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Bleisure Travel Report WORKER PRODUCTIVITY AND WELL-BEING Nazia (Naz) Ali and Birte Schmitz| University of East London | 9th July 2018


Abstract University of East London (UEL), in collaboration with London City Airport investigated the importance of ‘bleisure’, a dimension of business travel mobilities as a contributing factor to productivity and well-being in the work place. ‘Bleisure’ is a portmanteau of ‘business’ and ‘leisure’, a concept that describes the travel behaviour of business travellers seeking to extend a trip to explore the destination visited in their own (e.g. non-work) time. London City Airport aim to identify a symbolic relationship between bleisure, productivity and well-being of employees in various business sectors. Survey work with 250 business travellers was conducted in the departure lounge and boarding gates at London City Airport. Research questions related to business travel patterns, leisure activities, organisational culture for bleisure, productivity and well-being at work. In view of these theme the findings show:      

81% of business travellers departing from London City Airport, at the time of the survey, made more than 5 trips per year. 36% of business travellers extend their trip either before or after the business activities in order to engage in leisure time. The main leisure activities are probably not surprisingly ‘food and drink’, followed by ‘sightseeing’, ‘culture and history’ and also ‘visiting friends and relatives’ (VFR). 71% noted that their employer does not actively promote leisure travel after the business trip. 61% of participants agree that bleisure travel contributes to productivity, whereas 39% disagree. 78% of participants agree that being able to take part in bleisure travel increases wellbeing once back at work.

The findings counterbalance Cohen et al. (2017) analysis of the ‘dark side’ of hypermobility associated with the health and social costs of business travel, by recognising the benefits of bleisure mobilities. Moreover, research impact can be captured through instrumental advancements in terms of company policies and practices that promote and / or recognise the importance of bleisure travel for their employees within their organisations, and the travel and tourism industry working in partnership to developing and managing bleisure travel.

Dr. Nazia (Naz) Ali and Ms Birte Schmitz. University of East London, England, UK.

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Contents Abstract................................................................................................................................................... 1 Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................... 3 1.

Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Background to Research Study ..................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Contribution to Knowledge and Practice .................................................................................... 4 1.3 Potential Impacts of the Research ............................................................................................... 5

2.

Background to ‘Bleisure’ Travel .................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Business Travel, Business Travellers and Bleisure Travel ........................................................... 6 2.2 Issues of Productivity and Well-being ........................................................................................ 6 2.3 Employers and Bleisure Travel Policies ...................................................................................... 7

3.

Research Design............................................................................................................................. 9 3.1 Location of Research Study .......................................................................................................... 9 3.2 Data Collection ............................................................................................................................ 9 3.3 Data Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 9

4.

Results ........................................................................................................................................... 11 4.1 Business Travel Behaviour .......................................................................................................... 11 4.2 Bleisure and Work ...................................................................................................................... 13 4.3 Bleisure, Productivity and Work ................................................................................................ 13 4.4 Bleisure, Well-being and Work ................................................................................................. 14

5.

Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................16 5.1 Key Research Findings ................................................................................................................16 5.2 Recommendations for Promoting Bleisure Travel ....................................................................16 5.3 Directions for Future Research on Bleisure ...............................................................................18

References.............................................................................................................................................19

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Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following for their support throughout the research:    

Andrew Scott (Senior PR Manager, London City Airport) Lauren Bell (Internal Communications Officer, London City Airport) Lisa Wyld (Director, Institute of Hospitality and Tourism, University of East London) Daniel Blackman (Communications and Media Officer, University of East London)

Thank you to the business travellers, departing from London City Airport, for taking the time to participate in this research study, for sharing their experiences of business and leisure travel, and for your interest in and enthusiasm for the study.

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1. Introduction 1.1 Background to Research Study Bleisure is a portmanteau of ‘business’ and ‘leisure’, a concept coined to describe the travel behaviour of business travellers seeking to extend a trip to explore the destination visited, sometimes joined by friends/family/partner/colleague(s). The purpose of this research study is to generate evidence-based insights on the importance of ‘bleisure’, a dimension of business travel, as a contributing factor to productivity and well-being in the work place. The aim of the research study is: 

To determine whether Bleisure travel can contribute to productivity and well-being within the workplace, from a business traveller perspective.

The specific research objectives of the study are: 1. To identify the leisure activities participated in during a business trip. 2. To analyse the contribution of combining business travel with leisure to post-trip productivity at work. 3. To evaluate the contribution of combining business travel with leisure to post-trip wellbeing at work. 4. To establish the role of the employer in promoting an extension of a business trip for leisure purposes. 250 business travellers were surveyed at London City Airport in the departure lounge and also at the boarding gates. Most business travellers were of European origin and travelling between destinations in Europe. The majority of business travellers (81%) questioned made 5 and more business trips per year. Survey questions related to business travel patterns, leisure activities, organisational culture for ‘bleisure’ travel, the impact of ‘bleisure’ upon productivity and wellbeing at work. The respondent sample comprised of 84% male and 16% female, with age groups ranging from 18-24 (2%), 25-34 (23%), 35-44 (26%), 45-54 (31%), 55-64 (17%), and 65+ (1%) years old. The majority of participants were positioned Middle management (27%), Senior Management (24%), and Director (22%), mainly in the industries of Banking, Financial and Legal.

1.2 Contribution to Knowledge and Practice The contribution to knowledge is to current research studies on business travel, in particular to understanding the leisure experiences of business travellers in destination areas and the importance of combining business and leisure on work performance and well-being. This research study, by recognising the benefits of Bleisure movements, counterbalances Cohen et al. (2017) analysis of the ‘dark side’ of business travel mobility associated with health and social costs. Moreover, contribution to practice can be captured through the instrumental advancements in terms of (informal) company policies that promote / or recognise the importance of Bleisure travel for their employees within their organisations. 4


1.3 Potential Impacts of the Research Business travellers recognised the significance of ‘bleisure’ travel upon their productivity and wellbeing, with many emphasising the importance upon emotional, physical, psychological, social aspects of their lives. In, particular drawing importance to the work/life balance when on a business trip and the need for employers to accommodate and promote this work/life balance to enhance employee productivity and well-being. Therefore, one potential research impact through longer term studies - is for public / private / non-profit organisations to advance or develop company policies that promote or recognise ‘bleisure’ travel, and subsequently raising awareness of the ‘bleisure’ travel to improving productivity and well-being at work. Bleisure travel can be further considered in view of business tourism, given the hybrid identity of business travellers as workers and leisure tourists. Thus, appreciating the direct and indirect economic impacts bleisure travel could possibly have on a (tourist) destination area, especially in such leisure-related sectors as hospitality, transport, and visitor attractions. Therefore, another potential research impact is for London City Airport to expand their commercial operations by developing links with tourism / leisure stakeholders in business travel destinations (especially DMOs), with leisure activities promoted (before and during a business trip) through such marketing communication channels as social media, digital advertising and tourism literature on board flights. Creating a leisure catalogue for business travellers could be the outcome of this to specifically target this market, encourage partaking in leisure activities and contribute towards their well-being and relaxation.

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2. Background to ‘Bleisure’ Travel 2.1 Business Travel, Business Travellers and Bleisure Travel Business travel highlights the ‘nexus between work and tourism’ and the hybrid mobilities of business travellers as workers and tourists (Unger et al. 2016: 142). Consequently, business travellers exist in a fluid space where boundaries between work and non-work are often fluid, shifting, and transitionary (Tretyakevich, 2015). Business travel is often glamorised as a form of ‘elite’ mobility - a characteristic of higher social status - as mobile lives extend the reach and global network capital of business travellers (Cohen and Gӧssling, 2015). The corporate elite mobilities of business travellers is a mixture of positive (e.g. stimulating) and negative (e.g. stressful) experiences (Unger et al. 2016: 142). For business travellers there is an opportunity to blend the primary purpose of travel i.e. business with leisure travel by extending their stay in a destination to participate in, what can be referred to as, ‘bleisure’ mobilities. Bleisure travel is a negation of ‘work’ and ‘play’, or as Lichy and McLeay (2018) observe a nexus between business and leisure tourism. Bleisure travel survey research conducted by BridgeStreet Global Hospitality (2014: 2) of 640 international guests showed:      

83% of respondents explored the city visited during their business trip. 60% participated in bleisure trips. 30% added two vacation days to their business trips. Sightseeing, Dining, Arts/Culture were popular bleisure activities 54% of travellers were joined by their family members or significant other during their bleisure trip Participation in bleisure travel was mainly due to a desire to see the world and gain cultural experiences.

Bleisure typologies and motivations are wide and varied, depending on the events attend, for example meetings, incentive trips, conferences, exhibitions. Lichy and McLeay (2018) identify a set of typologies and associated motivations that can be applied to Bleisure travellers: Flexible Adaptable Learners (thirst for new skills), Escapers (adventure), Working Vacationers (novelty), Altruistic Knowledge Sharers (knowledge-transfer), Research Active Trailblazers (research/funding partnerships).

2.2 Issues of Productivity and Well-being Business travel has been considered as a ‘hypermobile’ activity as there is frequent and constant state of mobility (Cohen and Gӧssling, 2015; Cohen et al. 2017). Despite the glamorisation of business travel as an elite movement, this state of hypermobility is implicated with physiological, psychological and emotional, social consequences that impact upon the health and well-being of the business traveller (Cohen and Gӧssling, 2015). Thus, hypermobility is a barrier to 6


participation in leisure travel in the destination, consequently the business traveller remains in the ‘business travel bubble’. This has further implications for both the business traveller and (business) tourism destination, as there is no experience of place due to work-related duties and obligations. Unger et al (2016:150) note that although the business traveller stays in a destination they do not necessary experience it because there is an ‘immediacy of work’ – back-to-back meetings, using ‘free’ time to prepare for the next business activity, and managing work commitments back home. The short-term and long-term impacts of hypermobility have negative effects on worker well-being and productivity. Westman et al. (2000:273) state that a ‘business trip seems to be a dual experience, consisting of hassles and uplifts, losses and gains, all impacting the well-being of the travellers.’ The physiological, psychological and emotional, and social consequences of excessive and frequent business travel upon productivity and well-being – on a personal and professional level – are summarised in the table below: Consequences Physiological

Psychological and Emotional

Social

Outcomes Jet lag, deep vein thrombosis, radiation exposure, lack of opportunities/access for physical exercise, worse eating patterns, overconsumption of alcohol, tiredness (due to early mornings, late evenings and intense working days), fatigue. Travel disorientation, anxieties associated with accumulating work (e.g. email inbox), work/home/family arrangements, stress of travel, confusion and uncertainty, isolated and lonely, guilt of leaving family behind, disrupted conception of personal identity. Costs at kinship, friendship and community, decreasing time for co-presence in social, home and community life, causing emotional upset for children, in-between trips recovering from fatigue at home, loss of family role, female travellers pressurised to fulfil role of mother when away, undermine social cohesion.

(Source: Cohen and Gӧssling, 2015: 1670-1673)

2.3 Employers and Bleisure Travel Policies Corporate policies and travel management plans permitting employees to blend business and leisure travel vary with some employers recognising the value of bleisure and other employers not endorsing extensions of a business trip for leisure purposes. Nevertheless, employers are recommended, by industry and the academy, to develop, promote and implement travel policies 7


associated with bleisure trips. Harrop (n.d) advises a travel programme should balance the needs of the corporation and the frequent traveller – price and budget for the former and travel-related stress for the latter. Bleisure travel policies and guidelines not only benefit employees in terms of well-being but also employers in view of productivity as ‘happier employees mean… more productive employees when they return to the office… company leaders demonstrate how much they value their travellers’ well-being and work-life balance’ (American Express Global Business Travel, 2018). Tretyakevich, (2015) ascertains improvements in company travel management policies to enhance the experiences of work-related travel, which seeks to preserve the work-life balance of its employees, especially in changing, altering and shifting landscapes of work and leisure. Corporate travel programmes, policies and guidelines could possibly limit the number of business trips per month or if multiple trips are required in proximate destination areas then to bundle these, incorporate minimum rest periods in-between business trips (Cohen et al. 2017); avoiding overnight stays or combining several meetings (Unger et al. 2016: 151); clear and fair guidance for employees (BridgeStreet Global Hospitality, 2014: 19).

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3. Research Design 3.1 Location of Research Study The location of the research was London City Airport (England, United Kingdom), in the East London area, specifically the Royal Docks. London City Airport is predominately an arrival and departure point for business travellers due to its proximity to Canary Wharf. In 2017, 56% of passengers that used London City Airport were business travellers and 44% for leisure, according to quarterly passenger surveys commissioned by the airport (London City Airport, 2017). Overall 61% of overall travellers are male and 39% are female. The researchers (Birte Schmitz and Naz Ali) distributed surveys in the departure lounge and also at the boarding gates in London City Airport, specially selecting flights departing for popular business travel destinations such as Amsterdam, Antwerp, Belfast, Dublin, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, and Zurich. During the data collection process either the Senior PR Manager or Internal Communications Officer accompanied the researchers. This was particularly useful in navigating the researchers to appropriate gates and areas in the airport to collect data.

3.2 Data Collection The research study mainly applied the principles and practices of quantitative data collection – with some ‘further elaboration questions’ - through the use of an online survey stored on SurveyMonkey. The survey comprised of 10 questions focussing on business and leisure travel behaviour, bleisure and the employer, productivity and well-being, and with profile questions such as age, gender and occupation. The researchers were on-site to collect data between 9.30am and 12.30pm on May 16th, 29th, 30th and June 13th and 19th 2018. The online survey was distributed using an iPad/tablet and the survey was completed by the respondent. In addition to selecting popular business travel destination departure gates, the researchers also identified business travellers (female and male) from their ‘smart’ workwear attire and work behaviour (e.g. working on laptops or mobile devices, seated as a delegation, ‘talking’ business / work). In total 250 business travellers were surveyed over the five days of on-site data collection mentioned above and the online survey, on average, took 3 minutes complete.

3.3 Data Analysis SurveyMonkey was used to filter data for purposes of quantitative analysis and to identify variations in data sets. Closed questions were analysed and to further illustrate the findings open question textual data was embedded into the evaluation. The overarching research questions directing the data analysis was: can ‘bleisure’ travel contribute to productivity and well-being at work? In view of this question, data was presented for analysis under the following thematic areas: 

Business travel behaviour 9


  

Bleisure and work Bleisure, productivity and work. Bleisure, well-being and work.

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4. Results 4.1 Business Travel Behaviour Number of Trips Per Year

As per the above table, overall most of the participants took part in more than 5 business trips a year – • 81% of business travellers departing from London City Airport, at the time of the survey, made more than 5 trips per year. Business travel for the airport sector, especially city airports, and business tourism for the destination, in particular urban areas, are key market segments. During a friendly conversation, one respondent mentioned that he takes 100+ trips for business per year. Of the sample, less than 25% of these trips include time for leisure purposes of at least one day. This is possibly understandable considering how often some of the business travellers are away from home, whether travelling to national and or international destinations.

Extension of Stay for Leisure Purposes

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36% of business travellers extend their trip either before or after the business activities in order to engage in leisure time. This extended leisure travel takes place either alone, with a partner or colleagues. Some business travellers would like to take their family (spouse and children) with them, however short-haul travel did not allow for this, and from several friendly conversations with respondents it was noted that most towns/cities travelled to were not considered to be childfriendly. Although the number of respondents that add leisure travel pre- or after their business trip is relatively low, the data is still significant in terms of emphasising the importance of leisure time and the opportunity for participation in bleisure. Further analysis of this data shows that business and leisure travel motivations are intertwined, as although the primary motivation for travel is business, it can be argued a secondary motivation is to engage in leisure activities in the destination area.

Leisure Activities participated in during Business Travel

Other

Shopping

The main leisure activities are probably not surprisingly ‘food and drink’, followed by ‘sightseeing’, ‘culture and history’ and also ‘visiting friends and relatives’ (VFR). Thus, the leisure activities of a business traveller show that a destination experience is taking place through direct interactions with hospitality (e.g. food and beverage sector) and visitor attraction (e.g. cultural tourism) industries. Shopping, as leisure behaviour, highlights encounters with an industry i.e. retail, embedded in most tourism sectors (e.g. accommodation, events, hospitality, sport, transport) that contribute to the bleisure experience. These findings can be further linked to explaining the reasons for travel from a business tourism perspective, which in view of the above data shows an interrelationship business travel and tourism, equating to bleisure trips.

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4.2 Bleisure and Work Promotion of Business Trip by Employer

Yes

No Why the Employer Should or Shouldn’t

‘They are flexible. It makes the work travel more appealing.’ ‘Yes, we have flexible working scheme so can work while away.’ ‘Allowed but not promoted.’ ‘No, Chinese companies are all about productivity.’ ‘I feel it should be part of the travel experience to allow staff some time to enjoy the locations they visit.’ ‘They shouldn’t. It is my responsibility to do my job.’

Interestingly even though most of the participants (71%) noted that their employer does not actively promote leisure travel after the business trip, a great number stated that ‘it is allowed but not promoted.’ This shows possible (informal) policies may exist within the work place that encourage the use of some time out after a business trip as an incentive for the employees. Some employers financially supported bleisure travel by paying for accommodation for an extended stay following a business trip. The logistics of travel played a role in promoting leisure activities after travel for business purposes as it was noted short-haul travel did not lend itself to participation in bleisure, whereas long-haul travel did. It should be noted that business traveller, also due to personal choice decided not to extend their business trip for leisure because they wanted to return home to spend time with their family after being away for long periods of time. .

4.3 Bleisure, Productivity and Work Contribution of Bleisure to Productivity at Work.

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Yes

No

‘Allows for a more enjoyable trip and the higher levels of productivity that come with a more positive mindset.’ ‘Feel more rested once back at work.’ ‘Yes, can feel refreshed if you have had a little downtime. If you have met with business contacts outside of your planned trip, you may have new ideas or perspectives to apply to work absorbed while under no pressure. […]’ ‘[…]. Leisure travel may actually cause less productivity due to tiredness of travel.’ ‘Doesn’t promote productivity but does promote well-being and job satisfaction.’

61% of participants agree that bleisure travel contributes to productivity, whereas 39% disagree with this. Some of the comments mention that this kind of travel could actually negatively impact on productivity, due to ‘tiredness of travel.’ One respondent made the observation that it does not ‘promote productivity but promotes well-being and job satisfaction.’ Interestingly these two opinions both support and oppose the view of Cohen and Gӧssling’s (2015) research on the impact of hypermobility on the social, psychological, physiological and emotional well-being of business travellers. Those who agreed said that combining business with leisure makes the trip more enjoyable and contributes to a positive mindset that helps productivity. The time and distance away helped to ‘absorb’ ideas free from the pressures of the working environment in the home city.

4.4 Bleisure, Well-being and Work Contribution of Bleisure to Well-being at Work.

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Importance

‘Doing nice things (leisure) always enhances my well-being.’ ‘Shows that the company cares for my well-being and allows me to share my positive experience with colleagues.’ ‘Enables you to get some head space after working.’ ‘Feeling that I have at times a work/life balance helps.’ ‘Less stressed and tired.’ ‘Feel happier.’ ‘It makes me more open to work travel.’

Maybe not surprisingly when looking at the previous question and some of the responses, an overwhelming number of participants agree that being able to take part in bleisure travel increases well-being once back at work. This was supported by some of the narratives in the table above, which reinforces the importance of a work-life balance, which can be sustained and managed through bleisure travel. ‘It makes me more open to work travel.’ In view of the literature it would seem that to some extent the findings from this study contradicts previous research, as past studies did not take into consideration the leisure part of business travel but mainly considered the ‘dark side’ of business trips, with an emphasis on business travel and the associated stresses of this. Although a recent study by Hilton Hotels and Resorts (2018) reveals today’s young business travellers develop ‘bleisure stress’ as “69% wish they could extend their trip for leisure, but 46% admit they feel guilty about doing so – 44% even worry it makes them look bad in the eyes of senior leadership.”

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5. Conclusion 5.1 Key Research Findings The aim of this research was to determine whether Bleisure travel would contribute to the productivity and well-being of those partaking in such activity. One of the major findings is that increased well-being seems to pose a great impact and importance to the business travellers than productivity. Bleisure travel seems to promote a work/life balance, as it gives those who take advantages of ‘a few extra days’ to relax and distress from their business trip. The data did not reveal any formal travel management plans, policies or guidance provided by the employer, however informal practices did exist that permitted combining business and leisure travel. The business travellers in this study realised the potential benefits of bleisure travel to their wellbeing, however appreciated the restraints (and impacts) upon their productivity at home and away. Moreover, participants recognised the reluctance of the employer to promote bleisure travel due to the consequences of prolonged absence upon productivity at work, nevertheless business travellers wanted their employers to consider their well-being during business trips. One added result that transpired when comparing the data was that age and extension of stay for leisure purposes did not show any correlation. It did not matter whether talking to the younger travellers or the older ones, they all had a similar opinion on whether they did or did not extend their stay for leisure purposes. Business travellers move with transitionary and hybrid identities as a worker, business and leisure tourist, and bleisure travel further creates cartographies of identities through intersections with business and leisure environments. This state of hybridity performs a key role in the destination experience and recognition of leisure, whether before or after the business trip, as an essential activity in maintaining the work/life balance when away from the office and working on the move. Leisure time before or after business work is spent mainly on food and drink experiences, sightseeing and visiting friends and relatives (VFR), and also shopping can be incorporated into bleisure encounters. It can be ascertained that considering most business passengers departing from London City Airport are travelling to towns/cities (e.g. Amsterdam, Antwerp, Belfast, Dublin, DĂźsseldorf, Frankfurt, and Zurich) bleisure trips could possibly be confined to the urban tourism destination experience. Leisure at a destination is experienced individually or together with colleagues, partner or family. Although most business travel destinations in terms of facilities and activities for the family were limited in provision or not child-friendly, consequently leaving family at home.

5.2 Recommendations for Promoting Bleisure Travel This research has identified three main stakeholders that can play a key role in promoting (and sustaining) bleisure travel, therefore recommendations are proposed to employers of business travellers, London City Airport, and urban tourism destinations.

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Employers: It can be stated that with the importance that business travellers place on their well-being employers should consider implementing (informal and formal) travel management plans, policies or guidance to give their employees an opportunity to extend their trip for leisure purposes. The dialogue should be there, especially if it helps the employee with the work/life balance before, during and after a business trip. The travel management practices need to be tailored to short- and long-haul business travel to determine the time and money permitting the extension of stay for leisure purposes. These travel plans, policies or guides should clearly state the company’s position of taking one’s partner and or family with them, and what percentage of costs will be financed by the employee. Bleisure trips is of course not something that every employee wants to engage in, however, if the option is there, it would also fit into a company’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy by recognising and fostering an employee’s health, well-being and to some degree their productivity. London City Airport: As a business transport hub for business travel and tourism, and an intermediary servicing bleisure trips, it is recommended London City Airport develop links with leisure and tourism stakeholders in urban business tourism destinations. This will require a targeted and segmented marketing communications strategy, with business travellers and the destinations they travel to where bleisure activities take place. The data from this research study shows leisure participation takes place before and after the business trip. Therefore, presenting the opportunity to communicate possible leisure provision at a destination at points of departure, arrival and stay. For example, online when booking a business trip, in London City Airport departure lounge and boarding gates, in-flight promotion of tourism / leisure, or distributing tourism / leisure marketing material to companies frequently travelling via London City Airport. This will require a collaborative approach with the accommodation, hospitality, visitor attraction, transport and destination management organisations in the host town or city. This calls for the need of further research with business travellers in London City Airport and also in the destinations that they travel to, and with tourism / leisure stakeholders within the towns or cities of arrival. Urban Business Tourism Destinations: It is proposed that Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) cater to the needs of business travellers choosing the bleisure experience. The recommendation is closely aligned with bleisure behaviour in terms of identifying leisure activities that can be experiences on one’s own or with colleague/s, partner or family. For example, possibly enhancing the destination experience through family- and child-friendly provision for business travellers and their family joining them for leisure purposes before or after their business trip. This can be aligned to hospitality, visitor attraction, and shopping leisure experiences, considering these are currently the main bleisure activities participate in. In addition, DMOs are recommended to (if they already do not) to track and monitor demographic trends associated with bleisure behaviour, especially in view of age. As recent research shows bleisure travel is popular amongst young professionals (Hilton Hotel and Resorts, 2018) or millennials (TravelPort 2018).

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5.3 Directions for Future Research on Bleisure Research limitations that need to be taken into consideration are that the research only conducted at one business hub airport, only the employee perspective was considered and only one quantitative data collection instrument was applied. These limitations provide an impetus for future research on bleisure travel, which can further inform the academy and industry. Firstly, only one business traveller hub (London City Airport) was considered, therefore collecting data at other airports (e.g. London Luton Airport, Gatwick Airport, Manchester Airport) that have a significant population of business travellers should be investigated. Secondly, only the employees’ perspective has been researched in this study, thus future research could potentially inspect the employers’ perspective on bleisure travel in view of productivity and well-being. This will further help to establish whether there are (informal or formal) travel management plans, policies and or guidance that recognise bleisure travel. Finally, only a questionnaire that contained a set of 10 questions were used to generate data and with some findings from opensurvey questions and friendly conversations. There is an opportunity for qualitative inquiry by inviting business travellers, employees, destination management/tourism organisations and airports to take part in a focus group and semi-structured interviews.

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References American Express Global Business Travel (2018) At their Bleisure: How to incorporate blended travel guidelines into your policy. Available from: https://www.amexglobalbusinesstravel.com/the-atlas/bleisure-travel-policy/ (Accessed: 18 April 2018).

BridgeStreet Global Hospitality (2014) The Bleisure Report 2014. Available from: http://skift.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/BGH-Bleisure-Report-2014.pdf (Accessed: 03 June 2018).

Cohen, S. A. and GÓ§ssling, S. (2015) The darker side of hypermobility. Environment and Planning A. 47, pp. 1661-1679.

Cohen, S. A., Hanna, P. and GÓ§ssling, S. (2017) The dark side of business travel: A media comments analysis. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2017.01.004.

Harrop, B. (n.d.) Treat your travellers. Available at: www.buyingbusinesstravel.com. (Accessed: 07 June 2018).

Hilton Hotel and Resorts (2018) New Research Reveals Ultimate #WorkPerk for Young Professionals: Travelling. Available at: http://newsroom.hilton.com/hhr/news/33234 (Accessed: 08 July 2018).

Lichy, J. and McLeay, F. (2018) Bleisure: motivations and typologies. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 35:4, pp. 517-530. DOI: 10.1080/10548408.2017.1364206.

London City Airport (2017) Getting to Know Our Customers: Annual Report 2017. London: London City Airport.

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TravelPort (2018) Wanted: 24/7 digital support and ‘bleisure’. Available https://www.travelport.com/company/media-center/press-releases/2018-02-22/wanted-247digital-support-and-bleisure (Accessed: 08 July 2018).

at:

Tretyakevich, N. (2015) Corporate Mobility: Impacts of Life Domains and Implications for WorkLife Balance of International Business Travellers and Expatriates. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Universitá della, Svizzera Italiana.

Unger, O., Uriely, N. and Fuchs, G. (2016) The Business Travel Experience. Annals of Tourism Research. 61, pp. 142-156.

Westman, M., Etzion, D. and Chen, S. (2009) Crossover of positive experiences from business travellers to their spouses. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24:3, pp. 269-284.

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Profile for London City Airport

The Pleasure of Bleisure  

New research published today by academics at the University of East London (UEL) and commissioned by London City Airport, has found business...

The Pleasure of Bleisure  

New research published today by academics at the University of East London (UEL) and commissioned by London City Airport, has found business...

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