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UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA Escuela de Idiomas Curso: Historia de los Estados Unidos Licda. Evelyn Quiroa

“Presentaciones de la Historia de Estados Unidos”

Londy Carolina Perez Mancilla 1076-11-14281 Guatemala 26 de Noviembre del 2011


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NATIVE AMERICAN

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Estimates range from about 10 – 90 million Native Americans inhabited America at the time of the European arrivals. They had lived in the land many, many years before white man set foot on their soil. It is believed that during the ice age, they had traveled a land-bridge across the Bering Sound, from Siberia into what is now Alaska. They had gradually migrated across the land and southward into Mexico and beyond. The name “Indian” was given them by Christopher Columbus who mistakenly believed he had landed in the Indies.


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They have been labeled Indians, American Indians, and the now preferred Native Americans. They migrated to all regions of the land and were formed into many different tribes or nations. These were a people who adapted well to their particular regions and made wise use of all natural resources available. They believed in respecting the land and the abundance of gifts it offered. They became proficient fishermen, hunters, farmed crops such as corn, and built homes with whatever available resources their territory provided. Some of these included animal skins.

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Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the presentday continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes,states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact political communities. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have been controversial, an expressed preference refer to themselves as American Indians or Indians, and this term has been adopted by major newspapers and some academic groups.

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The differences in culture between the established native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations of each culture through the centuries, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence and social disruption. The American Indians suffered high fatalities from the contact with infectious Eurasian diseases, to which they had no acquired immunity. Epidemics after European contact caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U.S. vary significantly, ranging from 1 million to 18 million

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Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands of Native Americans who have sovereignty or independence from the government of the United States. Since the late 1960s, American Indian activism has led to the building of cultural infrastructure and wider recognition of their unique identities and contributions throughout United States society: they have founded independent newspapers, community schools, tribal colleges, and tribal museums and language programs; academic institutions across the country have created Native American studies programs; national and state museums have been founded to recognize American Indians' historic and current contributions. American Indian authors have been increasingly published (with the vast majority writing in the colonial language, English); other American Indians work as historians and in a wide variety of occupations

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The Native American languages have contributed numerous place-names in the Western Hemisphere, especially in the United States, many of whose states have names of Native American origin. The European languages that are official today in countries of the New World, such as English, Spanish, and Portuguese, have borrowed a number of words from aboriginal languages. English, for example, has been enriched by such words as moccasin, moose, mukluk, raccoon, skunk, terrapin, tomahawk, totem, and wampum from indigenous North American languages; by chocolate, coyote, and tomato from indigenous Mexican tongues; by barbecue, cannibal, hurricane, maize, and potato from aboriginal languages of the West Indies; and by coca, condor, guano, jaguar, llama, maraca, pampa, puma, quinine, tapioca, and vicuĂąa from indigenous South American languages. Some Native American languages, among them Navajo, Apache, and Cherokee, have been used for wartime communications by the U.S. military to evade enemy decipherment.


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native American groups in the United States are working to revitalize the languages of their peoples as a result of increased ethnic consciousness and feelings of cultural identity. By the end of the 20th cent. there was an increasing number of such language-learning facilities as tribal classes, language camps, and local college courses in indigenous languages.

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In the last three decades of the 16th century, the population of present-day Mexico dropped to about one million people.The Maya population is today estimated at six million, which is about the same as at the end of the 15th century, according to some estimates. In what is now Brazil, the indigenous population declined from a pre-Columbian high of an estimated four million to some 300,000.

While it is difficult to determine exactly how many Natives lived in North America before Columbus, estimates range from a low of 2.1 million (Ubelaker 1976) to 7 million people to (Russell Thornton) to a high of 18 million (Dobyns 1983).

The Aboriginal population of Canada during the late 15th century is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million, with a figure of 500,000 currently accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health. Repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity), combined with dispossession from European/Canadian settlements and repressive policies, resulted in a forty to eighty percent aboriginal population decrease post-contact. For example, during the late 1630s, smallpox killed over half of the Wyandot (Huron), who controlled most of the early North American fur trade in what became Canada, were reduced to fewer than 10,000 people.

Civilizations rose and fell, and indigenous peoples migrated long before Europeans arrived on the scene. The indigenous population in 1492 was not necessarily at a high point and may actually have been in decline in some areas. Fernand Braudel has pointed out a problem the Amerindian faced which was not a factor in Eurasia and Africa: "The Indian population ... suffered from a demographic weakness, particularly because of the absence of any substitute animal milk. Mothers had to nurse their children until they were three or four years old. This long period of breast-feeding severely reduced female fertility and made any demographic revival precarious."Indigenous populations in most areas of the Americas reached a low point by the early 20th century. In most cases, populations have since begun to climb. In the United States, for instance, the numbers may already have recovered to preColumbian levels or even exceeded them.

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What is a URM? As noted earlier, URM is an acronym for the phrase Under Represented Minority. Much confusion surrounds the “underrepresented” portion of the acronym, thus frequently rendering the entire term unclear. A URM is, quite simply, a minority group whose percentage of the population at a given law school is lower than their percentage of the population in the country. This also means that at some schools URM applicants may be treated differently than at others.

Which groups are considered URMs? American Indians/Alaskan Natives, African Americans/Blacks, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans are typically considered URM’s. Please note that there is a difference between Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other types of Hispanics in the admissions process. Additionally, I would like to offer a small caveat to international students, who fall into a separate category of their own.

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Why are these groups (rather than others) considered URM’s? One of the primary reasons we believe applicants of the above races are considered URM’s is because they are the only groups for which the LSAC (Law School Admissions Council) regularly publishes data. When the minority enrollment for a particular group is unknown, law schools have little incentive to admit students from that specific group.


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moccasin, moose, mukluk, raccoon, skunk, terrapin, tomahawk, totem, and wampum from indigenous North American languages; by chocolate, coyote, and tomato from indigenous Mexican tongues; by barbecue, cannibal, hurricane, maize, and potato from aboriginal languages of the West Indies; and by coca, condor, guano, jaguar, llama, maraca, Pampa, puma, quinine, tapioca, and vicuĂąa from indigenous South American languages.


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Howdid black peopleinhabit theUS?  History.  CultureInfluencein theUS.  Why areblack peopleconsidered aminority?  Relevant Vocabulary. 


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African Americansarecitizensor residentsof theUnited Stateswho haveat least partial ancestry fromany of thenativepopulationsof Sub-Saharan Africaand arethedirect descendantsof enslaved Africanswithin theboundariesof thepresent United States.


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What you might not knowisthat black historyhad barely begun to bestudiedor even documentedwhen thetradition originated. Although blackshavebeen in Americaat least asfar back as colonial times, it wasnot until the20th century that they gained a respectablepresencein thehistory books.


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African Americanmusicisoneof themost pervasiveAfrican Americancultural influencesin theUnited Statestoday and is amongthemost dominant in mainstreampopular music. Hip hop, R&B, funk, rock and roll, soul, blues, and other contemporary Americanmusical formsoriginatedin black communitiesand evolvedfromother black formsof music, includingblues, doo-wop, barbershop, ragtime, bluegrass, jazz, and gospel music.


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Themajority of African AmericansareProtestant of whommany followthehistoricallyblack churches. Black church refersto churcheswhich minister predominantlyAfrican American congregations. Black congregationswerefirst establishedby freed slavesat theend of the17th century, and later when slavery was abolishedmoreAfrican Americanswereallowed to createaunique formof Christianitythat wasculturally influencedby African spiritual traditions


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Black slang is a form of informal spoken language whose origins are most often associated with African American teenagers and young adults.

Examples of black slang include:  · gangsta: gangster  · bling: flashy jewelery, wearing a lot of bold pieces  · grills: Can refer to teeth or teeth jewelry, or even just the face or mouth. 

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 Angela

López  Debora Aquino  Guisela Aristondo  Ana Rizo


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HOW DID HISPANIC PEOPLE INHABIT IN THE U.S.A


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FRANCE IMMIGRATION TO U.S.A. I n 1608 the explorer Samuel de Champlain, found the first permanent French colony at Quebec. He also explored the area that is now Northern New York State.

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GERMAN IMMIGRATION TO TE U.S.A. Immigration from Germany to the US reached its first peak between 1749 and 1754 when approximately 37,000 Germans came to North America. In 1848, six million Germans emigrated to the United States. Many of these Germans settled in the cities of Chicago, Detroit and New York.


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ITALY IMMIGRATION TO U.S.A There was a little Italian immigration to the United States before 1870 most of these immigrants were from rural communites with very litle Education. From 1890 to 1900, 655,888 arrived to the United States of whom two-thirds were men.

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HISTORY


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Hispanic/Latino presence in the territory of the United States has existed since the 16th century.

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CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, NEVADA, UTAH, NEW MEXICO, PARTS OF COLORADO AND WYOMING.


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THE TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO SIGNED BETWEEN MEXICO AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN 1848

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On September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with Congress's authorization. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended the observance to a month, designated Hispanic Heritage Month.


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CULTURE INFLUENCE IN THE U.S.


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SOCIAL HABITS

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POPULATION

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WHY ARE HISPANIC PEOPLE CONSIDERED MINORITY IN THE U.S.A.

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White people in AmĂŠrica have the most power and representation when it comes to our goverment and the treatment of other Americans. Women out-number men in America, but are a minority group because women don t have as much power or decition making authority as men. This is why pretty much every race, and ethnic group are considered minority groups.


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RELEVANT VOCABULARY

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SPANISH—ENGLISH Ángel Banano Barbacoa Huracán Tomate

Angel Banana Barbecue Hurricane Tomato

SPANISH—ENGLISH Chocolate Chile Cafetería Mosquito Vainilla

Chocolate Chili Cafeteria Mosquito Vanilla


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History ď‚— The notion of "white people" or a "white race" as a

large group of populations contrasting with non-white or "colored" originates in the 17th century. Pragmatic description of populations as "white" in reference to their skin color predates this notion and is found in Greco-Roman ethnography and other ancient sources.


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How did they inhabit US?  It is not definitively known how or when the Native

Americans including “White People” first settled the Americas and the present-day United States. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringia, a land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska, and then spread southward throughout the Americas.


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ď‚—Culture and influence

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Music


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Movies

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Politic


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US population

U.S. 312,468,378

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Population some statistics                

U.S Census 1790–2000 Year Population % of the Us 1790 3,172,006 80.7 1800 4,306,446 81.1 1850 19,553,068 84.3 1900 66,809,196 87.9


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1940 118,214,870 89.8 (highest) 1950 134,942,028 89.5 1980 188,371,622 83.1 2000 211,460,626 75.1 (lowest)

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Are they consider a minority or majority?  A report from the Pew Research Center in 2008

projects that by 2050, Non-Hispanic White Americans will make up 47% of the population, down from 67% projected in 2005.White Americans made up nearly 90% of the population in 1950.


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Some additional information ď‚— The current U.S. Census definition includes white

"people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa. The U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation describes white people as "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa through racial categories used in the UCR Program adopted from the Statistical Policy Handbook (1978) and published by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce. The "white" category in the UCR includes non-black Hispanics.

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ď‚— Definitions of white have changed over the years,

including the official definitions used in many countries, such as the United States and Brazil. Some defied official regulations through the phenomenon of "passing", many of them becoming white people, either temporarily or permanently.


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 The structure of Government in the United

States is laid out in the constitution.  The constitution describes 3 co- equal

branches of government.  Legislative branch  Executive branch  Judicial branch


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 The national or federal legislature is called

THE GONGRESS it is made up of elected officials from each state. And they are responsible for enacting the law.  The executive branch headed by the

President is responsible for running the government and enforcing the law that congress enacts.


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 The judicial branch is responsible for

interpretating the laws and settling formal disputes between people or between people and the government.

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 President Hamilton printed on 10 dollar bill.

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 Commemorative medal to President Ronald

Reagan

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 World Cup 2006

 Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865


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 John F Kennedy

 William Jefferson Clinton

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 Barack H. Obama

 The USA President number 40


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Andrea Casasola ID # 1076-10-15001

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THE COLONIAL PERIOD


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COLONIZATION ďƒ’

Is the action to dominate a country or territory. (The Colony). The Colonization process can be of economic, political, military or cultural character.

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Can be developed of violent or pacific form.


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Most of the settlers who came to the British colonies in the seventeenth century (XVII) were English. Others came from the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, France, and later, from Scotland and Northern Ireland. Some left their countries to escape from war, political pressure, religious persecution or even a sentence from jail. Others undertook trip like servants, with the expectaction to work to pay their freedom.

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The first settlements were established on the Atlantic coast and the rivers that flowed to the ocean. In the northeast, the settlers found hills covered with trees and soil that were filled with stones when the glaciers of the Ice Age melted.

Water power was easy to use, so "New England" (including Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) developed an economy based on forestry, fishing, shipbuilding and commerce. Colonies of the middle region (including New York and Pennsylvania) had a milder climate and more varied territory.


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ďƒ’ The

relationship between settlers and Native Americans, who called those Indians, was an uncomfortable mix of cooperation and conflict. In some areas there was commerce and some social interaction, but in general, as that new settlements expanded, the Indians or Natives were forced to emigrate.

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creation of colonies was not sponsored by the British government, but by private groups. All except Georgia emerged as companies of shareholders or as proprietorships granted by the King. Some were governed rigidly by company leaders, but in due time, all developed a system of participatory governance, based on tradition and the British legal precedent.


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Several years of political displeasure in Britain culminated with the Glorious Revolution of 1688-89, in which King James II was overthrown, then limits on the monarchy and was given more freedom to the people. Colonial assemblies claimed the right to act as local parliaments and approved measures to expand their own power and limit the power of royal governors...

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the following decades, recurring disputes between the governors and assemblies awakened colonists to the growing divergence between their interests and those of Great Britain. The precedents that emerged from these disputes became the unwritten constitution of the colonies. At first, his focus was on self-government within a British Commonwealth. Only later came to Independence.


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SLAVERY

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TRANSPORTATION


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THE EARLY YEARS, THE WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES

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GEORGE WASHINGTON WAS THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE US. ON APRIL 30, 1789


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Supreme Court was established composed of a prosecutor and five associate ministers and three circuit courts and 13 district courts.


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In Washington, DC, headquarters was established three branches of federal government: legislative, executive and judicial.

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The next two presidents, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, were representatives of two schools of thought different on the role of government.


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Britain and France were at war.

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The doctrine was presented by President James Monroe during his seventh speech to Congress on the State of the Union. As a proclamation of the United States of their opposition to colonialism.


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United States doubled its size with the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803. And Florida, purchase from Spain in 1819.

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Henry Clay of Kentucky, was one of the most influential American politicians of the first half of the nineteenth century. Clay became indispensable for his role to preserve the Union, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850. Both pieces of legislation for a time resolved disputes over slavery in the territories.


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THE EARLY YEARS, THE WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES

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GEORGE WASHINGTON WAS THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE US. ON APRIL 30, 1789


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Supreme Court was established composed of a prosecutor and five associate ministers and three circuit courts and 13 district courts.


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In Washington, DC, headquarters was established three branches of federal government: legislative, executive and judicial.

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The next two presidents, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, were representatives of two schools of thought different on the role of government.


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Britain and France were at war.

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The doctrine was presented by President James Monroe during his seventh speech to Congress on the State of the Union. As a proclamation of the United States of their opposition to colonialism.


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United States doubled its size with the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803. And Florida, purchase from Spain in 1819.

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Henry Clay of Kentucky, was one of the most influential American politicians of the first half of the nineteenth century. Clay became indispensable for his role to preserve the Union, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850. Both pieces of legislation for a time resolved disputes over slavery in the territories.


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THE CIVIL WAR RESTORATIONAFTERTHEWAR.

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TheAmerican Civil War began in 1861 when eleven southern slave statesdeclared secession fromtheUnited Statesand formtheir own Confederacy which wasled by Jefferson Davis. In January 1861, AbrahamLincoln waselected president. Northern states, under the leadershipof President Lincoln, they weredetermined to stop the rebellion and preservetheUnion.


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On April 12theConfederateStatesCivil War began with theattack on South Carolina'sFort Sumter.  Northern states, under the leadership of President Lincoln, they were determinedtostoptherebellionandpreservetheUnion.  TheNorthhadmorethantwiceasmanystatesandtwicethe population.  Northern stateshad abundant resourcesof war and also with itsrail network.  TheSouth had moreexperienced military leadersand also most of thefighting took placein their own territory.


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AndrewJohnson issued pardons that restoredthepolitical rightsof many Southerners. at theend of 1865almost all theformer Confederatestateshad held conventionstorepeal thelawsof succession and to abolish slavery.

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Thedivisionsand hatredsthat led totheCivil War did not disappear at theend of armedstruggle. AsSouthern whitesregainedpolitical power, blacksin that region suffered. AsSouthern whitesregainedpolitical power, blacksin that region suffered. They had gainedtheir freedom, but local lawsthat denied themaccesstomany public resourcesarepreventedfromenjoyingit. Thereconstruction processhad begun with high ideals, but CYOin asinkholeof corruption and racism.


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Thebloodiest day of thewar was theSeptember 17, 1862, when the twoarmiesmet at AntietamCreek near Maryland.

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Several monthslater, President Lincoln issued apreliminary version of theEmancipation Proclamation. Thankstoit freed all slavesliving in Confederatestates. nownot only thenorth and strugglingjust to preservetheUnion, but alsotoend slavery. VicePresident Andrew Johnson but aSoutherner, corresponded.

Confederatetroopsunder the command of General Robert E. Lee failedto forcetheUnion soldiers ledby General GeorgeMcClellan.


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In April 1865, hugeUnion armies under thecommand of General Ulysses S. Grant hadsurroundedRobert E. Lee in Virginia. Leesurrendered, and that wastheend of theU.S. Civil War.

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In Washington, President Lincoln wasready toInitiatetheprocessof reconciliation. Never got thechance becausehewaskilled by a Southerner embittered.

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The United States came of age in the decades following the Civil War.


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The frontier gradually vanished; a rural republic became an urban nation. Great factories, steel mills, and transcontinental railroads were built. Cities grew quickly. And millions of people arrived from other countries to begin new lives in a land of opportunity.

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It was an era of corporate consolidation, especially in the steel, rail, oil, and telecommunications industries. Monopolies denied competition in the marketplace, which led to calls for government regulation. A law was passed in 1890 to prevent monopolies from restraining trade, but it was not vigorously enforced at first.


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The last decades of the 19th century saw a race by European powers to colonize Africa and compete for trade in Asia. Many Americans believed the United States had a right and duty to expand its influence in other parts of the world. Many others, however, rejected any actions that hinted at imperialism.

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A brief war with Spain in 1898 left the United States with control over several Spanish overseas possessions: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.


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The United States encouraged them to move toward self-government, but, in fact, it maintained administrative control. Idealism in foreign policy existed alongside the practical desire to protect the economic interests of a once-isolated nation that had become a world power.


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DISAGREE AND REFORM IN U.S.

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IN 1900 THE U.S. HAD SURVIVED THE CIVIL WAR AND ECONOMIC DEPRESSION. PRESS FREEDOM WAS K E P T I N T A C T.


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THEODORE ROOSEVELT LED THE MOVEMENT CALLED “PROGRESSIVISM”

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MAIN WORKS: BANKI NG S YS T E M OF RE S E RVE NEW LAWS TA X E S W E R E R E D UC E D BETWEEN 1890 AND 1921 AROUND 19 MILLION OF I MMI GR A NT S C A ME TO U. S .


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THERE ARE MANY REASONS WHY THE WORLD WENT TO WAR IN 1914. THESE ARE SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT REASONS. Britain and Germany were competing to have the most powerful navy in the world. This caused tension in Europe. The Scramble for Africa (when European countries had tried to get as many colonies as they could) had led to many small conflicts around the world. This meant that some of the major European powers were not very friendly towards each other.

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The French were very distrustful of the Germans as a result of the war in 18701871 that the Germans had won. The alliance systems set up to prevent war meant that any major political disputes would inevitably lead to a large rather than a small conflict. Nationalism. People across the world were very eager to let the rest of the world how strong and important their country was. Many people thought that their country was better than others: and thought that they'd be able to win a war very easily if there was one. The Balkans region of Europe was claimed by both Russia and Austria (it was in general under Austrian control). This meant that the Russians and the Austrians would both be eager to enforce their authority over this region. A desire for independence. Many people in Europe lived in countries that were part of empires. They didn't all like being ruled by people with different languages and religions and this led to conflicts that could (and did) involve other nations. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. He was the heir to the Austrian throne and was murdered by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. This was the spark that caused war to be declared.


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Nuclear bomb


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This decade opened the century with some amazing feats like the first flight by the Wright brothers, Henry Ford's first Model-T, and Einstein's Theory of Relativity. It also had hardships like the Boxer Rebellion and the San Francisco Earthquake. The 1900s also saw the introduction of the first silent movie and teddy bear. Plus, don't miss out in discovering more about the mysterious explosion in Siberia.


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This decade was unfortunately dominated by the first "total war" -- World War I. It also saw other huge changes during the Russian Revolution and the beginning of Prohibition. Tragedy struck when a fire rampaged through Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, the "unsinkable" Titanic hit an iceberg. and the Spanish flu killed millions around the world. On a more positive note, people in the 1910s got their first taste of an Oreo cookie and could fill out their first crossword.


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The Great Depression hit the world hard in the 1930s. The Nazis took advantage of this situation and were able to come to power in Germany, establish their first concentration camp, and begin a systematic persecution of Jews in Europe. Other news in the 1930s included the disappearance of Amelia Earhart, a wild and murderous crime spree by Bonnie and Clyde, and the imprisonment of Al Capone for income tax evasion.


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World War II was already underway by the time the 1940s began and it was definitely the big event of the first half of the decade. Plus, the Nazis established death camps in their effort to murder millions of Jews during the Holocaust. When World War II ended, the Cold War began. The 1940s also witnessed the assassination of Gandhi and the beginning of Apartheid.


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The 1950s are sometimes referred to as the Golden Age. Color TV was invented; the polio vaccine was discovered; Disneyland opened; and Elvis gyrated his hips on The Ed Sullivan Show. The Cold War continued as the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union began. The 1950s also saw segregation ruled illegal in the U.S. and the beginning of the Civil Rights movement.


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To many, the 1960s can be summed up as the Vietnam War, hippies, drugs, protests, and rock and roll. (A common joke goes "If you remember the sixties, you weren't there.") Although those were important aspects of this decade, other events occurred as well. For instance, the Berlin Wall was built, the Soviets launched the first man into space, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated, the Beatles become popular, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. made his "I Have a Dream" speech, and so much more!


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The Vietnam War was still a major event in the beginning of the 1970s. There were other tragic events this decade as well, including the deadliest earthquake of the century, the Jonestown massacre, the Munich Olympics massacre, and the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island. Culturally, disco became extremely popular and Star Wars hit theaters.


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Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of glasnost and perestroika began the end of the Cold War. This was soon followed by the surprising fall of the Berlin Wall. There were also some disasters this decade, including the eruption of Mt. St. Helens, the oil spill of the Exxon Valdez, the Ethiopian Famine, a huge poison gas leak in Bhopal, and the discovery of AIDS. Culturally, the 1980s saw the introduction of the mesmerizing Rubik's Cube toy, Pac-Man video game, and Michael Jackson's Thriller video.


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The Cold War ends, Nelson Mandela is released from prison, the Internet becomes popular - in many ways the 1990s seemed a decade of both hope and relief. Unfortunately, the decade also saw its fair share of tragedy, including the Oklahoma City bombing, Columbine High School massacre, and the Rwandan genocide.


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Historical Documentsof theUnitedStates

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Magna Carta

As English men and women, the American colonists were heirs to the thirteenthcentury English document, the Magna Carta, which established the principles that no one is above the law (not even the King), and that no one can take away certain rights.


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Declaration on Independence

Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence is at once the nation's most cherished symbol of liberty and Jefferson's most enduring monument.

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The Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation represent the first constitutional agreement made between the 13 American states. This federal constitution was called the Articles of Confederation and was submitted to the Second Continental Congress on July 12, 1776, 8 days after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.


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The Agreement of Secrecy, November 9, 1775

This document bears the signatures of eighty-seven delegates; thirty-nine signed on November 9, and the other delegates signed as they reported to Congress.

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Constitution of the United States

The Federal Convention convened in the State House (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation. General George Washington was unanimously elected president of the Philadelphia convention.


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Bill of Rights

On September 25, 1789, the First Congress of the United States therefore proposed to the state legislatures 12 amendments to the Constitution that met arguments most frequently advanced against it.

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Emancipation Proclamation

President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, declaring that "all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious areas "are and henceforward shall be free."


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United States treaties: 1778 – Treaty of Amity and Commerce – with France 1782 - Treaty of Amity and Commerce - with Dutch Republic 1783 – Treaty of Amity and Commerce – with Sweden 1783 – Second Treaty of Paris Ended the American Revolutionary War 1785 – Treaty of Amity and Commerce – with Prussia 1786 – Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship – Morocco--first Sovereign state to recognize the U.S; oldest unbroken U.S. treaty – trade treaty with Spain (not ratified) 1795 – Jay Treaty AKA Treaty of London – attempts to settle post-Revolution disputes with Great Britain 1795 – Treaty with Algeria 1795 – Pinckney's Treaty AKA Treaty of Madrid, Treaty of San Lorenzo – defines boundaries of U.S. with Spanish colonies 1796 – Treaty with Tripoli – tribute payments to Tripoli to protect Americans from seizure and ransom 1797 – Treaty with Tunis – increases tribute payments to Tripoli


Tongue-in-Cheek Jump Down Someone's Throat Smell a Rat Shoot Off One's Mouth Go to the Dogs Get in Someone's hair Pull Someone's Leg Cat Got Your Tongue Leave Someone High and Dry On the Line Horse Around Feel Like a Million Dollars Straight From the Horse's Mouth Hang On For the Birds Make Ends Meet Let the cat out of the Bag Money talks Take the Bull by the Horns Eating Someone Drive Someone Up a Wall Jump the Gun

Bend Over Backwards Cough Up Scratch Someone's Back Turn Someone Off Fishy Kick the Bucket Get Off Someone's Back String Someone Along All Thumbs Not Have a Leg to Stand On Wet Blanket Going Under Knife Knock Someone's Socks Off Lose One's Shirt Out of the Woods Spill the Beans Lemon The Early Bird Catches the Worm Pay Through the Nose Stick Out One's Neck Play It by Ear Bite the Dust


Smell a Rat How come the front door is open? Didn't you close it before we went shopping? I'm sure I did. I can't understand it. Frankly, I smell a rat. Me, too. I'm convinced that something is definitely wrong here. We'd better call the police. Top

Go to the Dogs Have you seen their house lately? It's really gone to the dogs. It's true that it has become run-down and in serious need of repair, but I'm sure that it can be fixed up to look like new. I guess with a little carpentry work and some paint it could look pretty decent. Top

Fishy When the security guard saw a light in the store after closing hours, it seemed to him that there was something fishy going on. He called the central office and explained to his superior that he thought something strange and suspicious was occurring. Top

Take the Bull by the Horns Julie had always felt that she was missing out on a lot of fun because of her clumsiness on the dance floor. She had been putting off taking lessons, but she finally took the bull by the horns and went to a professional dance studio for help. She was tired of feeling left out and acted decisively to correct the situation.


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Let the cat out of the Bag Bob was going to retire from teaching in June, and the foreign language department was planning on presenting him with some luggage at his retirement dinner. He wasn't supposed to know about it, but someone let the cat out of the bag. At the dinner Bob acted surprised, even though someone had told him what he was getting before the official presentation. Top

For the Birds They went to a poetry reading, but they got bored and restless. As far as they were concerned, it was for the birds! They left during an intermission because they found the reading totally uninteresting and meaningless Top

Straight From the Horse's Mouth How did you find out that Jill was engaged? I got the information from a very reliable source. You mean Jill told you so herself? That's right. I got it straight from the horse's mouth! Top

Horse Around


Did you hear about Dave's back injury? No. How did he get hurt? Well, after the coach left the gym he decided to stay and horse around on the parallel bars. He somehow lost his grip and fell on his back. That's too bad, but he shouldn't have been aimlessly playing around on the equipment without proper supervision. Top

Cat Got Your Tongue? Come on, Connie! Tell us what you think about our little ride down the rapids yesterday. Well, uh... Wasn't it exciting? I, uh... What's the matter? Cat got your tongue? If you must know, I'm keeping quiet because I was scared out of my wits! Top

Get in Someone's hair Children! Would you please stop making so much noise! And for heaven's sake, pick up your clothes and toys! It's hard enough trying to keep this house clean without your throwing your things all over the place! Clara, I know that the children get in your hair, but you should try not to let it upset you so much. Listen, Jim. I can't help it . The children bother me and make me very angry when they're so noisy and messy. Top

Shoot Off One's Mouth


Jim doesn't play tennis very much, but he's always shooting off his mouth about how good he is. Yet he's fooling nobody. Jim is somewhat of a braggart and everyone knows that he gives opinions without knowing all the facts and talks as if he knew everything about the game. Top

Jump Down Someone's Throat That's it, Greg! You'd better not come in after midnight again tonight! I know, dad. You don't have to jump down my throat! I told you that I'd make it home around 11:30. I don't intend to be late! Well, you've said that before and in you come at 2: 30 in the morning. You can't blame me for getting angry and scolding you. I've got good reason. Top

Pay Through the Nose At last Mr. Smith came upon the rare stamp he had been seeking at an auction. Since many other stamp collectors would also be bidding for it, he realized that he would have to pay through the nose in order to have it. After considering the increasing value of the stamp, he decided that he would not mindpaying such a high price for something so rare. Top

Tongue-in-Cheek Why were you teasing Sonia about her new hairdo? She really took offense at what you said. I didn't mean to offend her. I was simply making a tongue-in-cheek remark when i said that it was too elaborate for a girl of her young, tender age. Well, she thought you were serious. She had no idea that you were just saying that as a joke. I'm really sorry. I suppose I owe her an apology. Top


Pull Someone's Leg Hey, Al. I was invited to be a judge for the Miss America Beauty Pageant! Oh, really? Come on, you're pulling my leg! No, honestly. Do you really think that I'm trying to fool you with a ridiculous story? Well, you've told me foolish stories before. I can assure you that this one is for real. Top

Play It by Ear Let's go to the movies, agreed? Sure. And what'll we do after that ? Oh, I don't know. Let's play it by ear. Well, I would like to have a more definite plan of action. Don't be like that. It's always more fun not knowing what to expect and deciding what to do as we go along. Top

Stick Out One's Neck How come they're asking me to act as their guide through the jungle? Evidently they think you're the only one who can lead them to the lost temple. That jungle has danger lurking around every corner. Why should I stick my neck out for them? They didn't pay me for my services. They know that you would be taking a great risk and could possibly get hurt, but you're the only one with enough knowledge to take them to their destination. I'm sure you'll be amply rewarded. Top

All Thumbs


Hey Bea. Can you help me out ? I don't seem to be able to button up the back of my dress. Sure. Let's see if I can do it for you. I guess I'm all thumbs because I'm so nervous. I'm already late for my date. Well, I suppose that being so nervous would make you clumsy and awkward. But don't worry. I'm sure your date will wait. Top

Not Have a Leg to Stand On Tom maintains that the firm owes him some back wages for having worked overtime. However, he won't have a leg to stand on unless he can prove that he put in all those extra hours. He doesn't stand a chance of getting his money without a strong foundation of facts to support his position. Top

Get Off Someone's Back Hey, John. I'm bored. Come on, let's go out and do something. Sorry, I'm right in the middle of studying for a physics exam. I won't be able to make it tonight. You've been studying for a long time. Why don't you take a break ? Come on! Let's go ! Forget studying for a while ! Look! Get off my back! I can't go anywhere! OK. I'll stop bothering you only if you promise to let me know the minute you're finished. Top

Drive Someone Up a Wall Wow ! What a great set of drums! Yeah, they're great, but I can't play on them when my folks are at home. They say I drive them up a wall with all the loud banging. I get the same thing at home. My folks tell me that I annoy them and get them really angry whenever I turn up the volume on my stereo.


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String Someone Along Liz had high hopes of marrying Dean. When he ran off with another woman, she realized that he was just stringing her along. She had felt very strongly about him and was really hurt to see that he was deceiving her and had no intentions of ever marrying her. Top

Leave Someone High and Dry Say, Jill. I thought that John was going to help you do the dishes tonight. So did I. But he left me high and dry. Where did he go ? Well, he got a call from some of his pals at work to go bowling, and he left me alone to do all this work without any help at all! Top

Spill the Beans Did you know that Harry was going to take Kathy on a Caribbean cruise ? Yes, I did. He was planning on surprising her with the tickets fro their anniversary, but someone spilled the beans. What a shame ! That was supposed to have been a surprise. Yes, it's too bad that someone told her about the trip beforehand and ruined Harry's surprise. That's OK. Her enthusiasm was not dampened in the least! Top

Bite the Dust


Andy did exceptionally well in all of the track events, but he bit the dust in the high jump competition. Much to the disappointment of his fans, he went down in defeat, losing to a competitor from the visiting team. Top

Bend Over Backwards When Joan first started teaching she was afraid that she would have a lot of trouble getting used to the kids and to the faculty. Her fears turned out to be unfounded, since everybody bent over backwards to help her. Everyone tried very hard to help her feel comfortable and adjust to the school. Top

Cough Up Say, Greg. Did you finally get that computer that you wanted so much ? Not yet. I needed to raise a couple of hundred dollars more. Is it going to take you a while to raise the money? It would have taken me forever, but dad said he'd cough up the money I need since I'm going to be using the computer for my school work. Maybe it was difficult for your dad to give you the money but then, he knows that it's for a good cause. Top

Jump the Gun Denise was planning on telling her grandparents that the doctor said she was going to have twins, but when her dad found out he jumped the gun and told them before Denise could say a word. He was so excited that he became hasty and revealed the news before Denise had a chance to tell them. Top


Scratch Someone's Back Hey, Bea. I need some help stacking these boxes. Would you please give me a hand? OK. And I need some help tidying up the house. How about your helping me out after that ? OK. If you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours. I know you don't like doing housework, but I'll help you with the boxes if you promise to return the favor. No problem. I'll even do the windows. Top

Turn Someone Off How was your date with Marty last night ? Well, it started of OK, but he really turned me off when we went for a snack after the movies. Did he say or do something to annoy you? Frankly, he disgusted me when he tried to talk with his mouth full. I don't blame you . That would have really bothered me too. Top

Kick the Bucket It's been said that the old man knew of a buried treasure, but he kicked the bucketbefore telling anyone where it was. If the treasure exists, the old man unfortunately took the secret of its location with him when he died. Top

Wet Blanket James was not invited to go on the outing with the rest of the group because he's such a wet blanket. On many previous occasions he has kept others from enjoying themselves by his pessimism and lack of enthusiasm. It's understandable that no one wants him around.


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Going under the knife

When critics and celebrity observers criticized Heidi Montag for undergoing tenplastic surgery procedures in one operation, she answered back that going under the knife is only a medical operation that doesn't involve any life-threatening risk.

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Knock Someone's Socks Off Hi, John. What's new ? Oh, nothing too much with me, but you ought to see Fredo's new car. It'll knock your socks off! So, he finally got that Italian sports car he's been dreaming about. He sure did. When you see all the custom features that it has, you'll get so enthused and excited you won't know what to do. Boy, I can hardly wait to go for a ride in it. Top

Lose One's Shirt I happened to bump into Dole at lunch yesterday afternoon. What's new with Dole these days ? He wasn't doing so well. For one thing, he told me he lost his shirt at the races. Dole has always liked to bet on the horses. I'm not surprised that he lost a great deal of money. Yeah. At this rate he'll never have a penny to his name. Top


Lemon Have you seen Joe's new car yet ? Yeah. It looks good, but she's had nothing but problems with it. That's too bad. It sounds like she got a real lemon. She sure did. No sooner did she drive it home from the dealer's than it proveddefective and started breaking down. Top

Out of the Woods Although Eric was well on his way to recovering from his bout with pneumonia, he was still not out of the woods. The doctors told him that he would have to take it easy and avoid exposure to cold, since he was not out of danger and difficulty yet. Top

Eating Someone Hey, Alice. What's been eating you lately ? Don't you realize how rude and irritable you've become? I know. I'm really sorry for the way I've been acting. Well, why don't you tell me what has been bothering and upsetting you and maybe we can work your problem out together. I'll admit that it would help to talk to someone about it. Top

On the Line


Lately Tom's been more conscientious about the accuracy and quality of his work with the company. He was warned that his job was on the line because of his lack of concern for his duties. When Tom was alerted that he was in danger of losing his job, he began to take his obligations with the company more seriously. Top

Feel Like a Million Dollars I bumped into Nick at the salon yesterday. He looked great, but I noticed that he had a slight limp when he walked. I guess you didn't know that he had an operation on his knee. No, I didn't. How's he feeling ? He says he's feeling like a million dollars now. Apparently the pain in his knee is all gone. It's good that he's feeling so wonderful. It must be a refreshing change not having to put up with all that discomfort. Top

Hang On During the depression years the Smiths had a great deal of trouble with their business, but somehow or other they were able to hang on. Although they almost lost their store, they managed to persevere until things got better. Top

Make Ends Meet It's almost impossible trying to keep up with the high cost of living. It's true. Things are so expensive nowadays that it's very difficult to make ends meet. You know, even with Lucie's salary, our combined income is hardly enough to pay all the bills. Top


Money talks We've been waiting for three months to get delivery on our car, and people who put in their order after us have already gotten theirs. Well, money talks. Why don't you try giving the dealer a little something extra to move things along ? I know full well that money has the power to influence people, but I refuse to pay extra for a service that is owed to me as a client. If you want to have your car maybe you'd better reconsider. Top

The Early Bird Catches the Worm Marc, the lines for the rock festival are going to be miles long! If you expect to get tickets for you and Mary, remember that old saying. " The early bird catches the worm " I guess you're right. Mary is looking forward to the concert, and I'd hate to disappoint her. I'll get up real early to get a place at the head of the line. That way I'll get the tickets I want, for sure !

http://www.englishdaily626.com/idioms.php Idioms

At each other's throats A big hand Break the ice Burn the midnight oil Call it a day Catch-22 Child's play Cost an arm and a leg Drink like a fish Get up someone's nose Go Dutch Go over someone's head Hands are tied Look daggers at someone

Answer the call of nature Brush up on Daylight robbery Deliver the goods Do things by halves Double talk Get to grips with Get hitched Give someone the cold shoulder Gut feeling In black and white Whistle in the dark A walking encyclopedia Turn night into day


Make a splash On pins and needles On the cheap A peeping Tom Put someone in their place Run up an account Tie the knot To be on the safe side

Toy with the idea Top off / up The telephone is ringing off the hook No picnic Chew the fat Come clean All keyed up A lame duck

Break the ice Our Eskimo in the illustration doesn't seem to understand that to break the icedoesn't mean to knock someone's house down. It means to do something friendly in order to overcome shyness or to ease tension in a social situation. "To break the ice, let's invite our new neighbors to lunch." Top

Call it a day "Let's call it a day and go home," Teddy said. Because the person he's addressing doesn't understand the expression, it's up to me to explain that when we call it a day,we stop whatever we are doing, regardless of the time. "After twenty years as a postman, Mr Burr called it a day and retired." Top

Do things by halves I don't know what's wrong with Mr. Long. He's either lazy or disorganized for he always does things by halves. That is, he does things in a careless and incomplete way. "When I read a book, I do it by halves. I never finish it." Mr. Long said. " I guess I've decorated my house by halves too." Top


Put someone in their place George made the mistake of criticizing his boss. His boss responded by putting him in his place. When we put someone in their place we punish them, often by telling them in an angry way that their thoughts or opinions are of little importance. "Having been put in his place, I doubt that George will ever criticize the boss again." Top

On the cheap Things that are cheap are inexpensive. To do something on the cheap is to do itwithout spending much money. Last summer, for instance, Felix joined a tour to Europe and that it discovered was done on the cheap as the hotels were inexpensive and lunches were from hot dog stands. Top

Make a splash For several years Gilbert has been studying acting. At last he's ready to appear in a play and make a splash as an actor. When we make a splash, we do something that attracts attention. "Did you see Gilbert in the play last night? He made quite a splash playing Macbeth." Top

Hands are tied Angela and Bruce would like to be free to do as they wish. Unfortunately they can't for their hands are tied ! When people's hands are tied they are unable to do as they would like. "I'd like to go shopping with you but my hands are tied for I have to stay at the office today," father said.


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Go Dutch It takes at least two people to go Dutch for the simple reason that when we go Dutch we share the cost of something, each person paying his or her own expenses. "Hans invited Gretchen to join him for lunch. Knowing he hasn't much money, Gretchen has insisted that they go Dutch." Top

Cost an arm and a leg Whatever is said to cost an arm and a leg is very expensive. "It cost me an arm and a leg to get my car repaired." "George flew to Austria to go skiing. He said that the trip cost him an arm and a leg." Top

Catch-22 This expression comes from the title of a book. Situations referred to as catch-22 are unreasonable and unfair in which a person has no chance of winning or succeeding. "If I study medicine, I'll be unhappy. If I study art, my parents will be unhappy. I'm in a catch22 situation." Top

Burn the midnight oil


Mr. Wilcox works all day and attends school at night. When he goes home he burns the midnight oil by studying until dawn. If you are like Mr. Wilcox and work or study long hours at night, you too can say that you burn the midnight oil. Top

A big hand Last night, Fiona was given a big hand at the end of her wonderful performance. Fiona was overjoyed, of course, for a big hand refers to loud and enthusiastic applause. The newspapers say that Fiona performed very well and received a big hand for her role in the play. Top

Chew the fat After a hard day, Nanook and his friend like nothing better than to sit around a nice warm fire chewing the fat. "Normally we are so busyhunting and fishing that we don't have much time to get together to chew the fat, " Nanook noted. To chew the fat is to have a casual chat or a nice little talk. "Our wives have just gone to one of their friend's igloo to chew the fat", Nanook smiled. Top

At each other's throats Ian and Alfonso have never gotten along together. As Long as I can remember they've been at each other's throats. That is to say they have always beenquarrelling, arguing and - on occasion - fighting. ''We've been at each other's throats so long we've forgotten why we're mad at each other,'' Alfonso said. Top


Child's play Jaime truly enjoys his new job. It's so easy that he has been able to make child's playof it. Any job or task can be called child's play if the person doing it finds it almost too easy to do or to perform. "Jaime's new job seems like child's play." Helen smiled. "He makes it look so easy." Top

All keyed up Teddy has had a terrible day. It began when he overslept and was late getting to school. Then it rained and he got all wet coming home from school. Not only that he forgot to study for a history quiz! "Now you know why I returned home all keyed up," he explained. To be (all) keyed up is to be nervous, tense or excited. "That's exactly how I feel," he nodded. Top

Come clean "We have ways to make you talk," Officer Mutt grinned. "If you don't tell us the truth, I will find a way to make you come clean." Officer Mutt's dog ground his teeth together and agreed. To come clean is to confess or reveal all the facts about something - expecially after telling lies or hiding the truth. "I'll come clean if you keep your dog away from me," the criminal cried out. Top

Give someone the cold shoulder


The snowman in this illustration is happy to allow a bird to rest on its cold shoulder ... but that's not what this idiom means. To give someone the cold shoulder is to beunfriendly, usually by ignoring them. "I'm going to give donald the cold shoulder for not inviting me to his party." Top

Gut feeling Until recently it was considered somewhat vulgar to use the word "gut" when referring to the human abdomen. Gut feeling isn't vulgar, though. It refers to a feeling or an impression that comes from one's innermost self. "I have a gut feeling I shouldn't be here." Wilbur said to himself. Top

Get to grips with Kenneth had difficulty adjusting to his new job but he soon got to grips with it. He was uncomfortable living in a strange city but he came to grips with that too. To get/come to grips with ( something ) is to deal satisfactorily with a problem or a situation that initailly proved difficult or confusing. Top

Tie the knot Colloquially, when two people get married they tie the ( marriage ) knot. "Peter and Elizabeth have decided to tie the knot. They make a lovely couple, don't they ?" Also, the person performing the wedding ceremony ties the ( marriage ) knot. The priest at St Teresa's tied the marriage knot for Peter and Elizabeth. Top


Get hitched Trevor and Janet have known each other since they were children. "You love me and I love you." Janet said one day. "Isn't it time we got hitched ?" Trevor resisted a little, but in the end he and Janet did gt hitched. When people get hitched, they get married. Top

Drink like a fish I don't know if people are aware of it but Tim drinks like a fish. When a person is described as drinking like a fish, he drinks great quantitles of alcoholic beverages. Not water or cola or lemonade, mind you, but beer, whiskey, wine and other alcoholic drinks ... such as Tim is doing now? Top

Top off / up Bob and Tim are celebrating. With a bottle in one hand, Tim asks: "May I top your glass up!". "Certainly, old pal, top it off," Bob said. Glug, glug, glug went the bottle as his glass was topped up, for this expression means to fill a partly full container - a glass, a tank, etc. to the very top with liquid. "Thanks," Bob smiled. "My pleasure," Tim replied. Top

A lame duck


A person described as being a lame duck is helpless. If he is in a position of authority, he lacks power. " Shirley is such a lame duck. She can't do anything without ebing supervised. " ( Helpless ). "Harry's term of office ends next year. meanwhile, he's a lame duck president and none of his plans stands a chance of ebing acted up. " ( Powerless ) Top

Answer the call of nature Teddy was on a walk in the forest when suddenly -- and without warning -- he had toanswer the call of nature. "I really must obey the call of nature." he whispered. Fortunately for Teddy, there was a WC nearby for to answer/obey the call of nature is to go to the bathroom. Top

Brush up on Professor Oxbridge has been invited to give a talk on the history of his school. He hasn't read anything about it for so long that he'll have to brush up on it. That is, he'll have to refresh his knowledge of it. "There, I've brushed up on the subject." Professor exbridge smiled. Top

To be on the safe side Those who take extra precautions to reduce or eliminate the possibility of a mistake, an error or even danger are taking measures to be on the safe side. "To be on the safe side Felix always makes certain his valuables are kept in a secure place." Top


Daylight robbery One day Malcolm went shopping. He was so shocked at the cost of things that he got angry. "These prices are absurd !" he shouted. "It's daylight robbery to change such prices !" What Malcolm was saying was that in his opinion, the prices were so high that shopkeepers seemed to be robbing people of their money. Top

Deliver the goods The goods referred to in this idiom mean an expected -- or hoped for -- result. "Deliver" means to come forth with. "Now that I've had my car repaired it's running fine and delivering the goods." ( Hoped-for results ) "I knew Sam would deliver the goods once he understood his job. That's why I promoted him." the boss said. (Expected results ) Top

Double talk "I thought I understood you, but now I'm not sure." Patrick complained. "You're speaking double talk!" Double-talk is written or spoken langauge that seems clear and meaningful but, on close examination, proves to be ambiguous and nonsense. Sometimes, but not always, this is done in a deliberate attempt to confuse or mislead people. Top

In black and white In this idiom, black refers to words and white refers to the paper that they are written on. Very simply, then, when something is in black and white it is written or printed on paper. "Inever sign a contract without first looking carefuly at the conditions in black and white." Leon said.


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Whistle in the dark To whistle in the dark means (1) to guess wildly about something or (2) to keep up your courage. "I don't know when the last bus leaves the terminal," Douglas said, " so I'd be whistling in the dark if I said it was at midnight. During the terrible storm, we sat inside the house whistling in the dark hoping it would quickly pass." Top

A walking encyclopedia An encyclopedia is a book or a series of books containing a wide range of information about many subjects. A person who is a walking encyclopedia issomeone who has a wide rage of information about many subjects. "By the time I finish college, I suspect I will be a walking encyclopedia, "Melissa said as she returned to her studies. Top

Turn night into day Robert certainly has strange working habits! But being a genius isn't easy, so when he is in a creative mood he turns night into day. You don't really have to be a genius to turn night into day, though, for this idiom means to stay up at night working or playing, and sleeping during the day. "You just reverse the order of doing things, "Robert explained. "I work all night and sleep until noon." Top


The telephone is ringing off the hook Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, but it was the users of telephones who invented this remark. The hook is the cradle on which the receiver rests, and this remark refers to a telephone that is constantly ringing. " Steve won the swimming championship, and ever since his name appeared in the newspapers his telephone has been ringing off the hook. Top

Toy with the idea Teddy is toying with the idea of studying to be an engineer. That, of course, will be a few years away so he may change his mind between now and then. To toy with an idea is to think of one in an easy, light and speculative manner. "I don't know. I may or may not want to be an engineer," Teddy said. "I'm just tyoing with the idea." Top

Run up an account Instead of paying cash each time he shops, Mr. Long finds it more convenient to run up an account at the stores where he makes his purchases. To run up an account is to increase the money you owe. You can also run up a bill or a debt, which means the same as run up an account. Mr. Long does this ( very easily, I might add!) by using credit cards. Top

Get up someone's nose Hubert is unhappy. He's annoyed, too. The cause of it all is Franklin who has got up his nose. That means that Franklin is making a nuisance of himself .... and that'sannoying ! "Go away," Hubert shouted. "You're getting up my nose today," he growled. This is a British expression. Top


Go over someone's head Poor Penelope, Mathematics has never been one of her favorite subjects. she simply isn't able to comprehend it. She often complains that most of what her teacher saysgoes over her head. As Penelope knows, things that are said to go over our heads are too difficult for us to understand. Top

Look daggers at someone A dagger is a weapon with a short, pointed blade. In fact, daggers look exactly like those things coming from this mother bird's eyes. She is looking daggers at a cat who is threatening her young. To look daggers at someone is to glare at him or her with mean, hostile, angry eyes. Top

On pins and needles When people are on pins and needles they are either very excited or very anxious. "The children are on pins and needles thinking about their trip to the zoo tomorrow." ( Very excited ) "Mr Singh is on pins and needles wondering if the noise he heard is from his pet cobra which escaped. ( Very anxious ) Top

A peeping Tom


When a little boy peeps through fences or windows he is probably just being curious. When a man does the same thing it's often because he has indecent intentions. A man who snoops like that is called a peeping Tom. "The neighbors are convinced that we have a peeping Tom in the area." Top

No picnic This outing is turning out to be no picnic, "Teddy declared. To say that something - a job or an examination, for example is a picnic is to say it is enjoyeable or easy. If it isunpleasant or difficult, it is described as being no picnic. "It was a picnic getting here," Angela said, " but trying to eat with all these ants around has been no picnic!" Top


FORREST GUMP

This film was made in Alabama At first he was sitting on a bench with a suitcase by him putting some books in, then a bus stopped by and a lady got off from the bus and then she took out a magazine from her purse and he introduced himself and started to tell the story about his life to her she was black skin and he started to tell her about his childhood and then when he went to school at that time he had a problem on his knees and when he used to get on the bus and nobody wanted to talk to him and then on the bus he found a girl friend who let him sit by her, and she thought him how to read and he thought her how to slang on trees. And then they were good friends for so long, actually she was his only friend, and then once after school in the way back home someone started to threw stones at him, and there were a group of school friends that hated him, who knows why and Jenny just said to him: run Forrest run Then when we grew up he was in the soccer team because he ran very fast and then at school nobody wanted black people to study over there. After being there he was sent to the Vietnam War where sometimes it rained for 4 months straight, in that war he used to write letters to Jenny he always let her know he was doing ok. In that war se saved many of his friends one of them died and the Lutenant lost his legs and Forrest enjoyed very much being at the hospital specially because he was eating ice cream all day and playing ping pong. And then an interview with John Lennon, then he found the Lutenant again with no legs and on a wheel chair with long hair and then had a Christmas celebration and spent some time together. And then he was invited to the white house to play ping pong and he met the president of the USA . Then we had a boat and named it Jenny he always thought about her, while she was using drugs and alcohol After so long he became the Captain Gump he bought a boat and sailed away along with the Lutenant Dien and one day he was sailing he saw the Lutenant sitting on his wheel chair by the deck.

In another point they met again just when she had a boy and they got married and lived for a time together, but she was very ill then after that she passed away and Forrest just lived with the baby !!


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