Issuu on Google+

X-BAMBOO BAMBOO GROUP Wonderlab :: ResearchCluster 5, 2014-2015 Graduate Architectural Design

UCL, The Bartlett School of Architecture


WONDERLAB :: RESEARCH CLUSTER 5, GUAN LEE, VICENTE SOLER Bamboo Group:: Zhenhua Luo, Jianhua Ren, Junwei Ren, Longfei Wang, Lina Lan


CONTENTS

1 Background of Bamboo Project

001

2 Introduction

033

3 Exploration Stage of Bamboo

051

4 Chair Project

113

5 No.1 Column Project

227

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

character of bamboo reason of the wide use of bamboo in developing countries present bamboo research vacancy bamboo research

2.1 digital target 2.2 digital fabrication 2.3 digital model 2.4 digital tool 3.1 research based on bamboo tubes 3.2 reseach based on thin bamboo strips 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

material tests design pprocess cutting technique fabrication

5.1 location control tests 5.2 robotics technique 5.3 fabrication


6 No.2 Column Project

273

7 Final Project

363

Appendix 1: Bridge Design Workshop (No preview)

475

Appendix 2: Tubular Structure Research (No preview)

505

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

lamination technique material tests robotics fabrication design process fabrication

7.1 design process 7.2 fabrication 1.1 bridge design: shell 1.2 bridge design: tube 1.3 bridge design: subtraction

2.1 possibilities of tubular structure 2.2 different types of tubes 2.3 projects of tubular structure


Chapter 1

Background of Bamboo Project

1


2


Our research has been developed on the background of GAD system that focus on speculative and experimental design, contemporary theory and advanced fabrication. New forms and new methods of using bamboo as architectural materials are expected in our team. Furniture, spacial installation and architectural components are experimented with the aid of combination of computer techniques and physical craft. Raw bamboo had been split into strips and then reorganized, for a relatively better structure with lightness, flexibility and stability, from which the experiment began. Building with bamboo, can be aided by digital fabrication to create forms which cannot be achieved manually. Inspiration for the design and programming of this digital fabrication can be taken from contemporary bamboo art, furniture and installation. Bamboo, characterized by its flexibility, strength, sustainability and light weight is readily available. However the relatively slow development of bamboo architecture and bamboo craft is leading to a fall in the number of bamboo craftsmen and artists. Some architects fascinated by bamboo building, but there are many other possibilities of construction which could be developed. As for material research, in order to find a more efficient method of splitting bamboo, a four axis CNC and other tools have been compared. The comparison of some examples of bamboo buildings in Colombia and in Germany with some bamboo artworks, some craftsmen have achieved a lot in terms of exploring aesthetics and new forms. Although the scales of artwork and architecture are, of course, different. There are, however, limits to manual bamboo work, such as the length, strength and accuracy of human arms. In this situation, a 6 axis robotic arms are programmed, animated and choreographed to work simultaneously and perform acts of great dexterity and meticulous craft. More possibilities, greater accuracy and greater efficiency in bamboo architecture have been provided by the combination of digital fabrication-aided manufacture, and the wisdom of bamboo art. Subsequently, the technologies of bamboo building have been developed.

3


1.1 CHARACTER OF BAMBOO

Bamboo grows quickly and continuously, it produces the most biomass of all land plants. Depending on the variety and location, between 15 and 25 tons of bamboo per hectare can be produced in a year. An average European forest, on the other hand, yields only some six to eight tons of timber per year and hectare. Whereas bamboo can be harvested every five years - eight years at most - in the case of trees this is possible only after 40 years, in many cases only after more than 100 years. "It boasts mechanical properties that can be superior to those of wood and in some cases equal and even exceed those of steel." Baur claims. In earthquake areas, bamboo is an ideal material due to its flexibility and lightness. Bamboo absorbs the shocks elastically during earthquakes; however, many stone or brick constructions often collapse. The excellent mechanical properties of bamboo stem are based on its material's unique microscopic structure, Baur suggests, “its microscopic structure resembles that of fibre composites, whose glass or carbon fibres are embedded in a matrix."

4


Broto, E., 2015. p.7. Architecture and design: bamboo construction & design: design guide & 59 case study. Barcelona: Links international.

5


1.1 CHARACTER OF BAMBOO Bamboo Art Timeline

1603-1868

Edo period practicioners of tea ceremonies comision artisans to reproduce classical Chinese bamboo baskets that are used for flower

1873

1878

Hayakawa Shōkosai III (1864–1922) is awarded the Phoenix Crest Prize at Paris World’s Fair (Exposition Universelle) for his flower basket.

At the World Exposition (Weltausstellung) in Vienna, Japanese bamboo baskets are exhibited on an international platform for the first time. Entrepreneurs begin exporting bamboo baskets.

6

1890s

Iizuka Rōkansai and Shōno Shōunsai (1904–74) begin to experiment with sculptural forms.

First Teiten Gold Prize award given to a bamboo work, made by Iizuka Rōkansai.

Vocational training school specializing in bamboo opens in Beppu, Kyushu.

Wealthy patrons help elevate talented basket makers from artisans to artists by encouraging them to create original works of art, displayed in upper lass homes. The government sponsors Domestic Industry Exhibitions, awarding prestigious honors to artists of different crafts.

1950s

1932

1902

1938

Founding of the first bamboo research institute, today called Oita Prefectural Bamboo Art Crafts Training Support Center

1929

For the first time, bamboo works are accepted in the annual Teiten (Imperial Art Exhibition). A turning point for bamboo craftsmen who begin to view their work as an art form, rather than as strictly functional.


1955

A perilous national decrease in the practice of traditional arts and crafts spurs the Japanese government to preserve classic art forms, such as bamboo art, and to enact the Cultural Properties Protection Law.

1967

Shōno Shōunsai (1904–1974) is the first Living National Treasure in the field of bamboo.

2005

Maeda Chikubōsai II (1917–2003) awarded the status of Living National Treasure.

Iizuka Shōkansai (1919– 2004) esignated a Living National reasure.

Founding of the Japan Craft Arts Association

1950

1995

1982

1985

The exhibition Modern Bamboo Craft: Developments in the Modern Era (Take no kōgei: Kindai ni okeru tenkai) opens at the National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo (February 5 – March 24, 1985).

Modern Twist artist Katsushiro Sōhō (b. 1934) is named a Living National Treasure.

2003

Hayakawa Shōkosai V (b. 1932–2011) designated a Living National Treasure.

2012

Modern Twist artist Fujinuma Noboru (b. 1945) is designated a Living National Treasure.

7


1.1 CHARACTER OF BAMBOO Possibilities of Bamboo

1.Its intrinsic structure anticipants the principle of many high-tech materials 2.Its boasts an attractive appearance 3.Its excellent value for money 4.Fast growing, sustainable 5.Good seismic performance 6.A worldwide material

8


9


1.1 CHARACTER OF BAMBOO phisical Character of Bamboo

1.Density: 2.Average Tensile strength: 3.Average compressive strength: 4.Average Bending strength:

10

0.6-0.9g/cm 1855kg/cm 525kg/cm 1408kg/cm


Xiao, Y., Inoue, M. and Paudel, S.K. eds., 2008, pp.7-8. Modern bamboo structures. AK Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema.

11


1.2 REASON OF THE WIDE USE OF BAMBOO IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A Worldwide Material

Bamboo as a construction material is traditionally associated with the cultures of South Asia, East Asia and the South Pacific, to some extent in Central and South America, and by extension in the aesthetic of Tiki culture. 

Japan Mainland China

Africa

12

South Asia


Central America

South America

13


1.2 REASON OF THE WIDE USE OF BAMBOO IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Growing Much Faster Than Trees

Bamboo can be harvested every five years - eight years at most - in the case of trees, this is possible only after 40 years, in many cases only after more than 100 years.

Bamboo Canes

14


Wood

15


1.2 REASON OF THE WIDE USE OF BAMBOO IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A Low Cost Material

The most important advantage of bamboo architecture is the lower cost than wooden and stone architectureww, which could be widely used in developing countires.

16


17


1.2 REASON OF THE WIDE USE OF BAMBOO IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Help To Avoid Summer Heat

The temperatures is very high in the tropics. In some parts of southern China's, yunnan province for instance, people still like to construct a bamboo house to avoid summer heat, and enjoy the cool in such houses.

18


19


1.3 PRESENT BAMBOO RESEARCH Experience from Use of Bamboo

20


Do not use green, fresh cut bamboo. Bamboo has to be completely dry before using it in construction (preferable air dried). During the drying process the bamboo diameter shrinks, so when bamboo is used in joinery this will result in lose and weak joints after a few weeks. Do not use bamboo when it is less then 3 years of age. Only use mature bamboo of 4-6 years. Do not use bamboo infected by insects (powder beetle for example). Bamboo has to be properly cured with a boron mix immediately after harvesting. Do not use bamboo that has flourished. Rest assured bamboo only flourishes once in a lifetime (60-120 years). Do not use bamboo poles with profound vertical cracks. Use appropriate cuts and joints when building with bamboo. Use bamboo with the right diameter and wall thickness for your project.

21


1.3 PRESENT BAMBOO RESEARCH Traditional joints

22


The most important aspect of bamboo construction is the formation of joints that transfer forces from one element to another. Given that canes have a hollow round section, and the parts between their nodes only have longitudinal fibres, canes cannot be joined in the same manner as wooden elements. For example, if nails or screws are put into the intermodal parts without first drilling a hole, longitudinal splits occur because there are no circular fibres there. Traditionally, to fix the joints one uses “lianas” or bindings of natural fibres or of dampened leather that tighten as they dry. we can see solutions by the same author for articulated nodes. One can also use wooden elements for the joint. The transferral of forces from one bamboo element to another is favoured by complete contact. The most common cut for these connections is called a “fish mouth” and is perpendicular. If the cut is inclined, it is called “flute tip”. Using of inclined pins as connectors between parallel canes can make a stronger beam.

23


1.3 PRESENT BAMBOO RESEARCH Modern joints

24


Garrecht, et al. (2013) states that "The objective was to increase significantly the load-bearing properties for tensile and compressive forces transferred from the nodal points into the individual bamboo canes compared with bamboo/concrete composite." In order to transmit the compressive stress from roofs into bamboo, steel connectors were used. During the process of concrete hardening, the steel was fixed with bamboo via cement. As a result, the capability of bearing force was determined by the bamboo's inner shell, as well as the performance of the connectors, according to Garrecht, et al.

25


1.3 PRESENT BAMBOO RESEARCH Construction Material Research

Bamboo structure can be better than commercial timber structure in terms of being a building material. Rittironk and Elnieiri claim, “the structural properties of raw bamboo demonstrate its lightness compared to timber with one and a half times the strength. The ratio of strength over density of bamboo pole, indicating material efficiency, is 2.5 times higher than wood and 3 times of steel. This shows how bamboo is extremely efficient because it has lightness with high strength.�

26


Concrete

Steel

Timber

Bamboo

27


1.3 PRESENT BAMBOO RESEARCH Common LaminationMaterial and Techinique

Timber

Plywood

28


Bamboo

Plybamboo

29


1.4 VACANCY BAMBOO RESEARCH

Low- tech bamboo canes construction

30

High- tech bamboo canes construction


? Plybamboo construction member

What woud be further developed ?

31


32


Chapter 2 Introduction

33


2.1 DIGITAL TARGET

The target of the project is to realize the digital fabrication of bamboo with digital tools and digital models.

34


35


2.1 DIGITAL TARGET

Digital Fabrication

36


Digital Model

Digital Tool

37


2.2 DIGITAL FABRICATION

Exploration Stages of Digital Fabrication

Before the chair and several kinds of columns were fabricated, many forms and structures were explored and designed with digital methods, which help to understand the character of material and digital design and fabrication methods.

38


39


2.2 DIGITAL FABRICATION

Developmental Stages of Digital Fabrication

Chair

40

Column 1

Column 2


A Menmber of Pavilion

Pavilion

41


2.3 DIGITAL MODEL Karamba

karamba is an interactive, parametric finite element program. It lets you analyze the response of the bamboo column structures under arbitrary loads.

42


43


2.3 DIGITAL MODEL Kangroo

Kangaroo is a Live Physics engine for interactive simulation, optimization and form-finding directly within Grasshopper. In this project, it help to simulate the real curvature of bamboo strips that are bended by robotic arms.

44


Before Using Kangroo

After Using Kangroo

45


2.4 DIGITAL TOOL

CNC (Computer Numerical Control)

Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by precisely programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. In this project, CNC cuts bamboo tubes into strips, which waste less material than traditional way.

46


47


2.4 DIGITAL TOOL Robotic Arm

48

A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually programmable, with similar functions to a human arm; the arm may be the sum total of the mechanism or may be part of a more complex robot. The links of such a manipulator are connected by joints allowing either rotational motion or translational displacement. In this project, robotic arm is used to accurately control the curvature of each bamboo strips.


49


50


Chapter 3

Exploration stage of bamboo

51


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Bending Tests

Heating method: Boiling water Diameter of bamboo tube: 23mm Time of boiling bamboo: Heating method: Boiling water Diameter of bamboo tube: 23mm Time of boiling bamboo: Heating method: Boiling water Diameter of bamboo tube: 23mm Time of boiling bamboo: Heating method: Boiling water Diameter of bamboo tube: 23mm Time of boiling bamboo:

Bending result:

Bending result:

Bending result:

Bending result:

52


Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 20mm Depth of notch:

Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 20mm Depth of notch:

Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 20mm Depth of notch:

Bending result:

Bending result:

Bending result:

53


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Bending Tests

Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 20mm Length of notch:

Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 20mm Length of notch:

Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 20mm Length of notch:

Bending result:

Bending result:

Bending result:

54


Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 18mm Movement speed:

Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 18mm Movement speed:

Heating method: Fire Diameter of bamboo tube: 18mm Movement speed:

Bending result:

Bending result:

Bending result:

55


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

Triangle component

Triangle based component

Mobilizable component

56

Triangular pyramid component

Triangular pyramid component

Lattice structure component

Mobilizable component

Staggered form component

Staggered form component


57


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

58


We Join two same components together, and join four same components together, aggregate these single components, aggregate these two single components which are joined together and aggregate these four single components which are joined together, at last we try to compare these three deposits. The more components one join together, the steadily they catch each other and the higher they climb.

59


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

Force analysis of basic unit

Basic unit of reciprocal structure

60


The bamboo poles lap together, become a comparatively stable system without any external force, this is the characteristics of reciprocal system

61


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

Force analysis of basic bent unit

Basic bent unit of reciprocal structure

62


The prestress produced by bent bamboo poles is a good way to strengthen the stability of the reciprocal system, the greater the prestress, the stronger the whole system.

63


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

Force analysis of basic unit

Derivative of basic bent unit of reciprocal structure

64


65


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

66


This reciprocal grid structure is developed from reciprocal system, and is not a typical reciprocal structure. The internal direct interaction between bamboo poles of it is transferred into forces conducted by the connection of the metal bars. at the same time, each unit is becoming more strong and solid.

67


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

68


The development of the whole process is a logical process, every step is indispensable . The straight bamboo poles become bent ones, and single ones become coupled, Then they are assembled according to certain logical order, and become a integrated system.

http://designandmake.aaschool.ac.uk/live-project-timber-seasoning-shelter

69


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

In the process of development of our work, we attempt to change comparatively traditional method of joining same units together, and with the method of gradually changing the geometric forms to reinterpret reciprocal system, hoping to develop a form of freedom structure. In the following figures, we make the large hexagons and small triangles in the center gradually spread out into large triangles and small hexagons, and number the bars so that we can manage a reasonable fabrication.

70


71


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

Physical model

72


digital model

73


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

74


In the near future, we hope that we can make full use of the freeform reciprocal system to fabricate full size and more reasonable bamboo structure

75


3.1 RESEARCH BASED ON BAMBOO TUBES Structure Design & Experiment

76


We also hope to deeply study the characteristics of bamboo which can be bent, avoiding the disadvantage that a whole bamboo pole is difficult to be greatly bent. Bamboos will be cut into bamboo canes, and a more freedom surface system will be created

77


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Structure Design & Experiment

Pattern Research

78


Pattern Research

79


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Structure Design & Experiment

The minimal surface made of bamboo strips could clearly represent the characteristics of Mobius Ring.

80


81


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Structure Design & Experiment

Low resolution control polygon

Extract primary skeleton

Smooth surface secondary skeleton

82


83


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Structure Design & Experiment

Control the diameter of each branch

Control the length of each branch

Control the amount of bamboo cane

84


85


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Structure Design & Experiment

86


87


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Structure Design & Experiment

88


89


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Twisting Tests

90


91


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Twisting Tests

Before

After

Before

After

Before

After

Before

After

2 Bamboo Strips

4 Bamboo Strips

6 Bamboo Strips

8 Bamboo Strips

92


Number of laps

Number of bamboo strips

Statistic:

Number of bamboo strips:

2

4

6

8

Twist limitation:

2160 degree

1440 degree

1224 degree

1152 degree

Crash point:

connection between middle and two ends

Conclusion:

Experimental data show that the twist of bamboo strips are easily broken at the junction.Graph curve illustrate the less the bamboo strips, the more laps it can be twisted ,and by adding number of bamboo strips, the ultimate twist limit become closer.

93


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Twisting Tests

94


95


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Twisting Tests

96


Twisted bamboo strips

Original bamboo strips

Statistic: Number of bamboo strips: 8 Span: 40 cm Crash weight: Original bamboo strips : 6.0Kg Twisted bamboo strips: 5.8Kg

Conclusion: Original bamboo strips have a slightly better performance bearing weight, but twist bamboo strips have more potaintial to connect different parts together.

97


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Twisting Tests

Before

After

Before

After

2 Bamboo Strips Span 30 cm

4 Bamboo Strips Span 30 cm

98


Before

After

Before

After

6 Bamboo Strips Span 30 cm

8 Bamboo Strips Span 30 cm

99


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Twisting Tests

Before

After

Before

After

2 Bamboo Strips Span 20 cm

4 Bamboo Strips Span 20 cm

100


Before

After

Before

After

6 Bamboo Strips Span 20 cm

8 Bamboo Strips Span 20 cm

101


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Twisting Tests

Before

After

Before

After

2 Bamboo Strips Span 40 cm

4 Bamboo Strips Span 40 cm

102


Before

After

Before

After

6 Bamboo Strips Span 40 cm

8 Bamboo Strips Span 40 cm

103


Weight (Kg)

Number of Bamboo Btrips

Bamboo Strips Span

Statistic:

Number of bamboo strips:

2

4

6

8

Bamboo strips span:

2160 degree

1440 degree

1224 degree

1152 degree

Crash point:

connection between middle and two ends

Conclusion:

Experimental data show that the twist of bamboo strips are easily broken at the junction.Graph curve illustrate the less the bamboo strips, the more laps it can be twisted ,and by adding number of bamboo strips, the ultimate twist limit become closer.

104


Weight (Kg)

Number of Bamboo Btrips

105


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Further Structure Design & Experiment

106


Twist bamboo strips replace primary bamboo strips

107


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Further Structure Design & Experiment

Pattern One Branch

Connection way

108

Top

3D view


Pattem

Top

3D view Two branches

109


3.2 RESEARCH BASED ON THIN BAMBOO STRIPS Further Structure Design & Experiment

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

110


Connector

111


112


Chapter 4 Chair Project

113


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS The Control of Flexibility

Beorkrem (2013, pp.161-163) states that describes how nAchitects partners used lengths of freshly cut green bamboo to create a canopy which floated over and around the MOMA PS1 courtyard. He explains that various thicknesses and lengths of bamboo cane perform different radii when bent. The architects on the construction site, tested each of the bamboo canes which had been delivered from abroad, and the bending radii of the different thickness of the bamboo walls were determined. This information informed the shapes and profiles applied throughout the construction. Following this the bamboo strips were individually matched up to the geometry of the expected surface.(Beorkrem, 2013).

MOMA PS1 courtyard Designed by nAchitects.

114

Beorkrem, C., 2013. p.160. Material strategies in digital fabrication. New York: Routledge.


Compared to the method used by nAchitects, the approaches we researched have two advantages: relatively higher efficiency and a greater degree of accuracy. Firstly, the efficiency of construction was improved due to the fact that the nonstandard raw bamboo was processed into uniform strips and, as a result, the performance of each strip was almost exactly the same. In other words, the on-site bending radii tests were no longer necessary. In addition, in contrast to the case of the nAchitects who bent and wove the bamboo on site, our uniform strips could be precisely prefabricated, a process which included both cutting and curving. Curving bamboo and maintaining the specific desired curvature of the strips can also be achieved in the factory or workshop prior to assembly on site. As a result of these systems the accuracy of bamboo fabrication can be significantly improved.

115


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS Steaming Bamboo

116


117


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS Steaming Bamboo

Steaming bamboo strips in factory

118


Heinsdorff, M., 2013. pp.3-4. Bamboo architecture-design with nature. Hong Kong: Design media publishing limited.

119


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS

Maintaining The Designed Curvature

The inability to quickly maintain the specific curvature of bamboo strips after heating had been troubling us until a simple, nontoxic approach was found. As a general rule, bamboo turns back slightly after bending and heating, which presents a great challenge if keeping the specific and various curvature of the bamboo strips is necessary. We were able to develop and implement a relatively easy and efficient method to both curve the bamboo strips and to maintain their shape.

120


This method involved soaking the bamboo strips with water after heating. This soaking of the bamboo strips after the manual bending and the simultaneous heating with a heat gun helped to maintain their specific curvature. This method provides a possibility of improving the accuracy of bamboo prefabrication, because the strips never turn back after the bending and heating process. For example, two bamboo strips were processed into the same curvature using this method, demonstrating the fact that the challenge of maintaining curved strips was met (see the picture above). In other words, our research has provided more possibilities of form in terms of bamboo fabrication.

121


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS

Maintaining The Designed Curvature

122


123


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS

Twisting after Heating or Steaming

124


125


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS

Twisting after Heating or Steaming

126


Method: Twist while Heating Result: Wide twisted span in the middle and narrow span in both sides. Array mode:

Method: Twist while Heating Result: Wide twisted span in the middle and narrow span in both sides, but more even than previous test. Array mode:

Method: Twist first and then heat it Result: Even twist, limited by material strength, only few laps can be twisted. Array mode:

Method: Twisted first and continue twist from middle, then heat it Result: Even twist Array mode:

Statistic:

Number of strips: 2

Length: 50 cm

127


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS

Factors Causing Bamboo Strips Broken

Heating and bending bamboo knot

Bending bamboo veneer inward

Burning bamboo

128


5.2 BENDING TESTS Process of Bending Bamboo

Heating bending and twisting bamboo strips

129


4.1 MATERIAL TESTS Joints Research

130


131


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS

Design Concept - Network and Spatial Continuity

The concept of the chair design is networks and spatial continuity. The purpose of a transportation network is to confer a level of spatial continuity and thus link locations. In this project, the definition of network and spatial continuity is not only based on the line segments, but also displayed by 3D curves. The special points can be connected by different line segments, like original bamboo strips. The polyline can be made smoothly through the curvature controlling, like bamboo bending.

Spatial Points

Line Segments

2D Curves

3D Curves

132


133


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Design Prototype

134


There are four points in the space. The vertical lines touch one point. In order to contact the other points, the force is given from the top of the vertical lines. The force makes the straight line become bending. When the force goes up to the specific value, the top ends of the lines will touch another three spatial points. Therefore, the four points in the space are connected by the spatial point.

135


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Stool Design

The initial design is a stool. The main concept is about the spatial continuity. The force is from the top of the stool, like a person sitting on the stool. Since the material of stool is bamboo, the elasticity is better than wood, but the fabrication is a bit of difficult. The initial stool design is only a bamboo skeleton design. The shape of the stool looks like a flower. The form-finding also comes from the knot with four branches.

Spatial Points

136

Vertical Lines

Solid Shapes


Bending

Chair

137


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Stool Design

Bamboo strips stool The section of bamboo strip is a circle.

138


Bamboo strips stool The section of bamboo strip is a rectangle.

139


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Stool Design

Two problems occurred after finishing the basic shape of bamboo strips stool.

140

The curvature of the strips cannot fix well so it severely deformed. what's more, the density of strips is not high enough for people to sit on. Weaving process is simulated as one of different ways to solve the problem.


The physical model with weaving test by manual operation

141


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Stool Design

The skeleton of seat area is made by three bamboo strips. Therefore, these three bamboo strips are the main weaving part. Each bamboo strip is a 3D curve in the space. The weaving seat need to along with this curve.

142


Top view

3D View

Ruled surface The weaving lines are mixed and disorderly.

Cross weaving The surface is along with the 3D curve.

Mesh weaving This weaving surface can be made by single bamboo strip.

143


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Stool Design

144


145


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Stool Design

The top view of bamboo stool

146


The front view of bamboo stool

147


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Chair Design

After stool design, the chair design is the next step. The initial idea is the same with bamboo stool design. The armrests and back of the chair need to be considered. The chair will use more bamboo strips. The bamboo strips come from the same bamboo stem. The main issue we can bend the bamboo strips to the right position by manual labour or robotic arm.

Spatial Points

148

Vertical Lines

Solid Shapes


Bending

Chair

149


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Chair Design

Bamboo strips chair The section of bamboo strip is a circle.

150


Bamboo strips chair The section of bamboo strip is a rectangle.

151


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Chair Design

Top view of the chair

Top view of the chair

152


Exploding of the chair The chair can be exploded into four parts. Each part is a knot with four branches.

153


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Chair Design

Types of the knot and evolution

154


A quater of the chair

155


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Chair Design

156


157


4.2 DESIGN PROCESS Chair Design

The front view of bamboo stool

158


The right view of bamboo stool

159


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE Harvesting Bamboo

160


Heinsdorff, M., 2013. pp.3-4. Bamboo architecture-design with nature. Hong Kong: Design media publishing limited.

161


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE Drying and Treatment

Air drying

162

Air drying

Smoke curing

Smoke curing

Cleaning the surface


Cleaning the surface

Preservation by immersion

Preservation by immersion

Minke, G., 2012. pp.17-20. Building with bamboo: design and technology of a sustainable architecture. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag AG.

163


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE Canes, Strips and Laths

Bamboo forest

164

Elevation


Section

Broto, E., 2015. p.7. Architecture and design: bamboo construction & design: design guide & 59 case study. Barcelona: Links international.

165


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE Cutting Analysis

166


Xiao, Y., Inoue, M. and Paudel, S.K. eds., 2008, pp.86. Modern bamboo structures. AK Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema.

167


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE Specific Practices

Division of a bamboo cane, with a diameter of 150mm and a wall thickness of 11mm, into twenty two equal strips of 700mm in length with a cross-sectional area of 136 sq centimetres.

168


169


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE Traditional Splitting Methods in Asia

Traditional splitting methods in China.

170


Maintain the traditional craftsmanship. 2012. [video] Beijing: CCTV-4.

171


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE Tools for Cutting: Axes

172


Maintain the traditional craftsmanship. 2012. [video] Beijing: CCTV-4.

173


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE Tools for Cutting: Sawing Machine

174


175


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

Traditional splitting tool in South America.

176


A special splitting machine (SSM).

Minke, G., 2012. pp.39. Building with bamboo: design and technology of a sustainable architecture. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag AG.

177


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

1. Both of above mentioned machines waste some raw bamboo during the milling or splitting processes. Splitting bamboo with an SSM, results in a waste of around 373.6 cubic centimetres. The waste of bamboo when using CNC is 645.9 cubic centimetres, which is greater than that as a result of using an SSM. In this case, approximately 2170.9 cubic centimetres of bamboo strips were produced from the cane, and thus nearly 8% of extra bamboo was wasted as a result of using CNC, which is slight.

Section

178


SSM cutting

CNC cutting

179


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

2. Our use of CNC to cut bamboo cane can be divided into two phases. Using the programmed 4 axes CNC machine, bamboo cane was parallel milled into many strips of annuluses. The fourth axis of the CNC machine turned the bamboo which was held by the machine around the center of its circular section. Subsequently, the cane was parallel milled and annuluses with two parallel sides were manufactured. This is something which cannot be achieved by an SSM. The drawing above provides detailed information about the cutting area which was further processed using a flat cutting machine (FCM) during the second phase. Finally, the desired rectangular sections of strips were achieved.

180


Section

The waste when using CNC is: 41.94*22*700mm=645.9cm続

181


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

182


183


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

The Use of 4 AXES CNC

184


185


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

186

Various bits are performed differently in the use of CNC Comparison of the performance of EM6 bit and EM4 bit, EM4 waste relatively less materials but spend more time to mill. However, EM2 bit waste lest materials but it cannot be used since it is easy to be destroyed.


15mm

5mm

187


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

The Use of 4 AXES CNC

188


189


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

The desired strips were achieved by CNC machine.

190


191


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

ZP-2500 BAMBOO SPLITTING MACHINE, 2011. [online] Available at: < https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=2qVm82Eruak]. [Accessed 8 August 2015].

192


3. The use of an SSM to cut bamboo cane can be divided into three phases. First, twenty two bamboo strips with annular-sectors were cut using an SSM. Then, annular-sectors with two parallel sides were cut using a parallel splitting machine (PSM). Finally, as in the second phase of the process using CNC cutting, an FCM was used and the required strips were produced.

193


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

A Flat Cutting Machine (FCM) Using a flat cutting machine during the final phase and then,the desired rectangular sections of strips were achieved.

194


195


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Comparison of The Performance of CNC and A Special Splitting Machine (SSM)

Conclusion: Despite slightly higher wastage, the use of CNC to mill bamboo into strips is more effective than the use of an SSM during bespoke digital fabrication. This is because fewer machines are needed and the use of CNC is less labour intensive.

196


197


4.3 CUTTING TECHNIQUE

Various sections of Strips Cut for Further Researches

20*6mm

20*1.5mm

2*3mm

198


3*2mm

2*2mm

2*1mm

1*1mm

199


4.4 FABRICATION

Manulal Bending - Imitation of Robotic Arm

200


201


4.4 FABRICATION

Simulate the shape of each component

202


Generation of bamboo curves from chair prototype

203


4.4 FABRICATION

Simulate the shape of each component

d c

Top view

b

No. 1 Name b c d

204

a

Length: 580 mm Location (50,209,42) (190,200,144) (330,72,86)

Anger of rings

Distance a-b 17 mm b-c 250 mm c-d 208 mm

Anger of screws


e

d

c

b

No. 2 Name b c d e

a

Top view

Length: 603 mm Location (50,175,121) (190,104,106) (330,101,80) (470,141,80)

Anger of rings

Distance

Anger of screws

a-b 44 mm b-c 160 mm c-d 143 mm d-e 147 mm

205


4.4 FABRICATION

Components of Chair Made by Hand

220


221


4.4 FABRICATION Chair Model

222


223


4.4 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Proposal

224


Robotic fabrication of chair prototype

225


226


Chapter 5

No.1 Column Project

227


5.1 LOCATION CONTROL TESTS Accurate Control in 2D & 3D

Study traditional way of bending bamboo strip

Bamboo strips controled by different number of points

Statistic: Control points: 2,3,5 The radius of curvature: 12 cm

228

Study traditional way of bending bamboo, by reduce the control points of a 2D bamboo curve, the result of the curve is extracly the same. Then, put this conclusion into 2D space curve, by adding 2 fixed points on the ground, we can get the same conclusion.


Single bamboo 2D curve control by 3 points

Single bamboo 2D curve control by 2 points

229


5.1 LOCATION CONTROL TESTS Accurate Control in 2D & 3D

Digital model VS physical model

Digital model compare with physical model shows that curve controled by two points has the same curvture as the digital model simulated in computer. By definite the tangent of the start point, and the two holding points, two typical curve can be generated. Simple 2D curve and S curve.

In this category, the relationship between digitaland physical representations is understood as a sequence on which a virtual model is crafted and then a physical representation is produced from it, on a dependant and asynchronic sequence directed toward the production on the physical model.

230


Single bamboo 3D curve control by 3 points

Single bamboo 3D curve control by 2 points

231


5.1 LOCATION CONTROL TESTS Accurate Control in 2D & 3D

Single bamboo 3D curve control by 2 points

232


233


5.1 LOCATION CONTROL TESTS Accurate Control in 2D & 3D

Issue of single bamboo strip controled by two points: Curves controled by two points have limitations on material itself, beacuse bamboo is nature material, it is easy to crack when bending force is too much. Limited curve type can be generated only by two control points.

3D curve controled by 2 points

234


Device to control bamboo curve Subdivide bamboo curve into more segments ,then combine them together, complex 3d space curve can be generated.

235


5.1 LOCATION CONTROL TESTS Accurate Control in 2D & 3D

Complecated 3D space curve genaration device

236


237


5.1 LOCATION CONTROL TESTS Accurate Control in 2D & 3D

238


Complecated curve of bamboo strip

L3 L2

L4

L5

L1

Divide bamboo strip into simple curves

Curvature analysis

Subdivided curve

239


5.1 LOCATION CONTROL TESTS Accurate Control in 2D & 3D

Complecated 3D space curve genaration process

240


241


5.1 LOCATION CONTROL TESTS Accurate Control in 2D & 3D

Complecated 3D space curve by controlling 6 points By multi control points, complex 3d space curve can be precise generated

242


243


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE Robotic Precedents

student : Martin Loucka university : University of Stuttgart location : Stuttgart, Germany degree : Master of Science advisor : Prof. Achim Menges, Oliver Krieg, David Correa project title : Robotically Fabricated Glulam_ Additive fabrication techniques for complexly shaped glued laminated timber This master thesis research project builds on previous research into robotic bending of laminated wooden work piece conducted in 2013 by O. D. Krieg and D. Correa. However, the thesis research deals with the exploration of the fabrication limits and computational simulation of a vacuum bag robotic bending method. It proposes an improvement into the utilization of the original method while introducing new fabrication methodologies based on the incremental bending technique. Incremental robotic bending opens up a promising system of an “endless” complex shape glued laminated timber fabrication which can potentially become a basis for a more effective production of complex structures. For further development, automation of the production process is crucial.

Robotically Fabricated Glulam Incremental robo t i c be ndi ng ope ns up a promising system of an “endless” complex shape glued laminated timber fabrication which can potentially become a basis for a more effective production of complex structures.

http://super-architects.com/archives/6018

244


Folding simulation software lets you visualise an animation of your fold pattern as it folds. More details on the technique can be learnt at our workshops or from the example files in the download, and the Curved Folding paper written to RoboFold's specification by Evolute.The fold simulation is used to drive the robots, so this is an essential tool. The technique of reverse engineering the tool-paths for the robots from an animation was invented by Gregory Epps, founder of RoboFold, and forms an essential part of the process.

http://www.robofold.com/make/software/king-kong-folding-software

245


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE Robotic Specification

Specification IRB 120-3 Number of axes Protection

Reach(m)

Paylaod(kg)

0.58 6 IP30

3

Armload(kg) 0.3

Movement Working range Rotation Axis 1 Rotation Axis 2 Rotation Axis 3 Rotation Axis 4 Rotation Axis 5 Rotation Axis 6

0.58 +165 to +110 to +70  to +160 to +120 to +400 to

-165 -110 -110 -160 -120 -400

70

630

110 110

ABB IRB120-3 Specification. Available from:

246

110 90

90

http://new.abb.com/products/robotics/industrial-robots/irb-120

285

110 110


Specification

Reach(m)

IRB 1600 -145 Number of axes Protection

Paylaod(kg)

1.2 6 6+3 extenal(up to 36 with MultiMove) Standard IP54; opt. FoundryPlus 2 (IP 67)

Armload(kg) 30.5

Movement Working range Rotation Axis 1 Rotation Axis 2 Rotation Axis 3 Rotation Axis 4 Rotation Axis 5 Rotation Axis 6

1.2 +180 to -180 +136 to -63 +55  to -235 +200 to -200 +115 to -115 +400 to -400

2120

480

480

1295

1075

480

480

ABB IRB1600-145 Specification. Available from:http://new.abb.com/products/robotics/industrial-robots/irb-1600

247


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE Robotic Specification

Robotic process put emphasis on finding the connections between computational logic and material realization, take advantages (cost-efficient, reliable, precise, and flexible) and capabilities (dealing with non-repetitive tasks) of robotic arms, archive a comprehensive robotic and material based methodology.

248


249


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE End Effector Design

L L1 L2 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11

GIMATIC 2-Jaw Parallel-acting Self-centering Gripper SZ40

Gripper measurement

Working force

http://www.gimatic.com/en/products/handling/pinze%20parallele/sz

250

160 116 130 41.8 31.4 70 104 24 33 37 22

H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H10 H11

35 78.5 9 76.5 19 51 75

Unit: (mm)


Prototype 1

Prototype 2

Prototype 3

Prototype 4

End-effector design process

Holding method study

Prototype 1

Prototype 2

Prototype 3

Prototype 4

Flexible mode end-effector By changing the module inside the tube, serveral different types of material size can be reached.

251


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE End Effector Design

steamer

heat gun

heat gun

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Time / mins

0

20

25

30

0

25

30

Time / mins

4

4

6

30

0

6

8

350 315 280 245 Time / 210 mins 175 140 10 12 105 70 35 Time / mins 0

8

10

500 halogen heater 450 400 350 heater halogen 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

12

350 315 280 245 210 175 140 105 70 35 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

4

6

8

10

245 210 175 140 105 70 35 0

12

2

4

6

8

10

12 Time / mins

2

4

6

8

10

12

350 315 280 245 210 175 140 105 70 35 0

2

0

4

6

2

4

8

10

12

6

8

10

12

Tim

0

Time / mins

0

0

Time / mins

2

350 315

Time 280 / mins

Time / mins

0

temp / ℃

252

350 315 280 245 210 175 140 105 70 35 0

2

2

25

Tim

temp / ℃

15

0

20

temp / ℃

5

15

temp / ℃

temp / ℃

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

500 450 400 350 300 Time / mins 250 200 10 15 20 25 30 150 100 50 Time / mins 0

temp / ℃

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

10

20

halogen heater

0

5

15

5

500 450 Time / mins 400 350 10 15 20 25 30300 250 200 150 100 50 Time / mins 0

temp / ℃

temp / ℃

heat gun

10

10

halogen heater

temp / ℃

5

5

temp / ℃

0

0

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

temp / ℃

temp / ℃

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

heat gun

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

temp / ℃

heat gun 100

eamer

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

temp / ℃

temp / ℃

steamer

halogen heater

2

4

6

8

10

12


Halogen heater Stable performance on maintaining the heat

253


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE Robotics bending Process

Adjust reference point in space

Installation of bamboo strip

Heating before bending Apply heat before bending can make bamboo strip more flexible and have more strength to resist break.

254


Bending process

Apply heat after bending By apply heat after bending, can make bamboo strip hold position in space.

Take out bamboo strip

255


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE Robotics bending Process

Adjusting reference point in space

256


257


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE Robotics bending Process

Bending process

258


259


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE Robotics bending Process

Heating process

260


261


5.2 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE

Samples of Bamboo Strips Bended by Robotics

262


Twisted bamboo strip Statistic: Length: 1600 mm Twist: 360 degree

Bamboo strip curve Statistic: Length: 1600 mm Angle: 45 Degree

Twisted bamboo strip curve Statistic: Length: 1600 mm Angle: 30 Degree Twist: 90 Degree

263


5.3 FABRICATION

Components of Column Made by Robotics

268


269


5.3 FABRICATION Column Model

Digital Model

270


Phisical Model

271


272


Chapter 6

No.2 Column Project

273


6.1 LAMINATION TECHNIQUE Classic Timber Bending Technique

Classic furniture in bent wood and tubular steel. Alexander von Vegesack.

274

Vegesack, V.A., 1996. p.65. Thonet: classic furniture in bentwood and tubular steel. London: Hazar Publishing.


Fine wood working on bending wood: Michael Thonet. John Dunnigan.

Kelsey, J. ed., 1985. p.60. Bending wood. Newtown: Taunton Press Inc.

275


6.1 LAMINATION TECHNIQUE Lamination Tools

Tools for Laminating Bamboo Strips

276


277


6.1 LAMINATION TECHNIQUE Manual Lamination Process

Steaming Bamboo Strips

Gluing Bamboo Strips

278


Clamping bamboo strips

279


6.1 LAMINATION TECHNIQUE Robotics Lamination Process

Steaming

Gluing

Bending

280


Clamping

Heating

Watering

281


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS Lamination

3 bamboo strips were straight laminated in parallel. The section of those laminated was 3.78cm².

282

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

The strips were glued and clamped. After 12 hours, the glue hardened naturally, and we could see the lamination process had been successful.


3 bamboo strips were vertically and horizontally laminated. The section of those laminated was 6.30cm².

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

The strips were glued and clamped. After 12 hours, the glue hardened naturally, and we could see the lamination process had been successful.

283


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS Lamination & Bending

3 bamboo strips were glued, bent and clamped in parallel. The section of those laminated (curved), was 3.78cm². Radian=Ď&#x20AC;/6 (relatively small curvature)

284

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

The strips were glued, bent and clamped. Released from the fixed part immediately, the desired curvature was achieved. ( initially there were only a slight gap between the strips but it became bigger and bigger due to excessive spacing between the clamps.


3 bamboo strips were glued, bent and clamped in parallel. The section of those laminated (curved), was 3.78cm². Radian=Ď&#x20AC;/6 (relatively small curvature)

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

The strips were glued, bent and clamped (the number of clamps was increased and the space between them was reduced). Released from the fixed part immediately, the desired curvature was achieved.

285


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS Lamination & Bending

5bamboo strips were glued, bent and clamped in parallel. The section of those laminated (curved), was 6.30cm². Radian = Ď&#x20AC;/2 (relatively greater curvature)

286

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

(The number of strips was increased, so the section of those laminated was relatively greater, and the bounce force was also relatively stronger.) The strips were glued, bent and clamped. Released from the fixed part immediately, the desired curvature was achieved.


3 bamboo strips were glued, bent and clamped in parallel. The section of those laminated ("s" shape) was 3.78cm². (relatively smaller curvature)

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

These strips were glued and fixed at oneend. Then they were bent and the other end was fixed. After that, they were clamped. Released from the fixed parts immediately, the desired curvature was achieved.

287


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS Lamination & Bending

3 bamboo strips were glued, bent and clamped in parallel. The section of those laminated ("s" shape) was 3.78cm². (relatively smaller curvature)

288

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

These strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were bent and the other end was fixed. After that, they were clamped. Released from the fixed parts immediately, the desired curvature was achieved.


3 bamboo strips were glued, bent and clamped in parallel. The section of those laminated (curved), was 3.78 cm². Radian = Ď&#x20AC; (maximum curvature)

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Unibond Super PVA adhesive clamps

These strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were bent and the other end was fixed. After that, they were clamped. Released from the fixed parts immediately, the desired curvature was achieved.

289


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS Lamination & Twisting

2bamboo strips were glued, twisted 90°and clamped, in parallel. The section of those laminated (straight), was2.52 cm².

290

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

The strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were twisted 90°and the other end was fixed. After that, they were clamped. Released from the fixed parts immediately, the laminated one bounced back to almost 30°Thus, the desired torsion was not achieved.


3 bamboo strips wereglued, twisted 90° and clamped, in parallel. The section of those laminated (straight) was 3.78 cm².

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Durabond PVA adhesive clamps

These strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were twisted 90°and the other end was fixed. After that, they were clamped. Released from the fixed parts immediately, the laminated one bounced back to almost 30°. Thus the desired torsion was not achieved.

291


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS Lamination & Twisting

3 bamboo strips were glued, twisted 90° and wrapped, in parallel. The section of those laminated (straight), was 3.78 cm².

292

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Epoxy shrink wrap (medium duty)

The strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were twisted 90°and the other end was fixed. After that, they were wrapped in shrink wrap. Released from the fixed parts immediately, the laminated one bounced back to almost 10°. Thus the desired torsion was not achieved.


6 bamboo strips (10.5*6mm) were glued, twisted 90° and clamped, in parallel. The section of those laminated (straight), was 3.78 cm².

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Epoxy clamps

The strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were twisted 90°and the other end was fixed. After that, they were wrapped in shrink wrap. Released from the fixed parts immediately, the laminated one bounced back to almost 30°. Thus the desired torsion was not achieved.

293


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS Lamination & Twisting

6 bamboo strips were glued, twisted 90° and wrapped, in parallel. The section of those laminated (straight), was 3.78 cm².

294

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Duraboun PVA adhesive clamps

The strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were twisted 90°and the other end was fixed. After that, they were wrapped in shrink wrap. Released from the fixed parts immediately, the laminated one bounced back to almost 45°. Thus the desired torsion was not achieved.


6 bamboo strips (10.5*6mm) were glued, twisted 90° and clamped, in parallel. The section of those laminated (straight), was 3.78 cm².

Material / Tool

Process and Result

Duraboun PVA adhesive, clamps heat gun

The strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were twisted 90°and the other end was fixed. After that, they were clamped and heated with a heat gun for10 minutes. Released immediately from the fixed parts, the desired torsion was achieved after being cooled using water.

295


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS

Lamination & Twisting + Bending

3 steamed bamboo strips were glued, twisted, bent, clamped and heated, in parallel. The section of those laminated (curved), was 3.78 cm². Radian = π/4

296

Material / Tool

Process and Result

steam gun Durabond PVA adhesive clamps heat gun

The steamed strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were twisted 90°, bent 45°and fixed at the other end. After that, they were clamped and heated with a heat gun for 10 minutes. Released immediately from the fixed parts the desired torsion and curvature were achieved after being cooled using water.


3 steamed bamboo strips were glued, twisted, bent, clamped and heated, in parallel. The section of those laminated ("s" shape) was 3.78 cm². (relatively great curvature)

Material / Tool

Process and Result

steamgun Duraboun PVA adhesive clamps heat gun robotic arm

The steamed strips were glued and fixed at one end. Then they were twisted 90°, bent into an "s" shape using a robotic arm, and fixed at the other end. After that, they were clamped and heated with a heat gun for 10 minutes. Released immediately from the fixed parts, the desired torsion and curvature were achieved after being cooled with water.

297


6.2 MATERIAL TESTS Load Test

The laminated bamboo strips were being borne Bim's weight which is 100KG. These laminated strips were slightly deformed.

298


The laminated bamboo strips were being borne the weight introduced from the machine, which is approximately 500KG. These three strips were not damaged after the test which benefited the process of optimizing the lamination.

299


6.3 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE End Effector Design

A3

80.00

3.00

205.00

33.00

80.00

42.00

39.00

114.00

33.00

39.00 5.00

5.00 10.50 15.00 10.50

39.00

39.00

33.00

42.00

39.00

114.00

114.00

A3 Plan

A2 Front

39.00

A3 Right Elev

A3 Left Elev

A3 Bottom

46.50

3.00

46.50

9.00 9.00

9.00

M10 42.00

39.00

46.50

3.00

300

33.00

3.00

114.00

46.50 M10

M10

9.00

39.00

A3 Steel Slide

36.00

60.00

15.00

21.00

21.00

26.00

22.00 26.00

15.00

5.00

45.00

M10

39.00

60.00

50.00

36.00 114.00

114.00

A1 Front

39.00

73.50 5.00

26.00

5.00 21.00

161.00

50.00 50.00

23.50 3.00 23.50

A2 Elev

3.00

39.00

A2 Plan

M10

3.00 23.50

M10

M10

47.00

M10

10.00

M10

10.00

40.00

10.00

100.00

80.00

100.00

M10

205.00

M10

200.00

M10

M10

205.00

5.00 21.00

10.00

40.00

M10

3.00

26.50

23.00

3.00

10.00

60.00

5.00

42.00 36.00

18.00

26.00

10.00

10.00

24.00

18.00

23.50 3.00 23.50

5.00

36.00

36.00

26.50

23.00

42.00 3.00

10.00

A2 X 2

A3 Front

39.00


301


6.3 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE End Effector Design

A1

A2 X 2

200.00 88.00

24.00

15.00

26.00

88.00

170.00

5.00 21.00

15.00

24.0

60.0

M10

80.00

80.00

60.00

10.00

15.50

20.00

5.00 20.00 5.00

45.00

26.00

19.00

19.00

26.00 M10

22.00

26.50

5.00

10.00

21.00 5.00

M10

10.00

80.0

23.00

55.00

M10

26.00

M22 22.00 280.00

A2

185.00

200.00

185.00

280.00

43.00

65.00

22.00

280.00

M22 22.00

M22

M22

43.00

A2 F M22

34.00

33.00

50.00

50.00 200.00

A1 Plan

A1 Left Elev

5.00 21.00 5.00 50.00

A1 Right Elev

22.00 26.00

5.00 21.00 5.00

5.00

33.00

15.00

15.00 50.00

45.00

50.00

15.00

10.00

10.00 15.00

302

M22

M10 15.00

M10

15.00

28.50 15.00

17.50

22.00

65.00

80.0


303


6.3 ROBOTICS TECHNIQUE Tool Path Improvement

Before Adjustment: Straight Tool Path

304


After Adjustment: Curving Tool Path

305


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS

Design Concept - Network and Spatial Continuity

The concept of the control design is networks and spatial continuity. The purpose of a transportation network is to confer a level of spatial continuity and thus link locations. In this project, the definition of network and spatial continuity is not only based on the line segments, but also displayed by 3D curves. The special points can be connected by different line segments, like original bamboo strips. The polyline can be made smoothly through the curvature controlling, like bamboo bending.

Spatial Points

Line Segments

2D Curves

3D Curves

306


307


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS

Design Concept - Network and Spatial Continuity

308


There are four points in the space. The vertical lines touch one point. In order to contact the other points, the force is given from the top of the vertical lines. The force makes the straight line become bending. When the force goes up to the specific value, the top ends of the lines will touch another three spatial points. Therefore, the four points in the space are connected by the spatial point.

309


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS Design Prototype

310


Spatial Points

Vertical Lines

Bending

Prototype

311


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS Column Design

312


Spatial Points

Vertical Lines

Bending

Prototype

313


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS Column Design

314


315


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS Column with Steps

Column Lines

316

Changed Parts


Four Steps

Full Steps

317


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS Column with Steps

318


319


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS Self-standing:  Stress Analysis

320


321


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS Self-standing:  Deformation

322


323


6.4 DESIGN PROCESS Load-bearing Analysis

324


325


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

326


327


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

328


329


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

330


331


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

332


333


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

334


335


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

336


337


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

338


339


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

340


341


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

342


343


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

344


345


6.5 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Process

346


347


6.5 FABRICATION

Components of Column Made by Robotics

348


349


6.5 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Cutting Laminated Bamboo Strips

Marking Sheet Metal

350

Marking Laminated Bamboo Strips

Marking Sheet Metal


Slotting Laminated Bamboo Strips

Punching Sheet Metal

Punching Laminated Bamboo Strips

Assembling Bamboo Strips and Metal

351


6.5 FABRICATION Assemble Process

352


353


6.5 FABRICATION Assemble Process

354


355


6.5 FABRICATION Assemble Process

356


357


6.5 FABRICATION Assemble Process

358


359


6.5 FABRICATION Assemble Process

360


361


362


Chapter 7 Final Project

363


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysisďź&#x161;Topology of Beam-Columns System

Two columns

Two columns with beam

364


Two bamboo columns

Arch structure A member of bamboo pavilion

365


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysisďź&#x161;Topology of Beam-Columns System

366


367


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysisďź&#x161;Topology of Beam-Columns System

368


369


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysisďź&#x161;Topology of Beam-Columns System

370


371


372


373


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysis: Topology of Venation Patterns

Actinidia latifodia (Actinidiaceae)

374

Clasiella pendula (Guttiferaceae)

Karwinskia humboldtiana (Rhamnaceae)


Poinsettia leaf

University of Calgary, 2005. Modelling and visualization of leaf venation patterns. [pdf] Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary. Available at: < http://algorithmicbotany.org/papers/venation.sig2005.pdf >

375


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysis: Topology of Venation Patterns

STRAIGHT - passing across the intercrostal area without a noticeable change in course

376

CONVEX - middle portion of the vein curving away from the center of the leaf curving away from the center of the leaf

SINUOUS - changing direction of curvature


Poinsettia leaf

University of Calgary, 2005. Modelling and visualization of leaf venation patterns. [pdf] Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary. Available at: < http://algorithmicbotany.org/papers/venation.sig2005.pdf >

377


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysis: Topology of Venation Patterns

“We begin following it at the stage when the vein system consists of three nodes (black disks) and there are four auxin sources (green disks) (a). First, each source is associated with the vein node that is closest to it (b, green lines); this establishes the set of sources that influences each node. The normalized vectors from each vein node to each source that influences it are then found (c, black arrows). These vectors are added and their sum normalized again (d, green arrows), providing the basis for locating new vein nodes (d, green circles). The new nodes are incorporated into the venation, in this case extending the midvein and initiating a lateral secondary vein (e). The neighbourhoods of sources (green circles) are now tested for the inclusion of vein nodes (f). The neighbourhoods of the two leftmost sources have been penetrated by the veins, as indicated by the bolder representation of the corresponding circles. The affected sources are removed from the set of sources (g). The leaf then grows (h); in this diagram we have assumed marginal growth, so the existing sources and vein nodes are not moved. The candidate new sources are now randomly placed within the expanded blade (i). Their neighbourhoods, indicated by dashed circles, are checked for the inclusion of previously placed vein nodes and sources.” (Runions, et al., 2005)

Leaf vein: cross structure

378

University of Calgary, 2005. Modelling and visualization of leaf venation patterns. [pdf] Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary. Available at: < http://algorithmicbotany.org/papers/venation.sig2005.pdf >


379


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysis: Topology of Venation Patterns

Auxin Source

Vein Node

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

Diagram of the algorithm for generating open venation patterns

380


University of Calgary, 2005. Modelling and visualization of leaf venation patterns. [pdf] Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary. Available at: < http://algorithmicbotany.org/papers/venation.sig2005.pdf >

381


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysis: Topology of Venation Patterns

Generation process

Outer structure

382


Generation process

Intimal structure

383


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Generation Analysis: Topology of Venation Patterns

Outer structure

384

Intimal structure

Combination


385


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Assembling Process of Venation Construction

386


387


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS Prototype of Pavilion

388


389


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS Prototype of Pavilion

390


391


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS Prototype of Pavilion

392


393


394


395


396


397


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS Site Analysis: Location

The Wang's courtyard is located in famous historical and cultural town-Jingsheng Town which is 12 kilometers away from Lingshi county of Shanxi Province. It is 35 kilometers away from the world cultural heritage Pingyao City and 4 kilometers away from Jiexiumian mountain. It was being built more than 300 years during the Ming and qing dynasties by wang family. It is a national key cultural relics protection units and national natural scenery area.

398


Our project is placed in Shanxi Province because it is a dry area of little rain, which can effectively extend the service life of bamboo structures.The pavilion is placed in a wall corner of the small gate outside Wang's courtyard, which people can freely walk through before entering the yard, or rest in it. The project designed with digital way is in sharp contrast with the historical building, which emphasizes the digital concept and the historical significance of an old building.

399


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS

Site Analysis: Surrounding Environment

400


401


7.1 DESIGN PROCESS Site Analysis: Site picture

402


403


404


405


406


407


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

408


409


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

410


411


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

412


413


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

414


415


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

416


417


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

418


419


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

420


421


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

422


423


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

424


425


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

426


427


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

428


429


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

430


431


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Simulation

432


433


7.2 FABRICATION Lamination Tools

Tools for Laminating Bamboo Strips

434


435


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Lamination Process

Steaming

Gluing

Bending

436


Clamping

Heating

Watering

437


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Lamination Process

Steaming Bamboo Strips

438


439


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Lamination Process

Gluing Bamboo Strips

440


441


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Lamination Process

Bending Bamboo Strips

442


443


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Lamination Process

Clamping Bamboo Strips

444


445


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Lamination Process

Heating Bamboo Strips

446


447


7.2 FABRICATION

Robotics Fabrication Process

448


449


7.2 FABRICATION

Components of Column Made by Robotics

450


451


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Cutting Laminated Bamboo Strips

Marking Laminated Bamboo Strips

Punching Sheet Metal Marking Sheet Metal

452


Slotting Laminated Bamboo Strips

Punching Laminated Bamboo Strips

Assembling Bamboo Strips and Metal

Polishing Laminated Bamboo Strips

453


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Cutting Laminated Bamboo Strips

454


455


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Marking Laminated Bamboo Strips

456


457


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Slotting Laminated Bamboo Strips

458


459


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Punching Laminated Bamboo Strips

460


461


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Marking Sheet Metal

462


463


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Assembling Bamboo Strips and Sheet Metal

464


465


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Polishing Laminated Bamboo Strips

466


467


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Assembling base plate

468


469


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Assemble process: No.1 base plate

470


471


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

Assemble process: No.2 base plate

472


473


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

474


475


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

476


477


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

478


479


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

480


481


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

482


483


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

484


485


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

486


487


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

488


489


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

490


491


7.2 FABRICATION Assemble Process

492


493


494


495


496


497


Bartlett Prospective Graduate Architectural Design | Research Cluster 5 Bartlett School of Architecture | University College London

550


Students: Zhenhua Luo, Jianhua Ren, Junwei Ren, Longfei Wang, Lina Lan Tutors: Guan Lee, Vicente Soler Technology support: Thibault Schwartz, HAL Robot programming & control, Vision HAL 0.5.3 Thanks to our critics and consultants: Philippe Morel, Thibault Schwartz Special thanks to the Grymsdyke Farm team Workshop sponsors: Grymsdyke Farm



X-Bamboo design project: 2014-2015 UCL, Bartlett AD, Wonderlab RC5