are you the king of the Jews? Evangelist: Jesus replied:
Redest du das von dir selbst, oder habens dir andere von mir gesagte? Evangelist: Pilate antwortete:
Do you say this of yourself, or did others say it to you about me? Evangelist: Pilate answered:
Bin ich ein Jüde? Dein Volk und die Hohenpriester haben dich mir überantwortet; was hast du getan?
Am I a Jew? Your people and the chief priests have handed you over to me. What have you done?
Mein Reich ist nicht von dieser Welt; wäre mein Reich von dieser Welt, meine Diener würden darob kämpfen, dass ich den Jüden nicht überantwortet würde;
My kingdom is not of this world; if my kingdom were of this world then my servants would fight so that I should not be handed over to the Jews; 16
but now my kingdom is not from here.
aber nun ist mein Reich nicht von dannen.
17. Chorale Ah, great king, great in all ages, How can I make my faithfulness in any way adequate? No human heart can conceive what gift is fit to offer you. My mind cannot imagine what can be compared to your mercy. How then can I match your loving deeds by anything I do?
Ach großer König, groß zu allen Zeiten, Wie kann ich gnugsam diese Treu ausbreiten? Keins Menschen Herze mag indes ausdenken, Was dir zu schenken. Ich kann›s mit meinen Sinnen nicht erreichen, Womit doch dein Erbarmen zu vergleichen. Wie kann ich dir denn deine Liebestaten Im Werk erstatten?
18a. Recitative Evangelist:
Da sprach Pilate zu ihm:
Then Pilate said to him
So bist du dennoch ein König?
So you are then a King?
Du sagst›s, ich bin ein König. Ich bin dazu geboren und in die Welt kommen, dass ich die Wahrheit zeugen soll. Wer aus der Wahrheit ist, der höret meine Stimme.
You say it,I am a king. For this I was born and came into the world, so that I should testify to the truth. Anyone who is of the truth hears my voice.
Spricht Pilate zu ihm:
Pilate said to him
Was ist Wahrheit?
What is truth?
Und da er das gesaget, ging er wieder hinaus zu den Jüden und spricht zu ihnen:
And when he said this, he went back out to the Jews and said to them:
Ich finde keine Schuld an ihm. Ihr habt aber eine Gewohnheit, dass ich euch einen losgebe; wollt ihr nun, dass ich euch der Jüden König losgebe?
I find no fault in him. But you have a custom, that I release one prisoner to you; do you wish then that I should release to you the king of the Jews?
Da schrieen sie wieder allesamt und sprachen:
They all cried out together and said:
18b. Chorus Not this man, but Barrabas!
Nicht diesen, sondern Barrabam!
18c. Recitative Evangelist:
Barrabas aber war ein Mörder. Da nahm Pilate Jesum und geißelte ihn.
Now Barrabas was a murderer. Then Pilate took Jesus and scourged him. 17
19. Arioso Bass Consider, my soul, with anxious delight, with bitter pleasure and a heart partly oppressed that your highest good depends on Jesus’ sorrow, how for you from the thorns that pierce him heavenly flowers blossom! You can gather so much sweet fruit from his wormwood therefore look unceasingly towards him!
Betrachte, meine Seel, mit ängstlichem Vergnügen, Mit bittrer Lust und halb beklemmtem Herzen Dein höchstes Gut in Jesu Schmerzen, Wie dir auf Dornen, so ihn stechen, Die Himmelsschlüsselblumen blühn! Du kannst viel süße Frucht von seiner Wermut brechen Drum sieh ohn Unterlass auf ihn!
20. Aria Tenor Ponder well how his back bloodstained all over is like the sky where after the deluge from our flood of sins has abated there appears the most beautiful rainbow as a sign of God’s mercy!
Erwäge, wie sein blutgefärbter Rücken In allen Stücken Dem Himmel gleiche geht, Daran, nachdem die Wasserwogen Von unsrer Sündflut sich verzogen, Der allerschönste Regenbogen Als Gottes Gnadenzeichen steht!
21a. Recitative Evangelist:
Und die Kriegsknechte flochten eine Krone von Dornen und satzten sie auf sein Haupt und legten ihm ein Purpurkleid an und sprachen:
And the soldiers wove a crown of thorns and placed it on his head and put a purple robe on him and said:
21b. Chorus Hail to you, king of the Jews!
Sei gegrüßet, lieber Jüdenkönig!
21c. Recitative Evangelist:
Und gaben ihm Backenstreiche. Da ging Pilate wieder heraus und sprach zu ihnen:
And they gave him blows with their hands. Then Pilate came out again and said to them:
Sehet, ich führe ihn heraus zu euch, dass ihr erkennet, dass ich keine Schuld an ihm finde. Evangelist: Also ging Jesus heraus und trug eine Dornenkrone und Purpurkleid. Und er sprach zu ihnen:
Look, I bring him out to you so that you can know that I find no fault in him Evangelist: And so Jesus came out and wore a crown of thorns and a purple robe. And he said to them:
Sehet, welch ein Mensch! Evangelist: Da ihn die Hohenpriester und die Diener sahen, schrieen sie und sprachen:
Look, this is the man! Evangelist: When the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out and said:
21d. Chorus Crucify him,crucify him!
21e. Recitative Evangelist:
Pilate said to them:
Pilate sprach zu ihnen:
Take him and crucify him; for I find no fault in him! Evangelist: The Jews answered him:
Nehmet ihr ihn hin und kreuziget ihn; denn ich finde keine Schuld an ihm! Evangelist: Die Jüden antworteten ihm:
21f. Chorus We have a law and according to the law he should die because he made himself the son of God.
Wir haben ein Gesetz, und nach dem Gesetz soll er sterben; denn er hat sich selbst zu Gottes Sohn gemacht.
21g. Recitative Evangelist:
When Pilate heard what they said, he was even more afraid and went back to the hall of judgment and said to Jesus:
Da Pilate das Wort hörete, fürchtet› er sich noch mehr und ging wieder hinein in das Richthaus und spricht zu Jesu:
Where do you come from? Evangelist: But Jesus gave him no answer. Then Pilate said to him:
Von wannen bist du? Evangelist: Aber Jesus gab ihm keine Antwort. Da sprach Pilate zu ihm:
You won’t speak to me? Do you not know that I have the power to crucify you, and I have the power to set you free? Evangelist: Jesus replied:
Redest du nicht mit mir? Weißest du nicht, dass ich Macht habe, dich zu kreuzigen, und Macht habe, dich loszugehen ? Evangelist: Jesus antwortete:
Jesus: Du hättest keine Macht über mich, wenn sie dir nicht wäre von oben herab gegeben; darum, der mich dir überantwortet hat, der hat›s größre Sünde. Evangelist: Von dem an trachtete Pilate, wie er ihn losließe.
You would have no power over me if it were not given to you from above: therefore the one who handed me over to you has the greater guilt Evangelist: And from then on Pilate endeavoured to set him free.
22. Chorale Through your imprisonment, Son of God, must our freedom come. Your prison is the throne of grace, the refuge of all believers. If you had not accepted slavery,
Durch dein Gefängnis, Gottes Sohn, Muß uns die Freiheit kommen; Dein Kerker ist der Gnadenthron, Die Freistatt aller Frommen; Denn gingst du nicht die Knechtschaft ein, 19
Müßt unsre Knechtschaft ewig sein.
our slavery would have been eternal.
23a. Recitative Evangelist:
Die Jüden aber schrieen und sprachen:
But the Jews cried out and said:
23b. Chorus Lässest du diesen los, so bist du des Kaisers Freund nicht; denn wer sich zum Könige machet, der ist wider den Kaiser.
If you release this man, then you are not Caesar’s friend; for anyone who makes himself king is against Caesar.
23c. Recitative Evangelist:
Da Pilate das Wort hörete, führete er Jesum heraus und satzte sich auf den Richtstuhl, an der Stätte, die da heißet: Hochpflaster, auf Ebräisch aber: Gabbatha. Es war aber der Rüsttag in Ostern um die sechste Stunde, und er spricht zu den Jüden:
When Pilate heard what they said, he led Jesus out and sat in the judgment seat at the place which is called the Pavement,or in Hebrew:Gabbatha It was the day of preparation for the passover, about the sixth hour, and he said to the Jews:
Sehet, das ist euer König! Evangelist: Sie schrieen aber:
Look, this is your king! Evangelist: But they cried out:
23d. Chorus Weg, weg mit dem, kreuzige ihn!
Away with him, away with him, crucify him!
23e. Recitative Evangelist:
Spricht Pilate zu ihnen:
Pilate said to them:
Soll ich euren König kreuzigen?
Shall I crucify your king?
Die Hohenpriester antworteten:
The chief priests answered:
23f. Chorus Wir haben keinen König denn den Kaiser.
We have no king but Caesar.
23g. Recitative Evangelist:
Da überantwortete er ihn, dass er gekreuziget würde. Sie nahmen aber Jesum und führeten ihn hin. Und er trug sein Kreuz und ging hinaus zur Stätte,
Then he handed him over to be crucified They took Jesus and led him away. And he carried his cross and went to the place 20
which is called the place of the skull, that is in Hebrew: Golgatha
die da heißet Schädelstätt, welche heißet auf Ebräisch: Golgatha.
24. Aria Bass and Chorus Hurry , you tormented souls, leave your dens of torment, Hurry – Where to? –to Golgotha! Take the wings of faith, Fly – Where to? – to the hill of the cross, there your salvation flourishes!
Eilt, ihr angefochtnen Seelen, Geht aus euren Marterhöhlen, Eilt - Wohin? - nach Golgatha! Nehmet an des Glaubens Flügel, Flieht - Wohin? - zum Kreuzeshügel, Eure Wohlfahrt blüht allda!
25a. Recitative Evangelist:
There they crucified him and with him two others,one on either side. with Jesus the middle. And Pilate wrote a title and placed it on the cross, nd there was written: “Jesus of Nazareth, king of the Jews”. Many Jews read this title for the place was near the city where Jesus was crucified . And it was written in Hebrew, Greek and Latin. Then the chief priests said to Pilate:
Allda kreuzigten sie ihn, und mit ihm zween andere zu beiden Seiten, Jesum aber mitten inne. Pilate aber schrieb eine Überschrift und satzte sie auf das Kreuz, und war geschrieben: «Jesus von Nazareth, der Jüden König». Diese Überschrift lasen viel Jüden, denn die Stätte war nahe bei der Stadt, da Jesus gekreuziget ist. Und es war geschrieben auf ebräische, griechische und lateinische Sprache. Da sprachen die Hohenpriester der Jüden zu Pilato:
25b. Chorus Do not write: the king of the Jews, but that he said: I am the king of the Jews.
Schreibe nicht: der Jüden König, sondern dass er gesaget habe: Ich bin der Jüden König.
25c. Recitative Evangelist:
What I have written, I have written.
Was ich geschrieben habe, das habe ich geschrieben.
26. Chorale In the depths of my heart your name and cross alone shine at every moment making me able to rejoice. Let me see the image to console me in my distress of how you, Lord Christ, so patiently shed your blood in death!
In meines Herzens Grunde Dein Nam und Kreuz allein Funkelt all Zeit und Stunde, Drauf kann ich fröhlich sein. Erschein mir in dem Bilde Zu Trost in meiner Not, Wie du, Herr Christ, so milde Dich hast geblut› zu Tod!
27a. Recitative Evangelist:
Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his clothes and made four parts, a part to each soldier, there was also his coat. His coat was seamless, woven from the top throughout. They said to each other:
Die Kriegsknechte aber, da sie Jesum gekreuziget hatten, nahmen seine Kleider und machten vier Teile, einem jeglichen Kriegesknechte sein Teil, dazu auch den Rock. Der Rock aber war ungenähet, von oben an gewürket durch und durch. Da sprachen sie untereinander:
27b. Chorus Let us not tear it,but cast lots whose it should be
Lasset uns den nicht zerteilen, sondern darum losen, wes er sein soll.
27c. Recitative Evangelist:
Evangelist: Auf dass erfüllet würde die Schrift, die da saget: Sie haben meine Kleider unter sich geteilet und haben über meinen Rock das Los geworfen, Solches taten die Kriegesknechte. Es stund aber bei dem Kreuze Jesu seine Mutter und seiner Mutter Schwester, Maria, Kleophas Weib, und Maria Magdalena. Da nun Jesus seine Mutter sahe und den Jünger dabei stehen, den er lieb hatte, spricht er zu seiner Mutter:
In this way the Scripture was fulfilled, where it is said: they have divided my clothing among them and they have cast lots for my coat, this is what the soldiers did There stood by Jesus’s cross his mother and his mother’s sister, Mary, Cleophas’ wife, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple that he loved standing next to her, he said to his mother:
Jesus: Woman, look, this is your son!
Weib, siehe, das ist dein Sohn!
Then he said to the disciple
Darnach spricht er zu dem Jünger:
Look, this is your mother!
Siehe, das ist deine Mutter!
28. Chorale He thought carefully of everything in his last hour, he was concerned for his mother, chose someone to look after her. O man, act justly, love God and mankind, then you can die without sorrow and need not grieve!
Er nahm alles wohl in acht In der letzten Stunde, Seine Mutter noch bedacht, Setzt ihr ein› Vormunde. O Mensch, mache Richtigkeit, Gott und Menschen liebe, Stirb darauf ohn alles Leid, Und dich nicht betrübe!
29. Recitative Evangelist:
And from that hour the disciple took her to himself Then as Jesus knew that all had been accomplished so the scripture might be fulfilled, he said
Und von Stund an nahm sie der Jünger zu sich. Darnach, als Jesus wusste, dass schon alles vollbracht war, dass die Schrift erfüllet würde, spricht er: 22
Da stund ein Gefäße voll Essigs. Sie fülleten aber einen Schwamm mit Essig und legten ihn um einen Isopen, und hielten es ihm dar zum Munde. Da nun Jesus den Essig genommen hatte, sprach er:
There was a jar of vinegar. They filled a sponge with vinegar and put it on an hyssop and held it up to his mouth. When Jesus had taken the vinegar, he said
Es ist vollbracht!
It is accomplished!
30. Aria Alto Es ist vollbracht! O Trost vor die gekränkten Seelen! Die Trauernacht Läßt nun die letzte Stunde zählen. Der Held aus Juda siegt mit Macht Und schließt den Kampf. Es ist vollbracht!
It is accomplished ! What comfort for all suffering souls! The night of sorrow now reaches its final hours. The hero from Judah triumphs in his might and brings the strife to an end. It is accomplished!
31. Recitative Evangelist:
Und neiget das Haupt und verschied.
And he bowed his head and passed away
32. Aria Bass and Chorus Mein teurer Heiland, laß dich fragen, da du nunmehr ans Kreuz geschlagen und selbst gesagt: Es ist vollbracht, bin ich vom Sterben frei gemacht? Kann ich durch deine Pein und Sterben das Himmelreich ererben? Ist aller Welt Erlösung da? Du kannst vor Schmerzen zwar nichts sagen; doch neigest du das Haupt und sprichst stillschweigend: ja Jesu, der du warest tot, lebest nun ohn Ende, in der letzten Todesnot nirgend mich hinwende als zu dir, der mich versühnt, O du lieber Herre! Gib mir nur, was du verdient, mehr ich nicht begehre!
My beloved Saviour, let me ask you, since you have now been nailed to the cross and you yourself have said : It is accomplished, have I been set free from death? Through your pain and death can I inherit the kingdom of heaven? Is this the redemption of the whole world? You can indeed not speak for anguish; but you bow your head and silently say : yes! Jesus, you were dead, and now live for ever, in my final agony of death may I turn nowhere else but to you , who have redeemed me, O my dear Lord, give me only what you have won, for more I could not wish!
33. Recitative Evangelist:
Und siehe da, der Vorhang im Tempel zerriss in zwei And see, the curtain in the Temple Stück von oben an bis unten aus. was torn in two from top to bottom, Und die Erde erbebete, and the earth shook und die Felsen zerrissen, and the rocks split und die Gräber täten sich auf, and the graves opened, und stunden auf viel Leiber der Heiligen. and many bodies of saints stood up. 23
34. Arioso Tenor My heart , while the whole world suffers as Jesus suffers, the sun is clothed in mourning, the veil is torn, the rocks split, the earth quakes, graves gape open, because they behold the creator grow cold in death, for your part, what will you do?
Mein Herz, in dem die ganze Welt Bei Jesu Leiden gleichfalls leidet, Die Sonne sich in Trauer kleidet, Der Vorhang reißt, der Fels zerfällt, Die Erde bebt, die Gräber spalten, Weil sie den Schöpfer sehn erkalten, Was willst du deines Ortes tun?
35. Aria Soprano Dissolve, my heart, in floods of tears to honour the Almighty! Tell the world and heaven your distress: your Jesus is dead!
Zerfließe, mein Herze, in Fluten der Zähren Dem Höchsten zu Ehren! Erzähle der Welt und dem Himmel die Not: Dein Jesus ist tot!
36. Recitative Evangelist:
But the Jews, because it was the day of preparation, so that the corpses should not remain on the cross over the sabbath, (for the sabbath day was very solemn) asked Pilate that their legs should be broken and they should be taken away . Then the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first man and the other who were crucified with him. But when they came to Jesus, they saw that he was already dead, and they did not break his legs; but one of the soldiers opened his side with a spear and at once blood and water came out. and the one who saw it has testified this, and his testimony is true, and he knows that he speaks the truth so that you may believe. This happened so that the Scripture might be fulfilled: “You shall break none of his bones”. And elsewhere another scripture says: “They will look on him whom they have pierced”.
Die Jüden aber, dieweil es der Rüsttag war, dass nicht die Leichname am Kreuze blieben den Sabbat über (denn desselbigen Sabbats Tag war sehr groß) baten sie Pilatum, ihre Beine gebrochen und sie abgenommen würden. Da kamen die Kriegsknechte und brachen dem ersten die Beine und dem andern, der mit ihm gekreuziget war. Als sie aber zu Jesu kamen, da sie sahen, dass er schon gestorben war, brachen sie ihm die Beine nicht; sondern der Kriegsknechte einer eröffnete seine Seite mit einem Speer, und alsobald ging Blut und Wasser heraus. Und der das gesehen hat, der hat es bezeuget, und sein Zeugnis ist wahr, und derselbige weiß, dass er die Wahrheit saget, auf dass ihr gläubet. Denn solches ist geschehen, auf dass die Schrift erfüllet würde: “Ihr sollet ihm kein Bein zerbrechen”. Und abermal spricht eine andere Schrift: “Sie werden sehen, in welchen sie gestochen haben”.
37. Chorale O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn, Durch dein bitter Leiden, Dass wir dir stets untertan All Untugend meiden, Deinen Tod und sein Ursach Fruchtbarlich bedenken, Dafür, wiewohl arm und schwach, Dir Dankopfer schenken!
Oh help us ,Christ, God’s Son, through your bitter suffering, so that always obedient to you we may shun all wrongdoing, amd thinking of your death and its cause we may profit from our reflections and in this way, however poor and inadequate it may be, give you an offering of thanks
38. Recitative Evangelist:
Than Joseph of Arimathia, who was a disciple of Jesus, asked Pilate (but secretly from fear of the Jews) to let him take away the body of Jesus. And Pilate allowed him to do so. He came for this purpose and took the body of Jesus away. There came also Nicodemus, who had once come to Jesus by night and brought myrrh and aloes together, about a hundred pounds. Then they took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen clothes with spices, as is the Jews’ custom for the burial There was a garden by the place where he was crucified, and in the garden a new tomb,in which no one had been laid. Here they laid Jesus because of the Jews’ preparation day, since the tomb was nearby.
Darnach bat Pilatum Joseph von Arimathia, der ein Jünger Jesu war (doch heimlich aus Furcht vor den Jüden), dass er möchte abnehmen den Leichnam Jesu. Und Pilate erlaubete es. Derowegen kam er und nahm den Leichnam Jesu herab. Es kam aber auch Nikodemus, der vormals bei der Nacht zu Jesu kommen war, und brachte Myrrhen und Aloen untereinander, bei hundert Pfunden. Da nahmen sie den Leichnam Jesu und bunden ihn in Leinen Tücher mit Spezereien, wie die Jüden pflegen zu begraben. Es war aber an der Stätte, da er gekreuziget ward, ein Garten, und im Garten ein neu Grab, in welches niemand je geleget war. Daselbst hin legten sie Jesum, um des Rüsttags willen der Jüden, dieweil das Grab nahe war.
39. Chorus Rest in peace, you sacred limbs, I shall weep for you no more, rest in peace, and bring me also to rest. The grave that is allotted to you and contains no further suffering, opens heaven for me and shuts off hell.
Ruht wohl, ihr heiligen Gebeine, Die ich nun weiter nicht beweine, Ruht wohl und bringt auch mich zur Ruh! Das Grab, so euch bestimmet ist Und ferner keine Not umschließt, Macht mir den Himmel auf und schließt die Hölle zu.
40. Chorale Ah Lord, let your dear angels at my final hour carry my soul to Abraham’s bosom, while my body in its narrow chamber gently without pain or torment rests until the last day. Wake me then from death, so that my eyes see you in all joy,o God’s son, my saviour and throne of mercy Lord Jesus Christ, hear me, I shall praise you eternally!
Ach Herr, lass dein lieb Engelein Am letzten End die Seele mein In Abrahams Schoß tragen, Den Leib in seim Schlafkämmerlein Gar sanft ohn eigne Qual und Pein Ruhn bis am jüngsten Tage! Alsdenn vom Tod erwecke mich, Dass meine Augen sehen dich In aller Freud, o Gottes Sohn, Mein Heiland und Genadenthron! Herr Jesu Christ, erhöre mich, Ich will dich preisen ewiglich!
The Friends of the Choir Founded by long-time Director of Music, Dr. Lloyd Cast, The Friends of The Choir of The Cathedral of All Saints is a non-profit organization that seeks to provide financial, logistical, and administrative support primarily to The Choir of Men and Boys as well as to other choral ensembles across the United States and abroad. Each year, The Friends provide partial and in some cases full scholarships to choristers who attend the Royal School of Church Music’s annual Training Course for Boys in Montreal. The Friends provide funding for the choir’s publicity, sponsor concerts, fund a variety of visiting artists and conductors, assist with chorister recruitment, and provide support for choir travel. The Friend’s membership roster contains hundreds of individuals and families who give of their time and money to support this unique choral tradition. In addition to their support of the choir, The Friends of the Choir provide full financial support for The Lloyd Cast Organ Fellowship, a two-year full-time residency for a deserving young musician. This Fellowship, named for The Cathedrals’ long-serving Director of Music, is unique in the country in its support for emerging organists. The inaugural Lloyd Cast Organ Fellow, Robert Richter, a graduate of Oberlin College, served from 2007-2009 and went on to become Assistant Music Director at St. Pauls’ Church in Indianapolis. Our current Organ Fellow, L. Graham Schultz, completed his studies at the Cleveland Institute of Music, where he was a pupil of Todd Wilson.
Acknowledgements The Director of Music wishes to thank all those who assisted with the planning of today’s concert and who made this choral season such a tremendous success. With special thanks to: The Bishops of the Diocese of Albany, The Venerable David J. Collum and The Cathedral Chapter The Staff of The Cathedral of All Saints The Members of The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys The Choir Parents L. Graham Schultz, Lloyd Cast Organ Fellow The Friends of The Choir of The Cathedral of All Saints Andrew & Elizabeth Howard, our Head Choirparents Theresa Lasselle, Debra Perrotto and Kendall Reilly, our devoted Choirmothers Judith Bynum The Reverend Allen Carpenter Proctor’s Theatre Ian Watson and John Shreiner, for the harpsicord and organ Dr. David Griggs-Janower Nathan Lawrence, Recording Engineer Keith Martens, Performance Photography Nancy Potter & Lon Kirschner, Design and Photography 26
Dear Friends, Thank you for joining us this evening and for your support of The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys. Over the past several years, The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys has experienced tremendous growth, with twenty choristers now joining a talented group of gentlemen to produce one of the finest choirs of men and boys in the United States.The Friends of the Choir remain committed to ensuring that this cherished music program continues through its support of The Lloyd Cast Organ Fellowship, sponsorship of choristers to the Royal School of Church Music’s Montreal Summer Course, financial assistance in the purchase of music, vestments and equipment, and marketing support to The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys. Once again, I hope that you enjoy this evening’s program and encourage you to join us again on May 20 for our Annual Spring Concert, Rachmaninoff’s “All Night Vigil”. With many thanks, Andrew B. Howard, President
The Friends of The Choir Cathedral of All Saints, inc.
A 501(c)3 not-for-profit corporation governed by a Board of Directors Andrew Howard
David Todd Allen
The Reverend Allen Carpenter
The Venerable David J. Collum
Nancy A Potter Kendall Reilly
The Friends of the Choir of The Cathedral of All Saints, inc. 62 south swan street albany, new york 12210 www.thecathedralofallsaints.org Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 27
THE CATHEDRAL CHOIR OF MEN AND BOYS
Auditions are welcome, by appointment for boys aged 7-12. For more information visit www.thecathedralofallsaints.org or call 518-465-1342.
The perfect gift is the gift of music. Two great recordings from The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys.
“To Thee All Angels Cry Aloud” The Cathedral Choir’s new release of sacred choral music of Benjamin Britten. Available tonight at this performace ($20), at the Cathedral Book Stall, order from cdbaby.com. or download from iTunes or Amazon.com
The Cathedral Choir’s live recording of
hailed as one of “shining” glory...” Available as a 2-CD set for $20. Available tonight at this performace, at the Cathedral Book Stall, cdbaby.com or download from iTunes or Amazon.com 28
of better banking. Main Office: 201 Mohawk Ave. Scotia 370-7200 firstscotia.com FIRS_1103_ArtsAd_bw 1
6/30/11 9:51 AM
christopher h. reilly, D.D.S., M.D. bret d. gelder, D.D.S., M.D., LLP Practice Limited to Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery With All Our Best Wishes 10 Airline Drive Albany New York 12205 518-456-6104
Brian Daggett, MD FACP
73 Troy Road East Greenbush New York 12061 518-477-4496
Todd Sandagato, RPA-C
1799 Route 9 Clifton Park New York 12065 518-383-5629
Elizabeth Howard, DO
Columbia Memorial Hospital
Kinderhook Medical Care Internal Medicine
Valatie Medical Arts Building 2827 Route 9 Suite 8 Valatie, New York 12184 518 758-6101 fax 518 758-2162 33
As a local, community bank since 1853, we are pleased to support The Friends of the Choir at the Cathedral of All Saints!
Chatham / Delmar / East Greenbush Greenport / Kinderhook / Valatie
Thank you Mr. Bynum & The Cathedral Choir
Soli Deo Gloria Andrew & Elizabeth Howard
In honor of my favorite Mens and Boys Choir in the world! Dr. David Griggs-Janower
Congratulations to The Choir, Mr. Bynum & Mr. Schultz The Wolfe Family
Best Wishes Nolan Jim, Thérèse, Seamus and Trevor
Trust your son’s future to La Salle. La Salle Institute helps shape young lives providing close personal attention to help boys grades 6-12 develop a love of learning, strength of character, teamwork and leadership in a rigorous yet caring environment. ––––––––––––––––––––––––
174 Williams Rd., Troy, NY 12180 • 518.283.2500 38
Discover La Salle for yourself at LaSalleInstitute.org.
Kirschner ■ Caroff Design Graphic Design & Consulting
Proud Supporter of T HE C ATHEDRAL C HOIR OF M EN AND B OYS
We are honored to provide design services for The Friends of the Choir See what we’ve done…
www.kirschnercaroff.com 518 392 3823
TheThe Cathedral of All Saints Cathedral of All Saints It gives me great joy to welcome one and all to The Cathedral of All Saints. The days before Easter are ones where we are encouraged to be more reflective about the deep meaning of life and of God. One of the challenges with such an invitation is that year after year what is meant to be a time of contemplation, can often become routine. Our conductor, Mr. Woodrow Bynum, our soloists, orchestra, and The Cathedral Choir of Men & Boys with this offering of St. John Passion provides us with the opportunity to enter the mystery of God’s love on the Cross through Bach’s masterful composition. My prayer for all of us this evening is that we will know the love of God in Christ. God’s promise for the future is great, but what God has already done for us in Christ is still greater. Who can doubt he will give us life, as he has already given us his life in death? May this offering of Bach’s St. John Passion encourage and bless you. Sincerely, The Venerable David J. Collum j Archdeacon of The Diocese of Albany, New York Dean of The Cathedral of All Saints
Holy Week & Easter Services 1 April
Palm Sunday 10:00 am
organ recital l.graham schultz 2:30 pm meditation on the passion of christ 3:00 pm
Maundy Thursday 7:00 pm
Good Friday 12:00 noon
Easter Vigil 7:00 pm
Easter Day 10:00 am
All services are sung by The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys, excepting Easter Vigil which is sung by the Gentlemen of the Choir. Woodrow Bynum, Director of Music L. Graham Schultz, lloyd cast organ fellow 42
20 May 3pm
All Night Vigil
t he c athedral c hoir
WoodroW BynuM, director of Music Lucille Beer, Alto
Bryan Register, Tenor
www.brownpapertickets.org 1-800- 838-3006 Event 197455 www.thecathedralofallsaints.org the cathedral of all saints 62 South Swan Street Albany, New York 12210 518 465 1342
For Program Advertising Opportunies at our Spring Concert please email: email@example.com or call 518-362-4975 43
Kimberly Osborne-Allen and Frank K. Dyer applaud The Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys
KIMBERLY OSBORNE-ALLEN Complex Operations Manager firstname.lastname@example.org FRANK K. DYER Senior Vice President - Complex Manager email@example.com 80 State Street Albany, NY 12207 518-447-8400 • 800-817-8252
Investment and Insurance Products: NOT FDIC Insured NO Bank Guarantee MAY Lose Value
Wells Fargo Advisors, LLC, Member SIPC, is a registered broker-dealer and a separate non-bank afﬁliate of Wells Fargo & Company. ©2009 Wells Fargo Advisors, LLC. All rights reserved. 1210-2822[74129-v2]
2012 Performance Program