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ICP6 Abstract book


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ICP6

23 – 29 June 2018

Brno, Czech Republic BEST WESTERN PREMIER Hotel International


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Conference is realized under the patronage of the Mayor of the City of Brno, Petr Vokřál and with support by the City of Brno and International Society of Phthirapterists (ISoP), the Rector of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Prof. Alois Nečas


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The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera 23 – 29 June, 2018

Brno, Czech Republic

BEST WESTERN PREMIER Hotel International Brno ****

CONTENT Welcome Address

8

General and Conference Information

9

Poster Session

12

Programme

13

Speakers Abstracts

21

Posters Abstracts

84

All Listed Authors

117

Participant List

121


SCIENTIFIC EVENTS FROM A TO Z ACROSS EUROPE

www.longaro.eu


ICP6 COMMITTEES ICP6 CO-ORGANIZERS Oldřich Sychra

Ivan Literák

Jan Štefka

Václav Rupeš

sychrao@vfu.cz University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno

jan.stefka@gmail.com Biology Centre, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, České Budejovice

literaki@vfu.cz University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno

vrupes@gmail.com National Institute of Health

LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Dana Černošková (Longaro) Barbora Zrnová (Longaro) Marta Křenová (VFU Brno) Stanislav Kolenčík (VFU Brno) Tomáš Najer (VFU Brno) Lucie Ošlejšková (VFU Brno) Ivo Papoušek (VFU Brno) Petra Andresová (VFU Brno) Zuzana Kašíková (VFU Brno) Kristína Zechmeisterová (VFU Brno) Magdaléna Gajdošová (UK Praha)

David L. Reed (USA) Ian Burgess (UK) Kosta Mumcuoglu (Israel) Lajos Rozsa (Hungary) Oldřich Sychra (Czech Republic)

FUND RAISING COMMITTEE Kim Larsen (Denmark) Ian Burgess (UK)

ELECTED OFFICER: INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF PHTHIRAPTERISTS (ISOP) President: Ian Burgess (UK) Secretary: Robert Vander Stichele (Belgium) Treasurer: Kim Larsen (Denmark) Editor: Vincent Smith (UK) Program chair: Oldřich Sychra (Czech Republic) Councilors: Sarah Bush (USA), Ariel Toloza (Argentina), Julie Allen (USA), Birgit Habedank (Germany)

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CONFERENCE TOPICS Epidemiology Epidemiology of human lice Systematic population genetics and evolution Ecology and epidemiology of non-human lice Medical and veterinary aspects of louse infestations Techniques for studying lice Phthirapterists and phthirapterology Prophylaxis and control of lice Microorganisms associated with lice

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Welcome address

WELCOME ADDRESS Welcome to ICP6 in Brno, Czech Republic, We would like to welcome all participants who accepted our invitation to attend ICP6 in Brno in the year of Czech Republic’s centennial celebrations. The former Czechoslovakia was founded in the aftermath of World War I as one of the successor states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The central European country then existed (with a brief interlude during World War II) from October 28, 1918 to December 31, 1992, before officially splitting on January 1, 1993 to form the independent Czech Republic and Slovakia. In 2018, the Czech Republic is celebrating one-hundred years of existence and commemorating all that they have shared with the world including phthirapterology. Moreover, in this year, the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Science, Brno, the local organizer of ICP6, is also celebrating its hundredth birthday as it was the first new university based in the independent Czechoslovakia. The history of studying lice is certainly much longer than 100 years, but it is difficult to set any precise date since the attention of man was focused on these parasites. It is easier to determine when the scientific community focused on lice and began to meet under the umbrella of the International Conference on Phthiraptera. This event was in 1972 in Washington, D.C.. Since then, the international forum has met five times. Today we have the honor to welcome ICP participants for the sixth time. When we took over the weight of responsibility for organizing another meeting in Brno four years ago, we had the vision to hold a conference just as successful as our predecessors. I believe we have succeeded. More than 80 confirmed participants are arriving in Brno from more than 20 countries. We will enjoy 5 key-note and plenary lectures, 57 oral, and 31 poster presentations. Together we will also enjoy a country day in Lednice, where cultural history and famous wineries share the same area. We will have an opportunity to visit the Augustinian Abbey in Old Brno where Gregor Johan Mendel, the founder of genetics, lived and worked. Over the next four years, we shall have an opportunity to celebrate 200 years from his birth. I would very much like to thank Oldřich Sychra, who was the main organizer of the whole conference. I would also like to thank all the others who helped him, whether they are members of the International Society of Pthirapterists Committee, members of the International Scientific Committee of the Conference, or a number of local assistants. I would like to thank Longaro, and especially Dana Černošková, for organizational support. We would all like to thank all the conference sponsors for their financial contributions without which managing the costs involved would be much more difficult. And most of all I would like to thank the Mayor of the City of Brno, Petr Vokřál and the Rector of the VFU Alois Nečas who kindly accepted the social patronage of our conference. I wish you a beautiful week at ICP6 in Brno in the Czech Republic. Ivan Literák On behalf of ICP6 Organizing Committee 8

The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera


General and Conference Infomation

GENERAL INFORMATION • Internet Facilities

Free Wi-Fi internet connection is available in all rooms free of charge. No password needed.

• Time Zone

The local time in the Czech Republic at the time of the conference will be GMT +2 due to Summer Daylight Saving Time.

• Electricity

The Czech Republic uses a 230 volt 50 Hz system.

• Emergency Telephone Number

The emergency phone number is 112.

• Insurance

The organizers of the conference do not accept liability for any injury, loss or damage, arising from accidents or other situations during the conference. Participants are therefore advised to arrange insurance for health and accident prior to travelling to the conference.

• Taxi Service

We recommend using taxi service of the following reliable company: City taxi plus s. r. o. +420 542 321 321 or use hotel taxi.

• Cloakroom

Cloakroom is located at the ground floor opposite of the registration desk. Service is provided free of charge during the official programme.

• Venue

BEST WESTERN PREMIER Hotel International Brno **** phone: +420 542 122 111

Address: Husova 16, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic GPS: 49°11‘41.55“N, 16°36‘17.24“E

REGISTRATION AND INFORMATION DESK All participants must be registered before attending the lectures.

Opening hours Saturday 23 June

16:00 –19:00

Every conference day

8:00 – 10:00

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General and Conference Information

CONFERENCE POLICY • Badges

Participants and accompanying persons will receive a name badge upon registration. Everyone is kindly requested to wear their name badge when attending the conference. Only participants who are wearing their name badge will be admitted to the lecture halls. Name badges have been colour-coded as follows: Plenary Speakers Sponsors Participants Organisers

• Official Language

The official language of the conference is English.

• Programme Changes

The organizers cannot assume liability for any changes in the programme due to external or unforeseen circumstances.

• Mobile phones

Participants are kindly requested to keep their mobile phones in the off position in the meeting room while the session is being held.

• Photograph

During the conference, we will be taking photos. These images will be used in shared post conference materials and may be published on VFU website and twitter. If you would prefer not to be photographed let organisers know.

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The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera


General and Conference Information

SOCIAL EVENTS Day trip to Lednice – Valtice UNESCO World Heritage Site TUESDAY 26th June 8:00

Meeting in the conference hotel lobby

8:15

Bus departure from the conference venue - Hotel BEST WESTERN PREMIER Hotel International Brno

10:00–11:30

State Chateau Lednice – Guided tour to representative rooms, walk in a beautiful chateau’s park with another interesting places and monuments.

12:30–13:30

Buffet lunch

13:30–16:30

Wine Cellars (Valtické podzemí) – visit of the unique labyrinth of 13 historical wine cellars, wine degustation included

17:30

Arrival to Brno to the conference venue

Conference dinner in Augustinian Abbey

We will visit the unique place where Johann Gregor Mendel worked and lived. You will have chance to see the Abbey, Mendel Museum and basilica. Dinner will be in Paradise garden. THURSDAY 28th June 17:00

Transfer to Abbey

17:30–19:30

Visit the Mendel museum

19:30–22:30

Gala Dinner in Augustinian Abbey

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Poster session

POSTER SESSION • Poster guidelines

Poster A0, portrait format. Posters should have a border of a few centimetres to allow the frame.

• Information

Number of your poster is in a Book of abstract. The list will be also available at the registration desk. Poster number will be displayed on poster board in advance. There is no possibility to change the number or position of any board or number. Pins will be available on the spot. The participant is responsible the poster fits on the display board.

• Posters presentation

All posters will be displayed during Sunday and Monday. Poster presentation will be during the official poster session on Monday 16:30–18:00.

• Re-collection of posters

Time for collection will be announced during the conference.

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Programme

PROGRAMME SATURDAY 23th June 16:00–19:00

Arrivals and Registration

19:00–22:00

Welcome Dinner at Museum of Art – Moravian Gallery

SUNDAY 24th June 8:30–9:00

Opening Remarks

Systematics and Population Genetics: plenary lecture 9:00–10:00

T01 Renfu Shao – Mitochondrial genomes of parasitic lice: high-throughput sequencing, gene shuffling, genome fragmentation, and insights into high-level phylogeny & classification

Systematics and Population Genetics 1, Chair: Renfu Shao 10:00–10:15

T02 Kevin P. Johnson – Phylogenomics of Lice from Whole Genome Sequencing

10:15–10:30

T03 Robert S. de Moya – The Next Generation of Phylogenetic Relationships within Psocodea

10:30–10:45

T04 Andrew Sweet – Ground-dove lice, genomes, and the search for a more complete picture of host-parasite coevolution

10:45–11:00

T05 Stephany Virrueta Herrera – Phylogenomics of Tinamou Feather Lice and Relatives

11:00–11:30

Coffee Break

Systematics and Population Genetics 2, Chair: Jessica E. Light 11:30–11:45

T06 Oldrich Sychra – Myrsidea quadrifasciata (Phthiraptera: Amblycera) – unique host generalist among highly host-specific chewing lice

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11:45–12:00

T07 Jason D. Weckstein – Parasites as markers of avian host ecology and evolution: Examples from the micro and macroevolutionary histories of parasitic chewing lice

12:00–12:15

T08 Daniel R. Gustafsson – Major distribution patterns in the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera) on perching birds (Passeriformes)

12:15–12:30

T09 Jessica E. Light – Population genetics and rates of movement in a colonizing parasite, Geomydoecus aurei

12:30–12:45

T10 Jan Štefka – Host specificity driving genetic structure and diversity in populations of Polyplax serrata on Apodemus hosts

12:45–14:15

Lunch

Head Lice: History, Chair: Ian Burgess 14:15–14:30

T11 Ian Burgess – Lice, religion, and cultural traits

14:30–14:45

T12 Kosta Mumcuoglu – Human and animal lice in head louse combs from archaeological excavations

Epidemiology of Human Lice, Chair: Ian Burgess 14:45–15:00

T13 Kosta Mumcuoglu – Head louse infestations in children and adults in Israel

15:00–15:15

T14 Libor Mazánek – Efficacy of combing with lice comb of head lice (Pediculus capitis)

15:15–15:45

Coffee Break

Head Lice: Resistance, Chair: John M. Clark 15:45–16:00

T15 Nicolas Lamassiaude – First functional characterization of a GABA receptor from the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus

16:00–16:15

T16 John M. Clark –Overcoming insecticide resistance: detection and management of insecticide-resistant human lice  

16:15–16:30

T17 Marina E. Eremeeva – Genetic Diversity, Markers of Pesticide Resistance and Pathogens in Human Lice from Madagascar

16:30–16:45

T18 Isabel Ortega Insaurralde – An insightful look at the sensory physiology of Pediculus humanus capitis Free Evening

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MONDAY 25th June Genetics of Human Lice: plenary lecture 8:30–9:30

T19 Araxi Urrutia – The lice that splice: the search for the genomic underpinnings of two morphs

Population Genetics of Human Lice 1, Chair: Araxi Urrutia 9:30–9:45

T20 David L. Reed – Current human louse genetic diversity as a proxy to detect ancestral hominins direct contacts

9:45–10:00

T21 Aida Miró-Herrans – Human head lice offer insight into modern human and archaic hominin contact

10:00–10:15

T22 Barry R. Pittendrigh – Body and Head Lice Genomics: From Genome Sequencing to Functional Genomics and Reverse Genetics

10:15–10:45

Coffee Break

Population Genetics of Human Lice 2, Chair: David Reed 10:45–11:00

T23 Marina E. Eremeeva – RADseq Evaluation of the Population Structure of Human Lice from Three Continents

11:00–11:15

T24 Ariel Toloza – Population genetic analysis in human head lice: comparison between microsatellite and insecticide resistance markers

11:15–13:00

Lunch

Evolution of Animal Lice 1, Chair: Sarah E. Bush 13:00–13:15

T25 Sarah E. Bush – Host defense triggers rapid adaptive radiation in experimentally evolving parasites

13:15–13:30

T26 Scott M. Villa – Local adaptation to hosts of different size triggers reproductive isolation in feather lice

13:30–14:45

T27 Alexandra Grossi – Geographical variation in louse assemblages of Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in Canada

13:45–14:00

T28 Tomas Najer – Philopterus s. l. genera complex: How to get out of the mess of host-based species descriptions?

14:00–14:30

Coffee Break

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Evolution of Animal Lice 2, Chair: Jan Štefka 14:30–14:45

T29 Jan Štefka – Post-glacial crossroads in central Europe: co-phylogeography of voles and their Hoplopleura lice

14:45–15:00

T30 Lajos Rozsa – Coevolutionary allometry of host and parasite body size

15:00–15:15

T31 Imre S. Piross – Rensch’s rule in bird lice: sexual selection hinders adaptation to the hosts

15:15–15:30

T32 Lajos Rozsa – Evolution driven by sexual selection in Trichodectid lice: the geography of parasite sex

15:30–15:45

Group Photo

15:45–16:30

Coffee Break

16:30–18:00

Poster Session Free Evening

TUESDAY 26th June 8:00–17:30

SOCIAL EVENT – TRIP TO LEDNICE

WEDNESDAY 27th June Ecology of Animal Lice: plenary lecture 8:30–9:30

T33 Oleg Tolstenkov – Finding relations in multi-species communities of birds and ectoparasites

Ecology of Animal Lice, Chair: Oleg Tolstenkov 9:30–9:45

T34 Magdalena Gajdošová – Host switching in tropical feather lice  

9:45–10:00

T35 Therese A. Catanach – Two lineages of kingfisher feather lice exhibit differing degrees of cospeciation with their hosts

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The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera


10:00–10:15

T36 Dale H. Clayton – How do birds control lice they cannot preen? A true head scratcher

10:15–10:30

T37 Ghazi Khan – A note on the in vitro biology of Hohorstiella lata (Amblycera: Phthiraptera: Insecta)

10:30–10:45

T38 Ghazi Khan – Degree of haematophagy of ten avian amblyceran lice (Phthiraptera: Insecta)

10:45–11:15

Coffee Break

Head Louse Control 1, Chair: Birgit Habedank 11:15–11:30

T39 Ian Burgess – The „Quest for the Holy Grail“ – identifying a genuine nit loosening chemical

11:30–11:45

T40 Ayşegül Taylan-Özkan – Bibliometric evaluation of Pediculus humanus and Pthirus pubis publications

11:45–12:00

T41 Birgit Habedank – Body lice in Germany: Control of a neglected parasite

12:00–13:30

Lunch

Phthirapterists/Phthiraptera, Chair: Tomáš Najer 13:30–13:45

T42 Oldrich Sychra – Collection of chewing lice of dr. Karel Pfleger in National Museum in Prague (Czech Republic)

13:45–14:00

T43 Oldrich Sychra – Dr. Frantisek Balat – the most famous Czech Phthirapterists

14:00–14:15

T44 Vincent Smith – A new lease on lice: digitising the Phthiraptera collection at the NHM, London

14:15–14:30

T45 Miroslav Valan – Updating of World Check List of Chewing lice: 2003-2018

14:30–15:00

Coffee Break Extra Plenary Session

15:00–16:00

T46 Ricardo L. Palma – New Zealand Lice and their hosts: a pictorial review

16:00–16:30

Coffee Break

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16:30–18:00

Roundtable I. – Head lice, Chairs: Ian Burgess John Clark, María Inés Picollo and Kosta Mumcuoglu

Discussions of therapeutic interventions at ICP4 and ICP5 focussed on clinical trial methodology with alternative approaches to how trials should be conducted and on validating those methods in order to make results consistent and generalizable across different communities and regulatory systems. Since then only a tiny number of studies have been conducted with little in the way of acknowledgement of the proposals by either Barker et al. (2102) or Do-Pham et al. (2014). This is mainly because innovation in the field has either slowed, with no studies conducted, or because data may have been withheld from the public domain. For physically acting products the widespread belief is that they are resistance proofed, mainly because no obvious mechanism of resistance has been identified. But lessons from agriculture and vector control dictate that we should expect the unexpected. So how should we future-proof our louse control policies and procedures? Barker SC, et al. International guidelines for clinical trials with pediculicides. International Journal of Dermatology 2012; 51(7): 853-858. Do-Pham G, et al. Designing randomized-controlled trials to improve headlouse treatment: Systematic review using a vignette-based method. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2013; 134(3): 628-634.

18:00–19:00

Roundtable II. – Artificial intelligence and its implications on taxonomy - going beyond automated species identification, Chair: Miroslav Valan

Miroslav Valan (Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, SMNH). Identification of species and higher taxa in biology is a very demanding task normally performed by highly trained experts. However routine tasks of taxonomic identifications can be greatly optimized using recent machine learning technologies. In this round table we will introduce state-of-the-art techniques used for image classification and therefore taxon identification as well as the off-the-shelf techniques with optimized feature transfer for tasks with limited data collected in standardized lab settings such as insect identification. We will show that already off-the-shelf techniques enable us to quickly build simple and reliable tools using digital images to perform identification on various taxonomic tasks. In the second part of this round table we will talk about some of the recent advances in artificial intelligence and especially computer vision and natural language processing which together with mass empowered efforts could potentially transform the way we will do taxonomy in the near future. To name a few possible scenarios beyond the obvious species identification: collecting specimens, sorting and identification of specimens, novelty detection, automated image-based phylogeny, generating species descriptions from images, generating images of specimens from drawings including fossils or text descriptions, etc.

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THURSDAY 28th June Human Head Louse: plenary lecture 8:30–9:30

T47 Robert Vander Stichele – Head lice systematic review

Head Louse Control 2, Chair: Robert Vander Stichele 9:30–9:45

T48 María Inés Picollo – Evolution of pediculicides: from neurotoxic insecticides to behaviour modifiers

9:45–10:00

T49 Krista Lauer – A handheld precision controlled heated air device for the treatment of human head lice

10:00–10:15

T50 Birgit Habedank – Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) – An innovative Pediculosis treatment approach

10:15–10:45

Coffee Break

Head Louse Control 3, Chair: Kosta Mumcuoglu 10:45–11:00

T51 Ian Burgess – Can an ultrasound comb make louse treatment easier?

11:00–11:15

T52 Birgit Habedank – Efficacy evaluation of products to control head lice - protection of users

11:15–11:30

T53 Kosta Mumcuoglu – What is the importance of fomites in the transmission of head lice

11:30–11:45

T54 Ayşegül Taylan-Özkan – Knowledge and experience of teacher candidates on head louse infestations in Northern Cyprus

11:30–13:00

Lunch

Faunistic and Morphology, Chair: Saima Naz 13:00–13:15

T55 Wei Wang – A new species of sucking louse Hoplopleura villosissimus (Psocodea: Phthiraptera: Hoplopleuridae) and a new host record of the spiny rat louse Polyplax spinulosa (Psocodea: Phthiraptera: Polyplacidae) from the long-haired rat, Rattus villosissimus (Rodentia: Muridae) in Australia

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13:15–13:30

T56 Saima Naz – Data on new records of Chewing Lice (Phthiraptera) from Aquatic birds of Sindh, Pakistan

13:30–13:45

T57 Stanislav Kolencik – Megadiverse chewing lice genus Myrsidea – new data from neotropical region

13:45–14:00

T58 Ali Halajian – Chewing lice of passerine birds in South Africa

14:00–14:15

T59 Jessica E. Light – Host associations and genetic diversity of avian chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from Africa

14:15–14:30

T60 Saima Naz – New records and new species of Chewing Lice (Phthiraptera) from Terrestrial game birds of Sindh, Pakistan

14:30–15:00

Coffee Break

15:00–16:00

ISoP Assembley ICP 6

16:00–16:45

Break

17:00

Transfer to Abbey

17:30–19:30

Visit the Mendel Museum

19:30–22:30

Gala Dinner in Augustinian Abbey

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Speakers Abstracts

ABSTRACTS OF SPEAKERS

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Speakers Abstracts

T01 Mitochondrial genomes of parasitic lice: Â high-throughput sequencing, gene shuffling, genome fragmentation, and insights into high-level phylogeny & classification (Animal Lice)

Renfu Shao, Hu Li, Guohua Liu, Peter James, Douglas D. Colwell, Anette Tran, Wei Wang, Siyu Gong, Wanzhi Cai, Fan Song GeneCology Research Centre, Centre for Animal Health Innovation, School of Science and Engineering, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia The ~5,000 species of parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) are currently classified into four suborders: Anoplura, Amblycera, Ischnocera and Rhyncophthirina. Ischnocera is the most species-rich among the four suborders with 2,737 species parasitizing birds and 383 species parasitizing eutherian mammals. While the monophyly of Anoplura, Amblycera and Rhyncophthirina, respectively, is supported by morphological and molecular evidence, there is controversy whether Ischnocera is monophyletic. Using Illumina Hiseq platforms, we have sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of 25 species of parasitic lice of birds and mammals from all of the four suborders. Genes in the mitochondrial genomes of parasitic lice are highly rearranged in comparison to other insects. Furthermore, the mitochondrial genome organization differs drastically between bird lice and eutherian mammal lice. The typical one-chromosome mitochondrial genome is retained in bird lice but is fragmented into many minichromosomes in the eutherian mammal lice in the Anoplura, Ischnocera and Rhyncophthirina. The shared character of mitochondrial genome fragmentation supports the mammal lice of Ischnocera (family Trichodectidae) to be more closely related to Anoplura and Rhyncophthirina than to the bird lice of Ischnocera (family Philopteridae). This novel hypothesis is also supported by four types of shared derived mitochondrial minichromosomes and by phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome and gene sequences. We propose that the Ischnocera as a suborder should be rejected, and the mammal lice currently in the family Trichodectidae be elevated to a suborder, in parallel with Amblycera, Anoplura and Rhyncophthirina.

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Speakers Abstracts

T02 Phylogenomics of Lice from Whole Genome Sequencing (Animal Lice)

Kevin P. Johnson Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820 USA Molecular phylogenetic studies of lice have previously been hindered by a lack of universal primers to amplify and sequence a range of target genes. Because lice have relatively small genomes (100-400 Mbp), it is now feasible to sequence entire genomes using next-generation sequencing approaches. These genomic data sets can then be mined for hundreds or thousands of gene sequences, which can then be used in phylogenomic studies of lice. Recent approaches using an automated Target Restricted Assembly Method (aTRAM) have successfully assembled gene sequences for typically over 1000 genes across these genomes. These approaches can provide strong support for phylogenies at a variety of taxonomic scales, from species and populations (e.g. Columbicola) up to deep level relationships among louse families and suborders (e.g. reconstructing the timing of louse diversification). In addition to providing phylogenetic information for the lice themselves, these genome datasets can also be mined to address other questions, ranging from mitochondrial genome organization, louse population genetics, to symbiont genomics and phylogenetics. In the case of feather lice, genes and genomes from symbionts have been assembled from these same louse genomic libraries to provide evidence of repeated symbiont replacement events across feather lice. In general, sequencing entire louse genomes opens up a tremendous potential amount of data to address a range of questions in louse biology.

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Speakers Abstracts

T03 The Next Generation of Phylogenetic Relationships within Psocodea (Animal Lice)

Robert S. de Moya1, Kazunori Yoshizawa2 , Kimberly K.O. Walden1 , Julie M. Allen3 , Andrew D. Sweet3 , Malte Peterson4 , Lars Podsiadlowski5 , Christopher H. Dietrich3 , Hugh M. Robertson1 , Kevin P. Johnson3 1 Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois USA 2 Systematic Entomology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan 3 Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois USA 4 Center for Molecular Biodiversity Research, Zoologisches Forschungsmuesum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany 5 Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Ecology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany The taxonomic validity of major lineages that comprise the Psocodea is a matter of continued debate. Psocodea is now largely regarded as an individual order of insects that encompasses the historically recognized orders Phthiraptera (parasitic lice) and Psocoptera (bark lice). Previous analyses have indicated that parasitic lice are derived from within the bark louse suborder Troctomorpha, making both Troctomorpha and Psocoptera paraphyletic. Many other problems of paraphyly also exist within the Psocodea, for example the possibility of paraphyly of historically recognized suborders within parasitic lice. With the use of a large phylogenomic data set obtained through next generation sequencing technologies, the monophyly of major lineages within the Psocodea was tested, with the goal of providing a stable higher-level classification scheme of the order. Importantly, monophyly of parasitic lice is recovered with strong support by this data set, with the bark louse family Liposcelididae sister to parasitic lice. Based on these results, we propose a new higher-level classification scheme to Psocodea that should be stable for future studies.

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Speakers Abstracts

T04 Ground-dove lice, genomes, and the search for a more complete picture of host-parasite coevolution (Animal Lice)

Andrew D. Sweet1,2, Kevin P. Johnson1 1 Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA 2 Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA How do ecological processes shape evolutionary patterns in a host-parasite relationship? To address this question, an ideal study system would integrate phylogenetic and population patterns of two or more groups of parasites associated with a single host group. In this study, we focused on the “wing” and “body” lice of small New World ground-doves [1]. Although they parasitize the same hosts, the two groups of lice are not closely related and escape from host defense using different mechanisms. We sequenced full genomes of ground-dove wing and body lice, and developed a novel pipeline to assemble data for phylogenetic and population genetic analysis. Both wing and body louse phylogenies exhibited congruence with their hosts’ phylogeny. Some louse species also showed population structure according to host species. These patterns suggest that grounddove diversification is a key factor in shaping this host-parasite system. However, neither louse phylogeny was fully congruent with the host phylogeny, and wing lice showed less cospeciation with their hosts. Additionally, wing lice were less host-specific than body lice, and showed higher levels of heterozygosity. These differences are likely driven by the greater dispersal ability of wing lice relative to body lice [2]. Biogeography was also an important factor. Wing lice were structured according to biogeographic region at both species and population levels, but body lice only showed biogeographic structure at the population level. This indicates body lice eventually sort according to host species, but wing lice continue to be bounded by biogeography over long periods of time. References [1] Clayton, D.H. and Johnson, K.P. 2003. Linking coevolutionary history to ecological process: Doves and lice. Evolution. 57: 2335-2341. [2] Harbison, C.W., Jacobsen, M.V., and Clayton, D.H. 2009. A hitchhiker’s guide to parasite transmission: The phoretic behaviour of feather lice. International Journal for Parasitology. 39: 569-575.

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Speakers Abstracts

T05 Phylogenomics of Tinamou Feather Lice and Relatives (Animal Lice)

Stephany Virrueta Herrera1,2, Jason D. Weckstein4, Andrew D. Sweet1,2, Julie M. Allen1, Kimberly K. O. Walden3, Michel P. Valim4, and Kevin P. Johnson1 1 Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University Of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61820 2 Program in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology, School of Integrative Biology, University Of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61820 3 University Of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61820, 4Department of Ornithology, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19103 4 Biotério de Universidade Iguaçu, Av. Abílio Augusto Távora, 2134, RJ 26275, Brazil Tinamous host the highest generic diversity of lice of any group of birds, including four avian feather louse ecomorphs. While tinamou feather louse generic diversity is well documented, few attempts have been made to address the phylogeny of these lice. To address whether tinamou feather lice form a monophyletic group, we estimated a higher level phylogeny of tinamou feather lice and relatives using phylogenomic data derived from genome sequencing. Data from 48 genera of avian lice and over 1000 genes were analyzed using both concatenated (RAxML) and coalescent (ASTRAL) approaches. We found that tinamou feather lice are not a monophyletic group as a whole, and genera from other avian feather lice were recovered in a clade together with genera of Ischnocera from tinamous. Many of the genera that are nested phylogenetically with tinamou lice occur in South America, the main center of diversity for tinamous. These results suggest a possible in situ radiation of these parasites in South America. These data provide the first molecular phylogeny for this highly diverse group of avian feather lice.

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Speakers Abstracts

T06 Myrsidea quadrifasciata (Phthiraptera: Amblycera) – unique host generalist among highly host-specific chewing lice (Animal lice)

Oldřich Sychra1, Stanislav Kolenčík1, Ivo Papoušek1, Ali Halajian2, Ivan Literák1 1 Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic 2 Department of Biodiversity, University of Limpopo, Sovenga 0727, South Africa Myrsidea is the most speciose genus of chewing lice and also a good example of highly hostspecific lice, with 80% of species being restricted to a single host. The remainders are found on a few hosts, with only a single instance of an overlap between host families – Myrsidea serini. Recently we collected Myrsidea lice from Spinus magellanicus (Fringillidae), a type host of Myrsidea argentina, in Peru. After comparison of its morphometric characteristics we found that this species is conspecific with M. serini. Our opinion is justified also by molecular data. A portion of COI and EF-alpha genes were sequenced and divergence among our data and that of M. serini from Agelaoides badius (Icteridae) from Paraguay is just 6.6%, while in comparison with other species of Neotropical Myrsidea with known sequences, p-distance exceeds 18.2% in all cases. Curiously, the closest to our sequences were that of M. textoris ex Ploceus intermedius and Ploceus velatus (Ploceidae) from South Africa (p-distance 5.3%), followed by Myrsidea cf. viduae ex Vidua macroura (Viduidae) from Cameroon (p-distance 7.7%). Since all aforementioned species of Myrsidea belong to the “serini-species-group” we morphologically revised all ten species from this species group and we are concluding that all taxa are conspecific. This result led us to a reconsideration of the first-described species from this group, i. e. Myrsidea quadrifasciata ex Passer domesticus (Passeridae) as its nominate species. We also summarize host spectrum and geographical distribution of this interesting cosmopolitan host generalist.

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Speakers Abstracts

T07 Parasites as markers of avian host ecology and evolution: Examples from the micro and macroevolutionary histories of parasitic chewing lice (Animal Lice)

Jason D. Weckstein1,2, Stephany Virrueta-Herrera3, Julie Allen3, Therese A. Catanach1, Kevin P. Johnson3 1 Department of Ornithology, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 2 Department of Biodiversity, Earth, and Environmental Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 2 Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, USA. Prior to the advent of DNA sequencing technology, there was a long history of biologists using parasites to make inferences about host biology and evolution. However, the analysis of variation in associated parasite DNA sequences can serve as powerful tools for making inferences about host population structure, ecology, and phylogenetic history. In some cases, avian host DNA has not had time to accrue variation required to make inferences about genealogical history and thus the relatively rapid rate of evolution of their associated parasites provides an excellent proxy for reconstructing recent host evolutionary history. Patterns of parasites switching hosts or sharing of conspecific parasites among divergent hosts can provide inferences about historical opportunities for parasites to disperse between avian host species, and thus can elucidate historical distributions and ecological interactions among bird species. Lastly, parasite evolutionary history can provide independent evidence to corroborate higher-level macroevolutionary relationships among lineages of birds. We will present examples from our own research and from the literature, where analysis of parasite DNA sequences at macro and microevolutionary scales allows us to make inferences about avian evolutionary history and ecology. We will focus on ectoparasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera), which are excellent markers for host evolutionary history and ecology, because they are permanent parasites on birds, evolve more rapidly than their hosts, and are a model system for the study of bird-parasite coevolutionary history.

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Speakers Abstracts

T08 Major distribution patterns in the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera) on perching birds (Passeriformes) (Animal lice)

Daniel R. Gustafsson1, Sarah E. Bush2 1 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resources, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2 Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The Brueelia-complex constitutes one of the largest radiations of chewing lice, comprising almost 10% of the known species [1]. The complex occurs mainly on passeriform hosts, and can be found almost everywhere in the world; however, the diversity of this complex is highest in the Australo-Papuan and Indo-Malayan regions. Recent morphological [1] and molecular [2] work on this complex has revealed many previously unknown patterns in the host and geographical distribution of these lice. The majority of Brueelia-complex lice on passeriform hosts can be placed in one of two groups: the Brueelia group and the Guimaraesiella group. These groups are well defined both morphologically [1] and genetically [2]. The host distribution of these groups roughly corresponds with the “sparrow-like” Passerida and the “crow-like” Corvides, respectively. However, both groups include cases where lice occur on the “wrong” host radiation, indicating that host switches have occurred. The centers of diversity of these two groups roughly correspond to the center of diversity of their host groups. Host switches generally correspond with differences in host habitat, with Brueelia-group lice often occurring on Corvides hosts in dry areas, and Guimaraesiella-group lice often occurring on Passerida hosts in more humid areas. This may indicate that Brueelia-complex lice are subject to ecological sorting. Parallel evolution of ecomorphs in the Brueelia-complex may also be related to host and geographical distribution of the lice. Guimaraesiella-group lice living on Passerida hosts are very often “head lice”, including cases where other species of the same genus on Corvides hosts are “generalists”. Brueelia-complex “wing lice” are known mainly from high elevations. References [1] Gustafsson, D.R. & Bush, S.E. (2017) Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueeliacomplex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key. Zootaxa 4313, 1–443. [2] Bush, S.E., Weckstein, J.D., Gustafsson, D.R., Allen, J., DiBlasi, E., Shreve, S.M., Boldt, R., Skeen, H.R., & Johnson, K.P. (2016) Unlocking the black box of feather louse diversity: A molecular phylogeny of the hyper-diverse genus Brueelia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94, 737–751.

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Speakers Abstracts

T09 Population genetics and rates of movement in a colonizing parasite, Geomydoecus aurei (Animal Lice)

Jessica E. Light1, Theresa A. Spradling2, David J. Hafner3, Mark S. Hafner4, and James W. Demastes2 1 Departement of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA 2 Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA 3 Museum of Southwestern Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA 4 Museum of Natural Science & Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA In the 1930s, a contact zone between two pocket gopher subspecies (Thomomys bottae connectens and T. b. opulentus) and their chewing lice (Geomydoecus aurei and G. centralis, respectively) formed along the RĂ­o Grande Valley in central New Mexico, U.S.A. Since that time, the northern chewing louse G. aurei has been steadily expanding its range south at a constant rate of ~150 m/y and outcompeting the southern chewing louse G. centralis. We examine the genetic consequences of this range expansion over a 26-year period by sampling the genetics of 1,935 lice taken from 64 host individuals using 12 microsatellite markers. We employ a novel, grid-based sampling scheme in the region of ongoing population expansion and test hypotheses concerning linear spatial expansion, genetic recovery time, and allele surfing. Our results indicate decreasing allelic richness with increasing distance from the source population, supporting a linear, stepping-stone model of spatial expansion that emphasizes the effects of repeated bottleneck events during colonization. We provide evidence of post-bottleneck genetic recovery, with average allelic richness of infrapopulations increasing about 30% over 225-generations. We estimate that recovery rates have plateaued, and that this population may not reach genetic diversity levels of the source population without further immigration from the source population. This empirical examination of range expansion offers an ideal situation to explore the genetic consequences of changes in species distributions, which may have implications for predicting future outcomes of climate change and for better understanding the history that has led to current genetic patterns within species.

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Speakers Abstracts

T10 Host specificity driving genetic structure and diversity in populations of Polyplax serrata on Apodemus hosts (Animal Lice)

Jana Martinů1,2, Václav Hypša1,2, Jan Štefka1,2 1 Biology Centre, ASCR, České Budějovice, CZ 2 Faculty of Science, University of S. Bohemia, České Budějovice, CZ Genetic structure, diversity, and connectivity are the key elements in long-term population survival and evolution, and in the origin of new species. Formation of the genetic structure is contingent upon an interplay of various factors, such as environment, life strategy and population history. For parasites, each host species represents a unique ecological niche, providing not only a food resource, but also defining the parasite’s dispersal capability and evolutionary history through the process of co-evolution. According to the so-called Nadler’s hypothesis (Nadler, 1995), multi-host parasites display a shallower population structure due to the frequent opportunity to disperse. Here, we address predictions of the Nadler’s hypothesis by analyzing co-evolutionary patterns in the louse Polyplax serrata and its hosts, mice of the genus Apodemus, across a broad range of European localities. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite data, we demonstrate general genetic correspondence of the Apodemus/Polyplax system to the scenario of postglacial recolonization of Europe, but we also find several striking discrepancies. Among the most interesting are the evolution of different degrees of host specificity in closely related louse lineages in sympatry, or decoupled population structures of the host and parasites in central Europe. Finally, we find a strong support for the Nadler’s hypothesis by showing that parasites with narrower host specificity possess lower level of genetic diversity and deeper pattern of inter-population structure as a result of limited dispersal and smaller effective population size. References Nadler SA. 1995. Microevolution and the genetic structure of parasite populations. J. Parasitol. 81, 395–403. (doi:10.2307/3283821)

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Speakers Abstracts

T11 Lice, religion, and cultural traits (Human Lice)

Ian F Burgess Medical Entomology Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom Throughout human history there have been two persistent characteristics to human existence: lice and religion. Neither of these has any specific relationship with the other, although they do have some level of influence on each other, and both in their own way impact on human cultural and social traits. Inevitably, in a complex society many leaders of religion have something to say about lice that would have an impact on the other members of that society, although this is not a universal rule, and in some cases may be related to their personal experiences of infestation. Whether lice are considered a curse, a benefit, or just a rite of passage through life, everyone has an opinion, and such traits vary over time and from culture to culture.

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Speakers Abstracts

T12 Human and animal lice in head louse combs from archaeological excavations (Human Lice)

Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu Parasitology Unit, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel The oldest combs, which are similar to today’s delousing combs, are known from 1,500 B.C. Louse combs from Pharonic times in Egypt were used for delousing. Head lice and their eggs were found in combs recovered from archaeological excavations Most of the combs were two-sided, while few were also single-sided. The majority of combs were made out of wood, while some were made from bones and ivory, and are quite similar to modern day combs. In Israel, head lice were found in 12 out of 24 combs examined from the Judean and Negev Deserts. In the comb from Wadi Farah, 4 lice and 88 eggs were found; two of them were operculated, showing that at this stage the eggs were viable with an embryo inside. In one comb from Qumran 12 lice and 27 eggs were found, ten of them operculated. Three head lice were found in 1 out of 6 combs from an unidentified period from Nahal Zeelim. Lice and eggs were also found in 2 out of 5 combs from the Roman period excavated in Ein Rachel, while from 1 comb from an unidentified period from Ein Gedi no lice or eggs could be isolated. Two wooden louse combs, most probably from the Roman period, excavated in the “Cave of the Pool”, which is located at the western end of Nahal David river stream, in Ein Gedi oasis near the Dead Sea, were examined and in one of them the head and the apical part (tarsus, tibia and femur) of one of the legs of a head louse were found. During the archaeological excavation in the 1960’s in the so-called “Christmas Cave” in the delta of Wadi Kedron near the Dead Sea, a wooden louse comb dated from the First Century B.C. to the First Century A.D., was found and the remains of a single louse egg was isolated. Lately, in a comb which most probably belongs to the Roman period, an oribatid mite, a pseudoscorpion, a sucking louse (Polyplax brachyrryncha, which parasitizes spiny mice, Acomys spp., especially Acomys cahirinus), as well as a fully engorged larva and a nymph of the hard tick Rhipicephalus turanicus, were isolated. Though finding mites, beetle larvae and pseudoscorpions could be regarded as contaminations, the finding of a Polyplax louse and two ticks, remain debatable.

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Speakers Abstracts

T13 Head louse infestations in children and adults in Israel (Human Lice)

Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu1, Shir Alfi 1, Michael Friger2, Esther Aronson3 & Chen Stein-Zamir3,4 1 Parasitology Unit, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel 2 Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 3 Jerusalem District Health Office, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel 4 The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University and Hadassah Braun School of Public and Community Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel Background: Head louse infestation is still a public health challenge even in developed nations. Children 4-14-years old constitute the most infested age group. Information regarding the infestation rates of adults in developed countries is scarce. Methods: An Internet-based electronic survey on lice infestation was distributed to mothers in Israel and responses were analyzed. Results: The responders were 969 mothers (73.7% with > 12 years education). Mothers were more often infested (59.2%) with lice and more likely to be infested 3 times or more during adulthood, compared to fathers or other family adults. Mothers of 3 or more children were infested more often than those with 1-2 children. Mothers who reported professional contact with children other than their own (child care staff, teachers) were infested with lice significantly more often than those who did not report such contact. In families with more than one child, the oldest child was infested significantly more often than the younger brothers and/or sisters. In families in which the oldest child was ever infested (at least once) with lice, the second, third and fourth children were significantly more often infested, than children of families, in which the oldest child was never infested. In 67.4% of families with children of both genders, girls were infested more often than boys. In 42.1% of all-boy families with more than one boy, one of the boys was infested more often than the other brothers, while in 47.6% of the all-girl families with more than one girl, one of the girls was infested more often than the others. Responsibility for treatment was primarily the mother‘s (78%); in 18.8% of families it was shared by both parents. Conclusions: A relatively large proportion of highly educated mothers from a developed country such as Israel self-report head lice infestation during adulthood. The treatment burden is mainly the mother‘s with substantial medicinal out-of-pocket expenses investment of time resources and considerable inconvenience and discomfort. Health authorities and professionals, academic institutions, pharmaceutical companies and parents should cooperate, aiming to diminish the national prevalence of head louse infestation. 34

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Speakers Abstracts

T14 Efficacy of combing with lice comb of head lice (Pediculus capitis) (Human Lice)

Libor Mazånek Regional Public Health Authority of the Olomouc Region, Olomouc, Czech Republic The treatment of head lice was problematic in the Czech Republic in the last decades due to resistance of head lice to active substances in medicinal product, used routinely for treatment of head lice. Medicinal product has not been placed in the market in the Czech Republic since 2011. Only cosmetic and medical devices, later also repellents, have been offered in drugstores recently. Cosmetic and most medical devices do not have satisfactory direct efficacy in treatment of head lice. The experience with repeated infestation by head lice on author’s two sons during years 2008, 2009 and 2013 offered good opportunity for testing an efficacy of combing with lice comb. The boys were born in 2002 and 2004 and both had length of hair up to 10 cm. The only treatment of infestation of family was used combing with lice comb for five minutes. All combed head lice were recorded. Total 1821 head lice were combed out during this family research. Dynamic of head lice infestation within family is striking. Presented results give an excellent insight into efficacy of combing head lice with lice comb as a treatment method. It was verified that at least every third day it is necessary comb out head lice with lice comb to reach successful treatment (length of hairs up to 10 cm). Also it is necessary to know the right technique of combing with lice comb. The following from directions for use the efficacy of cosmetic and of most medical devices are based on combing with lice comb.

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Speakers Abstracts

T15 First functional characterization of a GABA receptor from the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus (Human Lice)

Nicolas Lamassiaude1, Claude Charvet1, Cédric Neveu1, Berthine Toubate2, Françoise Debièrre-Grockiego2, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson2 1 ISP, INRA, Université Tours, UMR1282, 37380, Nouzilly, France 2 ISP, UFR de Pharmacie, Université Tours, UMR1282, 37200, Tours, France Control of infestation by cosmopolitan lice (Pediculus humanus) is increasingly difficult due to the transmission of resistant parasites. Ligand gated ion channels are the major pharmacological targets of pediculicides including pyrethrins, malathion, spinosad and ivermectin (also used as nematicide and acaricide) but targets of these molecules remain largely unknown in lice. Among those receptors present in the nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid gated chloride ion channels (GABACl) are the main synaptic inhibitory receptors in insects, making them pertinent pharmacological targets. In the present study, we identified and characterized the targets of insecticides in lice to decipher the mode of action of insecticides in Pediculidae. Research in the genomic databases of Pediculus humanus allowed us to identify a GABACl subunit encoded by the Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene. We cloned the corresponding full-length cDNA into a transcription vector and performed in vitro synthesis of the cRNAs, which were injected in the Xenopus oocysts system to reconstitute functional channels. Two-electrode voltage clamp recordings showed that Pcor-RDL assemble into a homomeric receptor sensitive to different insecticides like fipronil and picrotoxin. These results correlated with the efficacy of these drugs on lice in vivo. In conclusion, we report the functional characterization of the first GABACl of Pediculus humanus humanus. These results contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of insecticide compounds and will allow the development of new strategies to control lice infestations.

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Speakers Abstracts

T16 Overcoming insecticide resistance: detection and management of insecticide-resistant human lice (Human Lice)

John M. Clark1 Ju H. Kim1, Kyle Gellatly1*, Edwin Murenzi1, Kyong S. Yoon2 1 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 2 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 Published research established that permethrin resistance in lice is caused by amino acid replacements in the alpha-subunit of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel, leading to channel insensitivity and knockdown resistance (kdr) [1]. To determine the level and extent of kdr lice, 14,281 lice from 479 human subjects from 138 collection sites in 48 states were analyzed by quantitative sequencing to determine the percent resistance allele frequencies (% RAF), which was overall 98.3 Âą 10%, indicating that kdr is widespread [2]. Due to the loss of efficacy of the over-the-counter formulations from kdr, new pediculicidal products (e.g., Natroba, NYDA, Sklice, Ulesfia, etc.) have been registered. To protect these new products from insecticide resistance, resistance mechanisms must be identified proactively and monitored. Using ivermectin, the active ingredient in Sklice, we developed a non-invasive induction assay to proactively identify detoxification genes involved in tolerance as a proof-of-principle approach [3]. One detoxification gene identified was the ATP binding cassette transporter gene, ABCC4. Knockdown of this gene by RNAi significantly increased the sensitivity of lice to ivermectin. The functional properties of PhABCC4 were investigated after expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the direct, ATP-dependent, efflux of [3H]-ivermectin from PhABCC4expressing oocytes was determined [4]. Thus, PhABCC4 is likely involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of ivermectin and may play an important role in the evolution of ivermectin resistance. Monitoring of the expression profiles of this gene in louse populations should provide crucial information on ivermectin resistance development, which would be useful in a proactive resistance management program for this valuable new pediculicide. References [1] Yoon, K.S., Symington, S.B., Lee, S.-H., Soderlund, D.M. and Clark, J.M.. 2008. Three mutations identified in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel Îą-subunit gene of permethrin-resistant human head lice abolish permethrin sensitivity of the house fly Vssc1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Insect. Biochem. & Mol. Biol. 38:296-306. [2] Gellatly, K.J., Krim, S., Palenchar, D.J., Shepherd, K., Yoon, K.S., Rhodes, C.J., Lee, S.H. and Clark, J.M. 2016. Expansion of the knockdown resistance frequency map for human head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in the United States using quantitative sequencing. J. Med. Entomol. 53:653-659. 1-7, doi: 10.1093/jme/tjw023. [3] Yoon, K.S., Strycharz, J.P., Baek, J.H., Sun, W., Kim, J.H., Kang, J.S., Pittendrigh, B.R., Lee, SH., and Clark, J.M. 2011. Brief exposures of human body lice to sub-lethal amounts of ivermectin over transcribes genes involved in tolerance. Insect Mol. Biol. 20: 687-699. [4] Kim, J.H., Gellatly, K.J., Lueke, B., Kohler, M., Nauen, R., Murenzi, Yoon, K.S., Clark, J.M. 2018. Detoxification of ivermectin by ATP binding cassette transporter C4 and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 6CJ1 in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 27:73-82. doi:10.1111/imb.12348. The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera

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Speakers Abstracts

T17 Genetic Diversity, Markers of Pesticide Resistance and Pathogens in Human Lice from Madagascar (Human Lice)

Marina E. Eremeeva1, Matthew Anderson1, Titilope Ogunleke1, Shamta Warang1, Danielle Capps1, Sarah Zohdy2, Lance Durden3 1 Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA 2 School of Forestry & Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA 3 College of Science and Mathematics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA Head louse infestation (HLI) or pediculosis capitis is the most prevalent communicable parasitic infestation of humans. Knowledge of the genetic structure and variability of louse populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infestation can occur and spread through a community and for the design of effective control methods. The purpose of this study was to examine genetic diversity and occurrence of biomarkers of permethrin resistance in head lice from six isolated communities in Madagascar. The lice were also evaluated for evidence of infection with two louse-borne bacteria, Bartonella quintana and Acinetobacter sp. including Acinetobacter baumannii, in order to assess potential risk of exposure to these pathogens in rural populations experiencing head louse pediculosis. Microsatellite typing based on 3 sites revealed significant genetic homogeneity among the lice tested, although two closely-related clusters were identified using Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian clustering. Presence of the kdr-resistant allele was detected in 70% of all lice tested. DNA of B. quintana was detected using species-specific bioB TaqMan in 12.6% of lice from 4 villages. DNA of Acinetobacter sp. was detected using rpoB TaqMan in 42.1% of lice collected from all locations. It was estimated that 58.3% of rpoB-positive lice had the blaOXA51--like enzyme gene specific for A. baumannii. The results of the study provided baseline information regarding the characteristics of HLI in Madagascar. This protocol can be applied to a larger and broader survey of the pediculosis capitis in other geographic locations.

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T18 An insightful look at the sensory physiology of Pediculus humanus capitis (Human Lice)

Isabel Ortega Insaurralde1, Sebastian Minoli2 , Ariel Toloza1, Paola Gonzalez Audino1, María Inés Picollo1, Romina Barrozo 2 1 Centro de investigaciones de plagas e insecticidas, Unidad de investigación y desarrollo para la defensa, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina 2 Laboratorio Fisiología de Insectos, Instituto Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental y Aplicada, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is a cosmopolitan hematophagous insect that parasites humans. The high dependence on its host affects its behavior and physiology during food and refuge assessment. Our goal was to study whether head lice rely on chemical and physical information while they evaluate a potential host. First, we explored the morphology of the antennae of lice in order to describe the diversity of sensory structures. We identified 3 types of chemoreceptors: 2 olfactory sensilla and 1 contact chemoreceptor (3rd flagellomere). In addition, we identified 2 tuft organs (2nd and 3rd flagellomere) and 1 pore organ (3rd flagellomere). Second, we analyzed the behavioral response of lice to chemical (human scalp), hygric (humid substrate) and thermal (heated substrate) stimuli in two-choice assays. We found that insects preferred the human scalp zone instead of the control zone. Similarly, when both zones of the arena were settled at different temperatures, lice preferred resting at 32 °C instead of 22°C. Finally, when humid versus dry substrates were offered, insects exhibited aversion for the wet substrate. Under the ablation of the antennal segments, we found that the detection of chemical, thermal and hygric stimuli was concentrated in the 3rd flagellomere. Third, in order to describe the central structures involved in peripheral processing, we traced the antennal neurons to the brain. We found antennal projections arborising in a neuropil, that we identified as the antennal lobe. This study integrates morphological and behavioural aspects of the sensory machinery of head lice involved in host perception.

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Speakers Abstracts

T19 The lice that splice: the search for the genomic underpinnings of two morphs (Human lice)

Araxi O. Urrutia1,2 1 Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom 2 Milner Centre for Evolution, University of Bath, Bath, UK Alternative morphs which vary in morphology and or behaviour have been observed in many insect species. These alternative morphologies allow individuals of a single species to become specialised in specific roles to benefit a colony as is the case of ants or honey bees or to better outcompete other con-specifics as in territorial and non-territorial damsel flies. Human head and body lice are now regarded as alternative morphs from a single species that occupy distinct ecological niches (human head and body) and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In my talk I will discuss genomic and transcriptomic studies aiming to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning the evolution of alternative morphs as well as early speciation events. I will focus on our results showing that alternative processing of RNA products, alternative splicing, may have contributed to the evolution of the body lice morph. These findings provide insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and represent a powerful illustration of the pivotal role alternative splicing can play in functional adaptation.

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Speakers Abstracts

T20 Current human louse genetic diversity as a proxy to detect ancestral hominins direct contacts (Human lice)

Marina S. Ascunce1, Ariel C. Toloza2, Angélica González-Oliver3, and David L. Reed4 1 Emerging Pathogens Institute, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA 2 Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CONICET-UNIDEF), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina 3 Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México 4 Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA Evolutionary histories of parasite and host populations are intimately linked such that the use of parasites may reveal aspects of host evolution that are not preserved in the archeological record or are poorly resolved in host DNA. Pediculus humanus is an obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite of humans and is so closely tied to its host in both ecological and evolutionary time, that they have the potential to shed light on not only the host‘s evolutionary past, but also on host ecology. One emerging question in human evolution is the nature of contact and introgression between anatomically modern humans (AMHs) and ancestral hominins in regions where they co-occurred. An assessment of the genetic variation at microsatellite markers in 274 human lice from 25 geographic sites worldwide revealed the presence of two distinct genetic clusters (Cluster I and Cluster II) that diverged about 800,000 years ago paralleling the divergence between AMHs and Neanderthals. In other recent studies, multiple mitochondrial haplogroups of lice have been found as well. In our samples, we detected two different mitochondrial haplogroups: A and B, however recent studies have detected a total of five haplogroups, thus our results reflect only a partial picture of the human louse genetic diversity. We hypothesize that the two distinct genetic clusters based on nuclear data (Cluster I and Cluster II) could be the result of coevolution between AMHs and archaic hominins like Neanderthals. If true, louse current genetic diversity suggests a high level of direct contact between these ancestral host populations.

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Speakers Abstracts

T21 Human head lice offer insight into modern human and archaic hominin contact (Human lice)

Aida T. Mirรณ-Herrans1, Niyomi House1,2, David L. Reed1 1 Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Florida, USA 2 Department of Biology, University of Florida, Florida, USA Genetic and fossil evidence tells us that anatomically modern humans (AMH) and archaic hominins overlapped in time and space with limited interbreeding [1-3]. However, the genetic signal only reflects sexual contact, and leaves an incomplete picture of where, when, and to what extent AMH had close (non-sexual) contact with archaic hominins. Because lice can be transmitted through direct non-sexual host-to-host contact, lice have the potential to tell us where and when hominins were in close physical contact. Genetic data of human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have shown that long-term isolation of louse lineages and gene flow (introgression), that was both brief and relatively recent (~55-35KYA), are required to explain head louse diversity, suggesting that some lineages found on modern humans transferred from archaic hominins [4]. We describe a world-wide effort to collect and sequence human head lice whole genomes to test the hypothesis that the observed louse diversity is due to introgressions from lice on archaic hominin hosts. We will collect lice from 90 world-wide locations, particularly from regions of known hominin interbreeding, to identify where, when, and from which host these introgressions took place. This work will provide valuable insight about human evolution that we cannot get directly from human data. Our world-wide head louse collection will also let us study how lice have adapted to humans in different parts of the world, which could contribute to eradication efforts. References [1] Green, R. et al. (2010). A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome. Science, 328(5979), 710-722. [2] Reich, D., et al. (2010). Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature, 468(7327), 1053-1060. [3] Hershkovitz, I. et al. (2015). Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans. Nature, 520(7546), 216-219. [4] Mirรณ-Herrans, A.T., Kitchen, A., & Reed, D.L. in review. Recent transfer of parasitic lice between archaic and modern humans. BMC Research Notes.

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Speakers Abstracts

T22 Body and Head Lice Genomics: From Genome Sequencing to Functional Genomics and Reverse Genetics (Human Lice)

Barry R. Pittendrigh1, John M. Clark2, Si H. Lee3, Kyong S. Yoon4, Weilin Sun1, Laura D. Steele5, and Keon M. Seong1 1 Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA 2 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA 3 Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea 4 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA 5 University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA In 2010, the initial annotations of the genomes of the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus) and its primary endosymbiont, “Candidatus Riesia pediculicola,” were completed. The body louse had the smallest genome of any insect sequenced to that point. Prior to the proposal for the sequencing project, there was a dearth of information about louse genes, with no more than around 500–600 inferred open reading frames in public databases. Since the publishing of this genome project, the field of louse genomics has experienced significant advances in our understanding of the taxonomic relationship and the differences in vector competence between head and body lice. To date, the louse system has emerged as a model system to understand xenobiotic induction responses. Finally, a louse RNAi-based reverse genetic system has been developed with the potential to study the functional role of louse genes in vector competence. Here, we explore the emergent opportunities and outcomes that resulted, directly and indirectly, from the sequencing of the body genome.

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Speakers Abstracts

T23 RADseq Evaluation of the Population Structure of Human Lice from Three Continents (Human lice)

Arunachalam Ramaiah1, Travis C. Glenn2, Troy Kieran2, Sarah Zohdy3, Gregory A. Dasch1, Nikolai K. Tokarevich4, Lance A. Durden5, and Marina E. Eremeeva5 1 Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA USA 2 University of Georgia, Athens, GA USA 3 Auburn University, Auburn, AL USA 4 Institute Pasteur, St. Petersburg, Russia 5 Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA USA Restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) is a powerful method to discover SNPs and genotype thousands of loci for population genetic analyses. We employed a variant of the dual-digest RADseq approach (3RAD) which facilitates testing multiple enzyme combinations and has improved performance with limited amounts of input DNA by using a third enzyme to reduce adapter dimers. Eight louse samples were doubly barcoded to allow multiplexing the samples and two designs of 3RAD [design 1: EcoR1 and XbaI (+ NheI for dimer reduction); or design 2: BamHI and MspI (+ ClaI for dimer reduction)] were evaluated. Four head lice from Georgia, USA, 2 body lice from Russia, and 2 head lice from Madagascar were tested. With either design, an average of >88% of the reads obtained on the Illumina NextSeq platform were properly barcoded. With design 1, an average of 515K reads/lane were barcoded (224-830K) while 550K average reads/ lane (243-1,348K) were obtained with design 2. The sequences were reference mapped against the Pediculus humanus humanus USDA genome sequence with Stacks. While reads mapped to multiple loci (1-38) on 241 (generally the largest ones) of the 1882 contigs, only a limited number of SNPs were detected by 3RAD mapping, confirming the low population diversity of human head and body lice.

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Speakers Abstracts

T24 Population genetic analysis in human head lice: comparison between microsatellite and insecticide resistance markers (Human lice)

Toloza Ariel C1, Reed David2, Picollo MarĂ­a1, Ascunce Marina3 1 Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CONICET). Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397. (1603), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2 Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, 3 Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Every year millions of children in both developed and developing countries are infected by head lice. To control them, products containing pyrethroids are being intensively used leading to the development of insecticide resistant among louse populations worldwide. Pyrethroids act on the nervous system affecting voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSC). Three point mutations at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions M815I, T917I and L920F in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are responsible for contributing to the knockdown resistance (kdr). Despite its medical importance, little is known about the movement patterns and the effects of insecticide treatments on the genetic structure of the insect populations. In this study, we assess the effects of evolutionary processes such as migration and genetic drift on the evolution of resistance among head louse populations from Argentina. To that end, we use 15 microsatellite loci and kdr alleles couple with toxicological phenotypes (resistance, sensitive). Toxicological studies revealed that the resistant factor (RF) to pyrethroids varied from 30 to 80. Pyrethroid resistance alleles (kdr) were found in an overall frequency of 88%. Most of the populations departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. We used both multivariate and model-based Bayesian clustering approaches. Knowing the processes that shape the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical to understand how insecticide resistance evolves and for the design of effective control methods.

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Speakers Abstracts

Absent AA Broader Impacts of Human-Louse Evolution Research (Human lice)

Niyomi House1,2, Aida T Miró-Herrans1 and David L. Reed1 1 Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, USA 2 Department of Biology, University of Florida, USA Human-louse interactions date back to the origin of modern humans and beyond [1]. We use this co-evolutionary journey of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) and modern humans to study human evolution. By studying louse introgression, we can identify the historical timing and geographical localities where anatomically modern humans made contact with other archaic hominins. To do this, our first goal is to collect human head lice from a worldwide population, particularly including localities that have shown evidence of human introgression with Neanderthals or other archaic hominins [2]. One challenge this poses is getting louse specimens from different parts of the world that are not easily accessible. To overcome this challenge, we are incorporating the non-scientific community in our collection efforts through a citizen-science approach. This approach allows us to educate the public and provides the opportunity for them to participate in scientific research. We will engage the general public to contribute lice through our project webpage and have also invited more experienced ‘head lice removal clinics’ in different parts of the world to participate and assist us in our project. We describe how we engage non-scientific collaborators as participants in our research and develop strategies to disseminate our research findings with them. Our research will provide an opportunity for the curious mind to be a part of the research process, learn, and to have access to the data that we collect. We will generate 900 whole genome sequences, which will be available for further studies that could contribute to outbreak control efforts. References [1] Light, J.E. et al. (2008) Geographic Distributions and Origins of Human Head Lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) Based on Mitochondrial Data. J. Parasitol. 94, 1275–1281 [2] Reed, D.L. et al. (2004) Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans. PLoS Biol. 2, e340

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Speakers Abstracts

T25 Host defense triggers rapid adaptive radiation in experimentally evolving parasites (Animal Lice)

Sarah E. Bush1, Scott M. Villa1*, Juan C. Altuna1, Kevin P. Johnson2 , Michael D. Shapiro1, and Dale H. Clayton1 1 Department of Biology, University of Utah, USA 2 Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Adaptive radiation occurs when the members of a single lineage evolve different adaptive forms in response to selection imposed by competitors or predators. Iconic examples include Darwin’s finches, Caribbean anoles, and Hawaiian silverswords, all of which live on islands. Parasites, which live on host “islands,� show macroevolutionary patterns consistent with adaptive radiation in response to host-imposed selection. Here we show rapid adaptive divergence of experimentally evolving feather lice in response to preening, the main host defense. We demonstrate that preening exerts strong phenotypic selection for crypsis in lice transferred to different colored rock pigeons (Columba livia). During three years of experimental evolution (~50 generations), the lice evolved heritable differences in color. The color differences spanned the phenotypic distribution of congeneric species of lice adapted to other species of pigeons. Our results indicate that host-mediated selection triggers rapid divergence in the adaptive radiation of parasites, which are among the most diverse organisms on earth.

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Speakers Abstracts

T26 Local adaptation to hosts of different size triggers reproductive isolation in feather lice (Animal lice)

Scott M. Villa, Sarah E. Bush and Dale H. Clayton Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84102, USA

Parasites are arguably the most diverse group of organisms on the planet. One key factor in determining patterns of parasite biodiversity is the adaptive radiation of parasites among different hosts. However, surprisingly little is known about how natural selection leads to adaptive radiation in parasites. We used Rock pigeon breeds (Columba livia) and their host-specific feather lice (Columbicola columbae) to test whether adaptations for novel host use can lead to the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation among populations of lice infesting different sized hosts. The study had two main goals: 1) to experimentally evolve louse size, and 2) to determine how parasite body size affects reproductive compatibility among divergent lineages of lice. Our work shows that if female lice exceed a certain size relative to male lice, they do not produce eggs. We further show that mating behavior and male-male competition in lice are also affected by louse body size. Specifically, males that have evolved different body sizes on different sized hosts not only have a harder time copulating with isolated females, but competing with other males for access to females as well. These reproductive and behavioral assays suggest that reproductive isolation evolves as a byproduct of adapting to divergent host environments. This study demonstrates the first and most critical stage of ecological speciation in parasites.

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Speakers Abstracts

T27 Geographical variation in louse assemblages of Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in Canada (Animal Lice)

Alexandra Grossi, Heather Proctor University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Rock Pigeons were introduced to North America in the 1600s and are now found in almost all urbanized areas. When pigeons were introduced they bought with them their ectoparasitic lice. Even though pigeons have subsequently colonized much of North America, this does not mean that all of their louse species have as well. We examined pigeons from across Canada to determine what louse species are present in particular areas, and whether their prevalence or intensity changes based on location. Pigeons were examined from seven sites that included east and west coasts and five sites in between (4440 km total distance). We found 5 species of lice in total. Columbicola columbae and Campanulotes compar were found in every location, while Coloceras tovornkiae, Hohorstiella lata and Bonomiella columbae were not; however, every louse species was found on the east and west coast locations. There are two potential explanations for the observed patterns in louse assemblages: (1) current distributions of lice are based on past lineage sorting events, and it is just by chance that pigeons that colonized a specific location were missing those species; (2) abiotic conditions (e.g., humidity) limit the current distribution of some louse species, and even if the species were to make it to a new location, it would die off quickly due to non-conducive living conditions.

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Speakers Abstracts

T28 Philopterus s. l. genera complex: How to get out of the mess of host-based species descriptions? (Animal Lice)

Tomáš Najer, Oldřich Sychra, Ivo Papoušek Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Philopterus s. l. is not the sole complex of lice genera heavily burdened by the old taxonomical custom to describe lice species according to their host associations. When proper systematic revision is done, it can be observed that nothing is farther from truth than this prejudice. Besides traditional morphology, molecular methods are nowadays used as a standard of modern taxonomy and must be considered as a base also in this case. This contribution summarizes the attempts at both morphological and molecular clarification of interspecific relationships of several Philopterus s. l. groups carried out at UVPS Brno in a period 2013 – 2018. Furthermore, it suggests both morphological and molecular methods which can be used as standards for ongoing revision of other groups of this complex.

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Speakers Abstracts

T29 Post-glacial crossroads in central Europe: co-phylogeography of voles and their Hoplopleura lice (Animal Lice)

Michaela Fickerová1, Jan Štefka2,3 1 Institute of Molecular Genetics, ASCR. 2 Biology Centre, ASCR, České Budějovice, CZ 3 Faculty of Science, University of S. Bohemia, České Budějovice, CZ Geographical distribution of genetic diversity in European fauna has been extensively affected by glacial climatic oscillations. Several examples of parasites affected by the history of their rodent hosts were revealed recently. Here, we assessed historical relationships between the populations of voles and their louse parasites, focusing on their central European range. We sequenced mitochondrial genes from 120 Myodes and 74 Microtus, and from 124 Hoplopleura acanthopus/edulis representatives. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that H. edentula and H. acanthopus represent sister species. More interestingly, several clades were revealed within each species. Whilst H. edentula clades were host specific to Myodes, the lineages recovered in H. acanthopus showed varying degrees of host specificity to several vole species. Multiple mitochondrial lineages were recovered also in each of the host species, with geographic distribution of the clades reflecting historical separation to several areas across Europe. The distribution of several host clades overlapped with the clades of their parasites, particularly between the western and eastern parts of Europe. Correspondingly, population genetic statistics of the parasites showed highest level of local genetic diversity in the area comprising admixed mitochondrial lineages. Similarly to other studies (e.g. on Polyplax, or parasites of the domestic mouse), our results point to a secondary contact between previously isolated lineages of the host and parasite, which all happened in the same area (border between Germany and the Czech republic). However, in contrast to the previous studies, where either the parasites or even both counterparts showed restriction of gene flow between the previously isolated lineages, no such evidence was seen in Hoplopleura.

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Speakers Abstracts

T30 Coevolutionary allometry of host and parasite body size (Animal Lice)

Andrea Harnos1, Zsolt Lang1, Dora Petras1, Sarah E. Bush2, Krisztian Szabo3, Lajos Rozsa4,5 Department of Biomathematics and Informatics, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest, Hungary 2 Department of Biology, University of Utah, Utah, USA 3 Department of Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest, Hungary 4 Evolutionary Systems Research Group, Ecology Center, HAS, Budapest, Hungary 5 MTA-ELTE-MTM Ecology Research Group, HAS, Budapest, Hungary 1

Launcelot Harrison published a study focused on kiwi lice a century ago concluding that the body size of birds and lice covary positively. This covariation was later named Harrison’s Rule (HR). More recently, Poulin noted that not only the average, but also the variability of parasite body sizes increases with host body size (Poulin’s Increasing Variance Hypothesis PIVH). This simply means that small-bodied host species may harbor only small-bodied parasites, but large host species may harbor both small- and large-bodied parasite species. We tested these two hypotheses using data for 581 species of avian lice (15% of known diversity). We applied phylogenetic generalized least squares methods to account for phylogenetic nonindependence controlling for both host and parasite phylogenies separately, and also controlling for variance heterogeneity. We tested HR and PIVH for the Ricinid, Menoponid, and Philopterid families of avian lice, and then also for the known ecological guilds within Philopterids. Our results support both HR and PIVH for most families and also for most guilds. Contrarily, however, Ricinids did not comply PIVH and the “body lice” guild of Philopterids did not follow HR or PIVH. We discuss methodological and biological factors that may be responsible for these patterns, and also the shortcomings of our knowledge about louse body size in general.

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Speakers Abstracts

T31 Rensch’s rule in bird lice: sexual selection hinders adaptation to the hosts (Animal Lice)

Imre S. Piross1, Andrea Harnos1, Lajos Rozsa2,3 1 Department of Biomathematics and Informatics, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary 2 MTA-ELTE-MTM Ecology Research Group, Budapest, Hungary 3 Evolutionary Systems Research Group, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Tihany, Hungary Rensch’s rule (RR) states that male body size diverges faster than female, causing the sexual size dimorphism (SSD) to increase with increasing body size when males are larger, and decrease when females are larger, among closely related species. However, RR’s general validity is controversial among Insects. We investigated the presence of RR in the Amblyceran families Menoponidae and Ricinidae, and in the Ischnoceran family Philopteridae. In the latter family analyses were carried out separately for four ecological guilds as well. Using published data on the body length of 989 louse species, subspecies, or distinct intraspecific lineages, we applied phylogenetic reduced major axis regression to analyse the body size of females vs. males while accounting for phylogenetic non-independence. Our results indicate that Philopterid and Menoponid lice follow RR, while Ricinids exhibit an opposite pattern. Among Philopterid guilds only generalists and wing lice follow RR, while the case of “body” and “head lice” is rather equivocal. In case of Philopterids and Menoponids, we argue that larger-bodied bird species tend to host larger, and also more lice. Thus, intrasexual competition is more intense in these largerbodied parasite species and, therefore, their males are relatively larger. Consequently, there is a negative trade-off between the adaptation to avoid host defences (requiring small size) and to increase sexual competitiveness (requiring large size) in males. We hypothesise, that the unique ecological properties of the small bird specialist Ricinids may explain the converse RR pattern.

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Speakers Abstracts

T32 Evolution driven by sexual selection in Trichodectid lice: the geography of parasite sex (Animal Lice)

Lajos Rozsa1, Piotr Tryjanowski2, Zoltán Vas3 1 Evolutionary Systems Research Group, Ecology Center, HAS, Budapest, Hungary 2 Poznań University of Life Sciences, Institute of Zoology, Poznań, Poland 3 Hungarian Natural History Museum, Department of Zoology, Budapest, Hungary Most parasites reproduce sexually with sperm competition as the typical mechanism of male-male sexual competition. The evolution due to sexual selection pressure likely affects their sex-ratio, sexual size dimorphism, and shape the morphology of their genitals. We analyzed published data on pocket gophers (Rodentia: Geomyidae) and their Trichodectid lice (Geomydoecus, Thomomydoecus). This a species-rich pair of hostparasite taxa, where parasite sex-ratios are extremely variable (proportion of males: 0-0.75). Without controlling for phylogenetic effects, parasite sex-ratio correlated with mean intensity, sexual size dimorphism, measures of the size and complexity of female and male genitals, and also with the size and complexity of the male scape (1st segment of the antenna, an enlarged grasping structure to fix the female). When applying a statistical control for phylogenetic effects, sex-ratio still correlated significantly with intensity, male genital complexity, and male scape length. All correlations (either significant or not) lead into the same direction showing that higher proportion of males comes together with higher intensity and more sexually selected morphological traits in both sexes. Thus sexual selection shapes morphologies of primary and secondary sexual characters that are most often used as taxonomical characters, and affects sex-ratios that influences the growth rate of populations. The geographical distribution of more versus less sexually selected species or subspecies were non-random. Sexual selection was more intensive in the center of speciation (Southern Rocky Mountains, with a high number of species per unit area), while it was weak in the peripheries where even parthenogenetic species occur.

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Speakers Abstracts

T33 Finding relations in multi-species communities of birds and ectoparasites (Animal Lice)

Oleg Tolstenkov1,2 1 Center of Parasitology, A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow, Russia 2 SARS International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway The mechanism of coadaptation in host parasite system represents one of the most intriguing questions in host-parasite relationship, many aspects of which remains unknown. Data on relations of ectosymbionts and their avian hosts in the natural conditions is very limited and nearly absent for multi-species communities. Measuring the host parameters available for non- and minimally invasive study and the infestation parameters for symbionts we aimed to approach to understanding of the processes of adaptation and specificity in the host parasite system. Evaluation of the physiological state of the host depending on the level of parasite load can serve as a source of information about the existence of evolutionary trade-offs and the stability of relations in the hostparasite system. While the reconstruction and comparison of topologies of phylogenetic trees clarifies the cophylogenetic relations between hosts and parasites. The talk will be based on data obtained mainly in the model territory of tropical forest of South-East Asia and also the temperate zone of the European part of Russia. Many questions arose during this study. Do different groups of symbionts influence the physiological state of the host and how? Does host switch affect the stability of the host-parasite system and are we able to detect the host switch within the natural multi-species community? Do groups of birds of various origins namely oscines, suboscines passerines and non passerines differ in their relations to ectoparasites and what about migrants wintering in the tropical forest? Our humble achievements and answers to these questions will be presented.

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Speakers Abstracts

T34 Host switching in tropical feather lice (Animal Lice)

Magdalena Gajdošová1, Oldřich Sychra2, Tomáš Albrecht1,3, Pavel Munclinger1 1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Czech Republic, 2 Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Czech Republic 3 Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic Feather lice have for long been used as a model group for studying host switching and cospeciation of parasites and their hosts. Many groups of ecologically distinct lice have been studied and the results show that the rate of cospeciation is affected by host and parasite ecology. However, very little is known about cospeciation of lice in the tropics – an area that is unique concerning biotic interactions. We present results of cospeciation analyses of two genera of tropical feather lice and their passerine hosts from Cameroon. The analyses revealed frequent host switching in both genera of lice. A successful host switch requires not only transfer to a new host but also establishment and continued reproduction on it, which might be problematic for host specific parasites. Hence, we asked whether host switches occur between hosts that are sympatric/syntopic or between hosts that resemble each other physiologically. We showed that lice colonize mainly sympatric hosts with similar bill shape. We also found strong correlation between pairwise genetic distances of the hosts and of their parasites, implying that host switching is non-random. In other words, lice colonize preferentially species related to their original hosts.

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Speakers Abstracts

T35 Two lineages of kingfisher feather lice exhibit differing degrees of cospeciation with their hosts (Animal Lice)

Therese A. Catanach1, Kevin P. Johnson2, Ben D. Marks3, Robert G. Moyle4, Michel Valim5, and Jason D. Weckstein6 1 Department of Ornithology, Academy of Natural Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA USA 2 Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL USA 3 Field Museum of Natural History, Science and Education, Integrative Research Center, Chicago, IL, USA 60605 4 Biodiversity Institute and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA 5 Biotério da Universidade Iguaçu, Av. Abílio Augusto Távora, 2134, Nova Iguaçu, RJ 26275-580 Brazil 6 Department of Ornithology, Academy of Natural Sciences, and Department of Biodiversity, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA USA Unlike most bird species, individual kingfisher species (Aves: Alcidae) are typically parasitized by only one of three potential genera of lice (Alcedoecus, Emersoniella, and Alcedoffula). These three genera of lice are generally specific to a particular kingfisher subfamily. Specifically, Alcedoecus and Emersoniella parasitize Daceloninae, whereas Alcedoffula parasitizes Alcedininae and Cerylinae. Although Emersoniella is geographically restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, Alcedoecus and Alcedoffula are geographically widespread. We used DNA sequences from two genes, the nuclear EF-1α and mitochondrial COI genes, to infer phylogenies for the two geographically widespread genera of kingfisher lice, Alcedoffula and Alcedoecus. These phylogenies included 47 kingfisher lice sampled from 11 of the 19 currently recognized genera of kingfishers. We combined published host records with new host records reported here and reconstructed the evolutionary history of louse generic associations with the hosts by mapping louse genera onto a kingfisher host tree. We also compared louse phylogenies to host phylogenies to reconstruct their cophylogenetic history. Two distinct clades occur within Alcedoffula, one which infests Alcedininae and a second which infests Cerylinae. All species of Alcedoecus were found only on host species of the subfamily Daceloninae. Cophylogenetic analysis indicated that Alcedoecus as well as the clade of Alcedoffula occurring on Alcedininae did not show evidence of cospeciation. In contrast, the clade of Alcedoffula occurring on Cerylinae showed strong evidence of cospeciation.

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Speakers Abstracts

T36 How do birds control lice they cannot preen? A true head scratcher (Animal lice)

Graham B. Goodman, Sarah E. Bush and Dale H. Clayton Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84102, USA Anti-parasite behavior is the first line of defense for birds and mammals against lice and other ectoparasites. In the case of birds, preening with the beak is an effective defense against harmful lice. However, birds cannot preen their head and upper neck, meaning that other mechanisms must be used to control lice in these regions. Scratching with a foot is one possible defense against such lice. We present new experimental evidence showing that scratching is effective against lice in such regions, despite the fact that birds do not scratch very often, compared to preening. We also present the results of an experiment to test to what extent scratching requires claws to be effective against lice. The results of this experiment indicate that claws are required for effective scratching. The evolution of claw morphology across the 30+ orders of birds should be re-evaluated with this function in mind. We conclude by considering the relative importance of allopreening [1] and other mechanisms [2] for controlling lice and other ectoparasites in hard-to-reach places. [1] Villa, S. M., G. B. Goodman, J. S. Ruff and D. H. Clayton. 2016. Does allopreening control avian ectoparasites? Biology Letters 12: 20160362. [2] Bush, S. E. and D. H. Clayton. 2018. Anti-parasite behaviour of birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. In press.

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Absent T37 A note on the in vitro biology of Hohorstiella lata (Amblycera: Phthiraptera: Insecta) (Animal Lice)

Surendra Kumar1, A. K. Saxena2 and Ghazi Khan3 Department of Zoology, Govt. Raza P.G. College, Rampur (U.P) Most of the information on the in vitro bionomics of avian Phthiraptera has been derived through in vitro experimentations. Several Ischnoceran lice have been successfully reared by the workers. However, In vitro rearing of amblyceran lice is a challenging task. The haemetophagous nature and active habits of amblycerans lice create certain hurdles, during in vitro experimentations. Scrutiny of literature indicates that limited success has been obtained by phthirapterists in rearing the haemetophagous amblyceran lice. Present report furnishes information on the result obtained during preliminary in vitro experimentation on an amblyceran pigeon louse, Hohorstiella lata. The incubation period of eggs of H. lata was 6.0 ± 0.95 days, while duration of three nymphal instars remained 6.09 ± 0.94 days, 6.5 ± 1.09 days and 6.58 ± 1.0 days, respectively. The life span of adult female (6.38 ± 3.5 days) was marginally higher than males (4.6 ± 3.2 days) in vitro condition(35 ± 1˚ C and 35-82% RH). Adult females laid an average of 2.55 eggs during the lifespan, at a rate 0.44 egg/♀/day (in vitro condition). Furthermore information on the egg laying pattern and the egg architecture of the louse has also been appended. Further rearing with improvised methodology will bring more accurate information on the subject.

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Absent T38 Degree of haematophagy of ten avian amblyceran lice (Phthiraptera: Insecta) (Animal Lice)

Ghazi Khan, A. K. Saxena and Surendra Kumar Department of Zoology, Govt. Raza P. G. College, Rampur (U.P) It is generally presumed that avian Amblycera are haemetophagous in nature. The haematophagous Amblycera are of great concern to veterinarians and parasitologists, as they do not only affect the vitality and productivity of their hosts but are also involved in transmission of infectious agents among the hosts. During the present studies an attempt was made to determine the extent of haematophagy of ten avian Amblycera on the basis of their crop contents.

Out of ten species examined, eight were found to be haemetophagous. Degree of haematophagy varied from 35.3% (Hohorstiella lata) to 89% (Laemobothrion maximum). Percentage of adult females carrying host blood in the crop was marginally higher than adult males (somehow statistically not significant). On the other hand, significant differences existed in the degree of haematophagy of adults and nymphal instars (percentage of nymphal instars carrying host blood was distinctly lower). SEM studies on the ventral side of head of different species indicate the presence of post-palpal spine (near bases of maxillary palps) of the four species. Degree of haematophagy in the four species bearing post-palpal spine appeared similar to other four haematophagous species which are devoid of this structure. Thus, the sharp edged mandibles appear to play important role in puncturing skin vessels to make blood pool, in order to imbibe the blood.

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Speakers Abstracts

T39 The „Quest for the Holy Grail“ – identifying a genuine nit loosening chemical (Human Lice)

Elizabeth R Brunton, Ian F Burgess EctoMedica Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom Irrespective of how humans have managed and eliminated head louse infestations, one problem always remains. How to remove the louse eggshells? For centuries combing and nit-picking by hand have been the method to eliminate all the old nits but these can be both laborious and inefficient. Even as early as the middle of the 19th century a wish of a chemical to assist in this process became part of the developing mythology of louse control, stating with use of vinegar or other acid materials. As treatments became more sophisticated during the 20th century, an increasing number of commercial organizations developed formulations that they claimed facilitated nit removal, but with no evidence to back up those claims. The introduction of the “no nit policies” in the USA increased the rate at which such products were made, apparently by people who knew nothing of louse biology or chemistry, and possibly had never even seen a louse or a nit. The identity of a chemical entity that really loosened the grip of the egg fixative “glue” and facilitated had become as elusive as the grail of myth and legend. Following a process of logic in relation to what is required, together with an intuitive search through the modern chemical arsenal has revealed a group of chemicals, and one in particular, that genuinely cause the louse fixative to “loosen” its grip on the hair and at the same time facilitate the sliding of the eggshell along the hair.

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Speakers Abstracts

T40 Bibliometric evaluation of Pediculus humanus and Pthirus pubis publications (Human Lice)

Emre Demir1, Ayşe Semra Güreser2, Djursun Karasartova2, Kosta Y. Mumcuoğlu3, Ayşegül Taylan-Özkan2,4 1 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Hitit University, Corum, Turkey 2 Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hitit University, Corum, Turkey, 3 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel 4 Department of Medical Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus A bibliometric analysis of articles on human lice Pediculus humanus and Pthirus pubis indexed from 1975 to 2017 in Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS; Thomson Reuters, New York, NY, USA), was conducted using bibliometric methods. In the analysis, the keywords „Pediculus humanus“, “human louse”, “human lice”“pediculosis capitis”“pediculosis corporis”, “Pthirus pubis”, “Phthirus pubis” „phthiriasis pubis“, and „pediculosis pubis“, were used. A total of 752 publications were found. Of these 571 (75.9%) were articles and 71 (9.4%) were reviews, while the remaining publications were book reviews, letters, short communications etc. The analysis included only articles and reviews. The highest number of publications was published in 2012 (51; 7.9%). Most publications were in the fields of entomology (125; 19.5%), dermatology (123; 19.2%), veterinary sciences (91; 14.2%), parasitology (88; 13.7%), and infectious diseases (58; 9.0%). The most published authors were D. Raoult (36; 5.6%), J.M. Clark (35; 5.5%), K.Y. Mumcuoglu (28; 4.4%), M.I. Picollo (27; 4.2%), and S.H. Lee (24; 3.7%), respectively. The top publications were in the Journal of Medical Entomology (61; 9.5%), Parasitology Research (43; 6.7%), International Journal of Dermatology (30; 4.7%), Medical and Veterinary Entomology (17; 2.6%), and PLoS ONE (13; 2.0%). The countries with the most publications were USA (183; 28.5%), France (61; 9.5%), England (50; 7.8%), Australia (45; 7.0%), and Argentina (43; 6.7%). The two most active institutions were the University of Massachusetts (35; 5.5%) and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (32; 5.0%). The most cited article was the „Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle“ published by E. F. Kirkness et al. (2010) in the journal of the National Academy of Sciences of America.

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Speakers Abstracts

T41 Body lice in Germany: Control of a neglected parasite (Human Lice)

Birgit Habedank German Environment Agency, Section IV 1.4- Health Pests and their Control, Berlin, Germany Pediculus humanus humanus is important as vector of pathogens like Rickettsia prowazecki, Borrelia recurrentis, Bartonella quintanta. The permanent human ectoparasite can survive when people live in poor hygienic conditions where clothes are not changed, washed or cleaned regularly. The problem increases in times of crisis or war. There are reports from several countries where body lice and Bartonella quintana were found among homeless people and alcoholics. Even in Germany, body lice were found among homeless people. In 2015 and 2016, 50 cases of Borrelia recurrentis infested persons were registered in Germany among asylum seekers from African countries. Further cases occurred e.g. in the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, Finland. Various thermal, mechanical, chemical and combined methods may be suitable to control the body louse in clothes, on items and in the environment. The German Environment Agency is evaluating the efficacy of products to control health pests including body and head lice in accordance with ยง18 of the German Infection Protection Act (IfSG). A formulation containing permethrin was officially approved for chemical control of the body louse in the environment. Other contact insecticides that can eradicate populations of other health pests generally may also be suitable. Among available medicines, one product containing allethrin was claimed for the treatment against body lice on surfaces and one product containing pyrethrines for topical application on the human body. None of the known medical devices are claimed for body louse control. This gap should be closed. Options for topical treatment are presented and discussed.

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Speakers Abstracts

T42 Collection of chewing lice of dr. Karel Pfleger in National Museum in Prague (Czech Republic) (Animal lice)

Oldřich Sychra Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Dr. Karel Pfleger (4.8.1900-30.1.1951) was a passionate ornithologist and taxidermist. He has been working with this group of ectoparasites for over twenty-five years, and he was probably the first to systematically deal with chewing lice in the territory of the former Czechoslovakia. He gained deep knowledge of biology and louse-host associations and became a renowned phthirapterist not only in our country but also abroad. He partly summarized his research in his rigorous thesis (1928) and two short communications (1924 and 1929). Unfortunately, he was not able to finish his long-preparing book on chewing lice. Thus his collection of microscopis slides remained his only legacy. It is currently deposited mostly at the Slovak National Museum in Bratislava (21,236 slides), the National Museum in Prague (4114 slides), the Moravian Museum in Brno (154 slides) and the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna (about 300 slides). The aim of this contribution is to summarize the current state of the collection of dr. Karel Pfleger deposited at the National Museum in Prague. The collection consists of slides created between 1854-1939. Most of the specimens come from wild birds in the Czech Republic (76%). In addition, there are also lice from Austria, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Egypt, Sudan, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. The collection includes 54 species of amblyceran lice of 25 genera and five families, and 142 species of ischnoceran lice of 54 genera and two families collected from a total of 164 bird species of 23 orders and 16 species of mammals from four orders.

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T43 Dr. František Balát – the most famous Czech phthirapterist (Animal lice)

Oldřich Sychra1, Lucie Ošlejšková1, Tomáš Najer1, Ivan Literák1, Igor Malenovský2,3 1 Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic 2 Department of Entomology, Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic 3 Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Dr. František Balát (22.7.1925-20.4.1992) was a leading Czechoslovak ornithologist. At the same time, he was (and still is) a world-renowned phthirapterist. He described 32 new species of chewing lice in 8 genera (28 ischnoceran species of Brueelia s. l., Penenirmus, Philopterus, Saemundsonnia and Sturnidoecus, and 4 amblyceran species of Machaerilaemus, Menacanthus and Ricinus). Balát’s collection including most of the types is depositewd at the Department of Entomology of the Moravian Museum in Brno. The original collection consists of 1533 items (numbered as series of lice from 1533 hosts) with a total of 2566 permanent slides mounted in 1946-1979. Most specimens were collected from wild birds in the territory of former Czechoslovakia. In addition, the collection also includes chewing lice from Sweden, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia. The collection is accompanied by original handwritten lists, which have been converted into electronic form. According to the list, the collection includes representatives of 24 genera of Amblycera and 53 genera of Ischnocera collected from a total of 231 bird species of 19 orders and 5 species of mammals. Currently, this electronic list is being updated according to the valid nomenclature and prepared for publication at the Moravian Museum website.

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Speakers Abstracts

T44 A new lease on lice: digitising the Phthiraptera collection at the NHM, London (Animal Lice)

Vincent Smith, Louise Allan, Olha Schedrina, Paul Brown, Helen Hardy and Laurence Livermore1 Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom As part of the Natural History Museum’s Digital Collections Programme1, we have digitised the Museum’s collection of more than 70,000 parasitic louse slides. The data and images are now freely available online for researchers worldwide to use through the Museum’s Data Portal2. The collection currently has 70,667 slides, making it one of the largest and most taxonomically comprehensive Phthiraptera collections in the world and a unique digital resource for further study. In this presentation we will showcase the digitisation process, which on average takes just 16 seconds to image each slide; initial analysis of the collection metadata (taxonomic breadth, host coverage, geographic spread and major collectors); as well as our use of artificial intelligence techniques to automate the extraction of data from digitised images. We will also highlight opportunities to further exploit this digital collection, illustrated by work conducted through the EU Funded ICEDIG project3 to identify new research challenges associated with the collection. References [1] http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/digital-museum/digital-collectionsprogramme.html. [2] Olha Schedrina, Louise Allan, Paul Brown, Laurence Livermore, Vincent S. Smith (2017). Dataset: Phthiraptera collection. Natural History Museum Data Portal (data.nhm.ac.uk). https://doi.org/10.5519/0096731 [3] ICEDIG: H2020-INFRADEV-2016-2017 – Grant Agreement No. 777483. Funded by the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme of the European Union. https://icedig.eu/

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Speakers Abstracts

T45 Updating of the World Checklist of the Chewing lice: 2003-2018 (Animal lice)

Miroslav Valan1,2,3, Oldřich Sychra4 1 Savantic AB, Stockholm, Sweden 2 Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, SMNH, Stockholm, Sweden 3 Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Universitetsvagen 10, 114 18 Stockholm, Sweden 4 Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno The last World‘s Checklist of Chewing Lice by Price et al. 2003 triggered taxonomic research on parasitic lice and many taxa have been actively studied thereafter. New species are described, synonymies are recognized, new host-parasite associations are recorded and changes for taxon status are occasionally proposed. Arguably, this checklist was the key for recent rapid taxonomic delivery with over 400 new species described and over 50 new genera described or resurrected in the last fifthteen years. This is an increase for almost 10 % in valid specific names and 20 % in generic names. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly challenging to follow the state-of-knowledge. The aim of our contribution is to start a discussion about the 1) extension of the last chewing lice world checklist and 2) to provide up to date Checklist on Phthiraptera.info. This website serves as a collection of digital resources on parasitic lice as a collection of literature, images and checklist. It already contains most of the recently published papers but the checklist is outdated lacking most of the records beyond the Price‘s Checklist from 15 years ago.

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T46 New Zealand Lice and their hosts: a pictorial review (Animal Lice)

Ricardo L. Palma Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, New Zealand The New Zealand louse fauna is discussed and illustrated with a series of colour illustrations of the lice and their hosts, and with data taken from Palma (2017). Palma, R.L. (2017). Phthiraptera (Insecta). A catalogue of parasitic lice from New Zealand. Fauna of New Zealand 76: 1–400.

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T47 Head lice systematic review (Human Lice)

Giao Do-Pham, Tim Klootwij, Johannes C van der Wouden, Arie Knuistingh Neven, Robert Vander Stichele, Olivier Chosidow, Laurence Le Cleach Head lice infestation is a common infestation affecting children and adults worldwide, with prevalence increasing despite the extensive supply of therapies. The aim of the review was to compare effectiveness of available interventions in head lice. We selected randomised controlled trials including patients diagnosed with lice and comparing efficacy of interventions. The Risk of Bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. Treatment effect was measured by the odds ratios (OR) of cure. Sixty-nine studies were included, with five categories of treatments: topical chemical, systemic, topical oil, topical physical, topical mechanical. Four studies were cluster-randomised. Fifty-nine out of 69 included studies were assessed as being at high risk of bias for at least one domain, especially blinding and selective reported outcomes. Data were pooled for six comparisons. There was no significant difference in 3 comparisons : permethrin vs pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide, malathion vs phenothrin, dimeticone vs phenothrin. There was a better cure rate for permethrin compared to lindane (4 studies, day 14, OR 5.97, 95% CI 1.38 to 25.77), for carbaryl compared to phenothrin (2 studies, day 28, OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.80), for topical ivermectin compared to placebo (3 studies, day 14, OR 6.70, 95% CI 3.87 to 11.59). Levels of evidence were low except for topical ivermectin compared to placebo. Despite the number of different treatments assessed, no treatment could emerge. It is crucial to improve the quality of evidence, and standardize the trials in head lice infestation, in order to provide relevant recommendations.

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T48 Evolution of pediculicides: from neurotoxic insecticides to behaviour modifiers (Human Lice)

MarĂ­a InĂŠs Picollo Centro de Investigaciones en Plagas e Insecticidas, Buenos Aires, Argentina In Argentina, the chemical control of head lice has been based on pyrethroid insecticides in the 1980s. Repeated use of these compounds has led to high levels of resistance that were reported in 1997. Later studies in 154 head lice samples from six geographical regions of Argentina, demonstrated that resistance were mainly based on kdr alleles in high frequencies (from 67 to 100%). Consequently, several alternative strategies were developed and used for the control of head lice. Lotions based on synergized Ivermectin (0,5%) were effective against susceptible and resistant head lice, and Ivermectin encapsulated into stable LNC dispersion has potential clinical activity as pediculicides. Alternatives to conventional insecticides were found in botanical compounds as the essential oils from Argentinean native and exotic plants. Some of these natural oils were repellents, ovicides, and/or adulticides for head lice, and an adequate mixture of its constituents lead to an increase in the pediculicide effect. Recent studies were focused on the response of head lice to human scalp components, as one of the probably reasons of the known preference of lice to infest some heads over others. It was shown that lice lowered their locomotor activity and began feeding behaviour when they were attracted by the mixture of less volatile components of the human odour. An adult lice response was also found by mixing the most volatile components (nonanal, sulcatone, geranylacetone, and palmitic acid). The stop of spread of lice by means of behaviour modification represents a critical contribution to the control of pediculosis.

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T49 A handheld precision controlled heated air device for the treatment of human head lice (Human Lice)

Krista Lauer, MD National Medical Director, Larada Sciences andLice Clinics of America Precision controlled heated air is a scientifically proven safe, effective treatment for head lice infestations. [1,2] In the US, the AirAllé® device is a professional FDA-cleared, class I medical device that uses controlled heated air to treat head lice infestations in clinic settings. The technology has recently been extrapolated to a handheld device designed for consumer use. The device is available in the Lice Clinics of America® Home Treatment Kit (a handheld heated air device and dimethicone gel lotion). Two separate trials are being conducted. The purpose is to examine whether a handheld version of the professional AirAllé® device has the same efficacy and safety profile. Preliminary data indicate that the handheld device exhibits the same level of efficacy as the professional version for killing louse eggs. We are currently conducting additional in-vitro testing using the handheld device with laboratory-reared lice eggs on human hair tufts. The objective is to determine precisely how effective the device is at preventing lice eggs from hatching. We also plan to conduct a second trial that will be a randomized, single-center, parallel-group, observer-blind trial comparing the Home Treatment Kit with the AirAllé® professional 2-Step Process for treatment of head lice and their ova. Eighty-five participants will be recruited and randomized into groups treated with the Home Treatment Kit or the professional AirAllé® 2-Step Process [AirAllé device plus dimethicone gel lotion). Participants will be assessed for the presence of live, hatched-form head lice on Days 2, 8 (+ 1 day), and 15 (+ 2 days). [1] An Effective Nonchemical Treatment for Head Lice: A Lot of Hot Air: Brad M. Goates, Joseph S. Atkin, Kevin G. Wilding, Kurtis G. Birch, Michael R. Cottam, Sarah E. Bush and Dale H. Clayton. Pediatrics 2006. 118:1962-1970. [2] Bush, S. E., A. N. Rock, S. L. Jones, J. R. Malenke, and D. H. Clayton. 2011. Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 48:67-72.

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T50 Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) – An innovative Pediculosis treatment approach (Human Lice)

Lars ten Bosch1, Birgit Habedank2, Wolfgang Viöl1 1 University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Götingen, Germany 2 Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Boetticherstrasse 2, Berlin, Germany Every household can easily be struck by an infestation of head lice regardless of its tidiness and personal hygiene. When it comes to an infestation with head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) many of the applied remedies contain insecticides like e.g. pyrethroids or malathion. These are known to display toxic side effects [1] and thein provocation of resistances [2]. Results from different experiments concerned with possible and useful applications of CAPP against pest insects, e.g. [3] led to the development of an alternative pediculosis treatment method. The presented method is based on the principles of a dielectric barrier discharge. Using a capacitively coupled setup forming a comb-like device a simple electrode configuration was chosen to ignite the plasma, simultaneously treating the scalp and hair in different distances from the hair root. We present the results of preliminary study conducted under controlled ex-situ conditions,and therefore CAPP as possible tool for the treatment of pediculosis. The presented experiments worked with respect to juvenile and adult Pediculus humanus humanus individuals as well as their nits. The individuals were bred by the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) in Berlin under controlled conditions. Using the comb-device for just one single transition the treated lice exhibit mortality rates of more than 50%. Furthermore, the mortality rates of the nits were examined under ideal conditions by introducing single eggs directly to the plasma. This led to a reduced hatch rate. References [1] K. Nolan, J. Kamrath, and J. Levitt, “Lindane toxicity: a comprehensive review of the medical literature,” (eng), Pediatric dermatology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 141–146, 2012. [2] R. Durand et al., “Insecticide resistance in head lice: clinical, parasitological and genetic aspects,” (eng), Clinical microbiology and infection: the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 338–344, 2012. [3] L. ten Bosch, R. Köhler, R. Ortmann, S. Wieneke, and W. Viöl, “Insecticidal Effects of Plasma Treated Water,” (eng), International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 14, no. 12, 2017.

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T51 Can an ultrasound comb make louse treatment easier? (Human Lice)

Ian F Burgess, Elizabeth R Brunton, Nazma A Burgess, Mark N Burgess Medical Entomology Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom Head louse treatment mostly involves two approaches – application of a liquid treatment of some kind, or combing, a combination of the two. In all of these it is necessary to ensure that the chosen method reaches all parts of the hair of the head down to scalp level. Otherwise some lice and/or louse egg are missed. However, hair constitutes a considerable barrier to complete penetration of combs, and fluids spreading along the hairs often do not thoroughly coat to scalp level. Therefore a combination of a fluid and a suitable comb can be the best approach. Even then the process is often only efficient for removing lice because louse eggs that are covered with lubricating fluids often slip between the teeth of even the most efficient combs. But – what if a comb could be developed that made the fluid flow into the microscopic gap between the fixative glue and the hair? And then by vibration cause the eggshell to slide along the hair shaft on an activated film of fluid? The theory of the ultrasound comb is that it has the capacity to excite fluids to do just that. However, when tested in both the laboratory and in clinical practice, some fluids expected to be good lubricants proved to be anything but good under the influence of ultrasound but others excelled in their ability to slide louse eggs, even though using the comb clinically showed it was not the wonder technique it was expected to be.

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T52 Efficacy evaluation of products to control head lice and user protection (Human Lice)

Birgit Habedank1, Tanja Charles2, Anton Aebischer2 1 German Environment Agency, Section IV 1.4 –Health Pests and their Control, Berlin, Germany 2 Robert Koch- Institute, Berlin, Germany Pediculosis capitis is a relevant Public Health issue, spread worldwide with a higher prevalence among children. A variety of pediculicides for topical pediculosis treatment is on the market. Approved medicines contain active ingredients like pyrethrins, permethrin or other pyrethroids, malathion, ivermectin, spinosad. There exists an increasing number of anti–louse products registered as medical devices, claiming different modes of action. In case of pediculosis treatment failure, it may be caused by insecticide resistance, product misapplication by the user, inappropriate product application due to instruction deficiencies, or products of a generally insufficient efficacy. At the German Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt - UBA) the efficacy of products to control head lice is evaluated according to the German Infection Protection Act. In addition to external study data, simulated-use tests with Pediculus humanus humanus of the insecticide-sensitive UBA-strain were conducted in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, insecticide-sensitive Musca domestica served to test insecticidal residues on natural hair. A current study conducted in Germany to determine kdr-mutation frequency in head lice gave insights into the pediculosis treatment practice. The analysis of external data, own simulated-use test results and the new study about pediculosis treatment in practice revealed gaps in the instructions for use. These instructions often lack important information that would enable users to improve product application and treatment success. This is important to prevent treatment failures, further transmission of lice, and in case of medicines to prevent the development of insecticideresistant lice strains. Instructions for use should also include information when and how to remove insecticidal residues.

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T53 What is the importance of fomites in the transmission of head lice (Human Lice)

Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu Parasitology Unit, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel Lice are permanent ectoparasites, which are strongly adapted to their human hosts. They need the higher temperatures and humidity of the human skin, the hair with the correct diameter to walk on it and lay eggs, and the blood, which they take 4-5 times a day, to continue their development. In addition, lice can’t fly or jump, which make the finding of another host very difficult if not practically impossible once they left the human body. The large majority of head lice survive up to 15 hrs outside their host, while some survive up to 24 hrs. Therefore, it is generally accepted that head lice are transmitted by physical contact between the hairs of two individuals. There are some indications however, showing that lice could be transmitted through fomites and shared articles such as combs, brushes, blow-dryers, hair accessories, bedding, helmets, and hats, but if at all, the changes must be very slim that lice can find another human through the fomites. Louse combs are used to remove head lice and eggs from the scalp and accordingly should not be used immediately by another person, without being thoroughly cleaned. Head lice can be detached for a bundle of hair if they are treated with a blower or during combing with some plastic combs, when lice are physically ejected due to the static electricity and infest, e.g., the examining person. Two of the 48 pillowcases of infested children were examined and a nymph was found in each pillow, while the examination of 118 classrooms revealed no lice on the floor. It should be taken into consideration that people who normally come in contact with infested fomites come also in physical contact with the infested individual. Dead lice found on the pillow could be also those which were intoxicated by a pediculicidal treatment the day before. They might be still moving and look alive but they could be also lice which are moribund and dying. It is not necessary to change the clothes or bedding before or after a pediculicidal treatment and even more so not to spray bedding, sofas and carpets with an insecticide. Still and for hygienic reasons combs, brushes and towels should be not shared among family members.

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Speakers Abstracts

T54 Knowledge and experience of teacher candidates on head louse infestations in Northern Cyprus (Human Lice)

Serap Ozbas1, Aysegul Taylan-Ozkan2,3, Kosta Y. Mumcuoğlu4 1 Ataturk Faculty of Education, Near East University,  Nicosia, Northern Cyprus 2 Department of Medical Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus 3 Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hitit University, Corum, Turkey 4 Parasitology Unit, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and personal experiences of pre-school and school teacher candidates in the Near-East University of North Cyprus. Methods: Overall, 287 candidates in the first to the fourth class of their studies were included in the study. The questionnaire included 39 questions, out of it 20 about the biology and control of head lice and 19 questions about the personal experiences of the candidates with lice. Results: Overall, 67.4% of the teacher candidates stated that they saw living lice and 52.1% nits/eggs, however 61.4% of them feel they had not enough experience to counseling families and 52.8% to examine someone else for head louse infestation. More than half of the teacher candidates (61.4%) thought that head lice cause psychological and emotional problems in the family, and 56.2% wished to receive information on the biology and control of head lice. More than half of the candidates thought that a louse comb should be used in addition to a chemical treatment, while 82.4% believe that the use of a louse comb alone is not recommended. Overall, 47.6% of the candidates thought it is the family, which should be responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of head louse infestations, while only 7.5% thought that this is the responsibility of teachers. Conclusions: Teachers and teacher candidates should be better educated in order to reduce the rate of head louse infestations in their communities

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T55 A new species of sucking louse Hoplopleura villosissimus (Psocodea: Phthiraptera: Hoplopleuridae) and a new host record of the spiny rat louse Polyplax spinulosa (Psocodea: Phthiraptera: Polyplacidae) from the long-haired rat, Rattus villosissimus (Rodentia: Muridae) in Australia (Animal Lice)

Wei Wang1, Haylee Weaver1,2, Fan Song3, Lance Durden4, Renfu Shao1 1 GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4556, Australia 2 Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy, GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT 2601 Australia. 3 Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China 4 Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia 30458, USA The long–haired rat, Rattus villosissimus (Rodentia: Muridae) is endemic to Australia. We describe a new species of sucking louse, Hoplopleura villosissimus (Psocodea: Phthiraptera: Hoplopleuridae), and a new host record of the almost cosmopolitan spiny rat louse, Polyplax spinulosa (Psocodea: Phthiraptera: Polyplacidae), from R. villosissimus. These are the first records of sucking lice from R. villosissimus and the first record of Polyplax species from a native Australian rodent. Polyplax spinulosa was recorded in Australia previously only from the introduced brown rat and black rat, R. norvegicus and R. rattus, respectively. Because R. villosissimus overlaps with R. rattus in distribution but not with R. norvegicus, we propose that P. spinulosa transferred to R. villosissimus from R. rattus.

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Absent T56 Data on new records of Chewing Lice (Phthiraptera) from Aquatic birds of Sindh, Pakistan (Animal Lice)

Saima Naz, Sajid Siyal, Asma Kanwal Thebo Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan For the faunestic studies of chewing lice from Sindh, Pakistan, aquatic birds of Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charaderiiformes, Podicipediformes, Ciconiiformes and Phoenicopteriformes were examined during June, 2015 to November, 2017. Total of 23 chewing lice species of 07 genera of Menoponidae (Amblycera) and 08 genera of Philopteridae (Ischnocera) were newly reported from Anseriformes, Charaderiiformes, Ciconiiformes, Gruiformes, Phoenicopteriformes and Podicipediformes. During the period, Laemobothrion atrum (Nitzsch, 1818) ex. Fulica atra; Actornithophilus himantopi Blagov. 1951 and Austromenopon himantopi Timm., 1954 ex. Himantopus himantopus; Heleonomus adnani Naz et. al., 2009 and H. macilentus (Nitzsch, 1866) ex. Grus grus and Anthropoides virgo; Pseudomenopon lanceolatum Tendeiro, 1965, P. pilosum (Scopoli, 1763) and P. sindhiensis sp.n. ex. F. atra and Gallinula chloropus; Ciconiphilus species ex. Egretta garzetta; Fulicoffula lurida (Nitzsch, 1818) ex. F. atra and G. chloropus; Incidifrons fulicae (L., 1758) and I. fulicatrae sp.n. ex. F. atra; Holomenopon fatemae Naz and Rizvi, 2012 and H. leucoxanthum (Burm., 1838) ex. Anas platyrhynchos and A. crecca; Triniton querquedulae (L., 1758) ex. A. clypeata, A. crecca, A. platyrhynchos, A. querquedula, Aythya ferina and A. fuligulla; Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763), A. mergiserrati (De Geer, 1778) ex. A. crecca, A. clypeata, Anser anser, A. albifrons, Aythya ferina, A. fuligulla and A. nyroca; Anaticola phoenicopteri (Coinde, 1859) ex. Phoenicopterus roseus; Anatoecus icteroides (Nitzsch, 1818) and A. dentatus (Scopoli, 1763) ex. Anas crecca, A. querquedula, A. acuta, Aythya nyroca and A. fuligulla; Ardeicola species ex. Ardeola grayii; Quadraceps species and Saemundssonia species ex. Tringa glareola, Gallinago gallinago, H. himantopus and Recurvirostra avosetta; Rallicola species ex. G. chloropus and Tachybaptus ruficollis were first time reported from Sindh, Pakistan.

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T57 Megadiverse chewing lice genus Myrsidea – new data from neotropical region (Animal lice)

Stanislav Kolenčík, Oldřich Sychra, Ivo Papoušek and Ivan Literák Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Within the parasitic group of chewing lice genus Myrsidea, a total of 47 species collected from wild birds (Cardinalidae, Corvidae, Formicariidae, Fringillidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Icteridae, Mimidae, Parulidae, Pipridae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Tityridae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae and Tyrannidae) in five countries of Latin America (Brazil, Honduras, Costa Rica, Paraguay and Perú) between years 2004 and 2014, were studied. Twelve new species were described, as follows: Myrsidea alexanderi, Myrsidea capeki, Myrsidea flaveolae, Myrsidea habiae, Myrsidea leptopogoni, Myrsidea leucophthalami, Myrsidea pachyramphi, Myrsidea philydori, Myrsidea pyriglenae, Myrsidea sayacae, Myrsidea scleruri and Myrsidea zuzanae; and redescription was made for two previously known species: Myrsidea dissimilis and Myrsidea chiapensis. Further 21 species: Myrsidea antiqua, Myrsidea balteri, Myrsidea barbati, Myrsidea coronatae, Myrsidea dalgleishi, Myrsidea diffusa, Myrsidea flaviventris, Myrsidea klimesi, Myrsidea lightae, Myrsidea meyi, Myrsidea oleaginei, Myrsidea olivacei, Myrsidea paleno, Myrsidea pitangi, Myrsidea psittaci, Myrsidea rufi, Myrsidea seminuda, Myrsidea serini, Myrsidea spellmani, Myrsidea violaceae and Myrsidea nesomimi borealis, are included with new data on their geographical distribution, hostparasite interactions, morphometry and molecular-genetic data (variability within part of the COI gene). Twelve other species were identified at genus level only (Myrsidea sp.), due to the lack of adequate material (i.e. adults of both sexes).

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T58 Chewing lice of Passeriformes, South Africa (Animal Lice)

Ali Halajian1, Oldrich Sychra2, Wilmien J Luus-Powell1, Craig Symes3, H. Dieter Oschadleus4, Derek Engelbrecht1, Ivan Literak2, Kgethedi Michael Rampedi1 1 Department of Biodiversity (Zoology), University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727 Polokwane, South Africa 2 Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho 1–3, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic 3 School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS, 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa 4 Animal Demography Unit, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa South Africa has a high diversity of birds (~850 species) but few have been studied for parasites. This study presents data on the distribution of chewing lice for passeriform birds in South Africa. Field trips were conducted across the country during 2012-2018. Birds were caught using mist nets and checked for ectoparasites using visual examination and fumigation chamber methods. Additional parasite samples were collected from roadkill birds collected across the country. A total of 1600 individual birds of different passerine species (from 32 families) were sampled. Chewing lice genera recorded from across the country included amblyceran lice: Menacanthus, Myrsidea and Ricinus; and ischnoceran lice: Brueelia s. l., Penenirmus, Philopterus, and Sturnidoecus. New species of Myrsidea were described and published, many other samples require further investigation and description.

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T59 Host associations and genetic diversity of avian chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from Africa (Animal Lice)

Jessica E. Light1, Oona M. Takano1, Caitlin E. Nessner1, Daniel R. Gustafsson2, Preston S. Mitchell1, and Gary Voelker1 Departement of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA 2 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resources, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China 1

Parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of birds are found everywhere their avian hosts are distributed, and their host relationships and taxonomy have been well studied in many regions. Compared with Europe and the Americas, however, the ectoparasite fauna of African birds is poorly understood despite the avian fauna being relatively wellknown. Recent field expeditions exploring the avian diversity in South Africa, Benin, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the fact that these specimens are stored in natural history museums, allowed an opportunity to examine louse specimens from across Africa. The goal of this study was to investigate avian louse host associations and genetic diversity to increase our understanding of African parasite biodiversity. Over 1600 avian specimens were examined for lice, and approximately 125 new louse-host associations were observed. Portions of the mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF-1Îą genes were amplified and phylogenetically analyzed, revealing multiple new genetic lineages of lice. Our work reveals possibly of as many as 60 new chewing louse species. Examining biogeographic patterns in parasitic lice across the entire region of Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that lice tend to follow host distributions rather than grouping by geographic region. Given the lack of current data on chewing louse species distributions in Africa, this study adds to the knowledge of host associations, geographic distribution, and genetic variability of avian chewing louse species in Africa.

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Absent T60 New records and new species of Chewing Lice (Phthiraptera) from Terrestrial game birds of Sindh, Pakistan (Animal Lice)

Saima Naz, Sajid Siyal, Shakeela Begum Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan The chewing lice fauna of game birds of Columbiformes and Galliformes found in Sindh, Pakistan was surveyed during June, 2015 to November 2017. During survey, 30 chewing lice species of 05 genera of Menoponidae (Amblycera) and 08 genera of Philopteridae (Ischnocera) were newly reported from Sindh, Pakistan. The chewing lice species of Menoponidae include Amyrsidea species ex. Francolinus pondicerianus; Colpocephalum tausi Ansari, 1951 ex. Pavo cristatus; C. turbinatum Denny, 1942 ex. Streptopelia senegalensis and S. deaocta; Hohorstiella lata (Piaget, 1880) and H. streptopeliae Eichler, 1953 ex. Columba plumbus, S. decaocta, S. senegalensis and S. orientalis; Menacanthus abdominalis (Piaget, 1880), M. pallidulus (Neumann, 1912), M. stramineus (Nitzsch, 1818), Menopon gallinae L., 1758 and M. interpositum Ansari, 1951ex. Coturnix coturnix, C. japonicas, F. francolinus, F. pondicerianus and Numida meleagris; species of family Philopteridae include Campanulotes compar (Burm., 1838), Coloceras dharejoi sp.n., C. piageti (Johnston and Harrison, 1912), Columbicola bacillus (Giebel, 1866), C. columbae L., 1758, C. sindhiensis sp.n., C. theresae Ansari, 1955, C. tschulyschman Eichler, 1942 ex. Columba livia, C. plumbus, S. decaocta and S. senegalensis; Chelopistes karachiensis Naz and Rizvi, 2012, C. meleagridis (L., 1758) ex. Meleagridis galopavo; Cuclotogaster cinereus (Nitzsch, 1866) and C. heterographus (Nitzsch, 1866) ex. C. coturnix and F. pondicerianus; Goniocotes gallinae (De Geer, 1778), Goniodes astrocephalus (Burm., 1838), G. dissimillis Denny, 1842, G. meinertzhageni Clay, 1940, G. pavonis (L., 1758) ex. P. cristatus, Gallus sonneratii and C. japonicus; Lipeurus caponis L., 1758, L. numidae (Denny, 1842), L. tropicalis Peters, 1930 ex. G. sonneratii, Numida meleagris, C. japonicas and F. francolinus

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Speakers Abstracts

Absent BB Phthiraptera Infestation in Back yard poultry from Southern Punjab, Pakistan (Animal Lice)

Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz1, Muhammad Mudaseer Nazir1, Saima Naz2 1 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan 2 Deaprtment of Zoology, University of Sind, jamshoroo The study was designed to enumerate the infestation of phthirptera in back yard poultry. About 200 poultry birds were studied and found infested with chewing lice (phthirptera). The prevalence of phthirptera was 65% (130/200) including five spp. of lice Menopon gallinae 43.5%, Liperus laurensis tropicalis 6.5%, Lipeurus caponis 5.5%, Menacanthus stramineus 6% and Goniodes gigas 3.5%. The proper control measure and re-evaluation through sero-prevalence a.phthirpterasis is emphasized in the study area.

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Posters Abstracts

POSTERS

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Absent P01 Nasty but tasty: the consume of head lice by Patagonian indigenous societies Epidemiology of Human Lice (Human Lice)

María Soledad Leonardi1, Analía Andrade2, Matías Chávez2 1 Instituto de Biología de Organismos Marinos, CCT CONICET CENPAT, Puerto Madryn, Argentina 2 Instituto Patagónico de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, CCT CONICET CENPAT, Puerto Madryn, Argentina Contemporary societies usually associate the infestation of head lice with dirt and poverty, being a disgusting situation. However, head lice are harmless and commonly widespread in people of all ages, sexes, and social classes worldwide. Some authors hypothesized that head lice infestation confers an adaptive benefit protecting (by immunization or competence) against body lice and the bacteria that spread. Different would have been the perception that Patagonian indigenous societies would have had about this parasite insect. It has been report in several chronicles that some people ate lice from the scalps of their relatives, considered a delicacy. Numerous are also the references about grooming habits and the techniques they used to prevent infestation by body lice. These peoples suffered epidemic breakouts of typhus, named chavalongo by Mapuches that lived in the actual Chile, causing great mortalities. That information comes from historical and ethnographical documents from c. XVI-XX written by priests, naturalists and ethnographers, who made the first contacts with the indigenous societies. We postulate that behaviour of those indigenous peoples is connoting a positive attitude to head lice. They possibly possessed the knowledge that head lice protected against body lice infestation, since they could clearly differentiate between them and attributed them distinctive names. Finally, we discussed the social meaning and significance of head lice consumption.

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P02 Detection of Bartonella quintana in body lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) collected from homeless persons in Russia Epidemiology of Human Lice (Human Lice)

Yuliya Lopatina1,2, Liudmila Karan3 1 Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, 2 Scientific Research Institute of Disinfectology, Moscow, Russia, 3 Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia Body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., 1758, is a common blood-sucking ectoparasite of human. P.h. humanus infestations are usually found on homeless persons. Body lice are known as vectors for agents of some diseases, including trench fever (the etiological agent is Bartonella quintana). Body lice are considered to be the main vector of B. quintana. Detection of Bartonella quintana in body lice that were collected from homeless persons (2012-2016), has been learned based on samples from seven cities in Russia. A total of 144 genomic DNA pools from body lice (one pool includes only lice collected from one person, 1–27 specimens/pool), were examined by real-time PCR using species-specific primers for B. quintana. PCR results were confirmed by the direct sequencing of genomic regions of the groEL, gltA, ftsZ, and, based on this the belonging of isolated DNA samples to B. quintana was proved. Real-time PCR has shown the presence of B. quintana DNA in lice samples from three localities. DNA of B. quintana has been found in 55.5% lice pools (5 pools with B. quintana of total 9 pools, 2014) from Novosibirsk, and 6.9 % (2/29, 2012) and 61.5% (4/13, 2015) from St. Petersburg. The agent of trench fever has been found in 85.7% (6/7, 2014), 78.5% (22/28, 2015) and 30.8% (12/39, 2016) lice pools from Moscow. DNA of B. quintana was absent in 12 pools of lice from Tambov, Kursk, Kazan, and Perm. The results suggest widespread B. quintana at homeless persons in megalopolises in Russia.

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P03 Epidemiological profile and clinical manifestations of pediculosis capitis in kindergarten children of a low-income area from Popayán, Colombia Epidemiology of Human Lice (Human Lice)

David López-Valencia1,2, Angela Medina-Ortega1,2, Sara Mosquera-Monje1, Luis Reinel Vásquez-Arteaga1, Carolina Salguero2 1 University of Cauca, Popayán, Colombia 2 From the Bench to the Field Corporation, Bogotá, Colombia The worldwide distributed ectoparasite, Pediculus humanus capitis, causes pediculosis capitis. Although risk factors for children are known, studies about its clinical description are rare. We show prevalence, incidence, clinical manifestations and risk factors associated to pediculosis capitis. Cross-sectional descriptive study based on a sample of 356 children aged 1 to 5 of a low-income area from Popayán, Colombia. We made two observations: at the beginning and at the end of the year 2017. We examined hair, scalp, lymphatic nodules and frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, nuchal and retroauricular regions of the skin. We mechanically removed insects by wetting the hair and using lice combs. We gathered and stored nits, nymphs and adult lice for future studies. The prevalence and incidence of pediculosis capitis were 5.1% and 20.2%, respectively. The associated epidemiological variables were infestation antecedent, long hair, female sex and eliminating with shampoo (95% CI: 15-20). The clinical variables in order of frequency were presence of adenopathies, hair scalp inflammation and nuchal adenopathies (95% CI: 25-35); nits and lice localized in occipital region, hair scalp itching and retroauricular itching (95% CI: 20-25). Eliminating with shampoo could be due to pediculicide resistance and infestation antecedent. Our study serves as a basis for seeking potential microorganisms that could be causing the appearance of hair scalp inflammation and adenopathies. It is important to know the variables associated to pediculosis capitis for preventing, controlling and eradicating head lice infestation in the infant population.

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P04 Kdr mutation T929I in head lice in schoolchildren in the metropolitan areas of Nuevo Leon and Yucatan, Mexico Epidemiology of Human Lice (Human Lice)

Gustavo Ponce-Garcia1, Gerardo Trujillo-Rodriguez, Karina Villanueva-Segura, Beatriz Lopez-Monroy1, Pablo Manrique2 and Adriana E. Flores2 1 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Medical Entomology Lab., San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L., 66451 México. 2 Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Centro Regional de Investigación, México. Pediculosis is an infestation of lice on any part of the human body (1). It is considered a public health problem, affecting mostly children 3 to 12 years old, regardless of economic status (Vahabi 2012, Marcoux et al. 2010). In the last few years, infestation rates have increased in North and South America and in several European and Asian countries (Durand et al. 2007). Also, the social and economic implications are not negligible, and the problem has been exacerbated by louse resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. The head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) is a hematophagous ectoparasite that inhabits the human scalp. Infestations by this insect are commonly known as pediculosis, which is more common in younger groups. These infestations are asymptomatic; however, skin irritation from scratching occasionally may cause secondary bacterial infections. In recent years, the prevalence of pediculosis has increased in children; this increase has been attributed to louse resistance to the insecticides used as a control measure for infestation. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence and frequency of the knockdown resistance mutation (kdr) T929I in 468 head lice collected from 32 elementary schools in the metropolitan areas of Nuevo Leon (24) and Yucatan (8), Mexico. This is the first report of a knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism in head lice from Mexico. The T929I mutation was present in all of the sampled schools, with variability observed in its allelic and genotypic frequencies. [1] Hodgdon Hilliary E., Kyong Sup Yoon, Domenic J. Previte, Hyo Jeong Kim, Gamal E. Aboelghar, Si Hyeock Lee, and J. Marshall Clark. 2010. Determination Of Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies In Global Human Head Louse Populations Using The Serial Invasive Signal Amplification Reaction. Pest Manag Sci. September ; 66(9): 1031–1040. [2] Vahabi, A., Shemshad, K., Sayyadi, M., Biglarian, A., Vahabi, B., Sayyad, S., Shemshad, M. and Rafinejad, J. 2012. Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran. Tropical Biomedicine 29(2): 207–211.

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P05 Incidence and factors associated with pediculosis capitis in school children from Yucatan and Nuevo Leon, Mexico Epidemiology of Human Lice (Human Lice)

Gerardo Trujillo1, Adriana E. Flores1, Pablo Manrique2, Iram P. Rodriguez, Elias Mendez and Gustavo Ponce1 1 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Laboratorio de Entomología Medica y Veterinaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México. 2 Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Centro Regional de Investigación, México. Pediculosis is an infestation with lice in any part of the human body (1,). It is considered a public health problem that affects mainly children between 5 and 15 years of age (2). In recent years, the infection rates of pediculosis have increased both in North and South America as well as in Europe and Asia. In this research, the incidence of pediculosis during 2015 and 2016 was determined in two states of the Mexican republic. In the state of Nuevo Leon, the incidence varied from 5.29 to 43.75% and four factors that influence the density of lice were found: 1) parent’s education, 2) overcrowding, 3) child´s age, and 4) hair length, these results were obtained from students in 12 elementary schools and 2 secondary schools situated in the metropolitan area of Monterrey. Regarding the state of Yucatan, the incidence varied from 5.24 to 8.46% in eight elementary schools in Merida, where two main factors determined the density of lice: 1) parent´s education and 2) the use of fomites. There were also two anthropogenic factors that correlated with the presence of pediculosis capitis, these were gender and hair length. (1) Hodgdon Hilliary E., Kyong Sup Yoon, Domenic J. Previte, Hyo Jeong Kim, Gamal E. Aboelghar, Si Hyeock Lee, and J. Marshall Clark. 2010. Determination Of Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies In Global Human Head Louse Populations Using The Serial Invasive Signal Amplification Reaction. Pest Manag Sci. September ; 66(9): 1031–1040. (2) Vahabi, A., Shemshad, K., Sayyadi, M., Biglarian, A., Vahabi, B., Sayyad, S., Shemshad, M. and Rafinejad, J. 2012. Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran. Tropical Biomedicine 29(2): 207–211.

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P06 Frequency of knockdown resistance alleles to pyrethroid insecticides in head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) populations from Chile Epidemiology of Human Lice (Human lice)

Gonzalo Roca-Acevedo, Ariel Ceferino Toloza Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CONICET-UNIDEF), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis has been in contact with humans since the beginning of humankind and is an obligate ectoparasite that causes Pediculosis. Head louse infestations are widespread throughout the world, and have been increasing since the beginning of the 1990s partially due to ineffectiveness pediculicides. The overuse of products containing permethrin has led to the development of resistant louse populations. Pyrethroid insecticides act on the nervous system affecting voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Three point mutations (M815I, T917I and L920F) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are responsible for contributing to knockdown resistance (kdr). The management of pyrethroid resistance requires either early detection or the characterization of the mechanisms involved in resistant head louse populations. In this work, the geographic distribution of kdr alleles of head lice from four geographic regions of Chile was estimated. Resistance alleles were found in frequencies ranging from 4% to 95%. The populations differed considerably in their allelic composition: Vallenar, 54% homozygous resistant, 45% heterozygous; Talca, 95% heterozygous, 4% homozygous susceptible; Las Condes, 81% heterozygous, 18% homozygous susceptible; and Lo Barnechea, 91% heterozygous, 8% homozygous susceptible. Based on this, we can conclude that the studied Chilean populations of head lice are still under selective pressure.

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P07 The First Toxicological status of human Body Lice from Buenos Aires, Argentina Epidemiology of Human Lice (Human Lice)

Toloza1, C. Vassena1,2 1 Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CIPEIN)-UNIDEF-CONICET Buenos Aires, Argentina 2 UNSAM 3iA, Buenos Aires, Argentina Pediculus humanus is of great concern to public health and includes two ecotypes P. h. capitis (head louse) which lives on the human scalp and P. h. humanus (body louse) which lives in clothing in poor and unhygienic conditions such as refugee camps and shelters for the homeless. Body lice can cause itching and can spread certain types of diseases (Trench fever, Typhus and Relapsing Fever). Homelessness, defined as the absence of a conventional dwelling or residence, is a growing social and public health problem and are particularly exposed to ectoparasites. Infestation with P.h.h. also known as “vagabond´s disease, is an issue of concern among homeless. In Buenos Aires (BA) a homeless men pass away in the streets. At the autopsy operation, the cause of death was by natural causes. A considerable number of body lice were found on the body. They were alive and were immediately transferred to the CIPEIN. Once in the laboratory, they were identify and classified. The aim of our study was to determine the toxicological effect of Insecticides. The lethal doses (LD50) to permethrin and ivermectin were: LD50 Phh BA 6 ng/i (Phh ref. 2.4 ng/i) and LD50 Phh BA 1.8 ng/i (Phh ref. 1.6 ng/i); respectively. The total number of collected insects was: 516 nymphs I, 158 nymphs II, 193 nymphs III, 105 males and 91 females. This is the first time that the toxicological parameters were determined from human body lice from Buenos Aires. References [1] K. Mumcuoglu, Pediculus and Pthirus (2008). In: Paleomicrobiology Past human infections. Raoult D. Drancourt M. (eds) Springer; 215-222 [2] M. Louni, Mana N., Bitam I., Dahmani M., Parola P., Fenollar F. et al (2018). Body lice of homeless people reveal the presence of several emerging bacterial pathogens in northern Algeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(4): e 0006397 [3] P. Brouqui and D. Raoult (2006) Arthropod-Borne Diseases in Homeless. Ann N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1078:223-235 [4] S. Antinori et al. (2016) Louse-Borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) in a Somali Refugee Arriving in Italy: A Re-emerging infection in Europe? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(5): e0004522.

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P08 Cryogenic treatment for ectoparasitosis in goats Head louse control (Animal Lice)

Juan José Díaz Miranda1, Gustavo Ponce García2, Gilberto Chávez Gris3, Azucena Ruth Aguilar Vázquez4, Ana Laura Pinedo Vargas4, Sofía Díaz-Cintra4 1 Inovaciones Aplicadas en Pediatría A.C. 2 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, 3 CEIEPAA-UNAM, 4 Instituto de Neurobiología, UNAM A new procedure to treat the parasitosis (louse Linognatus spp) of the goats, by means of the nebulization of liquid nitrogen (LN). What eliminates them in all their stages of development and has no toxic effects, does not pollute the environment and can be applied in pregnant and young goats. Methods: with 4X magnifying glasses and Welch Allyn camera, samples of goat hair (adults and young) infested with lice were collected, placed in incubation chambers to observe their survival and videotape the development of the eggs until the nymphs hatched . The anatomical observation of these lice was carried out with scanning electron microscopy, for later identification. In an infested adult animal, lice cryoalability was documented by the application of nebulized LN at 30 cm and its effect on the skin, from which the biopsies were taken. The results show that the lice and eggs did not survive the application by nebulization of the LN even after 24 hours. The skin of the adult goat subjected to treatment does not present lesions attributable to the treatment. Conclusion: it is shown to be effective method parasitosis treatment for Linognatus spp. in goats, being also a safe and non-polluting method. This procedure, compared to the way goats are dewormed, can be more effective, since it kills adult parasites, their larval stages and nits in less time. Thanks. Microscopy Units (INB and CFATA-UNAM), M. in IQ. A. del Real López, to Drs. J. Riesgo, E. Padilla and I. Poblano, J. García, Ing. S. de Anda, and J. A. Servín. CONACYT PEI 241867-PROINNOVA.

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P09 Response of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) to Volatiles of Whole and Individual Components of the Human Scalp Head louse control (Human lice)

Galassi Federico Gabriel1, MarĂ­a InĂŠs Picollo2 and Paola Gonzales Audino2 (CIPEIN-UNIDEF-CONICET) Buenos Aires, Argentina. The head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) is a cosmopolitan human ectoparasite causing pediculosis, one of the most common arthropod parasitic conditions of humans. The mechanisms and/or chemicals involved in host environment recognition by head lice are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the response of head lice to volatiles that emanate from the human scalp. In addition, we identified the volatile components of the odor and evaluated the attractive or repellent activity of their pure main components. The volatiles were collected by means of Solid Phase microextraction and the extract obtained was chemically analyzed by gas chromatographmass spectrometer. Twenty-four volatiles were identified in the human scalp odor, with the main compounds being the following: nonanal, sulcatone, geranylacetone, and palmitic acid. Head lice were highly attracted by the blend human scalp volatiles, as well as by the individual major components. A significant finding of our study was to demonstrate that nonanal activity depends on the mass of the compound as it is repellent at high concentrations and an attractant at low concentrations. The results of this study indicate that head lice may use chemical signals in addition to other mechanisms to remain on the host.

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P10 Differing definitions and outcomes of “wet combing” in the eradication of head lice (pediculosis capitis) Head louse control (Human Lice)

Joanna Ibarra1, Robert H Vander Stichele2, Alice Olsen, Clarice Wickenden1 1 Community Hygiene Concern, UK Registered Charity 1153824 2 Dept. of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Belgium The purpose of fine-tooth “wet combing” is to locate the motile stages of head lice in the scalp hair and remove them. According to Medical Research Council guidance, “wet combing” is a complex intervention with multiple components [1]. Various methods are mentioned in the literature. We classify them in their order of development as Bug Busting wet combing (BBWC), conditioned combing (CC), and wet combing with conditioner (WCWC), to examine their components and the reasons for their use. We conclude that there is no such thing as generic wet combing and authors should explain the details of the method they choose and the rationale for using it. The evidence in favour of identification of BBWC as the most sensitive and effective method is incomplete. The findings of action research should be independently verified in full-scale field trials. These are basic issues in the eradication of pediculosis capitis. Reference [1] http://www.mrc.ac.uk/documents/pdf/complex-interventions-guidance/

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P11 Treatment of lice: In vitro pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of a two component dimeticone after ultrashort application Head louse control (Human Lice)

Kristina Rรถschmann1, John Marshall Clark2, Hans Dautel3 1 G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, Clinical Research, Hohenlockstedt, Germany 2 Department of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Massachusetts Pesticide Analysis Lab (MPAL), University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA 3 IS Insect Services GmbH, Berlin, Germany Infestation by head lice is the most common parasitic disease in childhood, and unlike neurotoxic agents, dimeticones are considered as efficient and safe treatment alternative. Of the various dimeticone-based head louse products commercially available, only a few have been evaluated using evidence-based data for efficacy and mode of action. We determined the in vitro pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of a product containing two dimeticones with different physical properties after an ultrashort application time of 10 minutes. Robust and validated laboratory methods were used to determine the mortality of adult clothes lice and the hatchability of eggs of different developmental stages from a permethrin-resistant head louse strain after exposure to the 2-step dimeticone. The results showed that an ultrashort application of 10 minutes killed 100% of adult clothes lice and prevented 95.7% of the eggs from the permethrin-resistant strain from hatching. It is concluded that an application of 10 minutes does not reduce the pediculicidal and ovicidal activities of a 2-step dimeticone when compared with previously reported application times between 30 minutes and several hours.

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P12 A Review of Human Head Lice Guidelines: Inconsistencies and Barriers to Implementation Head louse control (Human lice)

Katie Shepherd1, Shirley C. Gordon2 1 The Shepherd Institute for Lice Solutions, United States 2 Florida Atlantic University, Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, United States Human head lice infestation remains a leading cause of elementary school absences in the United States. Authoritative head lice guidelines determine clinical practice (diagnosis and treatment) and school-based management strategies including policies that regulate school attendance. In addition, consumers refer to clinical guidelines to ascertain if they are receiving adequate care. Anecdotally, inconsistences within and between head lice guidelines as well as barriers to implementation have been reported. Inconsistences and barriers to implementation create undue tension within families and between parents, school nurses and administration. The quality of published head lice guidelines has not been systematically evaluated. To address this gap in the literature, we describe a review of 3 authoritative head lice guidelines (including one International and two from the United States) using the Appraisal of Guidelines and Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument [1]. The instrument criteria represent six quality domains: scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity and presentation, applicability, and editorial independence. This reliable and valid instrument has been recognized by the WHO and NIH as an accepted standard in guideline development and evaluation. The results from our analysis indicate although there is strength in several domains, improvement in the quality of head lice guidelines is warranted. Transparent programs that encourage collaboration between stakeholders will lead to the development of highquality, relevant clinical practice guidelines that can be uniformly implemented. References [1] AGREE Next Steps Consortium (2017). The AGREE II Instrument [Electronic version]. Retrieved, from http://www.agreetrust.org

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Posters Abstracts

P13 Encapsulation of Essential Oil Monoterpenes are effective against human head lice Head louse control (Human lice)

Ariel Ceferino Toloza1, 2, Eduardo Guzmán3, Francisco Ortega4 ,Ramón G. Rubio3, 4, Alejandro Lucia1 1 Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (UNIDEF-CONICET). San Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397. B1603ALO-Villa Martelli-Buenos Aires (Argentina) 2 Universidad CAECE. Av. De Mayo 866. CABA, Argentina. 3 Departamento de Química Física I-Universidad Complutense de Madrid Ciudad Universitaria s/n. 28040-Madrid (Spain) 4 Instituto Pluridisciplinar-Universidad Complutense de Madrid Avd. Juan XXIII. 28040-Madrid (Spain) Essential oil components (EOCs) are molecules with interesting application in pest control, but their practical use is rather limited yet. Thus, the enhancement of their bioavailability and manageability due to their dispersion in water can open new perspective for the preparation of novel formulations. In this work we studied the encapsulation of different monoterpenes in a poloxamer shell in order to prepare aqueous formulations that can be used for the development of platforms in the control of head lice. The poloxamers allowed the dispersion of EOCs in water due to their encapsulation inside the hydrophobic core of the copolymer micelles. From this study, we concluded that it is possible to make stable micellar systems containing water (>90 wt%), 1.25 wt% of different monoterpenes and a highly safe polymer (5wt% Poloxamer 407). These formulations were effective against head lice with mortality ranging from 30-60 %, being the most effective emulsions those containing linalool, 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, thymol, eugenol, geraniol and nonyl alcohol which lead to mortalities above 70 %. Since these systems showed good pediculicidal activity and high physicochemical stability, they could be a new route for the green fabrication of biocompatible and biosustainable insecticide formulations.

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Posters Abstracts

P14 The unbearable lightness of evidence informing public health policy to control endemic head lice Head louse control (Human Lice)

Robert Vander Stichele1 , Joanna Ibarra2 1 Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium 2 Community Hygiene Concern, London, UK Head lice remain in the 21st century at entrenched endemic levels in 3 to 14 year olds in most countries, despite the deciphering of the ecto-parasite’s genome. Very few countries have a comprehensive public health policy to control this endemic infestation. Diagnostic procedures are poor, and potent neuro-toxic treatments have been invalidated by indiscriminate use. Mechanical treatment options (bug busting, wet combing) have not been given enough chance to prove themselves through academic publicly funded trials. Pharmacy treatments have changed status to “natural products�, resulting in a loss of regulatory rigour and standardization. Many inefficacious products are sold. The clinical evidence for new products based on dimethicone is flimsy. Cure rates in clinical trials are abnormally low for the comparator, and around 70% for the substance under study, which is insufficient to reduce endemics. The working mechanism of these products still needs to be elucidated. Bias in clinical trials is widespread, as is conflict of interest when specialized Contract Research Organisations are funded by product manufacturers. The Cochrane Collaboration has not yet accepted a revision of older or previously retracted systematic reviews. Given this context, to control this fairly harmless endemic, mechanical methods are the most ecological and epidemiological option, both in diagnostics and in therapeutics. High expenditures on topical products cannot be justified, as these burden the underprivileged, often stigmatized as the continuous source of infestation.

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Posters Abstracts

P15 Draft of Polyplax serrata genome: a tool for population genomic inference Evolution of animal lice (Animal lice)

Citlali Gil Aguillon1, Jan Štefka2, 3, Marie Krausová2, 3 1 Undergraduate Program on Genomic Sciences, UNAM, Mexico 2 Biology Centre, ASCR, České Budějovice, CZ 3 Faculty of Science, University of S. Bohemia, České Budějovice, CZ Polyplax serrata is a sucking louse commonly parasitizing several species of Palearctic rodents, particularly those belonging to the genus Apodemus. Due to its wide geographical distribution and host spectrum, P. serrata has become a subject of several co-evolutionary studies that revealed varied patterns of population history and genetic distribution across European continent. Up to now, the resolution and inference of these studies were limited to a handful of gene sequences and microsatellite markers. To supplement these data, we provide a draft assembly of P. serrata genome. DNA library was sequenced by Illumina Miseq (paired-end 300 and 200 bp). Genome size was estimated, by kmer analysis, as being approximately 131 Mb. A preliminary assembly, for decontamination purpose, was performed with MEGAHIT, obtaining an almost complete genome of the symbiont Legionella. After decontamination using blobtools, reads were reassembled with SPAdes, obtaining an assembly of 240 Mb, average GC content of 37.98%, NG50 of 379 Kb and LG50 of 104 (largest scaffold spans 0.7% of assembly). BUSCO was used to assess the completeness of expected gene content, only 8.2% was missing and 2.5% fragmented, indicating a high quality of the assembly. In future, when extended with a transcriptome-assisted annotation, the genome assembly will provide a basis for population-genomic studies focusing on functional differences between P. serrata lineages adapted to different host species. It will also allow an in-depth analysis of gene flow across a transect in central Europe connecting two lineages in a secondary contact in hybrid zone.

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Posters Abstracts

P16 The Brueelia-complex chewing lice (Ischnocera) on “babblers”, and allies (Passeriformes: Leiothrichidae, Paradoxornithidae, Pellorneidae, Timaliidae, Zosteropidae) Evolution of animal lice (Animal lice)

Daniel R. Gustafsson1, Sarah E. Bush2 1 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resources, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2 Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The “core babblers” (Leiothrichidae, Pellorneidae, Timaliidae) are parasitized by lice from several genera in the Brueelia-complex: Ceratocista, Priceiella, Resartor, and Timaliinirmus, the proposed genus “Painjunirmus”, and three species groups of Guimaraesiella. Some of these louse groups are also found on the closely related yuhinas (Zosteropidae), and parrotbills (Paradoxornithidae) [1]. Here we outline the relationships of these lice with their hosts, based on our revision of the Brueelia-complex [2], our studies of Priceiella [3], and unpublished data. The diversity of Brueelia-complex lice on these hosts is the highest on any group of passeriform birds. This diversity is likely due to several host-switching events, since the six groups of lice do not form a monophyletic clade [4]. The diversity of Brueelia-complex lice associated with these birds appears to represent four distinct lineages. Based on our sampling, most of these louse species are known from only one host species. Several host families, however, are parasitized by four or more of these groups. Hosts in Leiothrichidae are collectively parasitized by five of the six louse groups, and Timaliidae by four. Additional sampling that is focused on the many unstudied host species in these families will be required to determine how different sorting events (i.e. host switching, duplication, extinction, etc.) contribute to the diversity of lice that we see on these hosts today. In the next few years, extensive collection efforts in South China will explore the diversity and relationships of these louse groups in greater detail. References: [1] Moyle, R.G., Andersen, M.J., Oliveros, C.H., Steinheimer, F.D., & Reddy, S. (2011) Phylogeny and biogeography of the Core Babblers (Aves: Timaliidae). Systematic Biology 61, 631–651. [2] Gustafsson, D.R. & Bush, S.E. (2017) Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueeliacomplex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key. Zootaxa 4313, 1–443. [3] Gustafsson, D.R., Clayton, D.H., & Bush, S.E. (2018) Twelve new species of Priceiella (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from Old World babblers, with keys to species of two subgenera and checklists of species for the genus. Zootaxa 4382, 401–449. [4] Bush, S.E., Weckstein, J.D., Gustafsson, D.R., Allen, J., DiBlasi, E., Shreve, S.M., Boldt, R., Skeen, H.R., & Johnson, K.P. (2016) Unlocking the black box of feather louse diversity: A molecular phylogeny of the hyper-diverse genus Brueelia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94, 737–751. 100

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P17 Morphological variation in Guimaraesiella Eichler, 1949 (Phthiraptera; Ischnocera: Philopteridae: Brueelia-complex) Evolution of animal lice (Animal lice)

Daniel R. Gustafsson1, Sarah E. Bush2 1 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resources, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2 Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Guimaraesiella Eichler, 1949, is the most morphologically heterogeneous genus in the Brueelia-complex. Interspecific differences in genitalia, head shape, extent of dorsal preantennal suture, and abdominal chaetotaxy can be extensive. Moreover, Guimaraesiella is known from a vast range of host families, and are likely to occur on most passeriform families across the world [1, 2]. Lice that are genetically and morphologically indistinguishable are known to parasitize several host species, including hosts from different host families [1]. Many of the known Guimaraesiella, and most of the roughly 150 undescribed species we have examined, are morphologically similar to the type species. However, molecular data indicate that some morphologically distinct species, such as Guimaraesiella menuraelyrae (Coinde, 1859), are nested inside this core group of Guimaraesiella [1]. Delimitation of groups within this genus is therefore problematic, especially as the undescribed diversity is larger than the described diversity. Several genera have previously been proposed for smaller groups within this genus, but these have not been based on an extensive survey of character variation within Guimaraesiella or the Brueelia-complex. The recently erected genera Callaenirmus Mey, 2017, Mohoaticus Mey, 2017, and Philemoniellus Mey, 2017, are all synonymous with Guimaraesiella. We here outline 14 species groups within Guimaraesiella; some of these, such as the proposed genus Mohoaticus, may warrant recognition as subgenera in the future. Species groups proposed here are based on morphology for aid of identification, and do not constitute positive statements of monophyly. Some known species are too poorly described to be placed in any group presently. References: [1] Bush, S.E., Weckstein, J.D., Gustafsson, D.R., Allen, J., DiBlasi, E., Shreve, S.M., Boldt, R., Skeen, H.R., & Johnson, K.P. (2016) Unlocking the black box of feather louse diversity: A molecular phylogeny of the hyper-diverse genus Brueelia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94, 737–751. [2] Gustafsson, D.R. & Bush, S.E. (2017) Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueeliacomplex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key. Zootaxa 4313, 1–443.

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P18 Phylogenomics and population genomics of seal lice Evolution of animal lice (Animal Lice)

María Soledad Leonardi1, Stephany Virrueta Herrera2 , Andrew Sweet2, Javier Negrete3, Kevin Johnson2 1 Instituto de Biología de Organismos Marinos, CCT CONICET CENPAT, Puerto Madryn, Argentina 2 Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois, United States 3 Insituto Antártico Argentino, La Plata, Argentina Sucking lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are peculiar in the sense that they infest amphibious hosts, as walruses, seals, and sea lions. Along the evolutionary time, echinophthiriids have developed unique morphological, physiological, behavioral, and ecological adaptations to cope with the amphibious lifestyle of their hosts. Host specificity of echinophthiriids ranges from 100%, involving 1 or 2 host genera (Lepidophthirus, Proechinophthirus, and Latagophthirus), to genera as Echinophthirius and Antarctophthirus, which infest species in 5 and 10 host genera, respectively. However, conclusive evidence regarding the evolutionary patterns of echinophthiriids is not available. This study investigates the relation among sucking lice parasitizing seals and sea lions. We obtained total genomic DNA from specimens of A. microchir from Australia (AmAus) and Patagonia (AmPat), A. carlinii (Ac), A. lobodontis (Al), A. ogmorhini (Ao), Lepidophthirus macrorhini (Lm), and P. fluctus (Pf ). Using this data, we inferred a phylogenetic tree for echinophthiriids. We also used the genomic data to estimate theta, i.e. effective population size. Our analysis showed that the divergence between AmAus and AmPat is enough to consider them different species. On the other hand, the genetic distances between Ac, Al, and Ao are very small compared to divergences between the other species. Lastly, we found that Lm possesses the highest effective population size following by Al, while AmAus, Ao, and Ac present similar theta. We would have expected a higher effective population size for Al, because population size of crabeater seals is at least one order of magnitude higher than the other seals species.

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Absent P19 Oviposition sites, egg laying patterns and the egg morphology of three phthirapteran species infesting common quail Coturnix coturnix L. Ecology of animal lice (Animal lice)

Aftab Ahmad Estuarine Biology Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Gopalpur, Orissa Avian lice exhibit considerable diversity with respect to oviposition sites, egg laying patterns and the egg morphology. A look on literature reveals that aforesaid aspects of three phthirapteran species infesting common quail Coturnix coturnix deserved investigation. The egg laying site, egg laying pattern and the egg morphology of three species (Cuclotogaster cinereus, Goniodes astrocephalus and Menacanthus abdominalis) of Phthiraptera infesting Common quail, Coturnix coturnix. Cuclotogaster cinereus exhibits restricted oviposition sites and lays eggs mostly on wings feathers (74%), Menacanthus abdominals also exhibits restricted oviposition sites and lays eggs on the fore parts of the body (head and neck-92%), Goniodes astrocephalus exhibits wide spread oviposition site on host body (abdomen-40%, breast 32%, back-23%). C. cinereus lays its eggs on lateral fluffy portion of the vane, G. astrocephalus lays its eggs at basal end of the shaft and M. abdominalis lays its eggs on the distal portion of the rachis. The egg shells of the three species, occurring on common quails exhibit differences from in shape, size and markings. The marking present on eggs are species specific and can used to differentiate the genera and species. Hence, the louse egg morphology can be use as a guide to louse taxonomy.

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P20 The influence of host body size, migratory status, and food guild on prevalence and mean intensity of chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on birds in southern China Ecology of animal lice (Animal Lice)

Xingzhi Chu, Xianli Che, Fasheng Zou Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, China Chewing lice (order Phthiraptera) are abundant ectoparasites of birds and mammals highly. They are adapted to life in the plumage or pelage of their hosts, and typically do not leave the host during their life cycle. They are often highly host-specific. This study was carried out to determine species richness, abundance and prevalence of chewing lice on wild forest birds in the southern region of China. Between July 2012 and June 2016, 2,210 birds (belonging to 8 orders, 45 families, and 215 species) were captured by mist nets and examined for chewing lice. A total of 622 birds of 117 species were parasitised by lice belonging to 89 species in 25 genera from 2 suborders (Amblycera and Ischnocera), of which 28 species represent new host-louse records for China and ten new host-louse records worldwide. Chewing louse prevalence varied significantly among host species. The generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for chewing lice prevalence and abundance was significant, including for host body mass, migratory status, interaction between mass and migratory status, interaction between food choice and migratory status (all P < 0.001). These findings contribute further to our knowledge of avian chewing lice.

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P21 New host associations of Strigiphilus lice Ecology of animal lice (Animal Lice)

Sonora F. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, and Dale H. Clayton Department of Biology, University of Utah, USA Strigiphilus Mjรถberg,1910 is a genus of chewing lice in the family Philopteridae. This genus contains over 30 species of lice that are found exclusively on owls (Strigiformes). Here we describe new associations of Strigiphilus spp. from owls in five genera: Glaucidium, Ketupa, Megascops, Ninox, and Otus. These new associations are based on collections from the New World (Chile and Costa Rica) and the Old World (China, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Thailand).

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P22 Lice diversity on roadkill birds and mammals of two highways of São Paulo state, Brazil Ecology of animal lice (Animal lice)

Danny Fuentes-Castillo1, Kamila Mayumi Duarte Kuabara2, Mauricio Candido da Silva3, Priscila Rodrigues de Sousa4, Pedro Enrique Navas-Suárez1, Jose Luiz Catao-Diaz1, Michel Paiva Valim2 Laboratory of Wildlife Comparative Pathology - LAPCOM, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Museum of Zoology of University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 3 Museum of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 4 Tamoios Car Dealership, São José dos Campos, Brazil. 1 2

One of the main environmental impacts of highways is the loss of biodiversity through vehicle-collision (VC). Each year more than 470 million animals die by vehicle-collision in Brazil, involving many species of vertebrates. These specimens are an important source of information for parasitic surveys. Lice can infect species of birds and mammals and has their entire life cycle on the body of their hosts. This study sought to identify the phthirapterofauna in specimens of birds and mammals died by VC in the Dos Tamoios and Regis Bittencourt highways of São Paulo state. From January to December of 2017, 31 birds and 63 mammals were collected and their host body were exhaustively searched for ectoparasites. Once collected lice were placed into sample tubes with 96% alcohol. The lice found on birds were: Austrophilopterus cancellosus, Menacanthus balfouri and Myrsidea cf. victrix on Ramphastos dicolorus; A. cancellosus and M. balfouri on Ramphastos vitelinus; Columbicola cf. adamsi on Patagioenas picazuro; Colpocephalum maculatum on Caracara plancus; Strigiphilus cf. heterurus on Asio clamator; Psittacobrosus sp. on Triclaria malachitacea; and Colpocephalum cholibae on Megascops choliba. Lice found on mammals were: Cebidicola semiarmatus on Alouatta caraya; Eutrichophilus cercolabes, E. minor and E. cordiceps on Coendou spinosus; and Tricholipeurus cf. albimarginatus on Mazama gouazoubira. These preliminary results provide information on the biogeography and host-parasite relationships. We will continue with the collection of ectoparasites, later to perform the slide mounting to confirm the identity of all the species and perform sequencing of molecular markers. After at least two years of collections, a faunistic paper will be published with gathered data.

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Absent P23 Infestation parameters of Antarctophthirus lobodontis (Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae) in crabeater seals Lobodon carcinophaga (Carnivora: Phociidae) Ecology of animal lice (Animal Lice)

Soto F. A1, Negrete J2, Leonardi M. S1 1 Instituto de Biología de Organismos Marinos (IBIOMAR), Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina. 2 Departamento de Biología de Predadores Tope, Instituto Antártico Argentino, Buenos Aires. The family Echinophthiriidae is unique among insects because included species that infest pinnipeds, i.e. they live on hosts with an amphibious lifestyle. One of the main restrictions of echinophthiriids is that eggs do not survive nor develop underwater. Consequently, one of the biggest challenges that lice have to face is to complete their life cycle in a short period, during the reproductive season of their hosts on land or ice. In the present work, we studied infestation parameters of Antarctophthirus lobodontis in crabeater seals at Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula. We obtained prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of lice. These parameters were compared between host sex, age class and year of sampling. During three field-seasons, we collected lice from 41 crabeater seals: 23 females, 16 males, 2 indeterminate, being 24 adults and 17 juveniles. We did not find differences in the prevalence (41.5%) among sexes. Instead, we found differences in age class. We also recorded an interannual variation between the last two years. Age class differences would respond to the juvenile´s habits that become infested after being born as they usually grouped for long periods out of the water, facilitating lice survival. Even though there were no statistically significant differences between the prevalence among sexes, females were more infested than males. Finally, we propose that interannual variation could be related to variability in the sea ice extent observed in the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula the last years. Therefore, seals would be more concentrated improving horizontal transmission.

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Posters Abstracts

P24 Diversity of chewing lice (Amblycera, Ischnocera) on wild birds of the North of Argentina Ecology of animal lice (Animal lice)

Guardia Leonor Instituto Superior de Entomología “Dr. Abraham Willink” (INSUE) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán. Miguel Lillo 205. The North of Argentina is an extensive area of 759,883 km2, that include nine provinces which combine different types of environments ranging from Yunga Forest, jungle in gallery, Mount Chaqueño, Espinal, Paranaense Forest among others. Around 800 species of wild birds inhabit this area of which the knowledge of their lice is scarce or null. The present work is the result of a series of trips of collections made by different regions of the north of Argentina, from 2002 to the present. A total of 882 birds were inspected (81 species), were recollected from these individuals lice of Amblycera and Ischnocera with a Prevalence of 39.80%. The most captured order of birds was Passeriformes (n = 806), the remaining orders with less than 20 specimens of lice collected Caprimulgiformes, Charadriiformes, Ciconiiformes, Columbiformes, Coraciiformes, Gruiformes, Psittaciformes, Piciformes, Strigiformes, Tinamiformes. Amblyceras were collected on 44 species of birds, (P = 21.65%) the Menoponidae family was the most diverse with 6 genera, but material from Laemobothriidae and Ricinidae was also found. New record data for the country were: Ciconiphilus butoridiphagus, Menacanthus nothoproctae, as well as new mention of Actornithophilus gracilis, M. tyranni, Myrsidea elegans, M. seminuda, Ricinus diffusus for the Northern Argentina. Likewise, it is reported Laemobothrion (Eulaemobothrion) atrum as a new parasitic-host association; also were collected one new association for Kurodaia, three for Machaerilaemus, five for Menacanthus; 17 for Myrsidea and 14 for Ricinus. Regarding ischnocera were found parasitizing to 63 species of birds (P = 26.41%). A total of 17 genera were identified, several new records were recorded for the country: Nyctibicola longirostris, Penenirmus albiventris, Philopterus cotingae, Picicola serrafreirei, Rallicola lialy, R. pipraphaga, R. ellioti, Sturnidoecus rehanae. There are 28 new associations for the Philopterus genus, seven new associations for Bruellia, two for Penenirmus and Sturnidoecus; one for Formicaphagus, Mayriohilopterus, Multicola, Rallicola. Currently many species are in the process of being described. The present study increases the knowledge of the Biodiversity of the Phthiraptera order in the north of Argentina, and consists of a doctoral thesis of the author.

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P25 Specialization of Trinoton querquedulae potentially related to the water surface walking Ecology of animal lice (Animal lice)

Megumi SHIMADA, Kazunori YOSHIZAWA Systematic Entomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Lice are highly specialized morphologically for parasitic lifestyle and thus are less mobile. Therefore, there is little opportunity for lice to switch their host without direct contact between hosts. Because of this characteristics, many lice are host-specific. Trinoton querquedulae has been recorded from over 60 species of ducks. This lice can walk on the water surface, and this behavior likely enables the lice to switch the hosts, making this species generalist. In this study, we compared morphology of four species of menoponid lice (T. querquedulae, Holomenopon leuroxanthum collected from Anas crecca, Myrsidea trithorax collected from Corvus macrorhynchos and Colpocephalum sp. collected from Milvus migrans) to detect the morphological novelty enabling Trinoton to walk on the water surface. As a result we found three unusual morphological characters potentially related to the water-surface working: a couple of tongue-shaped plates on the ventral side of mesothorax covered with tubercles; enlarged and movable euplantulae covered with tubercles; the spiracle opening densely arranged by hairs. The metathoracic plates and enlarged euplantulae probably work as water-repellents, and the structure of the spiracle may act as water insulation. The metathoracic plates and the hairy spiracle are uniquely observed in Trinoton, but enlarged euplantulae covered with tubercles is also observed in Holomenopon and Myrsidea. Therefore, the euplantulae may also have other functions related to parasitic lifestyle.

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P26 Almost 100 years of chewing lice study in Russia revealed about 50% of biodiversity of species Phthirapterists/Phthiraptera (Animal Lice)

Olga Malysheva1, Oleg Tolstenkov2 1 Zoological Institute RAS, St Petersburg, Russia 2 A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow, Russia The history of the chewing lice research in Russia is reaching its 100 years milestone in a few years. However many aspects of chewing lice ecology and host distribution in Russia are not known and the checklist of fauna does not exist. In the poster we will highlight the important contributions to the study of chewing lice in Russia with focus on fauna, taxonomy and systematics over the 20th century. The checklist of birds chewing lice of European part of Russia based on the data from the literature contained about 180 species and did not correspond to the biodiversity of avian host noted [1,2]. Our recent study in the West and South of Russia revealed comparatively high number (40) of species not mentioned in the published data for this territory and only 2 new host records [3]. Thus, according to our and literature data we recorded 226 species of chewing lice for the European part of Russia. Given the total number of birds in the region, we assume that the fauna of chewing lice recorded represents approximately 50% of the chewing lice species biodiversity and in fact should exceed over 400 species. References [1] Price R.D., Hellenthal R.A., Palma R.L., Johnson K.P., Clayton D.H. 2003. The chewing lice: world checklist and biological overview. Illinois. 501 p. [2] E.A. Koblik, V.Yu.Arkhipov, Ya.A.Red`kin. Checklist of the bird of [the] Russian Federation. KMK Scientific Press Ltd. Moscow. 2006. 281 p. (in Russian) [3] Malysheva O. D.; Tolstenkov O. O.. 2018. The chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from migrating birds of the Curonian spit. Parasitologia. 52(2): 118-136 (in Russian).

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P27 The animal louse collections of the Martin-LutherUniversität Halle-Wittenberg in Halle/Saale (Germany) - a provisional survey Phthirapterists/Phthiraptera (Animal lice)

Eberhard Mey Natural Science Collections, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Germany The central depot for the natural history collections of the Martin-Luther-Universität HalleWittenberg in Halle (Saale) currently harbours what is probably the most important stock of animal lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera, Anoplura, and Rhynchophthirina) micropreparations in Germany. It comprises approximately 20 000 animal louse specimens mostly embedded in Canada balsam on around 12 000 slides (these figures are estimates only and an exact inventory is planned). Unprepared specimens, or material preserved in alcohol or by drying, as well as specimens that have or have not been identified (hundreds of insects), are also in the collections but so far hardly documented. The collection of permanently preserved specimens is constantly being expanded by the author through the addition of new material in Canada balsam on glass slides. In addition, a specimen collection preserved in alcohol is planned for the purposes of molecular genetics research. The number of species in the collections is estimated to be at least 2000, and all the world’s faunal regions are represented. For the Palaearctic, Oriental, Australian, and Afrotropical regions, important areas of emphasis in the collection are becoming apparent. The creation of a current type catalogue (holotypes, lectotypes, syntypes, and paratypes) for all the collections mentioned below is in preparation. The following cursory overview of the total animal louse collections (coll.)** is ordered according to institutions, then for each collection founders or collectors in chronological order. Smaller self-contained collections that mostly contain no type material have not been included. Natural Science Collections, Martin-Luther-Universität, Halle-Wittenberg: 1. Coll. C.L. Nitzsch (1782-1837) [1], 2. Coll. O. Taschenberg (1854-1922) [1], 3. Coll. L. Freund (18781953) [2,3] Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut (DEI), Müncheberg: 4. Institute Collection [4], 5. Coll. W.K.W. Knechtel (1884-1967), 6. Coll. H. Fahrenholz (1884-1945) [5] Museum für Tierkunde Dresden, Naturhistorische Sammlungen Senckenberg Dresden: 7. Coll. A.B. Meyer (1840-1911) [6] Naturhistorisches Museum in Thüringer Landesmuseum Heidecksburg, Rudolstadt and coll. E. Mey: 8. Coll. (partim) W. Eichler (1912-1993), 9. Coll. F. C. Weisser (*1938) [7], 10. Coll. E. Mey (*1952). **4. to 9. on permanent loan to E. Mey.

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References [1] Kéler, S. v. (1941): Systematisches Verzeichnis der von Chr. L. Nitzsch begründeten und von Ch. G. A. Giebel und O. Taschenberg fortgeführten und bereicherten Sammlung von Mallophagen des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität Halle. – Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften (Halle/S.) 95, 123-136. [2] Gattermann, R. & V. Neumann (2005): Geschichte der Zoologie und der Zoologischen Sammlung an der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg von 1769 bis 1990. – Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Mathematischnaturwissenschaftliche Klasse 63 (3), 184 pp. [3] Ockert, G., M.-C. Stützer & M. Stubbe (2006): Zur Historie der Parasitologie an der Universität Halle/Saale. – Beiträge zur Jagd- und Wildforschung 31, 277-352. [4] Gaedicke, H. (1970): Katalog der in den Sammlungen des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes aufbewahrten Typen – III Embioptera, Psocoptera, Mallophaga. – Beiträge zur Entomologie 20, 463-470. [5] Eichler, W. (1950): Die Bedeutung von H. Fahrenholz† für die Läuseforschung. – Zeitschrift für hygienische Zoologie Nr. 10/11, 326-337. [6] Mey, E. (1990): Zur Taxonomie der auf Großfußhühnern (Megapodiidae) schmarotzenden Oxylipeurus-Arten. – Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 46, 103-116. [7] Weisser, F. C. (1975): A monograph of the Linognathidae, Anoplura, Insecta (excluding the genus Prolinognathus) … Inaugural-Dissertation Ruprecht-Karl-Universität Heidelberg. Unpublished manuscript 75 Q 0267.

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P28 A new species of Indoceoplanetes (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from White-rumped cuckooshrike, Coracina leucopygia (Aves: Passeriformes: Campephagidae) in Indonesia Faunistic and morphology (Animal lice)

Costică Adam, Ioana Cristina Constantinescu, Angela Petrescu, Gabriel Bogdan Chișamera “Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Bucharest, Romania Genus Indoceoplanetes was recently described, by Daniel Gustafsson and Sarah Bush, in 2017, having as type species Brueelia indonesiana Eichler, 1947 (from Coracina striata sumatrensis). The authors also described two new subgenera of this genus, Indoceoplanetes and Capnodella, and two new species. The type species of the genus is included in subgenus Indoceoplanetes and the other two new species, described by authors, belong to subgenus Capnodella. All members of Indoceoplanetes are found only on passerine birds of the family Campephagidae. We collected 5 specimens of chewing lice (1 female, 3 males and 1 nymph) from a male of White-rumped cuckooshrike, Coracina leucopygia (Bonaparte) (a bird skin from the ornithological collection of“Grigore Antipa”National Museum of Natural History). This bird specimen was collected on April 16th, 1991, from the Bunaken Island (northeastern Sulawesi, Indonesia). The lice were assigned to the genus Indoceoplanetes (subgenus Indoceoplanetes) and represent a new species that we describe and illustrate herein. This new species can be separated from I. (Indoceoplanetes) indonesiana (Eichler, 1947) by the following combination of characters: (1) all antennal segments without brown pigmentation; (2) preantennal, pre- and postocular nodi, proepimera and metepisterna with dark-brown pigmentation; (3) sternal plates V-VI and subgenital plate with medium brown pigmentation, in both sexes; sternal plate IV with pale brown pigmentation only in its posterior area, in male, and with medium brown pigmentation on its posterior area and pale brown pigmentation in its anterior area, in female; sternal plate III without brown pigmentation in both sexes; (4) tergal posterior seta present on each side of female tergopleurites VI-VII; (5) two paratergal seta present on female pleurite VI; (6) sternite III with 4 setae in the female and 2 setae in the male; (7) proximal mesosome is welldeveloped overlapping with posterior end of the basal apodeme; its anterior margin are widely truncated; in its middle part has a deep lateral strangulation; (8) vulval margin has on each side: 3 minute vulval marginal setae, 1 thorn-like vulval submarginal seta and 7 slender and longer vulval oblique setae. This is the first report of a chewing louse species on Coracina leucopygia, which is endemic to lowlands of Sulawesi and adjacent islands.

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P29 A new species of Syrrhaptoecus (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from Lichtenstein‘s sandgrouse, Pterocles lichtensteinii (Aves: Pterocliformes: Pteroclidae) in Kenya Faunistic and morphology (Animal lice)

Costică Adam1, Ioana Cristina Constantinescu1, Gabriel Bogdan Chișamera1, Paul W. N. Kanyari2, Cristian Domșa3, Andrei D. Mihalca3, Attila D. Sándor3 1 “Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Bucharest, Romania 2 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 3 Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Genus Syrrhaptoecus was described in 1928, by James Waterston which, in the same paper, also described 12 new species of this genus and redescribed and included here the species Lipeurus alchatae Rudow, 1869. Since then, only two new species have been described in this genus: S. emahusaini Ansari, 1947 and S. waterstoni Tendeiro, 1965. All members of Syrrhaptoecus are found exclusively on birds of the order Pterocliformes, having a high host specificity. In 2012, we collected 21 specimens of chewing lice (7 females, 11 males and 3 nymphs) from 16 individuals (6 females and 10 males) of Lichtenstein’s sandgrouse (Pterocles lichtensteinii Temminck), captured near Loiyangalani on the southeastern coast of the Turkana Lake (northern Kenya). The lice were assigned to the genus Syrrhaptoecus and represent a new species that we describe and illustrate herein. The males of this new species resemble most of those of S. excisus Waterston, 1928, and females with those of S. uncinosus Waterston, 1928. The new species differs from the other two species by the following combination of morphological characters: (1) preand postantennal regions of the head with almost equal lengths; (2) cephalic index (CI) less than 0.82; (3) preantennal region of the head has a parabolic shape; (4) postantennal region of the head, in its wider area, not exceed the coni tips; (5) pleurite IV with uninterrupted inner side and a well-developed re-entrant head with its enclosed space narrow; (6) mesosome are longer than wide with lateral sides almost parallel for more than two-thirds of their length, and with apical edge narrow and concave; (7) distal ends of telomeres are broad and truncate. This is the first report of a chewing louse species on Pterocles lichtensteinii.

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P30 Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera) of wild birds of the Czech Republic Faunistic and morphology (Animal lice)

Lucie Ošlejšková, Oldřich Sychra Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Historically, an occurrence of 417 species of wild birds from 20 orders has been recorded in the Czech Republic. For the purpose of the presented overview, the list of hosts has been extended with 11 introduced species of birds reared in captivity. A total of 258 species from 34 amblyceran genera has been recorded in those hosts. In order to prepare the overview of the Amblycera of the Czech Republic, a revision of published historical records, and a revision of available chewing lice collections has been undertaken. Total of 114 species (44%, n=258) of 26 genera (77%, n=34) of Amblycera were recorded so far, altogether in 348 (84%, n=417) bird species and 11 captive bird species. Of the birds resident to our territory, 34 (61%, n=56) have been parasitized, while 121 migratory (63%, n=191) and 5 rare birds (5%, n=101) have been affected. Compared with previous checklist of chewing lice from 1977 (with 106 amblyceran species of 24 genera) we found 10 new louse-host associations in 10 bird species of orders Charadriiformes, Passeriformes, Strigiformes and Anseriformes. 7 genera and 47 species have been synonymized and conversely two species (Menacanthus brelihi a Menacanthus obrteli) represent valid species. A presence of blood has been confirmed in gastrointestinal tract of 22 amblyceran species (27%, n=82). Most often, those were representatives of the Menacanthus (27%, n=22) and Ricinus (32%, n=22) genera, however, blood was found also in representatives of Ardeiphilus, Austromenopon, Ciconiphilus, Machaerilaemus, Meromenopon, Myrsidea, and Pseudomenopon genera.

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P31 Record of Chinchilophaga clayae on captive Patagonian mara in Zoo Brno (Czech Republic) Faunistic and morphology (Animal lice)

Oldřich Sychra1, Vendula Sychrová2 1 Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic 2 Brno Zoo and Enviromental Education Centre, semi-budgetary organization Chinchillophaga clayae (Phthiraptera: Trimenoponidae) was firstly described by Emerson in 1964 based on nine specimens collected from captive Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum) in London Zoo. There is no other record of this enigmatic species of chewing louse. Massive infestation of undetermined chewing lice was found on one dead mara from Brno Zoo in December 2016. Except lice there were found also some louse-flies (Lipoptena cervi) and massive infestation of round worms (Trichuris sp. and Capilaria sp.). In April 2017, two young maras were examined for the presence of chewing lice. Each individual was manually examined, lice were collected by tweezers and stored in alcohol. All lice collected (20♀ and 8♂) were determined as Chinchillophaga clayae. Blood was observed in stomach of 6 (21%) specimens. Since haematophagy is quite common in amblyceran lice we suppose that blood is common food also for C. clayae. To our knowledge, this is the first record of haematophagy in members of the family Trimenoponidae. Maras are kept in Brno Zoo since 1998 when the first individuals came from Dresden Zoo (Germany). Except the aforementioned case, there were no record of lice (rather no problem with lice) on maras in Brno Zoo. At present, there is a group of 10 maras in this Zoo. Since we found C. clayae on both young maras born in 2017, we expect that these lice most likely occur also on all adults in the group. We suppose that it can successfully breed on captive maras.

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P32 Molecular phylogeny of the feather louse genus Picicola Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938 parasitizing Galbuliformes (Aves) (Animal lice)

Kamila M. D. Kuabara1, Michel P. Valim1, Carlos José Einicker Lamas1, Jason D. Weckstein2 1 Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil 2 Academy of Natural Sciences and Department of Biodiversity, Earth, and Environmental Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, United States The genus Picicola was described by Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938 and parasitizes the avian orders Galbuliformes (families Galbulidae and Bucconidae), Piciformes (families Picidae and Ramphastidae), and Passeriformes (families Dicruridae, Pittidae, Cracticidae, Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Ptilonorhynchidae, Mimidae and Parulidae). We obtained mitochondrial (COI, 379 bp) and nuclear (EF-1α, 347 bp) DNA sequences from 28 specimens of 12 louse species parasitizing 17 avian host species in the Order Galbuliformes. The phylogeny based on Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses from combined genes indicates that Picicola parasitizing the Galbuliformes form a strongly supported monophyletic clade. However, the host sister families Bucconidae and Galbulidae are not monophyletic, which agrees with previously results obtained by Weckstein (2003) and Price and Weckstein (2006). In most cases, morphospecies form monophyletic groups, but they are often found on multiple species of galbuliform hosts. For example, Picicola serrafreirei specimens form a monophyletic group and parasitize both Nystalus chacuru and N. maculatus. Picicola galbulica and P. striata are apparently not very host specific and parasitize multiple galbuliform species from both host families. An analysis of geographic distributions of Picicola species and haplotypes may help to explain these patterns. Furthermore, additional nuclear DNA sequences, which we are currently collecting from the genes BR50 (390 bp), BR62 (133 bp) and BR69 (215 bp) should help further clarify the relationships among taxa not currently well supported in this two-gene dataset.

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P33 Molecular phylogeny of the feather louse genus Mayriphilopterus Mey, 2004 parasiting Galbuliformes (Aves) (Animal lice)

Kamila M. D. Kuabara1, Michel P. Valim1, Carlos José Einicker Lamas1, Jason D. Weckstein2 1 Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil 2 Academy of Natural Sciences and Department of Biodiversity, Earth, and Environmental Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, United States The genus Mayriphilopterus was described by Mey, 2004 and is found exclusively on the avian order Galbuliformes (families Galbulidae and Bucconidae). We obtained mitochondrial (COI, 379 bp) and nuclear (EF-1α, 347 bp) DNA sequences from 26 specimens of 19 species parasitizing 16 galbuliform hosts. The phylogeny based on Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of a concatenated matrix of these sequences strongly support the monophyly of the genus Mayrphilopterus. Furthermore, this analysis supports the monophyly of a clade of Mayrphilopterus parasitizing Jacamars (Galbulidae). However, Mayrphilopterus parasitizing Bucconidae are paraphyletic with respect to those parasitizing Galbulidae, because a strongly supported clade of Mayrphilopterus parasitizing the host genus Nonnula is sister to all other nunbirds. We also found a weakly supported monophyletic group of Mayrphilopterus parasitizing the host genus Monasa. Perhaps additional data will clarify the monophyly of this and other subclades of this louse genus. We are in the process of sequencing three additional nuclear genes BR50 (390 bp), BR62 (133 bp) and BR69 (215 bp), to further clarify these relationships. Thus far, the molecular phylogeny suggests that clades of Mayrphilopterus of specific to particular host lineages. A formal cophylogenetics analysis will help to clarify this pattern.

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All listed authors

ALL LISTED AUTHORS AEBISCHER, A. ADAM, C.

T52

CHARLES, T.

T52

P28, P29

CHARVET, C.

T15

AGUILLON, C. G.

P15

CHÁVEZ, M.

P01

AHMAD, A.

P19

CHE, X.

P20

ALBRECHT, T.

T34

CHISAMERA, G. B.

ALFI, S.

T13

CHOSIDOW, O.

T47

ALLAN, L.

T44

CHU, X.

P20

CLARK, J. M.

P28, P29

ALLEN, J. M.

T03, T05, T07

P11, T16, T22

ALTUNA, J. C.

T25

CLAYTON, D. H.

ANDERSON, M.

T17

CLAYTON, S. F.

P21

ANDRADE, A.

P01

COLWELL, D. D.

T01

ARONSON, E.

T13

CONSTANTINESCU, I. C.

P21, T25, T26, T36

P28, P29

ASCUNCE, M. S.

T24, T20

DA SILVA, M. C.

P22

AUDINO, P. G.

P09, T18

DASH, G. A.

T23

AYAZ, M. M.

BB

DAUTEL, H.

P11

BARROZO, R.

T18

DE MOYA, R. S.

T03

BEGUM, S.

T60

DE SOUSA, P. R.

P22

BOSCH, L. T.

T50

DEBIÈRRE-GROCKIEGO, F.

T15

BROWN, P.

T44

DEMASTES, J. W.

T09

DEMIR, E.

T40

T11, T51, T39

DÍAZ - CINTRA, S.

P08

BURGESS, M. N.

T51

DIETRICH, CH. H.

T03

BURGESS, N. A.

T51

DIMIER-POISSON, I.

T15

DO-PHAM, G.

T47 P29

BRUNTON, E. R. BURGESS, I. F.

BUSH, S. E.

T51, T39

P16, P17, P21, T08, T30, T36, T25, T26

CAI, W.

T01

DOMSA, C.

CAPPS, D.

T17

DURDEN, L. A.

T17, T55, T23

CATANACH, T. A.

T07, T35

ENGELBRECHT, D.

T58

CATAO-DIAZ, J. L.

P22

EREMEEVA, M. E.

T23, T17

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FICKEROVÁ, M. FLORES, A. E.

T29 P04, P05

JOHNSON, K. P.

P18, T02, T03, T04, T05, T07, T25, T35

KANYARI, P. W. N.

P29

FRIGER, M.

T13

KARAN, L.

P02

FUENTES-CASTILLO, D.

P22

KARASARTOVA, D.

T40

GAJDOŠOVÁ, M.

T34

KHAN, G.

T37, T38

GALASSI, F. G.

P09

KIERAN, T.

T23

GARCIA, G. P.

P08

KIM, J. H.

T16

GELLATLY, K.

T16

KLOOTWIJ, T.

T47

GLENN, T. C.

T23

KOLENČÍK, S.

T06, T57

GONG, S.

T01

KRAUSOVÁ, M.

P15

GONZÁLEZ-OLIVER, A.

T20

KUABARA, K. M. D.

P22

GOODMAN, G. B.

T36

KUMAR, S.

GORDON, S. C.

P12

LAMASSIAUDE, N.

T15

GRIS, G. CH.

P08

LANG, Z.

T30

GROSSI, A.

T27

LAUER, K.

T49

GUARDIA, L.

P24

LE CLEACH, L.

T47

GÜRESER, A. S.

T40

LEE, S. H.

T22

GUSTAFSSON, D. R. GUZMÁN, E. HABEDANK, B.

P16, P17, T08, T59 P13

LEONARDI, M. S. LI, H.

T37, T38

P01, P18, P23 T01

T50, T52, T41

LIGHT, J. E.

T59, T09

HAFNER, D. J.

T09

LITERÁK, I.

T06, T43, T57, T58

HAFNER, M. S.

T09

LIU, G.

T01

HALAJIAN, A.

T06, T58

LIVERMORE L.

T44

LOPATINA, Y.

P02

HARDY, H.

T44

HARNOS, A.

T30, T31

LOPEZ-MONROY, B.

P04

HOUSE, N.

T21, AA

LÓPEZ-VALENCIA, D.

P03

HYPŠA, V.

T10

LUCIA, A.

P13

LUUS-POWELL, W. J.

T58

IBARRA, J.

P14, P10

INSAURRALDE, I. O.

T18

MALENOVSKÝ, I.

T43

JAMES, P.

T01

MALYSHEVA, O.

P26

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MANRIQUE, P.

P04, P05

OZBAS, S.

T54

MARKS, B. D.

T35

PALMA, R. L.

T46

MARTINŮ, J.

T10

PAPOUŠEK, I.

T06, T28, T57

MAZÁNEK, L.

T14

PETERSON, M.

T03

MEDINA-ORTEGA, A.

P03

PETRAS, D.

T30

MENDEZ, E.

P05

PETRESCU, A.

P28

MEY, E.

P27

PICOLLO, M. I.

T18, T24, P09, T48

MIHALCA, A. D.

P29

PIROSS, I. S.

T31

MINOLI, S.

T18

PITTENDRIGH, B. R.

T22

MIRANDA, J. J. D.

P08

PODSIADLOWSKI, L.

T03

MIRÓ-HERRANS, A. T.

T21, AA

PONCE-GARCIA, G.

P04, P05

MITCHELL, P. S.

T59

PROCTOR, H.

T27

MOSQUERA-MONJE, S.

P03

RAMAIAH, A.

T23

MOYLE, R. G.

T35

RAMPEDI, K. M.

T58

MUMCUOGLU, K. Y.

T12, T13, T53, T54, T40

REED, D. L.

T24, T20, T21, AA

MUNCLINGER, P.

T34

ROBERTSON, H. M.

T03

MURENZI, E.

T16

ROCA-ACEVEDO, G.

P06

T28, T43

RODRIGUEZ, I. P.

P05

P22

RÖSCHMANN, K.

P11

NAJER, T. NAVAS-SUÁREZ, P. E. NAZ, S. NAZIR, M. M.

T56, T60

T32, T30, T31

RUBIO, R. G.

P13

P18, P23

SALGUERO, C.

P03

NESSNER, C. E.

T59

SÁNDOR, A. D.

P29

NEVEN, A. K.

T47

SAXENA, A. K.

T37, T38

NEVEU, C.

T15

SCHEDRINA, O.

T44

OGUNLEKE, T.

T17

SEONG, K. M.

T22

OLSEN, A.

P10

SHAO, R.

ORTEGA, F.

P13

SHAPIRO, M. D.

T25

OSCHADLEUS, H. D.

T58

SHEPHERD, K.

P12

P30, T43

SHIMADA, M.

P25

NEGRETE, J.

OŠLEJŠKOVÁ, L.

BB

ROZSA, L.

The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera

T01, T55

121


All listed authors

SIYAL, S.

T56, T60

SMITH, V.

T44

SONG, F.

T01, T55

URRUTIA, A. O. VALIM, M.

T19 T45, T05, T35

VALIM, M. P.

P22

SOTO, F. A.

P23

VAN DER WOUDEN, J. C.

T47

SPRADLING, T. A.

T09

VARGAS, A. L. P.

P08

STEELE, L. D.

T22

VAS, Z.

T32

VÁSQUEZ-ARTEAGA, L. R.

P03

VASSENA, C.

P07

VÁZQUEZ, A. R. A.

P08

ŠTEFKA, J.

P15, T10, T29

STEIN-ZAMIR, CH. STICHELE, R. V. SUN, W.

T13 P10, P14, T47 T22

SWEET, A. D.

T25, T26

VILLANUEVA-SEGURA, K.

P04

SYCHRA, O. P30, P31, T06, T28, T34, T42, T43, T57, T58, T45

VIÖL, W.

T50

SYCHROVÁ, V.

P31

VIRRUETA-HERRERA, S.

SYMES, C.

T58

VOELKER, G.

SZABO, K.

T30

WALDEN, K. K. O.

T03, T05

TAKANO, O. M.

T59

WANG, W.

T01, T55

TAYLAN-ÖZKAN, A.

P18, T03, T04, T05

VILLA, S. M.

T05 , T07, P18 T59

T54, T40

WARANG, S.

T17

THEBO, A.K.

T56

WEAVER, H.

T55

TOKAREVICH, N. K.

T23

WECKSTEIN, J. D.

TOLOZA, A. C. TOLSTENKOV, O.

T18, P06, P07, P13, T20, T24 P26, T33

WICKENDEN, C.

T05, T07, T35 P10

YOON, K. S.

T16, T22

TOUBATE, B.

T15

YOSHIZAWA, K.

T03, P25

TRAN, A.

T01

ZOHDY, S.

T17, T23

TRUJILLO-RODRIGUEZ, G. TRYJANOWSKI, P.

122

P04, P05

ZOU, F.

T32

The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera

P20


Participants list

PARTICIPANTS LIST Adam, Costica Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History Aguillon, Citlali G. Undergraduate Program on Genomic Sciences, UNAM Allan, Louise Natural History Museum Berthine, Toubate UNIVERSITE DE TOURS Boskamp, Paula Nyda (G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG) Burgess, Ian Medical Entomology Centre, IRD Bush, Sarah University of Utah

Clark, John University of Massachusetts Clayton, Dale University of Utah, USA Dasch, Gregory Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta de Moya, Robert University of Illinois Díaz Juan Inovaciones Aplicadas en Pediatria A.C. Do-Pham, Giao French Satellite of the Cochrane Skin Group, Créteil France Eertmans, Frank Oystershell Eremeeva, Marina Georgia Southern University

Gustafsson, Daniel Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources Habedank, Birgit Umweltbundesamt (German Environment Agency), Section IV 1.4 Halajian, Ali University of Limpopo Ibarra, Joanna Community Hygiene Concern, Reg Ch Johnson, Kevin Illinois Natural History Survey Khan, Ghazi Govt. Raza P. G. College, Rampur (U. P)244901 INDIA Kolarova, Marketa  Medindex

Catanach, Therese Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University

Fencil, Kevin Larada

Kolenčík, Stanislav Veterinární a farmaceutická univerzita Brno

Cernoskova, Dana Longaro

Gajdošová, Magdalena Faculty of Science, Charles University

Clayton, Sonora University of Utah

Galassi, Federico Gabriel CIPEIN-UNIDEF-CONICET

Kuabara, Kamila Museum of Zoology of University of São Paulo

Chu, Xingzhi Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources

Grossi, Alexandra University of Alberta

Lamassiaude, Nicolas UNIVERSITE DE TOURS

Koutská Kateřina Stada-Pharma

The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera

123


Participants list

Larsen, Kim Soeholt KSL Innovation

Morgen, Anette KSL Consulting

Piross, Imre Sándor University of Veterinary

Lauer, Krista Mumcuoglu, Kosta Larada Sciences/Lice Clinics of America Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Pittendrigh, Barry Michigan State University

Leverenz, Sandra IS Insect Services GmbH

Munclinger, Pavel Munclinger Charles University

Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

Light, Jessica Texas A&M University

Najer, Tomas University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno

Pruetz, Svenja G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG

Literák, Ivan University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno Lopatina, Iuliia Lomonosov Moscow State University Malysheva, Olga Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Mey, Eberhard Natural Sciences Collections Mazanek, Libor KHS Olomouckého kraje Meinicke, Martina Mundipharma Medical Company Meinking, Terri Global Health Association of Miami Miro-Herrans, Aida Florida Museum of Natural History

124

Naz, Saima University of Sindh, Pakistan.

Rawson, Verity Alliance Pharamceuticals Ltd

Reed, David Ortega Insaurralde, Isabel Florida Museum of Natural History Centro de investigaciones de plagas e insecticidas (UNIDEF-CITEDEF-CONICET) Röschmann, Kristina G. Pohl Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG Ošlejšková, Lucie University of Veterinary and Rossel, Bart Pharmaceutical Sciences Oystershell Palma, Ricardo Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Papoušek, Ivo Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno Picollo, María Inés Centro de Investigaciones en Plagas e Insecticidas

The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera

Rozsa, Lajos Hungarian Academy of Sciences Ruob, Christina medinform Shao, Renfu University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia Shepherd, Katie LSRN Research


Participants list

Shimada, Megumi Systematic Entomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University

Urrutia, Araxi University of Bath

Wheeler, Caroline Hedrin

Valan, Miroslav Swedish Museum of Natural History

Wickenden, Clarice Community Hygiene Concern, Reg Ch

Van den Bossche, Jeroen Perrigo

Wirdemark, Natacha LusFri Inspagat AB

Sugano, Natuski Earth Corporation

Vander Stichele, Robert Department of Pharmacology, Ghent University

Yoshida, Shinya Earth Chemical Co., Ltd

Sweet, Andrew Purdue University

Vassena, Claudia Viviana CITEDEF UNIDEF CONICET

Sychra, Oldřich Veterinární a farmaceutická univerzita Brno

Végh, Judit Semmelweis University

Zou, Fasheng Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources

Villa, Scott Dept. of Biology, University of Utah

Zrnová, Barbora Longaro

Smith, Vincent Natural History Museum Stefka, Jan Biology Centre, ASCR

Šulc, Martin Nyda Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul Hitit University, Corum Toloza, Ariel Ceferino CIPEIN (CONICET-UNIDEF) Tolstenkov, Oleg Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of Sciences, Center of parasitology

Zavadilová, Radmila Nyda

Virrueta Herrera, Stephany University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Wang, Wei University of the Sunshine Coast Weckstein, Jason Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University

The 6th International Conference on Phthiraptera

125


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