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sf/0f dflxnfx? cfh klg cfqmfGt 5g . skf]n slNkt af]S;Lsf cf/f]kdf w]/}sf] Hofg hfg] ub{5 . xfdL sDo'lgi6x? lj1fgn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf afx]s cGo s'/fnfO{ ;To dfGg ;Sb}gf}+ . s] xf] af]S;L , s;n] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] 5 af]S;L < ;fRr} sf]lx af]S;L x'Gy] eg] o'4sf lglDt ;+;f/ e/L xltof/sf] k|of]u lgs} sd x'g] lyof] xf]nf . af]S;L s} k|of]un] cfˆgf b'Zdgx?nfO{ 3fOt] agfpg] , c+u e+u agfpg] / dfg]{ ;Ddsf] ;Dd klg ug{ ;lsg] lyof] xf]nf . To;}n ] c;fx|L dlxnfx?nfO{ nfufO{ g] o:tf cf/f]kx?nfO{ ldYof ;fljt ug{ cem ;zQm cleofg rnfO{g' kb{5 . /fhgLlts / ;fdflhs ?kdf dflxnfx?n] y'k|} clwsf/ k|fKt ug{ ;kmn ePsf 5g . cfly{s ?kdf ;'wf/f]Gd'v 5 . h8sf] ¿kdf :yflkt ;f:s[lts dfGotfsf sf/0f lje]b cGTo x'g lgs} ufx|f] x'g] lglZrt 5 . To;}n] cjsf] jx; lje] b sf/L ;fdflhs d'No / dfGotf h'g dfgj lgld{t x'g tL dfGotf / lj1fgsf] lardf s'g} ;DaGw 5}g To; tkm{ x'g kb{5 . pQm jx;sf] g]t[Tj sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] g} ug{ kb{5 . ;TonfO{ laho u/fpg ;dfh;Fu 8/fpg kb}{g . lg/Gt/ r'gf}tL k]z ug]{, ;dfh abNg] cleofgdf tLj|tf lbg] af}l4s ax; cfhsf] cfjZostf xf] . cGoyf xfdLn] b] v ] s f] ;Tosf] cg' x f/ klg ablnG5 clg cfˆg} laZjf;sf] eUgfjz]ifx?df 6]Sb} lxF8\g kg]{ lgd{d If0f klg cfpg ;S5 . n]vs g]skf aGbLk'/sL g]t[ x'g\

:gftsf]Q/ tx k|yd ;]d]i6/sf] k|j]z k/LIff ;DalGw ;"rgf z}lIfs ;q @)&%÷)&^ sf nflu ;]d]i6/ k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/t :gftsf]Q/ tx cGtu{t MA(Sociology), M.Ed (English, Nepali, EPM) / MBS df k|yd ;]d]i6/sf nflu b]xfo adf]lhdsf] egf{ tyf sIff ;~rfng sfo{qmd lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] Joxf]/f ;DalGwt ;a}nfO{ ;"lrt ul/G5 . egf{ sfo{qmd M -!_ cfj]bg kmf/d a'emfpg] clGtd ldlt M M.Ed / MA sf nflu @)&% df3 # ut] . MBS sf nflu @)&% df3 ( ut] . -@_ k|j]z k/LIff M M.Ed / MA M @)&% df3 !( ut] lbpF;f] !M)) ah] . MBS M @)&% df3 !( ut] zlgaf/ laxfg *M)) ah] . -#_ k|j]z k/LIff z'Ns M ? !%))÷ -Ps xhf/ kfFr ;o_ . -$_ sIff ;~rfng M @)&% kmfu'g klxnf] xKtfaf6 . k'gZr M k|jz ] k/LIffdf ;xefuL gx'g] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ egf{ lng ;lsg] 5}g cGo lj:t[t hfgsf/Lsf] nflu SofDk;df ;Dks{ ug'{x'g cg'/f]w 5 .

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df]6/;fOsnsf] 7Ss/af6 3fOt] vgfnsf] 6fpsf]df uDeL/ rf]6 nfu]sf] lyof] . j[4nfO{ 7Ss/ lbg] df] 6 /;fOsn rfns Jof; gu/kflnsf–$ lgjf;L !& jifL{o ?lUbg ldofF k|x/L lgoGq0fdf /x]sf 5g\ .

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tgx'Fsf] b]j3f6 ufpFkflnsf–% l:yt un]Zj/ cf>dåf/f ;~rflnt j]b j]bfË ljBfnosf] %@ cf} jflif{sf]T;j ;df/f]xdf ;xefuL tgx'F If]q gDj/ ! sf k|ltlglw ;ef ;f+;b s[i0fs'df/ >]i7 -ls;fg_ nufot . tl:a/ M nf]sjf0fL

Hofnfbf/L / s/f/df sd{rf/L egf{ aGb]h sf7df8f}+, k'if @* ;/sf/n] Hofnfbf/L / s/f/df sd{rf/L egf{ ug{ /f]s nufpg] u/L sfg'gL k|:tfj tof/ kf/]sf] 5 . ;+3Lo lghfdtL ;]jf P]gsf] k|:tfljt d:of}bfdf Hofnfbf/L jf s/f/ sd{rf/L egf{ ug{ gkfOg] Joj:yf 5. k|:tfljt d:of}bfsf] bkmf !# df n]lvPsf] 5, …o; P]gdf cGoyf Joj:yf ePsf]df afx]s lghfdtL

sd{rf/Ln] ug{'kg]{ sfdsf nflu s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ Hofnfbf/L jf s/f/df lgo'lQm ug{ kfOg] 5}g .Ú t/, g]kfn :jf:Yo ;]jfsf] s'g} lrlsT;s, :jf:YosdL{ cWoog jf c;fwf/0f ljbfdf /x]sf sf/0f :jf:Yo ;]jf k|jfx ug{ sl7gfO{ k/]df g]kfn ;/sf/n] s/f/df sd{rf/L lgo'Qm ug{ ;Sg] 5 . o:tf] lgo'lQm cWoog jf c;fwf/0f ljbfdf a;]sf] ;do cjlw;Ddsf nflu

dfq x'g] d:of}bfdf pNn]v 5 . ;fy} sDKo' 6 / ck/] 6 /, ;xfos sDKo'6/ ck/]6/, rfns, On] l S6« l ;og, KnDa/, dfnL, ;/;kmfO ug]{ sd{rf/L nufotn] ug]{ sfdsf nflu ;+ : yf;F u s/f/ ;Demf}tf u/fpg'kg]{ d:of}bfdf pNn] v5. sDKo'6/ ck/]6/df :yfoL lgo'lQm gx'g] xfn ljljw ;] j fcGtu{ t

b]j3f6 ufpFkflnsfsf] ;"rgf tyf ljz]if cg'/f]w b]j3f6 ufpFkflnsfnfO{ @)&% ;fnleq k"0f{ ;/;kmfO{o'Qm ufpFkflnsf lgdf{0f ug]{ p4]Zo lnOPsf] x'Fbf o; sfo{qmdnfO{ ;kmn kfg{sf] nflu cf–cfˆgf] If]qaf6 ;xof]u ug{ ;Dk"0f{ ufpFkflnsfjf;L gful/sx?df xflb{s cg'/f]w ub{5f+} . k"0f{ ;/;kmfO{sf ;"rsx? s_ rkL{sf] k|of]u M ;a}n] ;Fw} ;'/lIft rkL{df lb;flk;fa ug]{ u/]sf], rkL{sf] nflu ;fa'g / kfgLsf] Joj:yf ePsf] 5 . v_ ;fa'g kfgLn] xft w'g] afgL M rkL{sf] k|of]u kl5, vfgf vfg' / v'jfpg' cl3 / kl5, s'g} kmf]xf]/f s'/f / ljiffbL 5f]Pkl5 tyf ufO{j:t'sf] dnd'q Joj:yfkg kl5, lj/fdL tyf aRrfsf] :ofxf/ ug'{cl3 / kl5 . u_ ;'/lIft kfgLsf] k|of]u M kfgL k|of]u ug]{ ;a} ef8fx? ;kmf /fv]sf] 5f]k]sf], Ogf/, Xof08kDk / ;'lIft d'xfgx?sf] kfgL vfg] u/]sf] jf vfg]kfgL ;'/Iff of]hgf nfu' ePsf] ljt/0f k|0ffnLsf] kfgL lkpg] u/]sf] jf kfgL c;'/lIft eP 3/fo;L txdf z'l4s/0f u/]/ dfq lkpg] afgL ePsf] . 3_ ;'/lIft vfgfsf] k|of]u M vfgf ksfpg] ef8f efG5f ;kmf / ;'/lIft tyf vfgf 5f]k]/ /fVg] u/]sf] . vfg]s'/fnfO{ &) l8u|L ;]lN;o; eGbf dflyNnf] tfkqmddf ksfP/ vfg] u/]sf] . vfg]s'/f e08f/0f ug'{k/]df % l8u|L ;]= eGbf sd tfkqmddf ug]{ u/]sf] cGoyf af;L ;8]un]sf] gvfg] u/]sf] . ksfPsf] / sfFrf] vfgfnfO{ e08f/0f tyf Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/]sf] . ;'/lIft kfgL / vfB kbfy{sf] dfq k|of]u u/L vfg]s'/f agfpg] u/]sf] tyf sfFr} vfg]s'/fx? /fd|f];Fu ksfP/ vfg] u/]sf] . ª_ ;kmf 3/ cfFug M 3/ cfFug ;w} ;kmf /fVg] u/]sf] . 3/af6 lg:sg] kmf]xf]/sf] juL{s/0f tyf Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/]sf] . kfgLsf] plrt Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/]sf] . 3/af6 lg:sg] kmf]xf]/kfgLsf] plrt Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/]sf] . kz'k+IfLsf] nflu 5'§} uf]7, 6x/f / vf]/ agfO{ tLgsf] dnd'qsf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/]sf] . w'Fjf/lxt efG5fsf]7f ePsf] . r_ jftfj/0fLo ;/;kmfO{ M v'Nnf lb;fd'Qm cj:yf ePsf] ufpF ;kmf, af6f]3f6f], rf}tf/L, kf}jf tyf ;fj{hlgs :yfgx?, ;+/lIft kfgLsf d'xfg ljt/0f k|0ffnL . vfg]kfgL ;'/Iff k|0ffnL nfu' ePsf] . jfo' k|b'if0f gePsf] . kmf]xf]/d}nfsf] plrt Joj:yfkg ePsf] . xl/ofnL jftfj/0f / kfs{sf] Joj:yf ePsf] .

b]j3f6 ufp“kflnsf ufp“ sfo{kflnsfsf] sfof{no b]j3f6, tgx'F, u08sL k|b]z, g]kfn

/fhkq cg+lst k|yd >]0fL sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ kb / /fhkq cg+lst låtLo >]0fLsf] ;xfos sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ kb 5g\ . sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ kb gfoa ;'Aaf ;/x / ;xfos sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ kb v/bf/;/x x'G5g\ . tL kbx?df ;/sf/n] nf]s;]jf cfof]udfkm{t\ k/LIff lnP/ :yfoL kbk"lt{ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . t/, ;+ 3Lo lghfdtL ;] jf P]gsf] k|:tfljt d:of}bfdf sDKo'6/ ck/] 6 / jf ;xfos sDKo' 6 / ck/]6/df eg] :yfoL lgo'Qm gug]{ pNn]v 5 . kl/R5]b # sf] ;+3Lo lghfdtL ;]j fsf] b/aGbL tyf kbk"lt{ ;DaGwL dxndf ;f] Joj:yf 5. k|:tfljt d:of}bfdf ;jf/L rfns, On]lS6«l;og, KnDa/, dfnL, ;/;kmfO ug]{ sd{rf/L / To:t} sfd ug]{ tf]ls adf]lhdsf kbdf klg :yfoL kbk"lt{ gug]{ pNn]v 5 . tL sd{ r f/Lx? ;] j faf6 cjsfz eP;Fu} b/aGbL klg :jtM vf/]h x'g]5g\ . !) jif{ ;]jf u/]sf ;xfos sDKo' 6 / ck/] 6 / :jtM a9'jf ;/sf/L sfof{ n ox?n] hgzlQm ck' u ePsf] eGb} ;'AafeGbf tNnf tx;Dd s/f/df sd{rf/L lgo'Qm ub{5g\ / o;/L s/f/df sd{rf/L lgo'Qm ubf{ dGqL, g] t f jf k| e fjzfnL sd{ r f/L lgs6sf JolQmx? kb{5g\ . vf;u/L ;'Aaf;/xsf] sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ / v/bf/ ;/xsf] ;xfos sDKo'6/ ck/]6/df w]/} sd{rf/Lx? lgo'Qm x'g] ub{5g\ . d:of}bfdf n]lvPsf] 5– of] P]g k|f/De ePkl5 ;fljssf] g]kfn ljljw ;]jf cGtu{tsf] /fhkq cg+lst k|yd >]0fLsf] sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ kb / /fhkq cg+lst låtLo >]0fLsf] ;xfos sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ kb l/Qm ePdf :yfoL kbk"lt{ ul/g] 5}g . t/, ;xfos sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ kbdf bz jif{ ;]jf cjlw k"/f u/]sf / gsf/fTds ;" r Ldf gk/] s f sd{rf/LnfO{ sDKo'6/ ck/]6/ kbdf :jtM a9'jf ul/g] 5 . To;/L a9'jf ug{ Ps >]0fL dflysf] kb l;h{gf x'g]5 / ;fljssf] kb :jtM vf/]h x'g] 5 . -;|f]t M cgnfOg va/ 86sd_

k|ltof]lutfdf Ps ;o krf; eGbf al9 wfjsx?sf] ;xeflutf /xg] cg' d fg ul/Psf] Jof; gu/kflnsf–% sf j8fWoIf Pj+ k|jQmf df]xgs'df/ >]i7n] atfP . ut jif{ cfof]hgf ul/Psf] k|yd Jof; gu/ cN6«f Dof/fygdf tL; lhNnfsf Ps ;o $$ wfjsx?sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . h;dWo] Ps ;o t]O; wfjsx? clGtd ljGb';Dd k'u]sf lyP . k|ltof]lutfdf k|yd x'g]nfO{ gub ?= c;L xhf/, bf]>f] x'g]nfO{ gub ?= ;f7L xhf/, t]>f] x'g]nfO{ gub ?= krf; xhf/ / ;fGTjgf x'g] kfFr hgfnfO{ ?= kGw|÷kGw| xhf/ k|bfg ul/g]5 . k|ltof]lutfsf nflu gu/ k|dv ' Gof}kfg]sf] ;+of]hsTjdf Ps ;o Ps ;b:oLo d"n cfof]hs ;ldlt,

Jof; gu/kflnsf–% j8fWoIf >]i7sf] ;+of]hsTjdf Joj:yfkg ;ldlt / Jof; gu/kflnsf-* sf j8fWoIf cf] h /fh kf} 8 ] n sf] ;+of]hsTjdf :jfut ;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] 5 . k|ltof]lutf ;~rfngsf nflu ?= bz nfv vr{ x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . k|ltof]lutfdf ;xefuL x'g rfxg]n] df3 !$ ut]leq gfd btf{ u/fO;Sg'kg]{ kqsf/ ;Dd]ngdf hfgsf/L u/fOPsf] 5 . gu/kflnsfn] dfgx' F / k' lnd/fªnfO{ ko{6sLo uGtJo agfpg] nIo lnPsf] gu/ k|d'v Gof}kfg]n] hfgsf/L lbP . pgsf cg';f/ dfgx'Fdf o;} jif{ ?= tL; nfvsf] nfutdf Eo' 6fj/ lgdf{0f ul/g]5 eg] k'lnd/fªdf ;lxb kfs{ lgdf{0fsf] yfngL ul/g]5 .

efg'=== hGdynf]sf] ?kdf kl/lrt /x]sf] efg' gu/kflnsfn] ;flxlTos ko{6 gnfO{ ;d]t Wofgdf /fv]/ of]hgf agfpg'kg]{ pgsf] egfO{ lyof]. ;ª\3Lo ;f+;b s[i0fs'df/ >]i7 -ls;fg_ n] wfld{ s ko{ 6 g, ;flxlTos ko{ 6 g / s[ l ifnfO{ s]Gb|ljGb'df /fv]/ gu/kflnsfn] bL3{sflng ;f]r lgwf{/0f ug'{kg]{ ;'emfj lbP . efg' gu/kflnsfsf k| d'v k|z f;sLo clws[ t /fh]G b| b] j kf08]n] gu/jf;L ;a}n] ckgTj :jLsf/ ug]{ u/L ;a}sf] ;xeflutfdf of]hgf lgdf{0f ul/g] atfP . ;f] cj;/df l/A; OlGhlgol/ª sG;N6sf k/fdz{bftf 8f= s]bf/ bfxfnn] s[lif, ko{6g / k|fs[lts >f]t cu|0fL If]qsf] ?kdf klxrfg

ePsf] hfgsf/L u/fP . sG;N6sf k/fdz{bftfx?n] ljleGg r/0fdf efg' gu/kflnsfsf] ;Defjgf af/]df :ynut cWoog u/]sf lyP . ;f] cj;/df efg' gu/kflnsfsf] ljsf;sf nflu s:tf] of]hgf agfpg] / To;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ cfwf/ s]–s] x'g ;S5 eGg] ljifodf ;d"xut 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] . ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts ljsf;, cfly{s ljsf;, jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg, hf]lvd Go"lgs/0f / ;+:yfut ljsf; ;d"xdf ljefhg u/L ;d" x sf ;b:ox?n] gu/kflnsfsf] bL3{sflng ;f]r, bL3{ s flng ;f] r sf cfwf/ / bL3{s flng ;f]rnfO{ k' li6 ug]{ of]hgfx? k|:t't u/]sf lyP .


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