Concert programme 2015/16 London Season lpo.org.uk
Principal Conductor and Artistic Advisor VLADIMIR JUROWSKI supported by the Tsukanov Family Foundation Principal Guest Conductor ANDRÉS OROZCO-ESTRADA Leader pieter schoeman supported by Neil Westreich Composer in Residence magnus lindberg Patron HRH THE DUKE OF KENT KG Chief Executive and Artistic Director TIMOTHY WALKER AM
Southbank Centre’s Royal Festival Hall Wednesday 27 January 2016 | 7.30pm
2 Welcome 3 Kurt Masur 1927–2015 4 About the Orchestra 5 Leader: Pieter Schoeman 6 On stage tonight 7 Vladimir Jurowski 8 Natalia Gutman 9 Programme notes 13 Next concerts 14 Sound Futures donors 15 Supporters 16 LPO administration
Bruckner Symphony No. 3 (1873 original version) (62’)
The timings shown are not precise and are given only as a guide.
Schnittke Pianissimo (9’) Shostakovich Cello Concerto No. 2 (33’)
Vladimir Jurowski conductor Natalia Gutman cello
Kurt Masur 1927–2015 Tonight's concert is dedicated to the memory of Kurt Masur, the LPO's Principal Conductor from 2000–07.
This concert is being broadcast live by the BBC on Radio 3 Live In Concert – live concerts every day of the week. Listen online in HD Sound for 30 days at bbc.co.uk/radio3
CONCERT PRESENTED BY THE LONDON PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA
Free pre-concert performance 6.00–6.45pm | Royal Festival Hall Vladimir Jurowski conducts the LPO's Foyle Future Firsts in a selection from Shostakovich's darkly satirical incidental music to Shakespeare's Hamlet.
Welcome to Southbank Centre
We hope you enjoy your visit. We have a Duty Manager available at all times. If you have any queries please ask any member of staff for assistance.
Tonight we welcome students who join us through the Orchestra's NOISE scheme, which entitles students and under 26-year-olds to £4 and £8 seats to selected concerts in London and all four concerts in the Brighton season. Plus, up to four times a year, come along to one of our free post-concert bars at Royal Festival Hall, courtesy of our Principal Beer Sponsor, Heineken! As part of the scheme, we recruit student representatives at universities and colleges across London and Brighton to help publicise NOISE. To find out more visit lpo.org.uk/noise
Eating, drinking and shopping? Southbank Centre shops and restaurants include Foyles, EAT, Giraffe, Strada, YO! Sushi, wagamama, Le Pain Quotidien, Las Iguanas, ping pong, Canteen, Caffè Vergnano 1882, Skylon, Feng Sushi and Topolski, as well as cafes, restaurants and shops inside Royal Festival Hall. If you wish to get in touch with us following your visit please contact the Visitor Experience Team at Southbank Centre, Belvedere Road, London SE1 8XX, phone 020 7960 4250, or email firstname.lastname@example.org We look forward to seeing you again soon. Queen Elizabeth Hall, Purcell Room and Hayward Gallery are closed for essential refurbishment until 2018. During this period, our resident orchestras are performing in venues including St John's Smith Square. Find out more at southbankcentre.co.uk/sjss A few points to note for your comfort and enjoyment: PHOTOGRAPHY is not allowed in the auditorium. LATECOMERS will only be admitted to the auditorium if there is a suitable break in the performance. RECORDING is not permitted in the auditorium without the prior consent of Southbank Centre. Southbank Centre reserves the right to confiscate video or sound equipment and hold it in safekeeping until the performance has ended. MOBILES, PAGERS AND WATCHES should be switched off before the performance begins.
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Live in Concert Tonight's concert is being broadcast live by the BBC on Radio 3 Live In Concert – live concerts every day of the week. The complete concert will be available to listen online in HD Sound for 30 days at bbc.co.uk/radio3
LPO Recording wins Award We are delighted that we have added to our list of awards: Limelight, Australia’s classical music and arts magazine has named the LPO’s live recording of Messiaen’s Des canyons aux étoiles as its Orchestral Recording of the Year 2015. The work features four soloists on piano, horn, xylorimba (a slightly larger xylophone) and glockenspiel, and received critical acclaim on its release in March 2015. Andrew McGregor on BBC Radio 3’s CD Review described it as ‘an extraordinary achievement ... the playing of the LPO is exemplary’. Philip Clark of Limelight writes: ‘these canyons are brought alive with the sound of sound, this extraordinary score inviting your ears to footslog through a living, breathing, evolving aural environment ... Christoph Eschenbach revels in all this elemental, psycho-geographic splendour, chiseling the mosaic together piece by piece until the final movement where the music takes to the heavens and celestial harmony returns.’ Read the full review here: lpo.uk/limelightwinner
Kurt Masur 1927–2015 Tonight's concert is dedicated to the memory of Kurt Masur, LPO Principal Conductor 2000–07 and Principal Guest Conductor 1988–92. Stewart McIlwham, LPO President and Principal Piccolo, says: 'Kurt Masur's period as Principal Conductor of the London Philharmonic will be, especially for those of us privileged to have been a part of it, one of the Orchestra's greatest musical collaborations. His towering interpretations of Beethoven, Brahms and Bruckner had a unique weight and authority to them. He also brought a deep humanity and commitment to 20th-century music, in particular memorable performances of Britten's War Requiem and Shostakovich's 1st, 5th, 7th and 13th symphonies. His legacy will live on long in our memories as a truly great conductor and human being.'
e were deeply saddened to learn of the death of our former Principal Conductor, Kurt Masur, on 19 December 2015.
In a relationship dating back to 1987, Maestro Masur conducted the London Philharmonic Orchestra in over 150 performances in London and around the world. As well as the core repertoire in which he excelled, he gave premiere performances of Adès, Dutilleux, Gubaidulina and Tan-Dun with the LPO. Together they also collaborated with jazz pianist Herbie Hancock, and toured the UK with Wynton Marsalis and his Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra. However Masur left his strongest mark in building the Orchestra's sound in performances of the core orchestral repertoire. Chief Executive and Artistic Director Timothy Walker recalls: 'I will remember Kurt Masur for his extraordinary ability to tune an orchestra to a concert hall, for his focus on the soundscape of the orchestra and for his total control of the ensemble through small but myriad gestures, full of meaning, that communicated to the audience the power of live music performance. His moral strength was evident in everything he did and his impact on his native country as well as the musical world is immeasurable.'
Always keenly aware of key events in 20th-century history, in 2005 Masur conducted Britten's War Requiem on the 60th anniversary of Victory in Europe day, a performance subsequently issued on the LPO's CD label. His musical legacy endures in his recordings. He also conducted memorable double orchestra concerts where the LPO were joined by the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra in Mahler's First Symphony in 2001, and in 2007 by the Orchestre National de France in Bruckner's Seventh Symphony at a BBC Prom concert celebrating Masur's own 80th birthday. Masur was supremely encouraging to young soloists and conductors, and a keen advocate of the Orchestra's Foyle Future Firsts students programme for aspiring professional players. He leaves a huge legacy of performers inspired by his example. Current LPO Principal Conductor Vladimir Jurowski notes: 'Kurt Masur was one of the most progressive musicians of his time – both musically and politically. He collaborated with Walter Felsenstein at the Komische Oper in Berlin, he was instrumental in the building of the new Gewandhaus in Leipzig, and he supported many contemporary composers, such as Schnittke, Gubaidulina and Kancheli. In 1989 his courageous behaviour prevented possible bloodshed on the streets of Leipzig. He could be a challenging colleague, but he firmly believed in the ideals of humanism for which he lived and to which his music-making was always dedicated.'
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London Philharmonic Orchestra
Jurowski and the LPO can stand alongside the top international orchestras with pride Richard Fairman, Financial Times, September 2015 Recognised today as one of the finest orchestras on the international stage, the London Philharmonic Orchestra balances a long and distinguished history with a reputation as one of the UK’s most forwardlooking ensembles. As well as its performances in the concert hall, the Orchestra also records film and video game soundtracks, releases CDs on its own record label, and reaches thousands of people every year through activities for families, schools and community groups. The Orchestra was founded by Sir Thomas Beecham in 1932. It has since been headed by many of the world’s greatest conductors including Sir Adrian Boult, Bernard Haitink, Sir Georg Solti, Klaus Tennstedt and Kurt Masur. Vladimir Jurowski is currently the Orchestra’s Principal Conductor and Artistic Advisor, appointed in 2007. Andrés Orozco-Estrada took up the position of Principal Guest Conductor in September 2015. Magnus Lindberg is the Orchestra’s current Composer in Residence. The Orchestra is resident at Southbank Centre’s Royal Festival Hall in London, where it gives over 30 concerts each season. Throughout 2014/15 the Orchestra gave a series of concerts entitled Rachmaninoff: Inside Out, a festival exploring the composer’s major
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orchestral masterpieces. 2015/16 is a strong season for singers, with performances by Toby Spence and Anne Sofie von Otter amongst others; Sibelius enjoys 150th anniversary celebrations; distinguished visiting conductors include Stanisław Skrowaczewski, JukkaPekka Saraste and Vasily Petrenko, with Robin Ticciati returning after his debut in 2015; and in 2016 the LPO joins many of London’s other leading cultural institutions in Shakespeare400, celebrating the Bard’s legacy 400 years since his death. The Orchestra continues its commitment to new music with premieres of commissions including Magnus Lindberg’s Second Violin Concerto and Alexander Raskatov’s Green Mass. Outside London, the Orchestra has flourishing residencies in Brighton and Eastbourne, and performs regularly around the UK. Each summer the Orchestra takes up its annual residency at Glyndebourne Festival Opera in the Sussex countryside, where it has been Resident Symphony Orchestra for over 50 years. The Orchestra also tours internationally, performing to sell-out audiences worldwide. In 1956 it became the first British orchestra to appear in Soviet Russia and in 1973 made the first ever visit to China by a Western orchestra. Touring remains a large part of
Pieter Schoeman leader
Pieter Schoeman was appointed Leader of the LPO in 2008, having previously been Co-Leader since 2002.
The London Philharmonic Orchestra has recorded the soundtracks to numerous blockbuster films, from The Lord of the Rings trilogy to Lawrence of Arabia, East is East, The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey and Thor: The Dark World. It also broadcasts regularly on television and radio, and in 2005 established its own record label. There are now over 80 releases available on CD and to download. Recent additions include Messiaen’s Des Canyons Aux Étoiles under Christoph Eschenbach, and archive recordings of Mahler Symphonies and Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 conducted by Klaus Tennstedt. In summer 2012 the London Philharmonic Orchestra performed as part of The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Pageant on the River Thames, and was also chosen to record all the world’s national anthems for the London 2012 Olympics. In 2013 it was the winner of the RPS Music Award for Ensemble. The London Philharmonic Orchestra is committed to inspiring the next generation of musicians through an energetic programme of activities for young people. Highlights include the BrightSparks schools’ concerts and FUNharmonics family concerts; the Young Composers Programme; and the Foyle Future Firsts orchestral training programme for outstanding young players. Its work at the forefront of digital engagement and social media has enabled the Orchestra to reach even more people worldwide: all its recordings are available to download from iTunes and, as well as a YouTube channel and regular podcast series, the Orchestra has a lively presence on Facebook and Twitter. Find out more and get involved! lpo.org.uk facebook.com/londonphilharmonicorchestra twitter.com/LPOrchestra
© Benjamin Ealovega
the Orchestra’s life: highlights of the 2015/16 season include visits to Mexico City as part of the UK Mexico Year of Culture, Spain, Germany, the Canary Islands, Belgium, a return to the Concertgebouw, Amsterdam and the Orchestra’s premiere at La Scala, Milan.
Born in South Africa, he made his solo debut aged 10 with the Cape Town Symphony Orchestra. He studied with Jack de Wet in South Africa, winning numerous competitions including the 1984 World Youth Concerto Competition in the US. In 1987 he was offered the Heifetz Chair of Music scholarship to study with Eduard Schmieder in Los Angeles and in 1991 his talent was spotted by Pinchas Zukerman, who recommended that he move to New York to study with Sylvia Rosenberg. In 1994 he became her teaching assistant at Indiana University, Bloomington. Pieter has performed worldwide as a soloist and recitalist in such famous halls as the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, Moscow's Rachmaninov Hall, Capella Hall in St Petersburg, Staatsbibliothek in Berlin, Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles, and Southbank Centre's Queen Elizabeth Hall in London. As a chamber musician he regularly performs at London's prestigious Wigmore Hall. As a soloist with the London Philharmonic Orchestra, Pieter has performed Arvo Pärt's Double Concerto with Boris Garlitsky, Brahms's Double Concerto with Kristina Blaumane, and Britten's Double Concerto with Alexander Zemtsov, which was recorded and released on the Orchestra's own record label to great critical acclaim. He has recorded numerous violin solos with the London Philharmonic Orchestra for Chandos, Opera Rara, Naxos, X5, the BBC and for American film and television, and led the Orchestra in its soundtrack recordings for The Lord of the Rings trilogy. In 1995 Pieter became Co-Leader of the Orchestre Philharmonique de Nice. Since then he has appeared frequently as Guest Leader with the Barcelona, Bordeaux, Lyon, Baltimore and BBC symphony orchestras, and the Rotterdam and BBC Philharmonic orchestras. He is a Professor of Violin at Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance in London. Pieter's chair in the London Philharmonic Orchestra is supported by Neil Westreich.
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On stage tonight
First Violins Pieter Schoeman* Leader Chair supported by Neil Westreich
Yang Xu Ilyoung Chae Chair supported by an anonymous donor
Ji-Hyun Lee Chair supported by Eric Tomsett
Katalin Varnagy Chair supported by Sonja Drexler
Catherine Craig Thomas Eisner Martin Höhmann Chair supported by The Jeniffer and Jonathan Harris Charitable Trust
Geoffrey Lynn Chair supported by Caroline, Jamie & Zander Sharp
Robert Pool Sarah Streatfeild Yang Zhang Grace Lee Rebecca Shorrock Nilufar Alimaksumova Galina Tanney Second Violins Philippe Honoré Guest Principal Kate Birchall Chair supported by David & Victoria Graham Fuller
Nancy Elan Fiona Higham Nynke Hijlkema Joseph Maher Marie-Anne Mairesse Dean Williamson Helena Nicholls Sioni Williams Harry Kerr Sheila Law Elizabeth Baldey Alison Strange Kate Cole John Dickinson
Violas Benjamin Roskams Guest Principal Cyrille Mercier Robert Duncan Gregory Aronovich Katharine Leek Susanne Martens Benedetto Pollani Emmanuella Reiter Laura Vallejo Naomi Holt Pamela Ferriman Martin Fenn Cellos Kristina Blaumane Principal Chair supported by Bianca and Stuart Roden
Pei-Jee Ng Francis Bucknall Santiago Carvalho† David Lale Gregory Walmsley Elisabeth Wiklander Chair supported by The Viney Family
Piccolos Stewart McIlwham* Principal Chair supported by Friends of the Orchestra
Clare Childs Oboes Ian Hardwick* Principal Alice Munday Jenny Brittlebank Sue Böhling* Cor Anglais Sue Böhling* Principal Clarinets Robert Hill* Principal Thomas Watmough Richard Russell Paul Richards Bass Clarinet Paul Richards Principal E flat Clarinet Thomas Watmough Principal
Sue Sutherley Susanna Riddell Helen Rathbone David Bucknall Sibylle Hentschel
Bassoons Gareth Newman Principal Laura Vincent Emma Harding Claire Webster
Double Basses Colin Paris Guest Principal George Peniston Laurence Lovelle Charlotte Kerbegian Helen Rowlands Ben Wolstenholme Lachlan Radford Antonia Bakewell Ryan Smith Mary Martin
Contrabassoon Claire Webster
Flutes Juliette Bausor Guest Principal Sue Thomas* Chair supported by Victoria Robey OBE
Stewart McIlwham* Clare Childs
Horns John Ryan* Principal Chair supported by Laurence Watt
Martin Hobbs Mark Vines Co-Principal Gareth Mollison Duncan Fuller Trumpets Paul Beniston* Principal Anne McAneney* Chair supported by Geoff & Meg Mann
Nicholas Betts Co-Principal David Hilton Trombones Mark Templeton* Principal Chair supported by William & Alex de Winton
David Whitehouse Simon Baker
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Bass Trombone Lyndon Meredith Principal Tuba Lee Tsarmaklis* Principal Timpani Simon Carrington* Principal Percussion Andrew Barclay* Principal Chair supported by Andrew Davenport
Henry Baldwin Co-Principal Chair supported by Jon Claydon
Keith Millar Karen Hutt James Bower Harps Rachel Masters* Principal Lucy Haslar Pianos Catherine Edwards John Alley Harpsichord Clíodna Shanahan Celeste Ian Tindale Electric Guitar Daniel Thomas Assistant Conductor Tim Murray * Holds a professorial appointment in London † Chevalier of the Brazilian Order of Rio Branco
Meet our members: lpo.org.uk/players
Chair Supporters The London Philharmonic Orchestra also acknowledges the following chair supporter whose player is not present at this concert: Simon Robey
Vladimir Jurowski conductor
Jurowski seems to have reached the magic state when he can summon a packed house to hear anything he conducts with the LPO, however unfamiliar
© Drew Kelley
Geoff Brown, The Arts Desk, February 2015
One of today’s most sought-after conductors, acclaimed worldwide for his incisive musicianship and adventurous artistic commitment, Vladimir Jurowski was born in Moscow and studied at the Music Academies of Dresden and Berlin. In 1995 he made his international debut at the Wexford Festival conducting Rimsky-Korsakov’s May Night, and the same year saw his debut at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, with Nabucco. Vladimir Jurowski was appointed Principal Guest Conductor of the London Philharmonic Orchestra in 2003, becoming Principal Conductor in 2007. In October 2015 he was appointed the next Chief Conductor and Artistic Director of the Rundfunk-sinfonieorchester Berlin, a position he will take up in September 2017, and also accepted the honorary position of Artistic Director of the Enescu International Festival in Bucharest, also from 2017. He has previously held the positions of First Kapellmeister of the Komische Oper Berlin (1997–2001), Principal Guest Conductor of the Teatro Comunale di Bologna (2000–03), Principal Guest Conductor of the Russian National Orchestra (2005–09), and Music Director of Glyndebourne Festival Opera (2001–13).
His opera engagements have included Rigoletto, Jenůfa, The Queen of Spades, Hansel and Gretel and Die Frau ohne Schatten at the Metropolitan Opera, New York; Parsifal and Wozzeck at Welsh National Opera; War and Peace at the Opéra national de Paris; Eugene Onegin at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan; Ruslan and Ludmila at the Bolshoi Theatre; Moses und Aron at Komische and Iolanta and Die Teufel von Loudun at Semperoper Dresden, and numerous operas at Glyndebourne including Otello, Macbeth, Falstaff, Tristan und Isolde, Don Giovanni, The Cunning Little Vixen, Peter Eötvös’s Love and Other Demons, and Ariadne auf Naxos. The Glyndebourne production of Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, led by Vladimir Jurowski with the London Philharmonic Orchestra and Glyndebourne Chorus won the 2015 BBC Music Magazine Opera Award. During the performance we are all 'in the same boat', so since conductors are meant to be silent during the concert, a friendly encouraging look in the right moment is very helpful, almost as helpful as good conducting technique (the latter being rather obligatory). Vladimir Jurowski on engaging players during a performance
He is a regular guest with many leading orchestras in both Europe and North America, including the Berlin Philharmonic, New York Philharmonic and Rundfunk Sinfonieorchester Berlin; the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra; The Philadelphia Orchestra; The Cleveland Orchestra; the Boston, San Francisco and Chicago symphony orchestras; and the Tonhalle-Orchester Zürich, Leipzig Gewandhausorchester, Mahler Chamber Orchestra, Staatskapelle Dresden and Chamber Orchestra of Europe.
As well as his debut at the Salzburg Easter Festival at the helm of the Staatskapelle Dresden, 2015/16 season highlights also include bringing together the London Philharmonic Orchestra and State Academic Symphony of Russia to perform Schoenberg's Gurrelieder at the Moscow Rostropovich Festival. In 2007 Vladimir was a guest on BBC Radio 4's flagship programme Desert Island Discs. Discover his eight records of choice here: bbc.co.uk/programmes/b007w97r
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Natalia Gutman cello
Gutman is a musician and instrumentalist of genius. There is no way anyone could imagine playing of this individuality, vitality, earthiness, and imagination without hearing it. The Boston Globe, January 2006
Natalia Gutman is one of the world’s most esteemed musicians. Her prestige is reflected in the many distinguished awards she holds: National Artist of the USSR (1991), the State Prize of the Russian Federation (2000), Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (2005), the Shostakovich Prize (2002 and 2013), the Triumph Award (2002), Fellow of the Royal College of Music, London (2010), Musikpreis des Verbandes der Deutschen Konzertdirektionen (2012) and Premio NEM in Florence (2014). After graduating from the Moscow Conservatoire, Gutman continued her postgraduate studies with Mstislav Rostropovich at the Leningrad Conservatoire. Before she had completed the course in June 1968, Rostropovich had already invited her to join the teaching staff at the Moscow Conservatoire. In 1969 she made her brilliant American debut at New York’s Carnegie Hall under Leopold Stokowski. On her return to Moscow the Russian authorities imposed a ban on Gutman’s travel abroad, and she was unable to pursue her international career for 10 years. In Russia, nevertheless, Gutman’s solo career flourished, and she performed and recorded with renowned Soviet conductors such as Kirill Kondrashin, Yevgeny Svetlanov, Gennady Rozhdestvensky and Yuri Temirkanov. As an enthusiast of chamber music she formed an important musical relationship with violinist Oleg Kagan, who became her husband. Together they formed a trio with Sviatoslav Richter, who also frequently acted as Natalia’s duo partner. The group was extended to a piano quartet with Yuri Bashmet and a piano quintet with Viktor Tretiakov, and together they explored the whole chamber music repertoire. They also
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commissioned works by composers including Sofia Gubaidulina, Edison Denisov, Vasily Lobanov and Tigran Mansuryan. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Alfred Schnittke dedicated a series of works to Gutman and Kagan including the First Cello Sonata, the Concerto Grosso No. 2 for violin and cello (1981) and the first Cello Concerto (1984/5). Finally, in December 1978, Gutman was granted permission to travel outside the Soviet Union and to resume her international career. Since then she has appeared at Europe's most prestigious halls under such great conductors as Sergiu Celibidache, Yuri Ahronovitch, Mstislav Rostropovich, Kurt Masur, Wolfgang Sawallisch, Bernard Haitink, Riccardo Muti, Jukka-Pekka Saraste, Gustavo Dudamel and Claudio Abbado. Over the years Gutman has made many recordings: both Shostakovich concertos with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra under Yuri Temirkanov (RCA Victor), Dvořák's Cello Concerto with The Philadelphia Orchestra under Wolfgang Sawallisch (EMI), Schnittke's Cello Concerto No. 1 and Schumann's Cello Concerto with the London Philharmonic Orchestra under Kurt Masur, and in 2007 another version of the Schumann concerto with Claudio Abbado and the Mahler Chamber Orchestra. Currently Gutman holds Professorships at the Moscow Conservatoire, the Private University of Vienna and the Scuola di Musica di Fiesole in Italy. She divides her time between giving performances in Europe, the Far East, South America and the USA as a soloist with orchestras, as well as duo recitals and chamber music. She is also much in demand worldwide as a distinguished teacher of masterclasses.
Speedread From the eerie first notes of Alfred Schittke’s Pianissimo to the blazing conclusion of Bruckner’s Third Symphony is quite a journey. Written in the late 1960s, when Soviet Communism was tightening its grip, Pianissimo is chilling, ultimately nightmarish, and seems to offer little hope. There are moments of rage and elegiac sadness in Shostakovich’s Second Cello Concerto, finished two years before Pianissimo, yet in its eloquent lyricism we may also hear something of the inner strength and passionate sense of social responsibility that sustained Shostakovich through years of Stalinist terror.
Bruckner too had his demons, especially the acute depression and obsessive mania that tormented him repeatedly. Yet he too found inner strength, expressed in his impassioned Roman Catholic faith – a faith Schnittke eventually came to share. Bruckner’s Third Symphony has its shadowy spaces, its moments of anguish, but in the end the heavens open and the dark corners are filled with light. One doesn’t have to share Bruckner’s faith to be moved by it, or to want – as Schnittke clearly did – to share his hope.
Unlike his older compatriot Shostakovich, Alfred Schnittke lived to see the coming down of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the collapse of Soviet Communism. But Stalinist totalitarianism left an indelible impression, and his later works show no signs of any sense of a ‘happy ending’ for Russia - or indeed for himself. But then Schnittke had seen earlier hopes of liberalisation come to nothing. His orchestral work Pianissimo was written during 1967–8, four years after Leonid Brezhnev had ousted Nikita Krushchev as General Secretary of the Communist Party (in other words, Soviet Leader), putting a decisive end to hopes of a continuing political and cultural thaw. In public Schnittke wisely drew no direct parallels between Pianissimo and the current Russian situation, describing its processes in abstract terms, adding only that the piece could be seen as ‘a mustily fermenting mass which finally rises up and explodes.’
What he also indicated however was that Pianissimo was inspired by a story by Franz Kafka, ‘In the Penal Colony’. The title is significant enough for a composer writing in the society that gave the world the word ‘Gulag’. But the recurring theme in Kafka is the struggle of an individual to come to terms with an oppressive, yet also nightmarishly inconsistent political system. In the story he chose, it is the prison commander who ends up, horrifically, the victim of his own instrument of torture. The hushed, teeming myriad lines that make up most of Pianissimo (independent yet all based on the same ‘cell’ of notes) are gradually drawn together into a single, widely-spaced unison, crescendo, underlined by bells and gongs – a symbol of totalitarian order? A moment more hush, then the full orchestra seems to erupt in protest, finally subsiding into desolate stillness.
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Programme notes continued
Dmitri Shostakovich 1906–75
Shostakovich’s First Cello Concerto (1959) was a huge hit at its first performance, and rapidly established itself as a modern classic of the genre. The Second Concerto, composed in 1966, caused more perplexity, and for some years it was sidelined. But recently cellists and audiences have begun to show more interest in it – which would have pleased the great cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, for whom Shostakovich wrote both concertos. Rostropovich always insisted that the Second Cello Concerto was the greater of the two. It may be more elusive, introspective, darkly teasing, but as with many of Shostakovich’s important later works, its riddles only make it the more fascinating. At the same time it contains some of the composer’s most deeply probing lyricism. Still, it comes as something of a surprise to discover that Shostakovich wrote the Second Cello Concerto as a kind of 60th birthday present to himself. Surely this must have been an ironic gesture, given that so much of the music seems bound up in painful introspection and self-mockery. Nowadays many see Shostakovich as one the dissident artistic heroes of Stalin’s Soviet Union, a composer whose music sustained Russians through what was probably the blackest period in their country’s history. But that doesn’t seem to be how Shostakovich saw himself. In 1960 Shostakovich had finally joined the Communist Party, despite holding out all the way through Stalin’s terrible regime. Clearly pressure had been put on him to make this decision, but according to his closest friends Shostakovich quickly came to see this as a compromise too far and bitterly regretted it, even to the point of contemplating suicide.
Cello Concerto No. 2 Natalia Gutman cello 1 Largo 2 Allegretto 3 Allegretto
This may have some bearing on a prominent musical quotation in the Second Cello Concerto. In the first movement the cello’s melancholy brooding is disturbed by razor-sharp staccato figures from high woodwind, growing more frenzied towards the climax. These anticipate the appearance of a distinctive little tune at the beginning of the second movement, played by the cello to an oom-pah accompaniment for low woodwind. This turns out to be an Odessa street-song: ‘Bubliki, Kupitye Bubliki’ – ‘Bread rolls, come buy our bread rolls.’ Shostakovich told Rostropovich that this was one of his favourite tunes, but his use of it in the Concerto is strikingly black-edged. At the height of the finale the tune returns, heralded by grimly satirical fanfares on horns and high woodwind and decorated with crazily swirling harp glissandos. Almost certainly this is vicious self-parody: Shostakovich lampoons himself as opportunist market-trader, a purveyor of cheap sustenance, hollow in the middle (Bubliki are like bagels or pretzels), and soon forgotten. But the end of the Concerto does seem to offer some kind of consolation. As the cello descends into its lower register, the xylophone picks out a fragment of a tune, while wood-block, tom-tom and side drum produce quiet ticking rhythms in the background. Shostakovich was fascinated by clocks: his Moscow apartment was full of them, and their sounds turn up again and again in his last works. Is Shostakovich repeating the old message that time alone will tell – that history will pronounce the final verdict on his work? It’s hard to say for certain, but the ending puts the bitter dancefanfares of the finale’s climax into perspective. At the very least, no pain lasts forever.
Interval – 20 minutes An announcement will be made five minutes before the end of the interval. 10 | London Philharmonic Orchestra
Anton Bruckner 1824–1896
Bruckner’s tendency to revise his major works – sometimes over and over again – is notorious. It creates a nightmare for scholars, conductors and listeners alike. Bruckner’s Third Symphony, however, has the dubious distinction of being his most-revised work – one current estimate is that there are as many as eight authentic versions. Obsessive perfectionism may be one reason why Bruckner was unable to leave his scores well alone. But the Third Symphony's catastrophic premiere, in December 1877, clearly shook this nervous, often under-confident man to the core. Despite strong resistance, the conductor Johann Herbeck had managed to persuade the Vienna Philharmonic to play the Symphony. But when Herbeck died suddenly, Bruckner had to step into the breach. The orchestra were uncooperative (to say the least), and the Symphony's effusive dedication to Bruckner's idol Wagner probably turned most of the conservative Viennese press against him in advance. During the performance the hall gradually emptied until, at the end, only a couple of dozen supporters were left. As Bruckner turned to acknowledge their determined applause, the orchestra got up and walked off the platform. As his friends tried to console him, Bruckner is said to have shouted, 'Oh, leave me alone, they don't want anything of mine'. Yet despite this humiliating public failure, Bruckner never fully lost faith in his artistic vocation. An intensely devout Roman Catholic, he believed his talent was God-given, and that it was his duty to use it in his own very individual way. As he once told a friend: 'People say I should compose differently. I could, but I mustn't.' In fact Bruckner held to the architectural plan laid out in the Third Symphony in almost all his later symphonies. Bruckner’s symphonies are sometimes described as 'cathedrals in sound'. All medieval cathedrals are based on the same cross-wise ground plan, with important features situated in more or less the same places.
Symphony No. 3 in D minor (original 1873 edition) 1 2 3 4
Gemässigt, misterioso [Moderate, mysterious] Adagio. Feierlich [Solemn] Scherzo. Ziemlich schnell [Quite fast] – Trio – Scherzo Finale. Allegro
But no-one would seriously claim that Durham, York Minster and Chartres were effectively the same building in three different locations. Much the same could be said about Bruckner's symphonies. Like most of Bruckner’s other symphonies, No. 3 begins with an expectant hush: in this case a cluster of misty string figurations. For a moment or two the interior of this cathedral remains shadowy, mysterious. Trumpet then sounds the main theme – the theme that made such a powerful impression on Wagner when Bruckner took him the first version of the score in 1873. It is this ‘original’ version, significantly longer than the familiar, much-revised 1889 score, that is being performed in this concert. A long crescendo builds from the trumpet theme, culminating in a massive unison statement for full orchestra. Bruckner clearly has the beginning of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony at the back of his mind; but the effect is quite different. In the Beethoven there is a growing sense of headlong, tragic momentum. With Bruckner, no matter how agitated the music may seem on the surface, the underlying pace is usually slow. Stay with Bruckner, however, and patience is always rewarded. This first movement has three main themes: the ‘Wagner’ trumpet motif; a warmly harmonised tune for strings in Bruckner's favourite 'ONE-two-three ONE-two' rhythm; and a massive unison figure for full orchestra with the three-plus-two rhythm reversed. The so-called 'development' examines these themes at length. Then all three themes return in full, before the ominous final crescendo (a return of the misty opening figures over a repeated falling bass figure) leads to a massive conclusion. Continued overleaf
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Programme notes continued
The Adagio slow movement is also dominated by three themes: a hushed, noble tune for strings, a long melody introduced by violas (in three-time), and a quietly dignified, slow-dance-like figure for strings, apparently composed in memory of Bruckner’s mother – a strong-minded, musical woman, prone (like her son) to deep depression. In this 1873 score this section is heard twice, after a full, enriched statement of the first section. The Adagio eventually builds to a powerful climax, but at its height it breaks off and mystery returns. At one point, hushed strings recall the dissolving harmonies of Brünnhilde’s ‘Magic Sleep’ motif from Wagner’s Valkyrie, but the touching simplicity of the ending is pure Bruckner. Both the Scherzo and its central trio section are pervaded by the characteristic rhythms and melodic shapes of the dance music of Bruckner's native Upper Austria – especially the Ländler, country cousin of the sophisticated Viennese waltz. As a young man Bruckner had often supplemented his meagre teacher's salary by playing this kind of music in village bands. The Finale begins with a surging Allegro, a bit like a ferocious cavalry charge. But after two big crescendo waves the tempo drops and the second theme fuses a polka-like tune (strings) with a solemn wind chorale. 'That's life', Bruckner told a friend. 'That's what I wanted to show in my Third Symphony. The polka represents the fun and joy in the world, the chorale its sadness and pain.' At the end it is joy which triumphs: a blazing brass fanfare cuts through upward-striving string figures, and the Symphony ends with the ‘cathedral in sound’ flooded with major-key daylight.
Recommended recordings of tonight’s works Many of our recommended recordings, where available, are on sale this evening at the Foyles stand in the Royal Festival Hall foyer. Schnittke: Pianissimo Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra | Neeme Järvi [BIS] Shostakovich: Cello Concerto No. 2 Truls Mørk | London Philharmonic Orchestra | Mariss Jansons [Virgin] Bruckner: Symphony No. 3 London Philharmonic Orchestra | Stanisław Skrowaczewski [LPO label LPO-0084: see below]
Programme notes © Stephen Johnson
Bruckner's Symphony No. 3 on the LPO Label Stanisław Skrowaczewski conductor | London Philharmonic Orchestra LPO-0084 | £9.99 'The LPO is completely in sympathy with their conductor’s carefully controlled approach … it feels right to the end.' Andrew McGregor, BBC Radio 3 CD Review Available from lpo.org.uk/recordings, the LPO Ticket Office (020 7840 4242) and all good CD outlets. Available to download or stream online via iTunes, Spotify, Amazon and others.
12 | London Philharmonic Orchestra
Next concerts at Royal Festival Hall Saturday 30 January | 7.30pm
Wednesday 3 February | 7.30pm
Beethoven Symphony No. 6 (Pastoral) Alexander Raskatov Green Mass (world premiere)*
Dvořák Overture, Otello Brahms Double Concerto for violin and cello Dvořák Symphony No. 6
Vladimir Jurowski conductor Elena Vassilieva soprano Iestyn Davies countertenor Mark Padmore tenor Nikolay Didenko bass Choir of Clare College, Cambridge
Yannick Nézet-Séguin conductor Lisa Batiashvili violin Maximilian Hornung cello
* Commissioned by the London Philharmonic Orchestra
Friday 5 February | 7.30pm JTI friday series
Gershwin Piano Concerto in F Rachmaninoff Symphony No. 2 Yannick Nézet-Séguin conductor Jean-Yves Thibaudet piano
playing the bard in 2016 In collaboration with some of London’s leading cultural, creative and educational institutions, the London Philharmonic Orchestra joins Shakespeare400 with a series of concerts this year celebrating the Bard’s love of music.
find out more: lpo and shakespeare400 lpo.org.uk/shakespeare
Tickets £9–£39 (premium seats £65) London Philharmonic Orchestra Ticket Office: 020 7840 4242 Monday–Friday 10.00am–5.00pm lpo.org.uk Transaction fees: £1.75 online, £2.75 telephone.
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Sound Futures Donors We are grateful to the following donors for their generous contributions to our Sound Futures campaign. Thanks to their support, we successfully raised £1 million by 30 April 2015 which has now been matched pound for pound by Arts Council England through a Catalyst Endowment grant. This has enabled us to create a £2 million endowment fund supporting special artistic projects, creative programming and education work with key venue partners including our Southbank Centre home. Supporters listed below donated £500 or over. For a full list of those who have given to this campaign please visit lpo.org.uk/soundfutures. Masur Circle Arts Council England Dunard Fund Victoria Robey OBE Emmanuel & Barrie Roman The Underwood Trust
The Rothschild Foundation Tom & Phillis Sharpe The Viney Family
Haitink Patrons Mark & Elizabeth Adams Dr Christopher Aldren Mrs Pauline Baumgartner Welser-Möst Circle Lady Jane Berrill William & Alex de Winton Mr Frederick Brittenden John Ireland Charitable Trust David & Yi Yao Buckley The Tsukanov Family Foundation Mr Clive Butler Neil Westreich Gill & Garf Collins Tennstedt Circle Mr John H Cook Valentina & Dmitry Aksenov Mr Alistair Corbett Richard Buxton Bruno de Kegel The Candide Trust Georgy Djaparidze Michael & Elena Kroupeev David Ellen Kirby Laing Foundation Christopher Fraser OBE & Lisa Fraser Mr & Mrs Makharinsky David & Victoria Graham Fuller Alexey & Anastasia Reznikovich Goldman Sachs International Simon Robey Mr Gavin Graham Bianca & Stuart Roden Moya Greene Simon & Vero Turner Mrs Dorothy Hambleton The late Mr K Twyman Tony & Susie Hayes Malcolm Herring Solti Patrons Catherine Høgel & Ben Mardle Ageas Mrs Philip Kan John & Manon Antoniazzi Rehmet Kassim-Lakha de Morixe Gabor Beyer, through BTO Rose & Dudley Leigh Management Consulting AG Lady Roslyn Marion Lyons Jon Claydon Miss Jeanette Martin Mrs Mina Goodman & Miss Duncan Matthews QC Suzanne Goodman Diana & Allan Morgenthau Roddy & April Gow Charitable Trust The Jeniffer & Jonathan Harris Dr Karen Morton Charitable Trust Mr Roger Phillimore Mr James R.D. Korner Ruth Rattenbury Christoph Ladanyi & Dr Sophia The Reed Foundation Ladanyi-Czernin Robert Markwick & Kasia Robinski The Rind Foundation The Maurice Marks Charitable Trust Sir Bernard Rix David Ross & Line Forestier (Canada) Mr Paris Natar
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Carolina & Martin Schwab Dr Brian Smith Lady Valerie Solti Mr & Mrs G Stein Dr Peter Stephenson Miss Anne Stoddart TFS Loans Limited Lady Marina Vaizey Jenny Watson Guy & Utti Whittaker Pritchard Donors Ralph & Elizabeth Aldwinckle Mrs Arlene Beare Mr Patrick & Mrs Joan Benner Mr Conrad Blakey Dr Anthony Buckland Paul Collins Alastair Crawford Mr Derek B. Gray Mr Roger Greenwood The HA.SH Foundation Darren & Jennifer Holmes Honeymead Arts Trust Mr Geoffrey Kirkham Drs Frank & Gek Lim Peter Mace Mr & Mrs David Malpas Dr David McGibney Michael & Patricia McLaren-Turner Mr & Mrs Andrew Neill Mr Christopher Queree The Rosalyn & Nicholas Springer Charitable Trust Timothy Walker AM Christopher Williams Peter Wilson Smith Mr Anthony Yolland and all other donors who wish to remain anonymous
We would like to acknowledge the generous support of the following Thomas Beecham Group Patrons, Principal Benefactors and Benefactors: Thomas Beecham Group The Tsukanov Family Foundation Neil Westreich William and Alex de Winton Mrs Philip Kan* Simon Robey Victoria Robey OBE Bianca & Stuart Roden Laurence Watt Anonymous Jon Claydon Garf & Gill Collins* Andrew Davenport Mrs Sonja Drexler David & Victoria Graham Fuller The Jeniffer and Jonathan Harris Charitable Trust Mr & Mrs Makharinsky Geoff & Meg Mann Caroline, Jamie & Zander Sharp Julian & Gill Simmonds* Eric Tomsett The Viney Family John & Manon Antoniazzi Jane Attias David Goldstone CBE LLB FRICS John & Angela Kessler Guy & Utti Whittaker * BrightSparks Patrons: instead of supporting a chair in the Orchestra, these donors have chosen to support our series of schools’ concerts.
Principal Benefactors Mark & Elizabeth Adams David & Yi Yao Buckley Desmond & Ruth Cecil Mr John H Cook Mr Bruno de Kegel David Ellen Mr Daniel Goldstein Drs Frank & Gek Lim Peter MacDonald Eggers Dr Eva Lotta & Mr Thierry Sciard Mr & Mrs David Malpas Mr & Mrs G Stein Mr & Mrs John C Tucker Mr & Mrs John & Susi Underwood Lady Marina Vaizey Grenville & Krysia Williams Mr Anthony Yolland Benefactors Mr Geoffrey Bateman Mrs A Beare Ms Molly Borthwick David & Patricia Buck Mrs Alan Carrington Mr & Mrs Stewart Cohen Mr Alistair Corbett Mr Timothy Fancourt QC Mr Richard Fernyhough Mr Gavin Graham Wim and Jackie Hautekiet-Clare Tony & Susan Hayes Mr Daniel Heaf and Ms Amanda Hill Michael & Christine Henry Malcolm Herring
J. Douglas Home Ivan Hurry Mr Glenn Hurstfield Per Jonsson Mr Gerald Levin Wg. Cdr. & Mrs M T Liddiard OBE JP RAF Paul & Brigitta Lock Mr Peter Mace Ms Ulrike Mansel Mr Robert Markwick and Ms Kasia Robinski Mr Brian Marsh Andrew T Mills Dr Karen Morton Mr & Mrs Andrew Neill Mr Michael Posen Alexey & Anastasia Reznikovich Mr Konstantin Sorokin Martin and Cheryl Southgate Mr Peter Tausig Simon and Charlotte Warshaw Howard & Sheelagh Watson Des & Maggie Whitelock Christopher Williams Bill Yoe and others who wish to remain anonymous Hon. Benefactor Elliott Bernerd Hon. Life Members Kenneth Goode Carol Colburn Grigor CBE Pehr G Gyllenhammar Mrs Jackie Rosenfeld OBE
The generosity of our Sponsors, Corporate Members, supporters and donors is gratefully acknowledged: Corporate Members Silver: Accenture Berenberg Carter-Ruck We are AD Bronze: Appleyard & Trew LLP BTO Management Consulting AG Charles Russell Speechlys Lazard Russo-British Chamber of Commerce Preferred Partners Corinthia Hotel London Heineken Lindt & Sprüngli Ltd Sipsmith Steinway Villa Maria In-kind Sponsor Google Inc
Trusts and Foundations Angus Allnatt Charitable Foundation Axis Foundation The Bernarr Rainbow Trust The Boltini Trust Borletti-Buitoni Trust The Candide Trust Cockayne – Grants for the Arts The D’Oyly Carte Charitable Trust Dunard Fund The Equitable Charitable Trust The Foyle Foundation Lucille Graham Trust The Jeniffer and Jonathan Harris Charitable Trust Help Musicians UK The Idlewild Trust Kirby Laing Foundation The Leverhulme Trust The London Community Foundation London Stock Exchange Group Foundation Lord and Lady Lurgan Trust Marsh Christian Trust Adam Mickiewicz Institute The Peter Minet Trust
The Ann and Frederick O’Brien Charitable Trust Office for Cultural and Scientific Affairs of the Embassy of Spain in London The Austin and Hope Pilkington Trust The Stanley Picker Trust The Radcliffe Trust Rivers Foundation The R K Charitable Trust RVW Trust Schroder Charity Trust Serge Rachmaninoff Foundation The David Solomons Charitable Trust Souter Charitable Trust The John Thaw Foundation The Tillett Trust UK Friends of the Felix-MendelssohnBartholdy-Foundation The Viney Family Garfield Weston Foundation The Barbara Whatmore Charitable Trust and all others who wish to remain anonymous
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Administration Board of Directors Victoria Robey OBE Chairman Stewart McIlwham* President Gareth Newman* Vice-President Dr Manon Antoniazzi Roger Barron Richard Brass Desmond Cecil CMG Jonathan Harris CBE FRICS Amanda Hill Dr Catherine C. Høgel Rachel Masters* George Peniston* Kevin Rundell* Natasha Tsukanova Mark Vines* Timothy Walker AM Laurence Watt Neil Westreich David Whitehouse* * Player-Director Advisory Council Victoria Robey OBE Chairman Christopher Aldren Richard Brass David Buckley Sir Alan Collins KCVO CMG Andrew Davenport Jonathan Dawson William de Winton Cameron Doley Edward Dolman Christopher Fraser OBE Lord Hall of Birkenhead CBE Rehmet Kassim-Lakha Jamie Korner Clive Marks OBE FCA Stewart McIlwham Sir Bernard Rix Baroness Shackleton Lord Sharman of Redlynch OBE Thomas Sharpe QC Julian Simmonds Martin Southgate Sir Philip Thomas Sir John Tooley Chris Viney Timothy Walker AM Elizabeth Winter American Friends of the London Philharmonic Orchestra, Inc. Jenny Ireland Co-Chairman William A. Kerr Co-Chairman Kyung-Wha Chung Alexandra Jupin Jill Fine Mainelli Kristina McPhee Harvey M. Spear, Esq. Danny Lopez Hon. Chairman Noel Kilkenny Hon. Director Victoria Robey OBE Hon. Director Richard Gee, Esq Of Counsel Jenifer L. Keiser, CPA, EisnerAmper LLP Stephanie Yoshida
Education and Community
Timothy Walker AM Chief Executive and Artistic Director
Isabella Kernot Education Director (maternity leave)
Alison Atkinson Digital Projects Director
Amy Sugarman PA to the Chief Executive / Administrative Assistant
Clare Lovett Education Director (maternity cover)
Talia Lash Education and Community Project Manager
Albion Media (Tel: 020 3077 4930)
Lucy Sims Education and Community Project Manager
Philip Stuart Discographer
David Burke General Manager and Finance Director David Greenslade Finance and IT Manager Dayse Guilherme Finance Officer
Richard Mallett Education and Community Producer
Roanna Gibson Concerts Director
Nick Jackman Development Director
Graham Wood Concerts and Recordings Manager
Catherine Faulkner Development Events Manager
Jenny Chadwick Tours Manager Tamzin Aitken Glyndebourne and UK Engagements Manager Alison Jones Concerts and Recordings Co-ordinator
Kathryn Hageman Individual Giving Manager Laura Luckhurst Corporate Relations Manager Anna Quillin Trusts and Foundations Manager Rebecca Fogg Development Co-ordinator
Jo Cotter Tours Co-ordinator
Helen Yang Development Assistant
Kirstin Peltonen Development Associate
Andrew Chenery Orchestra Personnel Manager Sarah Holmes Sarah Thomas Librarians (job-share) Christopher Alderton Stage Manager Damian Davis Transport Manager Madeleine Ridout Assistant Orchestra Personnel Manager
16 | London Philharmonic Orchestra
Marketing Kath Trout Marketing Director Libby Northcote-Green Marketing Manager Rachel Williams Publications Manager Samantha Cleverley Box Office Manager (Tel: 020 7840 4242) Anna O’Connor Marketing Co-ordinator Natasha Berg Marketing Intern
Matthew Freeman Recordings Consultant Public Relations
Gillian Pole Recordings Archive Professional Services Charles Russell Speechlys Solicitors Crowe Clark Whitehill LLP Auditors Dr Louise Miller Honorary Doctor London Philharmonic Orchestra 89 Albert Embankment London SE1 7TP Tel: 020 7840 4200 Box Office: 020 7840 4242 Email: email@example.com lpo.org.uk The London Philharmonic Orchestra Limited is a registered charity No. 238045. Composer photographs courtesy of the Royal College of Music, London. Front cover photograph: Ilyoung Chae, First Violin © Benjamin Ealovega. Cover design/ art direction: Ross Shaw @ JMG Studio. Printed by Cantate.